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Parasites & Vectors

Heng Yang, Rongsheng Mi, Long Cheng, Yan Huang, Rui An, Yehua Zhang, Haiyan Jia, Xiaoli Zhang, Xu Wang, Xiangan Han, Zhaoguo Chen
BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a common species of microsporidia that not only influences human health but also threatens animal productive performance and value. However, there have been no systematic studies of the prevalence of E. bieneusi in sheep in China. RESULTS: A total of 953 fecal specimens were collected from sheep from 11 provinces across five regions of China and analyzed for E. bieneusi by nested PCR targeting the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)...
November 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sylwia Grzelak, Bożena Moskwa, Justyna Bień
BACKGROUND: Trichinella britovi is the second most common species of Trichinella that may affect human health. As an early diagnosis of trichinellosis is crucial for effective treatment, it is important to identify sensitive, specific and common antigens of adult T. britovi worms and muscle larvae. The present study was undertaken to uncover the stage-specific and common proteins of T. britovi that may be used in specific diagnostics. METHODS: Somatic extracts obtained from two developmental stages, muscle larvae (ML) and adult worms (Ad), were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with immunoblot analysis...
November 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Andrea Springer, Victor M Montenegro, Sabine Schicht, Nikola Pantchev, Christina Strube
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases constitute a major problem for veterinary and public health, especially in tropical regions like Central America. Domestic dogs may be infected with several vector-borne pathogens of zoonotic relevance, which may also severely compromise canine health. METHODS: To assess the prevalence of canine vector-borne diseases in Nicaragua, 329 dogs from seven cities, which were presented to the veterinarian for various reasons, were included in this study...
November 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Iara Caixeta Marques da Rocha, Letícia Helena Marques Dos Santos, Wendel Coura-Vital, Gisele Macedo Rodrigues da Cunha, Fernanda do Carmo Magalhães, Thais Almeida Marques da Silva, Maria Helena Franco Morais, Edward Oliveira, Ilka Afonso Reis, Mariângela Carneiro
BACKGROUND: Control strategies adopted by the Brazilian Visceral Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control Programme (VLSCP) include identifying and culling seropositive infected dogs, early diagnosis and treatment of human cases, chemical control of the vector and population awareness. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the VLSCP on the prevalence and incidence rates of Leishmania infantum in children residing in areas under different VLSCP intervention times. METHODS: A quasi-experimental epidemiological study with a panel (two cross-sectional) and a concurrent cohort was performed in three areas of Belo Horizonte, southeast Brazil...
November 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Najmul Haider, Sauli Laaksonen, Lene Jung Kjær, Antti Oksanen, Rene Bødker
BACKGROUND: In northern Finland (Lapland), reindeer are reared as semi-domesticated animals. The region has a short summer season of 2-3 months, yet reindeer are infected with the mosquito-borne filarioid parasite Setaria tundra. The infection causes peritonitis and perihepatitis, which cause significant economic losses due to reduced body weight of infected animals. The objective of this study was to: (i) describe the spatial and temporal pattern of outbreaks in three different areas across Finnish Lapland; and (ii) construct a temperature-driven mechanistic transmission model to quantify the potential role of temperature on intensity of S...
November 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ana L Lanfranchi, Paola E Braicovich, Delfina M P Cantatore, Manuel M Irigoitia, Marisa D Farber, Verónica Taglioretti, Juan T Timi
BACKGROUND: In the marine environment, transitional zones between major water masses harbour high biodiversity, mostly due to their productivity and by containing representatives of species characteristic of adjacent communities. With the aim of assessing the value of larval Anisakis as zoogeographical indicators in a transitional zone between subtropical and sub-Antarctic marine currents, larvae obtained from Zenopsis conchifer were genetically identified. Larvae from Pagrus pagrus and Merluccius hubbsi from two adjacent zoogeographical provinces were also sequenced...
November 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Djamel Baroudi, Ahcene Hakem, Haileeyesus Adamu, Said Amer, Djamel Khelef, Karim Adjou, Hichem Dahmani, Xiaohua Chen, Dawn Roellig, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Little is known on the occurrence and identity of Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats in Algeria. This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in lambs and goat kids younger than 4 weeks. METHODS: A total of 154 fecal samples (62 from lambs and 92 from kid goats) were collected from 13 sheep flocks in Médea, Algeria and 18 goat flocks across Algiers and Boumerdes. They were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. by nested-PCR analysis of a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analyses to determine the Cryptosporidium species present...
