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Parasites & Vectors

Shao-Sen Zhang, Shui-Sen Zhou, Zheng-Bin Zhou, Tian-Mu Chen, Xue-Zhong Wang, Wen-Qi Shi, Wei-Kang Jiang, Ju-Lin Li, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Roger Frutos, Sylvie Manguin, Aneta Afelt
BACKGROUND: Tengchong County was one of the counties located at the China-Myanmar border with high malaria incidence in the previous decades. As the pilot county for malaria elimination at the border area, Tengchong County is aiming to be the first county to achieve malaria elimination goal. A cross-sectional entomological survey was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of elimination approach and assess the receptivity of malaria reintroduction. METHODS: Light traps associated with live baits were used to investigate the abundance of adult mosquitoes in nine villages in Tengchong County...
September 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Gonçalo Seixas, Henri Jupille, Pei-Shi Yen, Bela Viveiros, Anna-Bella Failloux, Carla Alexandra Sousa
BACKGROUND: Aedes spp. mosquitoes mainly transmit the arboviruses dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in urban areas, causing a severe public health problem. In 2012-2013, a major dengue outbreak occurred on Madeira Island where the mosquito Aedes aegypti was the only vector. Up to now, the competence of Ae. aegypti populations from Madeira to transmit DENV or CHIKV remains unknown. This study aimed to assess experimentally the ability of Ae. aegypti populations from Madeira to transmit these viruses...
September 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jeiczon Jaimes-Dueñez, Omar Triana-Chávez, Andrés Holguín-Rocha, Alberto Tobon-Castaño, Ana M Mejía-Jaramillo
BACKGROUND: Babesia bigemina and B. bovis are two economically important hemoparasites affecting both cattle and buffaloes involved in dairy and beef production. In Colombia, although some parasitological and serological studies suggest an endemicity of these pathogens in areas under 1000 m, little is known about its molecular prevalence in different host. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and molecular traits of these parasites in cattle and buffaloes from two Colombian regions...
September 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Nicolas Moiroux, Armel Djènontin, Barnabas Zogo, Aziz Bouraima, Ibrahim Sidick, Olivier Pigeon, Cédric Pennetier
BACKGROUND: Pyrethroids are the most common class of insecticide used worldwide for indoor residual spraying (IRS) against malaria vectors. Water-dispersible granules (WG) are a pyrethroid formulation to be applied after disintegration and dispersion in water with less risks of inhalation than using the usual wettable powder (WP) formulation. The objective of this small-scale field study was to evaluate efficacy and duration of insecticidal action of a new alpha-cypermethrin WG (250 g a...
September 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Orawan Phuphisut, Pravech Ajawatanawong, Yanin Limpanont, Onrapak Reamtong, Supaporn Nuamtanong, Sumate Ampawong, Salisa Chaimon, Paron Dekumyoy, Dorn Watthanakulpanich, Brett E Swierczewski, Poom Adisakwattana
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mekongi is one of five major causative agents of human schistosomiasis and is endemic to communities along the Mekong River in southern Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) and northern Cambodia. Sporadic cases of schistosomiasis have been reported in travelers and immigrants who have visited endemic areas. Schistosoma mekongi biology and molecular biology is poorly understood, and few S. mekongi gene and transcript sequences are available in public databases...
September 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Caroline M Grunenwald, Erika Butler, Arno Wünschmann, Anibal G Armien, Michelle Carstensen, Erik Hildebrand, Roger D Moon, Richard W Gerhold
BACKGROUND: Moose (Alces alces) are a culturally and economically valued species in Minnesota. However, the moose population has experienced a sudden, marked decline in their range, including extirpation in the northwest and a 66% decline in the last decade in the northeast portions of the state. Although the exact cause of this decline is unclear, parasitic metastrongylid and filarioid nematode infections are known causes of morbidity and mortality in moose across North America. METHODS: To determine if these parasitic nematodes could be contributing to the Minnesota moose population decline, we molecularly examined banked tissues obtained from moose that died of known and unknown causes for the presence of nematode DNA...
