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Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761934/assessing-the-heterogeneity-of-autism-spectrum-symptoms-in-a-school-population
#1
Paula Morales-Hidalgo, Pere J Ferrando, Josefa Canals
The aim of the present study was to assess whether the nature of the main autistic features (i.e., social communication problems and repetitive and restrictive patterns) are better conceptualized as dimensional or categorical in a school population. The study was based on the teacher ratings of two different age groups: 2,585 children between the ages of 10 and 12 (Primary Education; PE) and 2,502 children between the ages of 3 and 5 (Nursery Education; NE) from 60 mainstream schools. The analyses were based on Factor Mixture Analysis, a novel approach that combines dimensional and categorical features and prevents spurious latent classes from appearing...
May 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761862/cellular-stress-and-apoptosis-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Daoyin Dong, Horst Ronald Zielke, David Yeh, Peixin Yang
The molecular pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder, is still elusive. In this study, we investigated the possible roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, and apoptosis as molecular mechanisms underlying autism. This study compared the activation of ER stress signals (protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase [PERK], activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha [IRE1α]) in different brain regions (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum) in subjects with autism and in age-matched controls...
May 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761854/parenting-adolescents-with-asd-a-multimethod-study
#3
Lotte van Esch, Steven Vanmarcke, Eva Ceulemans, Karla Van Leeuwen, Ilse Noens
A number of studies have concluded that parents of children with ASD experience high levels of parenting stress. However, little is known about their parenting behaviors. Especially few studies investigated parenting in adolescence, although this period is associated with additional challenges for both adolescents and their parents. In the present study, a multi-method approach was used, combining data from a self-report questionnaire and observation of mother-child interactions during different semi-structured (e...
May 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761836/acceptability-and-caregiver-reported-outcomes-for-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-whose-parents-attended-a-preventative-population-based-intervention-for-anxiety-a-pilot-study
#4
Natalie L Bischof, Ronald M Rapee, Kristelle Hudry, Jordana K Bayer
This pilot study explored acceptability to parents and outcomes for children of a preventive intervention for anxiety problems in pre-schoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who were an identified sub-group within a population-based randomised trial of the Cool Little Kids parenting group programme. The population trial included 545 temperamentally inhibited pre-schoolers recruited across eight economically diverse areas of Melbourne, Australia. Within this sample, 26 parents reported that their child had received an ASD diagnosis...
May 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734508/using-machine-learning-to-identify-patterns-of-lifetime-health-problems-in-decedents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Lauren Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Arezoo Movaghar, Jan S Greenberg, David Page, Leann S DaWalt, Murray H Brilliant, Marsha R Mailick
Very little is known about the health problems experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) throughout their life course. We retrospectively analyzed diagnostic codes associated with de-identified electronic health records using a machine learning algorithm to characterize diagnostic patterns in decedents with ASD and matched decedent community controls. Participants were 91 decedents with ASD and 6,186 sex and birth year matched decedent community controls who had died since 1979, the majority of whom were middle aged or older adults at the time of their death...
May 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734507/screening-in-toddlers-and-preschoolers-at-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-evaluating-a-novel-mobile-health-screening-tool
#6
Stephen M Kanne, Laura Arnstein Carpenter, Zachary Warren
There are many available tools with varying levels of accuracy designed to screen for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in young children, both in the general population and specifically among those referred for developmental concerns. With burgeoning waitlists for comprehensive diagnostic ASD assessments, finding accurate methods and tools for advancing diagnostic triage becomes increasingly important. The current study compares the efficacy of four oft used paper and pencil measures, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers Revised with Follow-up, the Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition, and the Social Communication Questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist to a novel mobile-health screening tool developed by Cognoa, Inc...
May 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734506/predictors-of-quality-of-life-for-autistic-adults
#7
David Mason, Helen McConachie, Deborah Garland, Alex Petrou, Jacqui Rodgers, Jeremy R Parr
Research with adults on the autism spectrum is as yet limited in scope and quality. The present study describes quality of life (QoL) of a large sample of autistic adults in the UK and investigates characteristics that may be predictive of QoL. A total of 370 autistic adults from the Adult Autism Spectrum Cohort-UK (ASC-UK) completed the WHOQoL-BREF, and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS, autism symptom severity), along with the ASC-UK registration questionnaire giving information on mental health and their life situation...
