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Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730732/shared-atypical-default-mode-and-salience-network-functional-connectivity-between-autism-and-schizophrenia
#1
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Xujun Duan, Junjie Zheng, Zhiliang Long, Youxue Zhang, Xiaonan Guo, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders sharing some similar genetic basis and clinical features. The extent to which they share common neural substrates remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 35 drug-naïve adolescent participants with first-episode schizophrenia (15.6 ± 1.8 years old) and 31 healthy controls (15.4 ± 1.6 years old). Data from 22 participants with ASD (13.1 ± 3.1 years old) and 21 healthy controls (12...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707805/decreased-parvalbumin-mrna-levels-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-autism
#3
Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, Kunzhong Zhang, Sujithra Reprakash, Gene J Blatt
Recent neuropathology studies in human brains indicate that several areas of the prefrontal cortex have decreased numbers of parvalbumin interneurons or decreased parvalbumin expression in Autism Spectrum disorders (ASD) [Hashemi, Ariza, Rogers, Noctor, & Martinez-Cerdeno, 2017; Zikopoulos & Barbas, ]. These data suggest that a deficit in parvalbumin may be a key neuropathology of ASD and contribute to altered GABAergic inhibition. However, it is unclear if a deficit in parvalbumin is a phenomenon that occurs in regions other than the cerebral cortex...
July 14, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695672/developmental-delays-in-emotion-regulation-strategies-in-preschoolers-with-autism
#4
Heather J Nuske, Darren Hedley, Alexandra Woollacott, Phoebe Thomson, Suzanne Macari, Cheryl Dissanayake
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly present with difficulty regulating negative emotions, which has been found to impact their behavioral and mental health. Little research has documented the strategies that children with ASD use to regulate their emotion to understand whether they use qualitatively different strategies to children without ASD, whether these are developmentally delayed, or both. Forty-four children with ASD and 29 typically-developing children (2-4 years) were given tasks designed to mimic everyday life experiences requiring children to manage low-level stress (e...
July 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691307/socio-sexual-functioning-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-existing-literature
#5
Grace I P Hancock, Mark A Stokes, Gary B Mesibov
Socio-sexual functioning encompasses an individual's interests, behaviors, and knowledge with respect to sexual, romantic, and social aspects of life. An individual's understanding of these domains is developed through a range of informal and formal avenues of sexual health education. The current model demonstrated this and proposed that, compared to typically developing individuals, those with ASD develop socio-sexual functioning differently due to having less peer engagement, less relationship experience, more parental guidance, greater use of online materials, receive less school-based sexual health education, and more support from wellbeing services...
July 10, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685996/are-autistic-traits-associated-with-suicidality-a-test-of-the-interpersonal-psychological-theory-of-suicide-in-a-non-clinical-young-adult-sample
#6
M K Pelton, S A Cassidy
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has recently been associated with increased risk of suicidality. However, no studies have explored how autistic traits may interact with current models of suicidal behavior in a non-clinical population. The current study therefore explored how self-reported autistic traits interact with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in predicting suicidal behavior, in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). 163 young adults (aged 18-30 years) completed an online survey including measures of thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire), self-reported autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient), current depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and lifetime suicidality (Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised)...
July 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685955/language-and-motor-skills-in-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-meta-analytic-review
#7
REVIEW
Dunia Garrido, Dafina Petrova, Linda R Watson, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Gloria Carballo
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show significant linguistic and motor impairments compared to children with typical development (TD). Findings from studies of siblings of children with ASD show similarities to conclusions from studies of children with ASD. The current meta-analysis reviewed studies reporting linguistic and/or motor skills in siblings of children with ASD compared to siblings of children with TD. Thirty-four studies published between 1994 and 2016 met all inclusion criteria. We compared three different age groups (12 months or younger, 13 to 24 months, and 25 to 36 months)...
July 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681538/prenatal-maternal-stress-events-and-phenotypic-outcomes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Kandice J Varcin, Gail A Alvares, Mirko Uljarević, Andrew J O Whitehouse
There is significant heterogeneity amongst individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in symptom presentation and severity. An understanding of the factors that contribute to and modulate symptom severity are critical to informing prognosis, stratification, and treatment decisions. Maternal prenatal stress exposure is a nonspecific risk factor for a wide array of neurodevelopmental outcomes in subsequent offspring. Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal maternal stress may increase ASD risk and contribute to variability in autism-like traits in the general population...
