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Parasites & Vectors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931431/fasciclin-calcareous-corpuscle-binary-complex-mediated-protein-protein-interactions-in-taenia-solium-metacestode
#1
Chun-Seob Ahn, Jeong-Geun Kim, Young-An Bae, Seon-Hee Kim, Joo-Ho Shin, Yichao Yang, Insug Kang, Yoon Kong
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium metacestode (TsM) is a serious neurological disease of global concern. Diverse bioactive molecules involved in the long-term survival of TsM might contribute to disease progression. Fasciclin (Fas) is an extracellular protein that mediates adhesion, migration and differentiation of cells by interacting with other molecules. We hypothesized that TsMFas might bind to calcareous corpuscle (CC) through its adhesive property and participate in crucial protein-protein interactions, thus contributing to the creation of a symbiotic interactome network...
September 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927469/genetic-diversity-of-haemonchus-contortus-isolated-from-sympatric-wild-blue-sheep-pseudois-nayaur-and-sheep-in-helan-mountains-china
#2
Dong-Dong Shen, Ji-Fei Wang, Dan-Yu Zhang, Zhi-Wei Peng, Tian-Yun Yang, Zhao-Ding Wang, Dwight D Bowman, Zhi-Jun Hou, Zhen-Sheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Haemonchus contortus is known among parasitic nematodes as one of the major veterinary pathogens of small ruminants and results in great economic losses worldwide. Human activities, such as the sympatric grazing of wild with domestic animals, may place susceptible wildlife hosts at risk of increased prevalence and infection intensity with this common small ruminant parasite. Studies on phylogenetic factors of H. contortus should assist in defining the amount of the impact of anthropogenic factors on the extent of sharing of agents such as this nematode between domestic animals and wildlife...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927465/relative-performance-of-indoor-vector-control-interventions-in-the-ifakara-and-the-west-african-experimental-huts
#3
Welbeck A Oumbouke, Augustin Fongnikin, Koffi B Soukou, Sarah J Moore, Raphael N'Guessan
BACKGROUND: West African and Ifakara experimental huts are used to evaluate indoor mosquito control interventions, including spatial repellents and insecticides. The two hut types differ in size and design, so a side-by-side comparison was performed to investigate the performance of indoor interventions in the two hut designs using standard entomological outcomes: relative indoor mosquito density (deterrence), exophily (induced exit), blood-feeding and mortality of mosquitoes. METHODS: Metofluthrin mosquito coils (0...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927459/microarchitecture-of-the-tsetse-fly-proboscis
#4
Wendy Gibson, Lori Peacock, Rachel Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies (genus Glossina) are large blood-sucking dipteran flies that are important as vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse anatomy has been well described, including detailed accounts of the functional anatomy of the proboscis for piercing host skin and sucking up blood. The proboscis also serves as the developmental site for the infective metacyclic stages of several species of pathogenic livestock trypanosomes that are inoculated into the host with fly saliva...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927458/sybr-green-based-one-step-quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-the-detection-of-zika-virus-in-field-caught-mosquitoes
#5
Wei-Ping Tien, Gareth Lim, Gladys Yeo, Suzanna Nicole Chiang, Chee-Seng Chong, Lee-Ching Ng, Hapuarachchige Chanditha Hapuarachchi
BACKGROUND: The monitoring of vectors is one of the key surveillance measures to assess the risk of arbovirus transmission and the success of control strategies in endemic regions. The recent re-emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the tropics, including Singapore, emphasizes the need to develop cost-effective, rapid and accurate assays to monitor the virus spread by mosquitoes. As ZIKV infections largely remain asymptomatic, early detection of ZIKV in the field-caught mosquitoes enables timely implementation of appropriate mosquito control measures...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927441/insecticide-susceptibility-of-aedes-albopictus-and-ae-aegypti-from-brazil-and-the-swiss-italian-border-region
#6
Tobias Suter, Mônica Maria Crespo, Mariana Francelino de Oliveira, Thaynan Sama Alves de Oliveira, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo-Santos, Cláudia Maria Fontes de Oliveira, Constância Flávia Junqueira Ayres, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues Barbosa, Ana Paula Araújo, Lêda Narcisa Regis, Eleonora Flacio, Lukas Engeler, Pie Müller, Maria Helena Neves Lobo Silva-Filha
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are two highly invasive mosquito species, both vectors of several viruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. While Ae. aegypti is the primary vector in the tropics and sub-tropics, Ae. albopictus is increasingly under the public health watch as it has been implicated in arbovirus-transmission in more temperate regions, including continental Europe. Vector control using insecticides is the pillar of most control programmes; hence development of insecticide resistance is of great concern...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927437/community-participation-in-mosquito-breeding-site-control-an-interdisciplinary-mixed-methods-study-in-cura%C3%A3-ao
#7
Jelte Elsinga, Henry T van der Veen, Izzy Gerstenbluth, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Arie Dijkstra, Martin P Grobusch, Adriana Tami, Ajay Bailey