September 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Agda M Oliveira, Rossana V M López, Margareth R Dibo, Lilian A C Rodas, Marluci M Guirado, Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health problem because of its magnitude, geographical expansion and potential harms caused by illnesses, including death. However, VL is largely ignored in discussions of tropical disease priorities. Thus, this study aimed to identify factors associated with the expansion of VL and the dispersion of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, in the municipalities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Information about the date of vector detection and the confirmation of autochthonous VL occurrence in humans and canines in São Paulo were obtained between 1997 and 2014...
September 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Wilfried Lebon, Massimo Beccati, Patrick Bourdeau, Thomas Brement, Vincent Bruet, Agnieszka Cekiera, Odile Crosaz, Céline Darmon, Jacques Guillot, Marion Mosca, Didier Pin, Jaroslaw Popiel, Dorota Pomorska Handwerker, Diane Larsen, Eric Tielemans, Frédéric Beugnet, Lénaïg Halos
BACKGROUND: A multi-centre field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of afoxolaner based chewables (NexGard® or NexGard Spectra®) for the treatment of generalised demodicosis caused by Demodex canis in dogs under field conditions in France, Italy and Poland. METHODS: Client-owned dogs, diagnosed positive for Demodex mites by pre-treatment skin scrapings and presenting clinical signs of generalised demodicosis were included. Dogs were orally treated with afoxolaner three times at monthly intervals...
September 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Bethany L McGregor, Alfred E Runkel, Samantha M Wisely, Nathan D Burkett-Cadena
BACKGROUND: Many important vector arthropods are known to stratify vertically in forest environments, a phenomenon which has important implications for vector-borne disease transmission and vector control. Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have been documented using the forest canopy; however, studies of this phenomenon are lacking for many Culicoides species found in great abundance in the state of Florida, USA, some of which have been implicated as suspected vectors of hemorrhagic diseases of white-tailed deer...
September 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Raúl Pérez-Caballero, Leandro Buffoni, F Javier Martínez-Moreno, Rafael Zafra, Verónica Molina-Hernández, José Pérez, Álvaro Martínez-Moreno
BACKGROUND: The majority of vaccination studies against infection with F. hepatica in a natural host have been conducted at the late stage of the infection when the host's immune response is already immunomodulated by the parasite towards a Th2 non-protective response. This study was aimed at analysing the dynamic of the cell populations present in peritoneal liquid and the production of free radicals by the peritoneal leukocytes in infected and vaccinated sheep with recombinant cathepsin L1 of F...
September 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ana Maria Jansen, Samanta Cristina das Chagas Xavier, André Luiz Rodrigues Roque
Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) infects all tissues of its hosts, which along with humans, include hundreds of mammalian species in the Americas. The epidemiology of T. cruzi has been changing in that currently the majority of the cases and/or outbreaks of Chagas disease occur by the ingestion of comestibles contaminated by T. cruzi metacyclic forms. These cases/outbreaks occur in distinct regional scenarios, mainly in the Amazon biome and are related to the local interaction mode of humans with their surroundings, as well as with the overall local ecological peculiarities...
September 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Yan Yan Song, Yao Zhang, Hua Nan Ren, Ge Ge Sun, Xin Qi, Fan Yang, Peng Jiang, Xi Zhang, Jing Cui, Zhong Quan Wang
BACKGROUND: Trichinella spiralis serine protease inhibitor (TsSPI) was identified in ES proteins of adult worms (AW), the TsSPI gene was highly expressed at enteral stage worms (AW and newborn larvae), distributed mainly in the cuticle and stichosome of this nematode. Vaccination of mice with rTsSPI exhibited a 62.2% reduction of intestinal AW and a 57.25% reduction of muscle larvae after larval challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological characteristics of TsSPI and its roles in the process of T...
September 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jorge Cano, Antonio Rodríguez, Hope Simpson, Earnest N Tabah, Jose F Gómez, Rachel L Pullan
BACKGROUND: Biting aquatic insects belonging to the order Hemiptera have been suggested as potential vectors of Mycobacterium ulcerans in endemic areas for Buruli ulcer (BU). If this is the case, these insects would be expected to co-exist with M. ulcerans in the same geographical areas. Here, we studied the geographical distribution of six aquatic Hemiptera families that are thought to be vectors of M. ulcerans and explored their potential geographical overlapping with communities reporting BU cases in endemic countries...