November 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Edwin O Ogola, Ulrike Fillinger, Isabella M Ondiba, Jandouwe Villinger, Daniel K Masiga, Baldwyn Torto, David P Tchouassi
BACKGROUND: Most malaria vectors belong to species complexes. Sibling species often exhibit divergent behaviors dictating the measures that can be deployed effectively in their control. Despite the importance of the Anopheles funestus complex in malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, sibling species have rarely been identified in the past and their vectoring potential remains understudied. METHODS: We analyzed 1149 wild-caught An. funestus (senso lato) specimens from 21 sites in Kenya, covering the major malaria endemic areas including western, central and coastal areas...
November 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ai-Ling Tian, MingMin Lu, Fu-Kai Zhang, Guillermo Calderón-Mantilla, Evangelia Petsalaki, XiaoWei Tian, WenJuan Wang, Si-Yang Huang, XiangRui Li, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Fasciola gigantica-induced immunomodulation is a major hurdle faced by the host for controlling infection. Here, we elucidated the role of F. gigantica Ras-related protein Rab10 (FgRab10) in the modulation of key functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of goats. METHODS: We cloned and expressed recombinant FgRab10 (rFgRab10) protein and examined its effects on several functions of goat PBMCs. Protein interactors of rFgRab10 were predicted in silico by querying the databases Intact, String, BioPlex and BioGrid...
November 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Veronique Dermauw, Pierre Dorny, Uffe Christian Braae, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Lucy J Robertson, Anastasios Saratsis, Lian F Thomas
BACKGROUND: The beef tapeworm, Taenia saginata, causing cysticercosis in bovines and taeniosis in humans, is thought to have a global distribution. In eastern and southern Africa, cattle production plays a crucial role in the economy, but a clear overview of the prevalence of T. saginata in the region is still lacking. This review aims to summarize existing knowledge on T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis distribution in eastern and southern Africa. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted, that gathered published and grey literature, including OIE reports, concerning T...
November 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Valentin Buchter, Jeannine Hess, Gilles Gasser, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most harmful parasitic diseases worldwide, praziquantel being the only drug in widespread use to treat it. We recently demonstrated that ferrocenyl, ruthenocenyl and benzyl derivatives of oxamniquine (Fc-OXA, Rc-OXA and Bn-OXA) are promising antischistosomal drug candidates. METHODS: In this study we assessed the tegumental damage of these three derivatives of oxamniquine using scanning electron microscopy. Adult Schistosoma mansoni and S...
November 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Robert Lavan, Rob Armstrong, Kaan Tunceli, Dorothy Normile
BACKGROUND: Veterinary clinic transaction records from the USA were examined to determine dog owner purchase patterns for three prescription ectoparasiticides. In-clinic purchases of formulations of fluralaner (with 12-week duration per dose) were compared with dog owner purchases of afoxolaner and spinosad (both with 4 week duration per dose) in a population of 231,565 dogs over a 12 month period. Prior studies in human and animal medicine have suggested that patients more closely adhere to prescriber dosing recommendations when they receive a longer-duration medication...
November 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Gesham Magombedze, Neil M Ferguson, Azra C Ghani
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a leading cause of death in tropical regions of the world. Despite efforts to reduce transmission, rebounds associated with the persistence of malaria vectors have remained a major impediment to local elimination. One area that remains poorly understood is how Anopheles populations survive long dry seasons to re-emerge following the onset of the rains. METHODS: We developed a suite of mathematical models to explore the impact of different dry-season mosquito survival strategies on the dynamics of vector populations...
November 3, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Anubis Vega-Rúa, Nonito Pagès, Albin Fontaine, Christopher Nuccio, Lyza Hery, Daniella Goindin, Joel Gustave, Lionel Almeras
BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technology (MALDI-TOF MS) is an innovative tool that has been shown to be effective for the identification of numerous arthropod groups including mosquitoes. A critical step in the implementation of MALDI-TOF MS identification is the creation of spectra databases (DB) for the species of interest. Mosquito legs were the body part most frequently used to create identification DB. However, legs are one of the most fragile mosquito compartments, which can put identification at risk...
