Read by QxMD icon Read

Parasites & Vectors

Silvia Zingg, Patrick Dolle, Maarten Jeroen Voordouw, Maren Kern
BACKGROUND: Ticks and tick-borne pathogens are a global problem for the health of humans and their livestock. Wood ants are important ecosystem engineers in forests worldwide. Although both taxa are well studied, little is known about their interactions under natural conditions. The purpose of the present field study was to test whether European red wood ants (Formica polyctena) influence the abundance of Ixodes tick populations in temperate forests. METHODS: Data collection took place in 130 sampling plots located at 26 ant nest sites paired with 26 control sites in northwestern Switzerland...
March 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Qiang Wang, Akram A Da'dara, Patrick J Skelly
BACKGROUND: Schistosomes are blood dwelling parasitic worms that cause the debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Here we examined the influence of the parasites on their external environment by monitoring the impact of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms on the murine plasma proteome in vitro and, in particular, on how the worms affect the blood coagulation protein high molecular weight kininogen (HK). METHODS: Following the incubation of adult schistosomes in murine plasma, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was conducted to look for changes in the plasma proteome compared with control plasma...
March 14, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ya Yang, Jianchuan Gao, Wanting Cheng, Xiang Pan, Yu Yang, Yue Chen, Qingqing Dai, Lan Zhu, Yibiao Zhou, Qingwu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in China. Oncomelania hupensis (O. hupensis) is the sole intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and its change in distribution and density influences the endemic S. japonicum. The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) has substantially changed the downstream water levels of the dam. This study investigated the quantitative relationship between flooding duration and the density of the snail population. METHODS: Two bottomlands without any control measures for snails were selected in Yueyang City, Hunan Province...
March 14, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Erica Cristina da Silva Chagas, Arineia Soares Silva, Nelson Ferreira Fé, Lucas Silva Ferreira, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Wagner Cosme Morhy Terrazas, Jorge Augusto Oliveira Guerra, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza, Henrique Silveira, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania species, the etiological agents of leishmaniasis, which is one of the most important emerging infectious diseases in the Americas. In the state of Amazonas in Brazil, anthropogenic activities encourage the presence of these insects around rural homes. The present study aimed to describe the composition and distribution of sand fly species diversity among the ecotopes (intradomicile, peridomicile and forest) in an area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission and detect natural infection with Leishmania DNA to evaluate which vectors are inside houses and whether the presence of possible vectors represents a hazard of transmission...
March 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Alvine C Kengne-Fokam, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Mohamed Bagayan, Flobert Njiokou
BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni was mapped in Cameroon in the 1990s and preventive chemotherapy launched since 2005. A situation analysis conducted in 2011 revealed an increase in schistosomiasis transmission, especially in the equatorial part of the country, despite the fact that Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the main intermediate host of this parasite, is now scarce in many foci. Biomphalaria camerunensis, restricted to the equatorial part of the country, is considered as a less suitable host for S...
March 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Tryphena Adams, Nana Aba A Ennuson, Neils B Quashie, Godfred Futagbi, Sena Matrevi, Oheneba C K Hagan, Benjamin Abuaku, Kwadwo A Koram, Nancy O Duah
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum delayed clearance with the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACTs) has been reported in some African countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes, P. falciparum adaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (pfap2mu) and ubiquitin specific protease 1 (pfubp1), have been linked to delayed clearance with ACT use in Kenya and recurrent imported malaria in Britain. With over 12 years of ACT use in Ghana, this study investigated the prevalence of SNPs in the pfap2mu and pfubp1 in Ghanaian clinical P...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Viktorija Kirillova, Petras Prakas, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Inese Gavarāne, José Luis Fernández-García, Manuel Martínez-González, Eglė Rudaitytė-Lukošienė, Miguel Ángel Habela Martínez-Estéllez, Dalius Butkauskas, Muza Kirjušina
BACKGROUND: Typically, carnivores serve as definitive hosts for Sarcocystis spp. parasites; currently, their role as intermediate hosts is being elucidated. The present study aimed to identify and molecularly characterize Sarcocystis cysts detected in striated muscle of red foxes from different populations in Latvia, Lithuania and Spain. METHODS: Muscle samples from 411 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 269 racoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Latvia, 41 red foxes from Lithuania and 22 red foxes from Spain were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis sarcocysts by light microscopy (LM)...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Marzieh Ezzaty Mirhashemi, Farzad Noubary, Susan Chapman-Bonofiglio, Saul Tzipori, Gordon S Huggins, Giovanni Widmer
BACKGROUND: Human cryptosporidiosis is caused primarily by two species of apicomplexan protozoa, Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis. In cultured cell monolayers, the parasite undergoes two generations of asexual multiplication (merogony). However, the proportion of parasites completing the life-cycle is low and insufficient to sustain continuous propagation. Due to the intracellular location of meronts and later life-cycle stages, oocyst and sporozoites are the only forms of the parasite that can readily be isolated...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Pierre H H Schneeberger, Jean T Coulibaly, Gordana Panic, Claudia Daubenberger, Morgan Gueuning, Jürg E Frey, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease burdening millions of people. One drug, praziquantel, is currently used for treatment and control. Clinically relevant drug resistance has not yet been described, but there is considerable heterogeneity in treatment outcomes, ranging from cure to only moderate egg reduction rates. The objectives of this study are to investigate potential worm-induced dysbacteriosis of the gut microbiota and to assess whether a specific microbiome profile could influence praziquantel response...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Xinyu Feng, Xiaojian Zhou, Shuisen Zhou, Jingwen Wang, Wei Hu