May 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734504/typical-use-of-inverse-dynamics-in-perceiving-motion-in-autistic-adults-exploring-computational-principles-of-perception-and-action
#8
Shinya Takamuku, Paul A G Forbes, Antonia F de C Hamilton, Hiroaki Gomi
There is increasing evidence for motor difficulties in many people with autism spectrum condition (ASC). These difficulties could be linked to differences in the use of internal models which represent relations between motions and forces/efforts. The use of these internal models may be dependent on the cerebellum which has been shown to be abnormal in autism. Several studies have examined internal computations of forward dynamics (motion from force information) in autism, but few have tested the inverse dynamics computation, that is, the determination of force-related information from motion information...
May 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727503/gender-differences-in-mental-rotation-strategy-depend-on-degree-of-autistic-traits
#9
Jennifer L Stevenson, Mary B Nonack
Participants with low, medium, and high autistic traits completed a mental rotation task while their eye movements were recorded. Men were more accurate than women (F(1, 102) = 4.36, P = 0.04, η2 p  = 0.04), but there were no group differences in reaction time. In terms of eye movements, all participants tended to rely on top corners of cube figures for most angles of rotation, and bottom corners of cube figures for 0 and 90 degree rotations (duration: F(8, 816) = 21.70, P < 0.001, η2 p  = 0...
May 4, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701910/can-you-spot-a-liar-deception-mindreading-and-the-case-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
David M Williams, Toby Nicholson, Catherine Grainger, Sophie E Lind, Peter Carruthers
Detection of deception is of fundamental importance for everyday social life and might require "mindreading" (the ability to represent others' mental states). People with diminished mindreading, such as those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), might be at risk of manipulation because of lie detection difficulties. In Experiment 1, performance among 216 neurotypical adults on a realistic lie detection paradigm was significantly negatively associated with number of ASD traits, but not with mindreading ability...
April 27, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693781/the-effect-of-physical-activity-interventions-on-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Sean Healy, Adam Nacario, Rock E Braithwaite, Chris Hopper
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of physical activity interventions on youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Standard meta-analytical procedures determining inclusion criteria, literature searches in electronic databases, coding procedures, and statistical methods were used to identify and synthesize articles retained for analysis. Hedge's g (1988) was utilized to interpret effect sizes and quantify research findings. Moderator and outcome variables were assessed using coding procedures...
April 25, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676529/implicit-learning-seems-to-come-naturally-for-children-with-autism-but-not-for-children-with-specific-language-impairment-evidence-from-behavioral-and-erp-data
#12
Fenny S Zwart, Constance Th W M Vissers, Roy P C Kessels, Joseph H R Maes
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are two neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication skills. These skills are thought to develop largely through implicit-or automatic-learning mechanisms. The aim of the current paper was to investigate the role of implicit learning abilities in the atypical development of communication skills in ASD and SLI. In the current study, we investigated Response Times (RTs) and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) during implicit learning on a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 17), a group of autistic children (n = 16), and a group of children with SLI (n = 13)...
April 20, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637718/empathy-and-face-processing-in-adults-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Sarah N Rigby, Brenda M Stoesz, Lorna S Jakobson
Many factors contribute to social difficulties in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of the present work was to determine whether atypicalities in how individuals with ASD process static, socially engaging faces persist when nonrigid facial motion cues are present. We also sought to explore the relationships between various face processing abilities and individual differences in autism symptom severity and traits such as empathy. Participants included 16 adults with ASD without intellectual impairment and 16 sex- and age-matched controls...
April 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624924/brief-report-poor-self-regulation-as-a-predictor-of-individual-differences-in-adaptive-functioning-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Mirko Uljarević, Darren Hedley, Rose Nevill, David W Evans, Ru Ying Cai, Eric Butter, James A Mulick
The present study examined the link between poor self-regulation (measured by the child behavior checklist dysregulated profile [DP]) and core autism symptoms, as well as with developmental level, in a sample of 107 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 19-46 months. We further examined the utility of DP in predicting individual differences in adaptive functioning, relative to the influence of ASD severity, chronological age (CA), and developmental level. Poor self-regulation was unrelated to CA, developmental level, and severity of ADOS-2 restricted and repetitive behaviors, but was associated with lower ADOS-2 social affect severity...
