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Parasites & Vectors

Narin Sontigun, Kabkaew L Sukontason, Tunwadee Klong-Klaew, Sangob Sanit, Chutharat Samerjai, Pradya Somboon, Sa-Nguansak Thanapornpoonpong, Jens Amendt, Kom Sukontason
BACKGROUND: Chrysomya megacephala is a blow fly species of medical and forensic importance worldwide. Understanding its bionomics is essential for both designing effective fly control programs and its use in forensic investigations. METHODS: The daily flight activity, seasonal abundance related to abiotic factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and reproductive potential of this species was investigated. Adult flies were sampled twice a month for one year from July 2013 to June 2014 in three different ecotypes (forest area, longan orchard and palm plantation) of Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand, using semi-automatic funnel traps...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Arpaporn Chansang, Danita Champakaew, Anuluck Junkum, Atchariya Jitpakdi, Doungporn Amornlerdpison, Arunee Kongdee Aldred, Doungrat Riyong, Anchalee Wannasan, Jitrawadee Intirach, Roongtawan Muangmoon, Benjawan Pitasawat
BACKGROUND: In a previous screening program for mosquitocides from local edible plants in Thailand, essential oils (EOs) of Cyperus rotundus, Alpinia galanga and Cinnamomum verum, were found to possess promising adulticidal activity against Aedes aegypti. With the aim of reducing usage of conventional insecticides and improving the management of resistant mosquito populations, this study was designed to determine the potential synergism in the adulticidal efficacy of EOs on permethrin toxicity against Ae...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Waidi F Sule, Daniel O Oluwayelu, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Anthony R Fooks, Marietjie Venter, Nicholas Johnson
West Nile virus (WNV) is the aetiological agent of the mosquito-borne zoonotic disease West Nile fever. The virus, first isolated in Uganda in 1937, evolved into two distinct lineages in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that subsequently spread to most continents where the virus has evolved further as evident through phylogenetic analysis of extant genomes. Numerous published reports from the past 70 years from countries in SSA indicate that the virus is endemic across the region. However, due in part to the limited availability of diagnostic methods across large areas of the continent, the human burden of WNV is poorly understood...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ayodeji Olayemi, Akinlabi Oyeyiola, Adeoba Obadare, Joseph Igbokwe, Adetunji Samuel Adesina, Francis Onwe, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Nnennaya Anthony Ajayi, Toni Rieger, Stephan Günther, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet
BACKGROUND: Lassa fever, killing thousands of people annually, is the most reported viral zoonotic disease in Nigeria. Recently, different rodent species carrying diverse lineages of the Lassa virus (LASV) in addition to a novel Mobala-like genetic sequence were detected within the country. Here, screening 906 small mammal specimens from 11 localities for IgG antibodies and incorporating previous PCR detection data involving the same populations, we further describe arenavirus prevalence across Nigeria in relation to host species and geographical location...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Daniela Cavalleri, Martin Murphy, Wolfgang Seewald, Steve Nanchen
BACKGROUND: There is a continuing need for novel approaches to tick infestations treatment and control in cats. Lotilaner, an isoxazoline with rapid onset of action, has proven its efficacy against ticks in laboratory studies. A study was undertaken to confirm lotilaner's efficacy and safety in client-owned cats, at the minimum dose of 6.0 mg/kg, against the most common ticks infesting cats in Europe. METHODS: Twenty clinics in Germany, Hungary and Portugal participated in the study...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Emmanuelle A Kuntz, Srinivas Kammanadiminti
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner is a new member of the isoxazoline class for treatment of flea and tick infestations in cats. This laboratory study with lotilaner vanilla-yeast flavoured chewable tablets (CredelioTM , Elanco) investigated the safety in healthy kittens starting at 8 weeks of age in a randomized, blinded, parallel-group design. Lotilaner tablets were given orally once a month over eight months at one, three and five times the upper level of the maximum recommended dose range (26 mg/kg)...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Daniela Cavalleri, Martin Murphy, Wolfgang Seewald, Steve Nanchen
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner is a new isoxazoline developed as an oral ectoparasiticide for cats and dogs. Its safety, rapid killing onset of action and sustained speed of fleas and ticks kill for a minimum of one month after administration, were demonstrated in a number of laboratory studies in cats. This study was performed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of lotilaner flavored chewable tablets for cats (Credelio™, Elanco) in controlling fleas under field conditions in European countries...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ian Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Daniela Cavalleri, Martin Murphy, Wolfgang Seewald, Jason Drake, Steve Nanchen
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner, approved for dogs as a chewable tablet formulation, has separately been developed for oral use in cats (CredelioTM chewable tablets for cats), to meet the need for an easy to use, safe and rapidly effective parasiticide. It is a valid cat- and owner-friendly alternative to topical products. This manuscript describes three pivotal laboratory studies assessing the efficacy and speed of kill of lotilaner in cats against Ixodes ricinus ticks following a single oral administration, at a dose rate close to 6 mg/kg...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Daniela Cavalleri, Martin Murphy, Wolfgang Seewald, Steve Nanchen
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner is approved for dogs as a chewable tablet formulation. It has separately been developed for oral administration in cats (Credelio™ chewable tablets for cats) to meet the need for an easy to use, safe and rapidly effective parasiticide and as an alternative to topical products. This paper describes two pivotal laboratory studies assessing the efficacy and speed of kill of lotilaner in cats against Ctenocephalides felis fleas following a single oral administration, at the minimum recommended dose rate of 6 mg/kg...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Céline E Toutain, Wolfgang Seewald, Martin Jung
BACKGROUND: CredelioTM (lotilaner) is an oral ectoparasiticide from the isoxazoline class developed for the treatment of flea and tick infestations in cats. It is formulated as a pure S-enantiomer in flavoured chewable tablets. The pharmacokinetics of lotilaner were investigated after intravenous or oral administration and under fed or fasted conditions in cats. Twenty-six adult cats were enrolled in a pharmacokinetic study evaluating either intravenous or oral administration of lotilaner...