BACKGROUND: As the arboviral diseases dengue, chikungunya and Zika emerge in the Americas, so does the need for sustainable vector control policies. To successfully achieve mosquito control, joint efforts of both communities and governments are essential. This study investigates this important, but by-and-large neglected topic. METHODS: In June and July 2015, a cross-sectional mixed methods study applying a survey questionnaire (response rate of 82.5%; n = 339), in-depth interviews (n = 20) and focus group discussions (n = 7; 50 participants) was performed in Curaçao...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927435/detection-and-quantification-of-spirocerca-lupi-by-hrm-qpcr-in-fecal-samples-from-dogs-with-spirocercosis
#8
Alicia Rojas, Gilad Segev, Alex Markovics, Itamar Aroch, Gad Baneth
BACKGROUND: Spirocerca lupi, the dog oesophageal nematode, causes a potentially fatal disease in domestic dogs, and is currently clinically diagnosed by coproscopy and oesophagoscopy. To date, a single molecular method, a semi-nested PCR, targeting the cox1 gene, has been developed to aid in the diagnosis of spirocercosis. The present study describes three novel high-resolution melt (HRM) quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting fragments of the ITS1, 18S and cytb loci of S. lupi. The performance of these molecular assays in feces was compared to fecal flotation and to the previously described cox1 gene semi-nested PCR in 18 fecal samples from dogs with clinical oesophageal spirocercosis diagnosed by oesophagoscopy...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927433/modelling-the-current-distribution-and-predicted-spread-of-the-flea-species-ctenocephalides-felis-infesting-outdoor-dogs-in-spain
#9
Rosa Gálvez, Vicenzo Musella, Miguel A Descalzo, Ana Montoya, Rocío Checa, Valentina Marino, Oihane Martín, Giuseppe Cringoli, Laura Rinaldi, Guadalupe Miró
BACKGROUND: The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most prevalent flea species detected on dogs and cats in Europe and other world regions. The status of flea infestation today is an evident public health concern because of their cosmopolitan distribution and the flea-borne diseases transmission. This study determines the spatial distribution of the cat flea C. felis infesting dogs in Spain. Using geospatial tools, models were constructed based on entomological data collected from dogs during the period 2013-2015...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927432/deer-presence-rather-than-abundance-determines-the-population-density-of-the-sheep-tick-ixodes-ricinus-in-dutch-forests
#10
Tim R Hofmeester, Hein Sprong, Patrick A Jansen, Herbert H T Prins, Sipke E van Wieren
BACKGROUND: Understanding which factors drive population densities of disease vectors is an important step in assessing disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that the density of ticks from the Ixodes ricinus complex, which are important vectors for tick-borne diseases, is determined by the density of deer, as adults of these ticks mainly feed on deer. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate I. ricinus density across 20 forest plots in the Netherlands that ranged widely in deer availability to ticks, and performed a deer-exclosure experiment in four pairs of 1 ha forest plots in a separate site...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927428/current-status-of-insecticide-resistance-among-malaria-vectors-in-kenya
#11
Benyl M Ondeto, Christopher Nyundo, Luna Kamau, Simon M Muriu, Joseph M Mwangangi, Kiambo Njagi, Evan M Mathenge, Horace Ochanda, Charles M Mbogo
BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing National Malaria Control Programmes in Africa. A well-coordinated national database on insecticide resistance (IRBase) can facilitate the development of effective strategies for managing insecticide resistance and sustaining the effectiveness of chemical-based vector control measures. The aim of this study was to assemble a database on the current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927427/first-molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-zoonotic-bartonella-species-in-fleas-infesting-domestic-animals-in-tunisia
#12
Saba Zouari, Fatma Khrouf, Youmna M'ghirbi, Ali Bouattour
BACKGROUND: Bartonellosis is an emerging vector-borne disease caused by different intracellular bacteria of the genus Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) that is transmitted primarily by blood-sucking arthropods such as sandflies, ticks and fleas. In Tunisia, there are no data available identifying the vectors of Bartonella spp. In our research, we used molecular methods to detect and characterize Bartonella species circulating in fleas collected from domestic animals in several of the country's bioclimatic areas...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923117/efficacy-of-fluralaner-bravecto%C3%A2-chewable-tablets-for-the-treatment-of-naturally-acquired-linognathus-setosus-infestations-on-dogs
#13
Heike Kohler-Aanesen, Seppo Saari, Rob Armstrong, Karine Péré, Janina Taenzler, Eva Zschiesche, Anja R Heckeroth
BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy of fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™, MSD Animal Health) against naturally acquired Linognathus setosus infestations on dogs was evaluated compared with permethrin (Exspot®, MSD Animal Health) treatment. METHODS: Privately-owned dogs naturally infested with L. setosus from 21 different households were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. Fourteen dogs were treated once orally with fluralaner and ten dogs were treated once topically with permethrin, at the recommended label dose...
