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Parasites & Vectors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132437/hap2-a-novel-gene-in-babesia-bigemina-is-expressed-in-tick-stages-and-specific-antibodies-block-zygote-formation
#1
Minerva Camacho-Nuez, Diego Josimar Hernández-Silva, Elizabeth Jacqueline Castañeda-Ortiz, María Elena Paredes-Martínez, Marisol Karina Rocha-Martínez, María Elizbeth Alvarez-Sánchez, Ricardo Francisco Mercado-Curiel, Gabriela Aguilar-Tipacamu, Juan Mosqueda
BACKGROUND: Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. In their host vector, Babesia spp. undergo sexual reproduction. Therefore, the development of sexual stages and the subsequent formation of the zygote are essential for the parasite to invade the intestinal cells of the vector tick and continue its life-cycle. HAP2/GCS1 is a protein identified in plants, protozoan parasites and other organisms that has an important role during membrane fusion in fertilization processes...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132425/establishment-of-a-medium-scale-mosquito-facility-optimization-of-the-larval-mass-rearing-unit-for-aedes-albopictus-diptera-culicidae
#2
Dongjing Zhang, Meichun Zhang, Yu Wu, Jeremie R L Gilles, Hanano Yamada, Zhongdao Wu, Zhiyong Xi, Xiaoying Zheng
BACKGROUND: Standardized larval rearing units for mosquito production are essential for the establishment of a mass-rearing facility. Two larval rearing units, developed respectively by the Guangzhou Wolbaki Biotech Co. Ltd. (Wolbaki) and Insect Pest Control Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (FAO/IAEA-IPCL), are tested to assess their potential uses to mass-rear the larval stages of Aedes albopictus in support of the establishment of a medium-scale mosquito facility for the application of mosquito genetic control strategies...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132421/durability-monitoring-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-mosquito-nets-llins-in-madagascar-physical-integrity-and-insecticidal-activity
#3
Sanjiarizaha Randriamaherijaona, Jacky Raharinjatovo, Sébastien Boyer
BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLINs) are highly effective for malaria prevention. However, it is also clear that durability monitoring is essential to predict when, post-distribution, a net population, no longer meets minimum WHO standards and needs to be replaced. Following a national distribution campaign in 2013, we tracked two durability indicators, physical integrity and bio-efficacy at six and 12 months post-distribution. While the loss of net integrity during this period was in line with expectations for a one-year net life, bio-efficacy results suggested that nets were losing insecticidal effect faster than expected...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132413/germacranolide-type-sesquiterpene-lactones-from-smallanthus-sonchifolius-with-promising-activity-against-leishmania-mexicana-and-trypanosoma-cruzi
#4
Jerónimo L Ulloa, Renata Spina, Agustina Casasco, Patricia B Petray, Virginia Martino, Miguel A Sosa, Fernanda M Frank, Liliana V Muschietti
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease are life-threatening illnesses caused by the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively. They are known as "neglected diseases" due to the lack of effective drug treatments and the scarcity of research work devoted to them. Therefore, the development of novel and effective drugs is an important and urgent need. Natural products are an important source of bioactive molecules for the development of new drugs. In this study, we evaluated the activity of enhydrin, uvedalin and polymatin B, three sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) isolated from Smallanthus sonchifolius, on Leishmania mexicana (MNYC/BZ/62/M) and Trypanosoma cruzi (Dm28c)...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132409/insight-into-the-genetic-diversity-of-anaplasma-marginale-in-cattle-from-ten-provinces-of-china
#5
Jifei Yang, Rong Han, Zhijie Liu, Qingli Niu, Guiquan Guan, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin
BACKGROUND: Anaplasma marginale is an important tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogen of cattle, with worldwide distribution and an important economic impact. The genetic diversity of A. marginale strains has been extensively characterized in different geographical regions throughout the world, while information is limited on studies in China. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of A. marginale strains in cattle from ten provinces of China. METHODS: A total of 557 blood samples from cattle were collected and screened for the occurrence of A...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132406/sjcrt-a-recombinant-schistosoma-japonicum-calreticulin-induces-maturation-of-dendritic-cells-and-a-th1-polarized-immune-response-in-mice
#6
Lizhen Ma, Dandan Li, Chunxiu Yuan, Xiangqian Zhang, Na Ta, Xiaochao Zhao, Yumei Li, Xingang Feng
BACKGROUND: It is well known that immunization of radiation-attenuated (RA) schistosoma cercariae or schistosomula can induce high levels of protective immunity against schistosoma cercariae reinfection in many animals. Many studies have shown that the Th1 cellular immune response is crucial for the protective effect elicited by RA schistosomula. However, the molecular mechanism of this strong protective immunity remains unclear. METHODS: The expression profiles of Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin (SjCRT) in RA and normal schistosoma-derived cells were investigated by flow cytometry...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132402/efficient-high-throughput-molecular-method-to-detect-ehrlichia-ruminantium-in-ticks
#7
Nídia Cangi, Valérie Pinarello, Laure Bournez, Thierry Lefrançois, Emmanuel Albina, Luís Neves, Nathalie Vachiéry
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causal agent of heartwater, a fatal tropical disease affecting ruminants with important economic impacts. This bacterium is transmitted by Amblyomma ticks and is present in sub-Saharan Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean, where it represents a threat to the American mainland. METHODS: An automated DNA extraction method was adapted for Amblyomma ticks and a new qPCR targeting the pCS20 region was developed to improve E...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126460/dirofilaria-repens-transmission-in-southeastern-finland
#8
Risto Pietikäinen, Stig Nordling, Sakari Jokiranta, Seppo Saari, Petra Heikkinen, Chris Gardiner, Anne-Marie Kerttula, Tiina Kantanen, Anna Nikanorova, Sauli Laaksonen, Antti Lavikainen, Antti Oksanen
BACKGROUND: The spread of vector-borne diseases to new regions has become a global threat due to climate change, increasing traffic, and movement of people and animals. Dirofilaria repens, the canine subcutaneous filarioid nematode, has expanded its distribution range northward during the last decades. The northernmost European locations, where the parasite life-cycle has been confirmed, are Estonia and the Novgorod Region in Russia. RESULTS: Herein, we describe an autochthonous D...
