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Parasites & Vectors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330502/a-repertoire-of-protease-inhibitor-families-in-amblyomma-americanum-and-other-tick-species-inter-species-comparative-analyses
#1
Lindsay M Porter, Željko M Radulović, Albert Mulenga
BACKGROUND: Protease inhibitors (PIs) are important regulators of physiology and represent anti-parasitic druggable and vaccine targets. We conducted bioinformatic analyses of genome and transcriptome data to determine the protease inhibitor (PI) repertoire in Amblyomma americanum and in 25 other ixodid tick species. For A. americanum, we compared the PI repertoires in fed and unfed, male and female A. americanum ticks. We also analyzed PI repertoires of female 48, 96 and 120 h-fed midgut (MG) and salivary gland (SG) tissues...
March 22, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327173/a-new-paradigm-for-aedes-spp-surveillance-using-gravid-ovipositing-sticky-trap-and-ns1-antigen-test-kit
#2
Sai Ming Lau, Tock H Chua, Wan-Yussof Sulaiman, Sylvia Joanne, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Shamala Devi Sekaran, Karuthan Chinna, Balan Venugopalan, Indra Vythilingam
BACKGROUND: Dengue remains a serious public health problem in Southeast Asia and has increased 37-fold in Malaysia compared to decades ago. New strategies are urgently needed for early detection and control of dengue epidemics. METHODS: We conducted a two year study in a high human density dengue-endemic urban area in Selangor, where Gravid Ovipositing Sticky (GOS) traps were set up to capture adult Aedes spp. mosquitoes. All Aedes mosquitoes were tested using the NS1 dengue antigen test kit...
March 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320455/a-systematic-review-of-taeniasis-cysticercosis-and-trichinellosis-in-vietnam
#3
REVIEW
Dinh Ng-Nguyen, Mark A Stevenson, Rebecca J Traub
Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and T. solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Vietnam utilizing Bayesian models; in addition, to report the incidence and the distribution of trichinellosis...
March 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320443/co-circulation-of-west-nile-virus-and-distinct-insect-specific-flaviviruses-in-turkey
#4
Koray Ergünay, Nadine Litzba, Annika Brinkmann, Filiz Günay, Yasemen Sarıkaya, Sırrı Kar, Serra Örsten, Kerem Öter, Cristina Domingo, Özge Erisoz Kasap, Aykut Özkul, Luke Mitchell, Andreas Nitsche, Bülent Alten, Yvonne-Marie Linton
BACKGROUND: Active vector surveillance provides an efficient tool for monitoring the presence or spread of emerging or re-emerging vector-borne viruses. This study was undertaken to investigate the circulation of flaviviruses. Mosquitoes were collected from 58 locations in 10 provinces across the Aegean, Thrace and Mediterranean Anatolian regions of Turkey in 2014 and 2015. Following morphological identification, mosquitoes were pooled and screened by nested and real-time PCR assays. Detected viruses were further characterised by sequencing...
March 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302166/secreted-phospholipase-a2-of-clonorchis-sinensis-activates-hepatic-stellate-cells-through-a-pathway-involving-jnk-signalling
#5
Yinjuan Wu, Ye Li, Mei Shang, Yu Jian, Caiqin Wang, Adham Sameer A Bardeesi, Zhaolei Li, Tingjin Chen, Lu Zhao, Lina Zhou, Ai He, Yan Huang, Zhiyue Lv, Xinbing Yu, Xuerong Li
BACKGROUND: Secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a protein secreted by Clonorchis sinensis and is a component of excretory and secretory products (CsESPs). Phospholipase A2 is well known for its role in liver fibrosis and inhibition of tumour cells. The JNK signalling pathway is involved in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. Blocking JNK activity with SP600125 inhibits HSCs activation. In a previous study, the protein CssPLA2 was expressed in insoluble inclusion bodies. Therefore, it's necessary to express CssPLA2 in water-soluble form and determine whether the enzymatic activity of CssPLA2 or cell signalling pathways is involved in liver fibrosis caused by clonorchiasis...
March 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302156/mapping-the-spatial-distribution-of-the-japanese-encephalitis-vector-culex-tritaeniorhynchus-giles-1901-diptera-culicidae-within-areas-of-japanese-encephalitis-risk
#6
Joshua Longbottom, Annie J Browne, David M Pigott, Marianne E Sinka, Nick Golding, Simon I Hay, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most significant aetiological agents of viral encephalitis in Asia. This medically important arbovirus is primarily spread from vertebrate hosts to humans by the mosquito vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Knowledge of the contemporary distribution of this vector species is lacking, and efforts to define areas of disease risk greatly depend on a thorough understanding of the variation in this mosquito's geographical distribution. RESULTS: We assembled a contemporary database of Cx...