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs widely identified in many mosquitoes. They are reported to play important roles in development, differentiation and innate immunity. However, miRNAs in Anopheles sinensis, one of the Chinese malaria mosquitoes, remain largely unknown. METHODS: We investigated the global miRNA expression profile of An. sinensis using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing. Meanwhile, we applied a bioinformatic approach to identify potential miRNAs in An...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Gina M Gallego-Lopez, Audrey O T Lau, Wendy C Brown, Wendell C Johnson, Massaro W Ueti, Carlos E Suarez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Chuanxiang Tang, Min Cai, Lin Wang, Yaqiong Guo, Na Li, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cattle are commonly infected with the microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Sequence characterization of E. bieneusi in these animals at the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus had identified I, J and BEB4 as the dominant genotypes. However, current studies on E. bieneusi in dairy cattle are mostly on infection rates and genotype distribution. This study aims to examine the intragenotypic diversity within dominant E. bieneusi genotypes in pre-weaned dairy calves in Shanghai, China...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Alison Krentel, Kaye Wellings
BACKGROUND: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has set 2020 as a target to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem through mass drug administration (MDA) to all eligible people living in endemic areas. To obtain a better understanding of compliance with LF treatment, a qualitative study using 43 in-depth interviews was carried out in Alor District, Indonesia to explore factors that motivate uptake of LF treatment, including the social and behavioural differences between compliant and non-compliant individuals...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Wenquan Liu, Liyang Huang, Qimei Wei, Yu Zhang, Shengnan Zhang, Wenting Zhang, Liya Cai, Shaohui Liang
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect mammalian cells and thereby regulate host gene expression. The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to be an important class of RNA molecules that regulate many biological processes, including host-pathogen interactions. However, the role of host lncRNAs in the response to T. gondii infection remains largely unknown. METHODS: We applied a microarray approach to determine the differential expression profiles of both lncRNAs and mRNAs in the human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells after T...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Pattana Jaroenlak, Dominic Wiredu Boakye, Rapeepun Vanichviriyakit, Bryony A P Williams, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana, Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn
BACKGROUND: The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is a spore-forming, intracellular parasite that causes an economically debilitating disease (hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis or HPM) in cultured shrimp. HPM is characterized by growth retardation and wide size variation that can result in economic loss for shrimp farmers. Currently, the infection mechanism of EHP in shrimp is poorly understood, especially at the level of host-parasite interaction. In other microsporidia, spore wall proteins have been reported to be involved in host cell recognition...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Esteban Yefi-Quinteros, Catalina Muñoz-San Martín, Antonella Bacigalupo, Juana P Correa, Pedro E Cattan
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is the agent of Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latin America. Many wild and domestic animals are naturally infected with T. cruzi; rodents are one of the groups which have been consistently detected infected in different countries. The aim of this work was to characterize blood T. cruzi load in naturally infected rodents from a Chagas disease endemic region in Chile. METHODS: Baited traps were set in domestic and peridomestic areas of rural dwellings...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Johanna R Ohm, Francesco Baldini, Priscille Barreaux, Thierry Lefevre, Penelope A Lynch, Eunho Suh, Shelley A Whitehead, Matthew B Thomas
The time it takes for malaria parasites to develop within a mosquito, and become transmissible, is known as the extrinsic incubation period, or EIP. EIP is a key parameter influencing transmission intensity as it combines with mosquito mortality rate and competence to determine the number of mosquitoes that ultimately become infectious. In spite of its epidemiological significance, data on EIP are scant. Current approaches to estimate EIP are largely based on temperature-dependent models developed from data collected on parasite development within a single mosquito species in the 1930s...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Omar Hamarsheh, Mehmet Karakuş, Kifaya Azmi, Kaouther Jaouadi, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Andreas Krüger, Ahmad Amro, Mohamed Amin Kenawy, Mostafa Ramadhan Dokhan, Ziad Abdeen, Mary Ann McDowell
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus papatasi is a widely distributed sand fly species in different tropical and sub-tropical regions including the Middle East and North Africa. It is considered an important vector that transmits Leishmania major parasites, the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The development of microsatellite markers for this sand fly vector is of high interest to understand its population structure and to monitor its geographic dispersal. RESULTS: Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed with simple di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeats...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sori Teshale, Dirk Geysen, Gobena Ameni, Pierre Dorny, Dirk Berkvens
BACKGROUND: As evidence of the infection of domestic animals by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma sp. 'Omatjenne' is presently becoming available, understanding the epidemiological and ecological significance of infection is important to quantify the clinical and socio-economic impact of the diseases they cause. METHODS: The first aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum and Anaplasma sp. 'Omatjenne' in cattle samples collected from selected African countries using a polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Anne-Claire Lagrée, Clotilde Rouxel, Maëllys Kevin, Thibaud Dugat, Guillaume Girault, Benoît Durand, Martin Pfeffer, Cornelia Silaghi, Marion Nieder, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Nadia Haddad
BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic tick-borne intracellular alpha-proteobacterium causing tick-borne fever, which leads to significant economic losses in domestic ruminants in Europe. Its epidemiological cycles are complex and reservoir host species of bovine strains have not yet been identified. Given that little genetic information is available on strains circulating within a defined bovine environment, our objective was to assess the genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum obtained from the same farms over time...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"