November 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126433/mosquito-larvicidal-activity-of-cassia-tora-seed-extract-and-its-key-anthraquinones-aurantio-obtusin-and-obtusin
#9
Valentine C Mbatchou, David P Tchouassi, Rita A Dickson, Kofi Annan, Abraham Y Mensah, Isaac K Amponsah, Julia W Jacob, Xavier Cheseto, Solomon Habtemariam, Baldwyn Torto
BACKGROUND: The edible and medicinal leguminous plant Cassia tora L. (Fabaceae) is known to possess insecticidal properties against a wide range of plant-feeding insects. However, the bioactivity of extracts of this plant and their constituents against vectors of medical importance has been largely unexplored. We investigated the mosquito larvicidal activity of the seed extract and its major anthraquinones against larvae of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (s.s.). METHODS: Third-fourth instar larval mortality was observed after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure to varying doses of the extracts, and two anthraquinones isolates identified using liquid chromatography- quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QtoF-MS)...
November 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126431/successful-long-term-maintenance-of-mansonella-perstans-in-an-in-vitro-culture-system
#10
Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Manuel Ritter, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Chi Anizette Kien, Gandjui Tchamatchoua Victor Narcisse, Fanny Fri Fombad, Dizzle Bita Tayong, Kenneth Pfarr, Laura E Layland, Achim Hoerauf, Samuel Wanji
BACKGROUND: Approximately 114 million people are infected with Mansonella perstans in large proportions of Africa. In contrast to other filariae that infect humans, M. perstans-infected individuals show no distinct pathology or specific clinical picture, indicating a well-tuned adaptation to the host. In addition, since M. perstans adult worms reside in serous cavities which are difficult to access, research has been hindered and there is a paucity of knowledge about the biology of M...
November 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143689/examination-of-the-susceptibility-gap-in-the-treatment-of-canine-heartworm-infection
#11
REVIEW
Dwight D Bowman, Jason Drake
BACKGROUND: The "susceptibility gap" in a dog diagnosed with adult heartworms has been defined as the period of time in which some Dirofilaria immitis stages are not susceptible to treatment with either macrocyclic lactones or melarsomine dihydrochloride. This was previously defined within the American Heartworm Society guidelines as a period of about 3 months "as per product labels." It can be postulated, however, that a susceptibility gap does not exist with the combination of continued macrocyclic lactone therapy coupled with a three-dose melarsomine dihydrochloride protocol where the first intramuscular treatment is near the time of first diagnosis...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143688/investigating-management-choices-for-canine-heartworm-disease-in-northern-mississippi
#12
Tobi N Ku
BACKGROUND: There are concerns that the chronic use of macrocyclic lactone preventives to kill adult heartworms ("soft-" or "slow-kill") may have contributed to the development of macrocyclic lactone resistance. This prospective analysis was designed to expand our understanding of currently employed treatment decisions, protocols utilized in a "slow-kill" methodology, and trends in heartworm prevention in a region with concerns about macrocyclic lactone resistance. We tested the hypothesis that practitioners underestimate the actual percentage of heartworm-positive dogs treated with "slow-kill" therapy...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143687/prevalence-and-epidemiology-of-canine-and-feline-heartworm-infection-in-taiwan
#13
Ta-Li Lu, Jun-Yue Wong, Ta-Lun Tan, Yong-Wei Hung
BACKGROUND: Heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, has long been recognized in Taiwanese dogs but feline heartworm infection has been largely overlooked by veterinarians and pet owners. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and epidemiology of canine and feline heartworm infection in Taiwan. METHODS: Household dogs and cats were selected from 103 veterinary hospitals in 13 cities throughout Taiwan. All animals were at least 1 year old, had received no heartworm prevention for more than 1 year, and had lived in the same city for at least 1 year...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143686/acute-phase-proteins-and-markers-of-oxidative-stress-to-assess-the-severity-of-the-pulmonary-hypertension-in-heartworm-infected-dogs
#14
Elena Carretón, José Joaquín Cerón, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Alicia Caro-Vadillo, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso
BACKGROUND: Canine heartworm infection is characterized by pulmonary endarteritis and pulmonary hypertension (PH). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between PH with the concentrations of different positive (C-reactive protein [CRP] and haptoglobin [Hp]) and negative (albumin and paraoxonase-1 [PON-1]) acute phase proteins (APP), as well as the oxidative stress, by measuring glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in 27 heartworm-infected dogs on Day 0 (diagnosis) and Day 120 (1 month after the last adulticide injection)...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143684/evaluation-of-cardiopulmonary-and-inflammatory-markers-in-dogs-with-heartworm-infection-during-treatment-with-the-2014-american-heartworm-society-recommended-treatment-protocol
