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Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341497/defining-behavioral-components-of-social-functioning-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-as-targets-for-treatment
#1
Ashley A Pallathra, Monica E Calkins, Julia Parish-Morris, Brenna B Maddox, Leat S Perez, Judith Miller, Ruben C Gur, David S Mandell, Robert T Schultz, Edward S Brodkin
There is increasing recognition that adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would benefit from treatment to improve social functioning, a key factor in adults' overall quality of life. However, the various behavioral components of social functioning (i.e., categories of behaviors underlying social functioning), including social motivation, social anxiety, social cognition, and social skills, have not all been assessed together in any sample of adults with ASD, making it difficult to know the relative levels of impairment in these various categories, the relationships among these categories, or promising targets for treatments...
January 17, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331093/sensitivity-to-audio-visual-synchrony-and-its-relation-to-language-abilities-in-children-with-and-without-asd
#2
Giulia Righi, Elena J Tenenbaum, Carolyn McCormick, Megan Blossom, Dima Amso, Stephen J Sheinkopf
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by deficits in speech and language processing. Speech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to examine whether young children with ASD show reduced sensitivity to temporal asynchronies in a speech processing task when compared to typically developing controls, and to examine how this sensitivity might relate to language proficiency...
January 13, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316350/relationships-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty
#3
Roma A Vasa, Nicole L Kreiser, Amy Keefer, Vini Singh, Stewart H Mostofsky
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a dispositional risk factor involving maladaptive responding under conditions of uncertainty. Recent data indicate that IU is likely elevated in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is positively correlated with anxiety. This study examined whether IU may be associated with ASD independent of anxiety. Relationships between anxiety, ASD, and IU were examined in 57 children with ASD without co-occurring intellectual disability and 32 control participants, ages 7-16 years...
January 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316336/enhancing-interactions-during-daily-routines-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-web-based-tutorial-for-parents-of-young-children-with-asd
#4
Lisa V Ibañez, Kenneth Kobak, Amy Swanson, Lisa Wallace, Zachary Warren, Wendy L Stone
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often experience difficulty participating in everyday home routines, such as bed time or bath time. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of an interactive, web-based parenting tutorial for improving children's engagement in daily routines (i.e., proximal outcomes) as well improving children's social communication and parenting efficacy and stress (i.e., broad outcomes). Parents of children with ASD between 18 and 60 months were randomly assigned to the Tutorial group (n = 52) or the Control group (n = 52)...
January 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286586/cognitive-enhancement-therapy-for-adult-autism-spectrum-disorder-results-of-an-18-month-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Shaun M Eack, Susan S Hogarty, Deborah P Greenwald, Maralee Y Litschge, Shannondora A Porton, Carla A Mazefsky, Nancy J Minshew
Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to treating core cognitive deficits in adults with autism, but rigorously controlled trials of comprehensive interventions that target both social and non-social cognition over a sufficient period of time to impact functioning are lacking. This study examined the efficacy of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) for improving core cognitive and employment outcomes in adult autism. Verbal adult outpatients with autism spectrum disorder (N = 54) were randomized to an 18-month, single-blind trial of CET, a cognitive remediation approach that integrates computer-based neurocognitive training with group-based training in social cognition, or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) comparison focused on psychoeducation and condition management...
December 29, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282895/utility-of-an-abbreviated-version-of-the-stanford-binet-intelligence-scales-5th-ed-in-estimating-full-scale-iq-for-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Conal Twomey, Helen O'Connell, Mary Lillis, Sarah Louise Tarpey, Gary O'Reilly
The fifth edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scales allows 'full scale' IQ (FSIQ) to be estimated using an abridged version of the test-the abbreviated battery IQ (ABIQ). Set within a public early intervention team service, the current cross-sectional study investigated the utility of the ABIQ in estimating FSIQ for 40 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 3-5 years. A strong ABIQ-FSIQ association was yielded (r = 0.89; r2  = 0.808) and the ABIQ did not over-estimate mean FSIQ above a clinically-relevant threshold; however, clinically significant over-estimation occurred in 17...