March 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298245/serological-and-molecular-prevalence-of-canine-vector-borne-diseases-cvbds-in-korea
#7
Guk-Hyun Suh, Kyu-Sung Ahn, Jong-Ho Ahn, Ha-Jung Kim, Christian Leutenegger, SungShik Shin
BACKGROUND: Previous surveys in dogs from Korea indicated that dogs are exposed to a variety of vector- borne pathogens, but perception for a nation-wide canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) occurrence has been missing. We report here results of both serological and molecular prevalence studies for major CVBDs of dogs from all over the South Korean Peninsula except for Jeju Island. RESULTS: Serological survey of 532 outdoor dogs revealed the highest prevalence for Dirofilaria immitis (25...
March 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288696/immune-recognition-of-salivary-proteins-from-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus-differs-according-to-the-genotype-of-the-bovine-host
#8
Gustavo Rocha Garcia, Sandra Regina Maruyama, Kristina T Nelson, José Marcos Chaves Ribeiro, Luiz Gustavo Gardinassi, Antonio Augusto Mendes Maia, Beatriz Rossetti Ferreira, Frans N J Kooyman, Isabel K F de Miranda Santos
BACKGROUND: Males of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus produce salivary immunoglobulin-binding proteins and allotypic variations in IgG are associated with tick loads in bovines. These findings indicate that antibody responses may be essential to control tick infestations. Infestation loads with cattle ticks are heritable: some breeds carry high loads of reproductively successful ticks, in others, few ticks feed and they reproduce inefficiently. Different patterns of humoral immunity against tick salivary proteins may explain these phenotypes...
March 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292316/efficacy-safety-and-tolerance-of-imidocarb-dipropionate-versus-atovaquone-or-buparvaquone-plus-azithromycin-used-to-treat-sick-dogs-naturally-infected-with-the-babesia-microti-like-piroplasm
#9
Rocío Checa, Ana Montoya, Nieves Ortega, José Luis González-Fraga, Adrián Bartolomé, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Guadalupe Miró
BACKGROUND: Piroplasmosis caused by the Babesia microti-like piroplasm (Bml) is increasingly being detected in dogs in Europe. Sick dogs show acute disease with severe anaemia associated with thrombocytopenia with a poor response to current available drugs. This study assesses the safety and tolerance of three treatments and compares their efficacy over a full year of follow up in dogs naturally infected with Bml. METHODS: Fifty-nine dogs naturally infected with Bml were randomly assigned to a treatment group: imidocarb dipropionate (5 mg/kg SC, 2 doses 14 d apart) (IMI); atovaquone (13...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288690/dirofilaria-immitis-in-pinnipeds-and-a%C3%A2-new-host-record
#10
Ana Margarida Alho, Inês Marcelino, Vito Colella, Carla Flanagan, Nuno Silva, Jorge Jesus Correia, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Domenico Otranto, Luís Madeira de Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne pathogen that is spreading worldwide, and the associated infection (i.e. dirofilariosis) is becoming a threat to animals and humans living in endemic areas. Little is known about the occurrence and risk of infection of D. immitis in pinnipeds. Here we report dirofilariosis by D. immitis in several pinniped species kept in captivity in Portugal. METHODS: Animals were housed in an oceanographic park located in Algarve, southern Portugal, a geographical area endemic for canine dirofilariosis...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288677/the-inflammatory-cytokine-effect-of-pam3csk4-tlr2-agonist-alone-or-in-combination-with-leishmania-infantum-antigen-on-ex-vivo-whole-blood-from-sick-and-resistant-dogs
#11
Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Paulina Quirola-Amores, Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Laura Ordeix, Joan Llull, Alejandra Álvarez-Fernández, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and immune responses exist in canine L. infantum infection. Ibizan hounds are more "resistant" to disease than other dog breeds. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecule patterns by toll like receptors (TLRs) rapidly triggers a variety of anti-microbial immune responses through the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 which may play an important role in controlling Leishmania infection. The main objective of this study was to investigate and compare the effect of a TLR2 agonist (TLR2a) alone or in combination with L...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288672/profiling-and-validation-of-individual-and-patterns-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-specific-antibody-responses-in-trachomatous-trichiasis
#12
Harry Pickering, Sarah E Burr, Tamsyn Derrick, Pateh Makalo, Hassan Joof, Richard D Hayward, Martin J Holland
BACKGROUND: Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection causes trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness. A Ct D/UW3 proteome microarray and sera from Gambian adults with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) or healthy matched controls previously identified several novel antigens, which suggested differential recognition in adults with TT. METHODS: We re-analysed this serological microarray data using more robust microarray analysis techniques accounting for typical problems associated with highly dimensional data...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288670/histological-and-parasitological-distinctive-findings-in-clinically-lesioned-and-normal-looking-skin-of-dogs-with-different-clinical-stages-of-leishmaniosis
#13