September 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923116/wing-variation-in-culex-nigripalpus-diptera-culicidae-in-urban-parks
#14
Gabriela Cristina de Carvalho, Daniel Pagotto Vendrami, Mauro Toledo Marrelli, André Barretto Bruno Wilke
BACKGROUND: Culex nigripalpus has a wide geographical distribution and is found in North and South America. Females are considered primary vectors for several arboviruses, including Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Eastern equine encephalitis virus, as well as a potential vector of West Nile virus. In view of the epidemiological importance of this mosquito and its high abundance, this study sought to investigate wing variation in Cx. nigripalpus populations from urban parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil...
September 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923090/mapping-occurrence-of-taenia-solium-taeniosis-cysticercosis-and-areas-at-risk-of-porcine-cysticercosis-in-central-america-and-the-caribbean-basin
#15
Uffe Christian Braae, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Fortune Sithole, Ziqi Wang, Arve Lee Willingham
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the occurrence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis at national level within Central America and the Caribbean basin, and to map the distribution of porcine cysticercosis at first-level administrative subdivision level (department level) and the porcine population at risk. This zoonotic parasite is believed to be widely endemic across most of Latin America. However, there is little information readily available for Central America and the Caribbean basin...
September 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923082/characterization-of-a-secreted-cystatin-of-the-parasitic-nematode-haemonchus-contortus-and-its-immune-modulatory-effect-on-goat-monocytes
#16
Yujian Wang, Lingyan Wu, Xinchao Liu, Shuai Wang, Muhammad Ehsan, RuoFeng Yan, XiaoKai Song, LiXin Xu, XiangRui Li
BACKGROUND: Haemonchosis is a disease of the small ruminant caused by a nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus, and it is most important and alarming challenges to the small ruminant's production. The infection of the H. contortus could cause high economic losses worldwide. H. contortus is a blood feeding parasite which penetrates into the abomasal mucosa to feed the blood of the host and causing the anemia and decreased total plasma protein. Modulation and suppression of the immune response of the host by nematode parasites have been reported extensively, and the cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin) is identified as one of the major immunomodulators...
September 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915846/impact-of-heat-treatment-on-antigen-detection-in-sera-of-angiostrongylus-vasorum-infected-dogs
#17
Nina Gillis-Germitsch, Manuela Schnyder
BACKGROUND: In the last decade serological tests for detection of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and specific antibodies have been developed and adopted for individual diagnosis and epidemiological studies in dogs. Although confirmed positive at necropsy, antigen detection was not possible in single experimentally, as well as naturally infected dogs, possibly due to immune complex formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on detection of A...
September 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915832/dogs-as-victims-of-their-own-worms-serodiagnosis-of-canine-alveolar-echinococcosis
#18
C F Frey, N Marreros, S Renneker, L Schmidt, H Sager, B Hentrich, S Milesi, B Gottstein
BACKGROUND: Besides acting as definitive hosts for Echinococcus multilocularis, dogs can become infected by the larval form of this parasite and thereby develop life-threatening alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Although AE is a zoonotic disease, most therapeutic and diagnostic approaches have been developed for human patients. In dogs, AE is typically diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease when the parasitic mass has already caused abdominal distension. At that stage, complete resection of the parasitic mass is often impossible, leaving a guarded prognosis for the affected dogs...
September 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915831/a-synoptic-overview-of-golden-jackal-parasites-reveals-high-diversity-of-species
#19
REVIEW
Călin Mircea Gherman, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a species under significant and fast geographic expansion. Various parasites are known from golden jackals across their geographic range, and certain groups can be spread during their expansion, increasing the risk of cross-infection with other carnivores or even humans. The current list of the golden jackal parasites includes 194 species and was compiled on the basis of an extensive literature search published from historical times until April 2017, and is shown herein in synoptic tables followed by critical comments of the various findings...
September 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915829/how-often-do-mosquitoes-bite-humans-in-southern-england-a-standardised-summer-trial-at-four-sites-reveals-spatial-temporal-and-site-related-variation-in-biting-rates
#20
Victor A Brugman, Marion E England, Joanne Stoner, Laura Tugwell, Lara E Harrup, Anthony J Wilson, Jolyon M Medlock, James G Logan, Anthony R Fooks, Peter P C Mertens, Nicholas Johnson, Simon Carpenter
BACKGROUND: This field-based study examined the abundance and species complement of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) attracted to humans at four sites in the United Kingdom (UK). The study used a systematic approach to directly measure feeding by mosquitoes on humans at multiple sites and using multiple volunteers. Quantifying how frequently humans are bitten in the field by mosquitoes is a fundamental parameter in assessing arthropod-borne virus transmission. METHODS: Human landing catches were conducted using a standardised protocol by multiple volunteers at four rural sites between July and August 2013...
September 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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