November 3, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Mercedes María Noel Reynoso, Alejandro Lucia, Eduardo Nicolás Zerba, Raúl Adolfo Alzogaray
BACKGROUND: Eugenol is a botanical monoterpene that hyperactivates the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans, and permethrin is a pyrethroid with a strong triatomicide effect. In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that eugenol-hyperactivated nymphs of T. infestans pick up more insecticide, and then become intoxicated faster, than non-hyperactivated nymphs when exposed to a permethrin-treated surface. RESULTS: Values of knockdown time 50% (KT50) for third-instar T...
November 3, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Mario Hidalgo-Ruiz, Carlos E Suarez, Miguel A Mercado-Uriostegui, Ruben Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan Alberto Ramos, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco, Gloria León-Ávila, José Manuel Hernández, Juan Mosqueda
BACKGROUND: Babesia bovis belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa and is the major causal agent of bovine babesiosis, the most important veterinary disease transmitted by arthropods. In apicomplexan parasites, the interaction between AMA1 and RON2 is necessary for the invasion process, and it is a target for vaccine development. In B. bovis, the existence of AMA1 has already been reported; however, the presence of a homolog of RON2 is unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize RON2 in B...
November 3, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jessica McNamara, Jason Drake, Scott Wiseman, Ian Wright
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic endoparasites pose risks to pets and people. The European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasites (ESCCAP) created risk groupings for dogs (A-D) and for cats (A-B), with the highest risk pets (Group D dogs and Group B cats) receiving the most frequent testing and/or deworming recommendations. Little information exists on current deworming behaviours across Europe, alignment to accepted guidelines and the percentage of dogs and cats falling into ESCCAP groups...
November 1, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Marcello Ceccarelli, Aurora Diotallevi, Francesca Andreoni, Fabrizio Vitale, Luca Galluzzi, Mauro Magnani
BACKGROUND: Leishmania infantum is the aetiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Numerous strains and/or zymodemes have been identified and characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). MLEE is considered the reference method for L. infantum parasite typing and it is based upon enzyme electrophoretic mobility analysis from promastigote cultures. However, the MLEE technique is cumbersome, time-consuming and does not detect silent genetic mutations or nucleotide changes that give rise to amino acid changes that do not alter electrophoretic mobility...
November 1, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Chiara Trevisan, Smaragda Sotiraki, Minerva Laranjo-González, Veronique Dermauw, Ziqi Wang, Age Kärssin, Aleksandar Cvetkovikj, Andrea S Winkler, Annette Abraham, Branko Bobić, Brian Lassen, Carmen Michaela Cretu, Cozma Vasile, Dimitris Arvanitis, Gunita Deksne, Ilievski Boro, István Kucsera, Jacek Karamon, Jovana Stefanovska, Břetislav Koudela, Maja Jurhar Pavlova, Marian Varady, Marina Pavlak, Mindaugas Šarkūnas, Miriam Kaminski, Olgica Djurković-Djaković, Pikka Jokelainen, Dagny Stojčević Jan, Veronika Schmidt, Zorica Dakić, Sarah Gabriël, Pierre Dorny, Brecht Devleesschauwer
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are food-borne parasites of global importance. In eastern Europe only fragmented information is available on the epidemiology of these zoonotic parasites in humans and animal populations. In particular for T. solium, on-going transmission is suspected. The aim of this systematic review was to collect the available data and describe the current knowledge on the epidemiology of T. solium and T. saginata in eastern Europe. METHODS: Literature published in international databases from 1990 to 2017 was systematically reviewed...
October 30, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Georgiana Deak, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Joerg Hirzmann, Vito Colella, Flaviu Alexandru Tăbăran, Maria Alfonsa Cavalera, Florinel Gheorghe Brudașcă, Christian Bauer, Angela Monica Ionică, Amer Alić, Domenico Otranto, Călin Mircea Gherman
BACKGROUND: A century of debates on the taxonomy of members of the Metastrongyloidea Molin, 1861 led to many reclassifications. Considering the inconstant genus assignation and lack of genetic data, the main aim of this study was to support the validity of the genus Perostrongylus Schlegel, 1934, previously considered a synonym of Aelurostrongylus Cameron, 1927, based on new molecular phylogenetic data and to understand its evolutionary relationships with other metastrongyloid nematodes...
October 30, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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