#15
Won-Kyoung Yoon, Ye-Won Kim, Sang-I L Suh, Ran Choi, Seung-Gon Lee, Changbaig Hyun
BACKGROUND: Heartworm disease in dogs is a life-threatening parasitic disease. Although adulticide treatment with melarsomine has been proven to be the most effective, complications associated with adulticide treatment are major concerns for clinicians. METHODS: This study evaluated the change in levels of D-dimer, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and cardiac troponin I in 12 dogs with different severities of heartworm infection treated by the American Heartworm Society (AHS) recommended protocol during the treatment period...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143683/the-progression-of-heartworm-associated-respiratory-disease-hard-in-spf-cats-18%C3%A2-months-after-dirofilaria-immitis-infection
#16
A Ray Dillon, Bryon L Blagburn, Michael Tillson, William Brawner, Betsy Welles, Calvin Johnson, Russell Cattley, Pat Rynders, Sharron Barney
BACKGROUND: Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) in cats is induced by the arrival and death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary system and is indistinguishable from mature adult heartworm infection. METHODS: A controlled, blind research study investigated the long-term (18 months post infection, PI) consequences of the inflammatory response associated with the death of immature adult heartworms in cats. Three groups of cats, 10 per group, were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143678/shifting-the-paradigm-in-dirofilaria-immitis-prevention-blocking-transmission-from-mosquitoes-to-dogs-using-repellents-insecticides-and-macrocyclic-lactone-prevention-as-part-of-a-multimodal-approach
#17
John W McCall, Marie Varloud, Elizabeth Hodgkins, Abdelmoneim Mansour, Utami DiCosty, Scott McCall, James Carmichael, Ben Carson, Justin Carter
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the influence of a topical ectoparasiticide (dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen, DPP, Vectra® 3D, Ceva Animal Health) combined with a macrocyclic lactone (milbemycin oxime, MBO, Interceptor®, Virbac) on transmission of heartworm L3 from mosquitoes to dogs and subsequent development of worms in treated dogs exposed to infected mosquitoes. METHODS: Thirty-two beagle dogs were allocated to four groups of eight: Group 1, untreated controls; Group 2, treated topically with DPP on Day 0; Group 3, treated orally with MBO on Day 51; and Group 4, treated with DPP on Day 0 and MBO on Day 51...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143669/considerations-for-using-minocycline-vs-doxycycline-for-treatment-of-canine-heartworm-disease
#18
Mark G Papich
BACKGROUND: Doxycycline has been considered the first drug of choice for treating Wolbachia, a member of the Rickettsiaceae, which has a symbiotic relationship with filarial worms, including heartworms. Wolbachia, is susceptible to tetracyclines, which have been used as adjunctive treatments for heartworm disease. Treatment with doxycycline reduces Wolbachia numbers in all stages of heartworms and improves outcomes and decreased microfilaremia in dogs treated for heartworm disease. The American Heartworm Society recommends treatment with doxycycline in dogs diagnosed with heartworm disease at a dose of 10 mg/kg twice daily for 28 days...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143666/comparative-evaluation-of-commercially-available-point-of-care-heartworm-antigen-tests-using-well-characterized-canine-plasma-samples
#19
Lindsay A Starkey, Joy V Bowles, Mark E Payton, Byron L Blagburn
BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis is a worldwide parasite that is endemic in many parts of the United States. There are many commercial assays available for the detection of D. immitis antigen, one of which was modified and has reentered the market. Our objective was to compare the recently reintroduced Witness® Heartworm (HW) Antigen test Kit (Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ) and the SNAP® Heartworm RT (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME) to the well-based ELISA DiroChek® Heartworm Antigen Test Kit (Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ)...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143665/cardiopulmonary-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-heartworm-disease
#20
REVIEW
Elena Carretón, Rodrigo Morchón, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso
In heartworm disease, several biomarkers of cardiopulmonary injury and inflammatory activity have been studied during the recent years. D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product present after a clot is degraded, which has been reported to provide support for the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism in heartworm disease. Furthermore, concentrations increment with increased disease severity and during the adulticide treatment. This increase in concentration has proved to be valuable. Cardiac biomarkers troponin I, myoglobin and NT-proBNP demonstrated presence of myocardial injury and heart failure, especially in chronic infections, which in some cases, slightly improve after the adulticide treatment...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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