July 6, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656683/associations-of-endocrine-stress-related-gene-polymorphisms-with-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-evidence-from-an-integrated-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Ping-Yuan Yang, Ya-Jing Menga, Tao Li, Yi Huang
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are related to serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) as two most monoaminergic polymorphic variations. However, multiple studies assessing rs4680 and 5-HTTLPR variants in ASD have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted an integrated meta-analysis to combine case-control and transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) studies to determine whether COMT and 5-HTT are associated with ASD. We searched multiple electronic databases (PubMed, EmBase and Web of Science) to identify studies assessing the rs4680 and 5-HTTLPR variants in ASD from Jan 1997 to Dec 2016...
June 28, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639417/auditory-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-mismatch-negativity-deficits
#10
Chantal Vlaskamp, Bob Oranje, Gitte Falcher Madsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen, Sarah Durston, Cathriona Cantio, Birte Glenthøj, Niels Bilenberg
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism are highly inconsistent, partly due to small sample sizes in the studies and differences in MMN paradigms. Therefore, in the current study, MMN and P3a amplitude were assessed in a relatively large sample of children with ASD, using a more extensive MMN paradigm and compared with that of typically developing children (TDC)...
June 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639396/the-influence-of-parental-concern-on-the-utility-of-autism-diagnostic-instruments
#11
Karoline Alexandra Havdahl, Somer L Bishop, Pål Surén, Anne-Siri Øyen, Catherine Lord, Andrew Pickles, Stephen von Tetzchner, Synnve Schjølberg, Nina Gunnes, Mady Hornig, W Ian Lipkin, Ezra Susser, Michaeline Bresnahan, Per Magnus, Nina Stenberg, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Camilla Stoltenberg
The parental report-based Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the clinician observation-based Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) have been validated primarily in U.S. clinics specialized in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in which most children are referred by their parents because of ASD concern. This study assessed diagnostic agreement of the ADOS-2 and ADI-R toddler algorithms in a more broadly based sample of 679 toddlers (age 35-47 months) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort...
June 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639377/validating-the-social-responsiveness-scale-for-adults-with-autism
#12
Wai Chan, Leann E Smith, Jinkuk Hong, Jan S Greenberg, Marsha R Mailick
The Social Responsiveness Scale [SRS; Constantino & Gruber, 2005] is a widely-used measure of autism symptoms, but its application for the study of adults with autism spectrum disorders has not been fully evaluated. Using a factor structure consistent with The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., DSM-V) criteria for autism spectrum disorder [Frazier et al., 2014], the primary purpose of the current study was to establish the validity of the SRS with a sample of adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 237)...
June 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632303/audition-specific-temporal-processing-deficits-associated-with-language-function-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Kimberly B Schauder, Alexandra P Key, Mark T Wallace, Wendy L Stone
Sensory processing alterations are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neurobiologically-based theories of ASD propose that abnormalities in the processing of temporal aspects of sensory input could underlie core symptoms of ASD. For example, rapid auditory temporal processing is critical for speech perception, and language difficulties are central to the social communication deficits defining the disorder. This study assessed visual and auditory temporal processing abilities and tested their relation to core ASD symptoms...
June 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608419/empathic-responding-in-preschool-aged-children-with-familial-risk-for-autism
#14
Nicole M McDonald, Haley G Murphy, Daniel S Messinger
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show deficits in social and emotional reciprocity, which often include empathic responding. The younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings) are at elevated risk for ASD and for subclinical deficits in social-emotional functioning. Higher levels of empathy in high-risk siblings during the second and third years of life predict fewer ASD symptoms and likelihood of diagnosis. We conducted a multi-method investigation of empathic responding to an examiner's accident in 30 low-risk and 48 high-risk siblings with (n = 12) and without ASD outcomes (n = 36) at 4-6 years of age...