April 6, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624910/skeletal-growth-dysregulation-in-australian-male-infants-and-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Cherie C Green, Cheryl Dissanayake, Danuta Z Loesch, Minh Bui, Josephine Barbaro
Recent findings suggest that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are larger in size for head circumference (HC), height, and weight compared to typically developing (TD) children; however, little is known about their rate of growth, especially in height and weight. The current study aimed to: (a) confirm and extend upon previous findings of early generalized overgrowth in ASD; and (b) determine if there were any differences in the rate of growth between infants and toddlers with ASD compared to their TD peers...
April 6, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624893/the-emotion-dysregulation-inventory-psychometric-properties-and-item-response-theory-calibration-in-an-autism-spectrum-disorder-sample
#16
Carla A Mazefsky, Lan Yu, Susan W White, Matthew Siegel, Paul A Pilkonis
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present with prominent emotion dysregulation that requires treatment but can be difficult to measure. The Emotion Dysregulation Inventory (EDI) was created using methods developed by the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS® ) to capture observable indicators of poor emotion regulation. Caregivers of 1,755 youth with ASD completed 66 candidate EDI items, and the final 30 items were selected based on classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses...
April 6, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608813/identification-of-a-pten-mutation-with-reduced-protein-stability-phosphatase-activity-and-nuclear-localization-in-hong-kong-patients-with-autistic-features-neurodevelopmental-delays-and-macrocephaly
#17
Chi Wai Wong, Penelope Mei Yu Or, Yubing Wang, Lisha Li, Jing Li, Mingfei Yan, Ye Cao, Ho Ming Luk, Tony Ming For Tong, Nick R Leslie, Ivan Fai-Man Lo, Kwong Wai Choy, Andrew Man Lok Chan
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene inactivated in over 30% of human cancers. It encodes a lipid phosphatase that serves as a gatekeeper of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway. Germline mutation frequently occurs in this gene in patients diagnosed with PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (PHTS). PHTS individuals are characterized by macrocephaly, benign growth of multiple tissues and increased tumor risk. In addition, autistic phenotypes are found in 10-20% of individuals carrying the germline PTEN mutation with macrocephaly...
April 2, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603680/chinese-children-with-autism-a-multiple-chemical-elements-profile-in-erythrocytes
#18
Jing Wu, Duo-Jian Liu, Xiao-Jing Shou, Ji-Shui Zhang, Fan-Chao Meng, Ya-Qiong Liu, Song-Ping Han, Rong Zhang, Jin-Zhu Jia, Jing-Yu Wang, Ji-Sheng Han
Several lines of evidence suggested that abnormal levels of certain chemical elements may contribute to the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present work aimed to investigate the multiple chemical elements profile in the erythrocytes of autistic versus typically developing children (TDC) of China. Analyses were carried out to explore the possible association between levels of elements and the risk as well as the severity of ASD. Erythrocyte levels of 11 elements (32%) among 34 detected elements in autistic group were significantly different from those in the TDC group...
March 30, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603654/click-evoked-auditory-brainstem-responses-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-meta-analytic-review
#19
Nicole M Talge, Brooke M Tudor, Paul R Kileny
Behavior does not differentiate ASD risk prior to 12 months of age, but biomarkers may inform risk before symptoms emerge. Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) may be worth consideration due to their measurement properties (noninvasiveness; reliability) and conceptual features (well-characterized neural generators), but participant characteristics and assessment protocols vary considerably across studies. Our goal is to perform a meta-analysis of the association between ABRs and ASD. Following an electronic database search (PubMed, Medline, PsycInfo, PsycArticles), we included papers that were written in English, included ASD and typically-developing (TD) groups, and reported the information needed to calculate standardized mean differences (Hedges's g) for at least one ABR latency component (I, III, V, I-III, III-V, I-V)...
March 30, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573234/modeling-autism-in-non-human-primates-opportunities-and-challenges
#20
REVIEW
Hui Zhao, Yong-Hui Jiang, Yong Q Zhang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication deficits and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior. For more than a decade, genetically-modified, risk factor-induced, as well as naturally occurring rodent models for ASD have been used as the most predominant tools to dissect the molecular and circuitry mechanisms underlying ASD. However, the apparent evolutionary differences in terms of social behavior and brain anatomy between rodents and humans have become an issue of debate regarding the translational value of rodent models for studying ASD...
March 23, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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