December 28, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282878/is-food-refusal-in-autistic-children-related-to-tas2r38-genotype
#7
Maria Pia Riccio, Chiara Franco, Rossella Negri, Roberta Ida Ferrentino, Roberta Maresca, Elisa D'alterio, Luigi Greco, Carmela Bravaccio
Several studies suggest that atypical eating behaviors, in particular food selectivity, are more frequent in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A link between bitter taste perception, namely PROP/PTC sensitivity and food preferences is known in healthy children. The aim of this study is to investigate whether genetic variants of the TAS2R38 taste receptor responsible for different bitter sensitivity could affect foods preferences and consequently food refusal in ASD children. We recruited 43 children with ASD and 41 with normotypic development (TD) with or without food selectivity, aged between 2 and 11 years...
December 28, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271070/visual-motion-prediction-and-verbal-false-memory-performance-in-autistic-children
#8
Furtuna G Tewolde, Dorothy V M Bishop, Catherine Manning
Recent theoretical accounts propose that atypical predictive processing can explain the diverse cognitive and behavioral features associated with autism, and that difficulties in making predictions may be related to reduced contextual processing. In this pre-registered study, 30 autistic children aged 6-14 years and 30 typically developing children matched in age and non-verbal IQ completed visual extrapolation and false memory tasks to assess predictive abilities and contextual processing, respectively. In the visual extrapolation tasks, children were asked to predict when an occluded car would reach the end of a road and when an occluded set of lights would fill up a grid...
December 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266848/comparing-growth-in-linguistic-comprehension-and-reading-comprehension-in-school-aged-children-with-autism-versus-typically-developing-children
#9
Ryan P Grimm, Emily J Solari, Nancy S McIntyre, Matthew Zajic, Peter C Mundy
Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle with reading comprehension. Linguistic comprehension is an important predictor of reading comprehension, especially as children progress through elementary school and later grades. Yet, there is a dearth of research examining longitudinal relations between linguistic comprehensions in school-age children with ASD compared to typically-developing peers (TD). This study compared the developmental trajectories of linguistic and reading comprehension in samples of children with ASD and age-matched TD peers...
December 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266823/mid-life-social-outcomes-for-a-population-based-sample-of-adults-with-asd
#10
Megan Farley, Kristina J Cottle, Deborah Bilder, Joseph Viskochil, Hilary Coon, William McMahon
Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) fall short of social outcomes of non-ASD peers in mid-life, as documented by currently published research. The aim of the current study was to extend what is known about social functioning, employment, independent living, and use of social services by examining details of the current life status for a population-based sample of adults with ASD (mean age = 35.5 years, range = 22.2-51.4). We collected outcome data via direct assessment and informant report for 169 individuals...
December 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251836/longitudinal-development-of-thalamic-and-internal-capsule-microstructure-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Kristine McLaughlin, Brittany G Travers, Olga I Dadalko, Douglas C Dean, Do Tromp, Nagesh Adluru, Daniel Destiche, Abigail Freeman, Molly D Prigge, Alyson Froehlich, Tyler C Duffield, Brandon A Zielinski, Erin D Bigler, Nicholas Lange, Jeff S Anderson, Andrew L Alexander, Janet E Lainhart
The thalamus is a key sensorimotor relay area that is implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown how the thalamus and white-matter structures that contain thalamo-cortical fiber connections (e.g., the internal capsule) develop from childhood into adulthood and whether this microstructure relates to basic motor challenges in ASD. We used diffusion weighted imaging in a cohort-sequential design to assess longitudinal development of the thalamus, and posterior- and anterior-limbs of the internal capsule (PLIC and ALIC, respectively) in 89 males with ASD and 56 males with typical development (3-41 years; all verbal)...