June 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608397/reward-learning-modulates-the-attentional-processing-of-faces-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Tianbi Li, Xueqin Wang, Junhao Pan, Shuyuan Feng, Mengyuan Gong, Yaxue Wu, Guoxiang Li, Sheng Li, Li Yi
The processing of social stimuli, such as human faces, is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which could be accounted for by their lack of social motivation. The current study examined how the attentional processing of faces in children with ASD could be modulated by the learning of face-reward associations. Sixteen high-functioning children with ASD and 20 age- and ability-matched typically developing peers participated in the experiments. All children started with a reward learning task, in which the children were presented with three female faces that were attributed with positive, negative, and neutral values, and were required to remember the faces and their associated values...
June 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590057/behavioral-abnormalities-in-the-fmr1-ko2-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-the-relevance-of-early-life-phases
#16
Julie Gaudissard, Melanie Ginger, Marika Premoli, Maurizio Memo, Andreas Frick, Susanna Pietropaolo
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a developmental disorder caused by a mutation in the X-linked FMR1 gene, coding for the FMRP protein which is largely involved in synaptic function. FXS patients present several behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, anxiety, sensory hyper-responsiveness, and cognitive deficits. Autistic symptoms, e.g., altered social interaction and communication, are also often observed: FXS is indeed the most common monogenic cause of autism. Mouse models of FXS are therefore of great interest for research on both FXS and autistic pathologies...
June 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590041/evaluating-the-importance-of-social-motor-synchronization-and-motor-skill-for-understanding-autism
#17
Paula Fitzpatrick, Veronica Romero, Joseph L Amaral, Amie Duncan, Holly Barnard, Michael J Richardson, R C Schmidt
Impairments in social interaction and communicating with others are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the specific processes underlying such social competence impairments are not well understood. An important key for increasing our understanding of ASD-specific social deficits may lie with the social motor synchronization that takes place when we implicitly coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we tested whether dynamical measures of synchronization differentiate children with ASD from controls and further explored the relationships between synchronization ability and motor control problems...
June 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574669/cross-site-randomized-control-trial-of-the-social-abcs-caregiver-mediated-intervention-for-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Jessica A Brian, Isabel M Smith, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Susan E Bryson
To evaluate the efficacy of the Social ABCs parent-mediated intervention for toddlers with suspected or confirmed autism spectrum disorder (ASD), through a cross-site randomized control trial, sixty-three parent-toddler dyads (toddler age: 16-30 months) were randomized into treatment (Social ABCs) or control (service-as-usual) conditions. Video data were obtained at three key time-points: Baseline; Post-training (PT; week 12); and Follow-Up (week 24). Analyses included 62 dyads. Treatment allocation significantly accounted for PT gains, all favouring the Treatment group, in (1) child functional vocal responsiveness to parent prompts (R(2)  = 0...
June 2, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574646/the-measurement-properties-of-the-spence-children-s-anxiety-scale-parent-version-in-a-large-international-pooled-sample-of-young-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Iliana Magiati, Jian Wei Lerh, Matthew J Hollocks, Mirko Uljarevic, Jacqui Rodgers, Helen McConachie, Ann Ozsivadjian, Mikle South, Amy Van Hecke, Antonio Hardan, Robin Libove, Susan Leekam, Emily Simonoff
Anxiety-related difficulties are common in ASD, but measuring anxiety reliably and validly is challenging. Despite an increasing number of studies, there is no clear agreement on which existing anxiety measure is more psychometrically sound and what is the factor structure of anxiety in ASD. The present study examined the internal consistency, convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity, as well as the factor structure of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent Version (SCAS-P), in a large international pooled sample of 870 caregivers of youth with ASD from 12 studies in the United Kingdom, United States, and Singapore who completed the SCAS-P...
June 2, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568910/sex-differences-in-parent-reported-executive-functioning-and-adaptive-behavior-in-children-and-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Emily I White, Gregory L Wallace, Julia Bascom, Anna C Armour, Kelly Register-Brown, Haroon S Popal, Allison B Ratto, Alex Martin, Lauren Kenworthy
This study is the largest to date examining executive function and adaptive skills in females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its primary aim was to utilize parent ratings of real-world executive functioning and adaptive behavior to better understand whether females with ASD differ from males with ASD in these areas of everyday functioning. We compared 79 females with ASD to 158 males with ASD (ages 7-18) who were statistically matched on age, IQ, and level of ADHD or ASD traits. All participants were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a subset (56 females and 130 males) also received the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS)...
June 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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