July 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
M E González-Sánchez, M Cuquerella, J M Alunda
BACKGROUND: Polyparasitism is the rule in all animal species, including humans, and has an important role in pathogenicity, diagnosis and control measures. Among them, co-infections by gastrointestinal helminths and protists are very prevalent under natural conditions but experimental infections are relatively scarce. Thus, despite the frequent association of visceral Leishmania infections and intestinal helminth parasitism the experimental co-infection has not been addressed. Heligmosomoides polygyrus, an intestinal nematode of mice, is related to other helminths causing important pathologies and is a model species for immunological studies...
July 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Helen P Price
Majumder HK, Editor. Molecular Biology of Kinetoplastid Parasites. Poole, UK: Caister Academic Press; 2018, 246 pages.ISBN 978-1-910190-71-5.
July 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Doaa Naguib, Adel H El-Gohary, Dawn Roellig, Amro A Mohamed, Nagah Arafat, Yuanfei Wang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: The transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis into humans varies according to species/genotypes of the pathogens. Although infections with both parasites are recorded in Egypt, few data are available on the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and G. duodenalis genotypes. The present study assessed the occurrence and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in Egyptian children. METHODS: In the present study, 585 fecal specimens were collected from children eight years old and younger in three provinces (El-Dakahlia, El-Gharbia and Damietta) during March 2015 to April 2016...
July 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Michellen S de Carvalho, Andressa Z de Lara Pinto, Aquirya Pinheiro, Jorge S V Rodrigues, Fernando L Melo, Leonardo Assis da Silva, Bergmann M Ribeiro, Renata Dezengrini-Slhessarenko
BACKGROUND: High throughput sequencing (HTS) boosted the discovery of novel viruses and new variants of known viruses. Here we investigated the presence of viruses in 12 pools of sand flies captured in three climatic periods in RAPELD grids at Rio Claro, Chapada dos Guimarães and at Pirizal, North Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Midwestern Brazil by HTS, viral isolation of a putative Phlebovirus positive pool in Vero cells, RT-PCR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: One pool containing three Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis sand flies captured in the transitional climatic period in North Pantanal showed a tripartite genomic sequence of a putative novel Phlebovirus belonging to the phlebotomus fever serogroup...
July 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Keshava Mysore, Ping Li, Molly Duman-Scheel
BACKGROUND: Sophisticated tools for manipulation of gene expression in select neurons, including neurons that regulate sexually dimorphic behaviors, are increasingly available for analysis of genetic model organisms. However, we lack comparable genetic tools for analysis of non-model organisms, including Aedes aegypti, a vector mosquito which displays sexually dimorphic behaviors that contribute to pathogen transmission. Formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements followed by sequencing (FAIRE-seq) recently facilitated genome-wide discovery of putative A...
July 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Long-Fei Chen, Xiao-Long Han, Fen-Xiang Li, Yun-Ying Yao, Jin-Ping Fang, Xiao-Ju Liu, Xiao-Cong Li, Kun Wu, Min Liu, Xiao-Guang Chen
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most important apicomplexan parasites and infects one-third of the human population worldwide. Transformation between the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages in the intermediate host is central to chronic infection and life-long risk. There have been some transcriptome studies on T. gondii; however, we are still early in our understanding of the kinds and levels of gene expression that occur during the conversion between stages. RESULTS: We used high-throughput RNA-sequencing data to assemble transcripts using genome-based and de novo strategies...
July 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Pratap Kafle, Stephanie J Peacock, Sarah Grond, Karin Orsel, Susan Kutz
BACKGROUND: Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis are two potentially pathogenic lungworms of caribou and muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic. These parasites are currently undergoing northward range expansion at differential rates. It is hypothesized that their invasion and spread to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago are in part driven by climate warming. However, very little is known regarding their physiological ecology, limiting our ability to parameterize ecological models to test these hypotheses and make meaningful predictions...
July 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Filipe Dantas-Torres, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos, Riccardo Paolo Lia, Gioia Capelli, Antonio Parisi, Daniele Porretta, Sandra Urbanelli, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: The brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu stricto) is reputed to be the most widespread tick of domestic dogs worldwide and has also been implicated in the transmission of many pathogens to dogs and humans. For more than two centuries, Rh. sanguineus (s.s.) was regarded as a single taxon, even considering its poor original description and the inexistence of a type specimen. However, genetic and crossbreeding experiments have indicated the existence of at least two distinct taxa within this name: the so-called "temperate" and "tropical" lineages of Rh...
July 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Qingxiang Guo, Mingjun Huang, Yang Liu, Xiuping Zhang, Zemao Gu
BACKGROUND: Myxozoans are a group of cnidarian parasites, the present taxonomy of which favors a more comprehensive characterization strategy combining spore morphology, biological traits (host/organ specificity, tissue tropism), and DNA data over the classical morphology-based taxonomy. However, a systematist might again run into a taxonomic dilemma if more than two of the following exceptional cases were encountered at the same time: extensive intraspecific polymorphism, interspecific morphological similarity, identical interspecific biological traits and blurred small-subunit (SSU) rDNA-based species boundaries...
July 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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