September 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Anson V Koehler, Mohammed H Rashid, Yan Zhang, Jane L Vaughan, Robin B Gasser, Abdul Jabbar
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic pathogens, including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon, have been implicated in neonatal diarrhoea, leading to marked morbidity and mortality in the alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) around the world. Australia has the largest population of alpacas outside of South America, but very little is known about these pathogens in alpaca populations in this country. Here, we undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in V...
September 5, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Abiodun Obembe, Kehinde O K Popoola, Adedayo O Oduola, Samson T Awolola
BACKGROUND: Entomological indices within a specific area vary with climatic factors such as rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. Contributions of such weather parameter fluctuations to the changes in entomological data obtained within a community under implementation of a promising vector control intervention should be taken into account. This study reports on inter-annual changes in entomological indices within two rural communities, one of which was under insecticide-treated durable wall lining (DL) installation...
September 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Nicolas J Wheeler, Nathalie Dinguirard, Joshua Marquez, Adrian Gonzalez, Mostafa Zamanian, Timothy P Yoshino, Maria G Castillo
BACKGROUND: The aquatic pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is a significant vector and laboratory host for the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni, an etiological agent for the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis. Much is known regarding the host-parasite interactions of these two organisms, and the B. glabrata embryonic (Bge) cell line has been an invaluable resource in these studies. The B. glabrata BB02 genome sequence was recently released, but nothing is known of the sequence variation between this reference and the Bge cell genome, which has likely accumulated substantial genetic variation in the ~50 years since its isolation...
September 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Emanuela Olivieri, Michiel Wijnveld, Marise Bonga, Laura Berger, Maria T Manfredi, Fabrizia Veronesi, Frans Jongejan
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens are emerging worldwide and pose an increased health risk to both humans and animals. A plethora of rickettsial species has been identified in ticks recovered from human and animal patients. However, the detection of rickettsial DNA in ticks does not necessarily mean that these ticks can act as vectors for these pathogens. Here, we used artificial feeding of ticks to confirm transmission of Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia raoultii by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, respectively...
September 3, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Mária Kazimírová, Zuzana Hamšíková, Eva Špitalská, Lenka Minichová, Lenka Mahríková, Radoslav Caban, Hein Sprong, Manoj Fonville, Leonhard Schnittger, Elena Kocianová
BACKGROUND: Free-living ungulates are hosts of ixodid ticks and reservoirs of tick-borne microorganisms in central Europe and many regions around the world. Tissue samples and engorged ticks were obtained from roe deer, red deer, fallow deer, mouflon, and wild boar hunted in deciduous forests of south-western Slovakia. DNA isolated from these samples was screened for the presence of tick-borne microorganisms by PCR-based methods. RESULTS: Ticks were found to infest all examined ungulate species...
September 3, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Robert Lavan, Kathleen Heaney, Srinivasan Rajagopalan Vaduvoor, Kaan Tunceli
BACKGROUND: Heartworm medications and many oral or topical flea and tick products are provided as monthly doses while a newer oral flea/tick product, fluralaner (BRAVECTO® Chew), is re-dosed at a 12-week interval. This study focused on whether there was a difference in the number of heartworm medication doses that were purchased in the 12-months follow-up period for dogs that receive either fluralaner or other flea/tick medications that are dosed monthly. METHODS: Clinic transaction records of heartworm medication purchases for over 200,000 dogs were examined to compare the purchase of heartworm preventative protection by dog owners that also receive flea and tick medications of differing efficacy durations...
August 31, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Marta Victoria Cardinal, Paula Andrea Sartor, María Sol Gaspe, Gustavo Fabián Enriquez, Ivana Colaianni, Ricardo Esteban Gürtler
BACKGROUND: Insecticide spraying campaigns designed to suppress the principal vectors of the Chagas disease usually lack an active surveillance system that copes with house reinvasion. Following an insecticide campaign with no subsequent surveillance over a 12-year period, we implemented a longitudinal intervention programme including periodic surveys for Triatoma infestans, full-coverage house spraying with insecticides, and selective control in a well-defined rural area of the Argentinean Chaco inhabited by Creoles and one indigenous group (Qom)...
August 30, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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