Laura Ordeix, Annabel Dalmau, Montsant Osso, Joan Llull, Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: Normal-looking skin of dogs with leishmaniosis frequently shows microscopic lesions along with the presence of Leishmania amastigotes. However, histological lesions with or without detection of amastigotes might not occur in less severe clinical cases. In addition, comparative studies between paired clinically-lesioned and normal-looking skin samples from dogs with different disease severity are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare histological and parasitological findings by Leishmania immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) on paired clinically-lesioned and normal-looking skin biopsies from 25 dogs with different clinical stages of leishmaniosis, 11 with stage I-mild disease (papular dermatitis) and 14 with stage II-III (ulcerative or exfoliative dermatitis)...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285602/genetic-characterization-of-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-sensu-lato-ticks-from-dogs-in-portugal
#14
Filipe Dantas-Torres, Carla Maia, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Giada Annoscia, Luís Cardoso, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: The taxonomic status of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu stricto) is a subject of on-going debate; there is a consensus that populations of this tick species should be referred to as R. sanguineus (sensu lato) until its taxonomic status is resolved. Recent genetic studies revealed the existence of more than one lineage of R. sanguineus (s.l.) in temperate countries. In this study, we assessed the genetic identity of ticks collected from rural dogs living in several areas located in all major geographical regions of Portugal...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285601/canine-leishmaniosis-caused-by-leishmania-major-and-leishmania-tropica-comparative-findings-and-serology
#15
Gad Baneth, Daniel Yasur-Landau, Matan Gilad, Yaarit Nachum-Biala
BACKGROUND: Infection and clinical disease associated with Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica, two common agents of human cutaneous leishmaniosis, have rarely been reported in dogs. This study describes dogs infected with these Leishmania spp. prevalent in the Middle East and North Africa, and compares the serological response of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum, L. major or L. tropica to whole promastigote antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of each species and to rK39 dipstick...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285598/diagnostic-performance-of-elisa-ifat-and-western-blot-for-the-detection-of-anti-leishmania-infantum-antibodies-in-cats-using-a-bayesian-analysis-without-a-gold-standard
#16
Maria Flaminia Persichetti, Laia Solano-Gallego, Angela Vullo, Marisa Masucci, Pierre Marty, Pascal Delaunay, Fabrizio Vitale, Maria Grazia Pennisi
BACKGROUND: Anti-Leishmania antibodies are increasingly investigated in cats for epidemiological studies or for the diagnosis of clinical feline leishmaniosis. The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB) are the serological tests more frequently used. The aim of the present study was to assess diagnostic performance of IFAT, ELISA and WB to detect anti-L. infantum antibodies in feline serum samples obtained from endemic (n = 76) and non-endemic (n = 64) areas and from cats affected by feline leishmaniosis (n = 21) by a Bayesian approach without a gold standard...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285597/prevalence-study-and-risk-factor-analysis-of-selected-bacterial-protozoal-and-viral-including-vector-borne-pathogens-in-cats-from-cyprus
#17
Charalampos Attipa, Kostas Papasouliotis, Laia Solano-Gallego, Gad Baneth, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Elpida Sarvani, Toby G Knowles, Sena Mengi, David Morris, Chris Helps, Séverine Tasker
BACKGROUND: Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285595/evaluation-of-four-molecular-methods-to-detect-leishmania-infection-in-dogs
#18
Andreia Albuquerque, Lenea Campino, Luís Cardoso, Sofia Cortes
BACKGROUND: Canine leishmaniasis, a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum vectored by phlebotomine sand flies, is considered a relevant veterinary and public health problem in various countries, namely in the Mediterranean basin and Brazil, where dogs are considered the main reservoir hosts. Not only diseased dogs but also those subclinically infected play a relevant role in the transmission of L. infantum to vectors; therefore, early diagnosis is essential, under both a clinical and an epidemiological perspective...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285593/the-enzootic-life-cycle-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-and-tick-borne-rickettsiae-an-epidemiological-study-on-wild-living-small-mammals-and-their-ticks-from-saxony-germany
#19
Anna Obiegala, Nina Król, Carolin Oltersdorf, Julian Nader, Martin Pfeffer
BACKGROUND: Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. While small mammals are confirmed reservoirs for certain Borrelia spp., little is known about the reservoirs for tick-borne rickettsiae. Between 2012 and 2014, ticks were collected from the vegetation and small mammals which were trapped in Saxony, Germany. DNA extracted from ticks and the small mammals' skin was analyzed for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and B...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285591/black-backed-jackals-canis-mesomelas-are-natural-hosts-of-babesia-rossi-the-virulent-causative-agent-of-canine-babesiosis-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Barend L Penzhorn, Ilse Vorster, Robert F Harrison-White, Marinda C Oosthuizen
BACKGROUND: Babesia rossi, which is transmitted by Haemaphysalis spp. and is highly virulent to domestic dogs, occurs only in sub-Saharan Africa. Since dogs are not native to the region, it has been postulated that the natural host of B. rossi is an indigenous African canid. Although various attempts at artificial infection indicated that black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) could become subclinically infected with B. rossi, data on occurrence of B. rossi in free-ranging jackals was lacking...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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