December 18, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251835/child-and-family-characteristics-moderate-agreement-between-caregiver-and-clinician-report-of-autism-symptoms
#12
Emily Neuhaus, Theodore P Beauchaine, Raphael A Bernier, Sara J Webb
Rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age at first diagnosis vary considerably across the United States and are moderated by children's sex, race, ethnicity, and availability of services. We additionally suggest that degree of caregiver-clinician agreement on ASD symptoms may play a role in ASD assessment. Since gold standard ASD assessment integrates caregiver-reported developmental history with clinician observations, differential agreement between reporters across demographic groups may contribute to a host of detrimental outcomes...
December 18, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251830/patterns-of-altered-neural-synchrony-in-the-default-mode-network-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-revealed-with-magnetoencephalography-meg-relationship-to-clinical-symptomatology
#13
Renée Lajiness-O'Neill, Jonathan R Brennan, John E Moran, Annette E Richard, Ana-Mercedes Flores, Casey Swick, Ryan Goodcase, Tiffany Andersen, Kaitlyn McFarlane, Kenneth Rusiniak, Ioulia Kovelman, Neelima Wagley, Maggie Ugolini, Jeremy Albright, Susan M Bowyer
Disrupted neural synchrony may be a primary electrophysiological abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), altering communication between discrete brain regions and contributing to abnormalities in patterns of connectivity within identified neural networks. Studies exploring brain dynamics to comprehensively characterize and link connectivity to large-scale cortical networks and clinical symptoms are lagging considerably. Patterns of neural coherence within the Default Mode Network (DMN) and Salience Network (SN) during resting state were investigated in 12 children with ASD (MAge  = 9...
December 18, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226604/an-international-qualitative-study-of-functioning-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-the-world-health-organization-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-framework
#14
Soheil Mahdi, Marisa Viljoen, Tamara Yee, Melissa Selb, Nidhi Singhal, Omar Almodayfer, Mats Granlund, Petrus J de Vries, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Sven Bölte
This is the third in a series of four empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The present study aimed to describe functioning in ASD (as operationalized by the ICF) derived from the perspectives of diagnosed individuals, family members, and professionals. A qualitative study using focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 stakeholder groups (N = 90) from Canada, India, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and Sweden...
December 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226600/loss-of-skills-and-onset-patterns-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-understanding-the-neurobiological-mechanisms
#15
Audrey Thurm, Elizabeth M Powell, Jeffrey L Neul, Ann Wagner, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum
Patterns of onset in Autism Spectrum Disorder, including a pattern that includes loss of previously acquired skills, have been identified since the first reports of the disorder. However, attempts to study such "regression" have been limited to clinical studies, that until recently mostly involved retrospective reports. The current report reflects discussion that occurred at an NIMH convened meeting in 2016 with the purpose of bridging clinical autism research with basic and translational work in this area...
December 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219245/behavior-profiles-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-kindergarten-comparison-with-other-developmental-disabilities-and-typically-developing-children
#16
Magdalena Janus, Emma Mauti, Matt Horner, Eric Duku, Ayesha Siddiqua, Scott Davies
Monitoring behavior patterns that may be specific to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at a population level has the potential to improve the allocation of intervention strategies and reduction of the burden of the disease. In Ontario, Canada, developmental data are regularly collected for all kindergarten children with the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-completed questionnaire that provides information on children's status in five domains: physical, social, emotional, language/cognitive, and communication/general knowledge...
December 8, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210194/error-related-brain-activity-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Tamara E Rosen, Matthew D Lerner
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience symptoms associated with generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. In other populations, these same symptoms are associated with a larger error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential that reflects endogenous threat sensitivity. As such, it is possible that the ERN may relate to the clinical presentation of anxiety in ASD. However, studies examining these associations in youth with ASD have yielded mixed results...
December 6, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206358/implementing-and-evaluating-early-intervention-for-children-with-autism-where-are-the-gaps-and-what-should-we-do
#18
Giacomo Vivanti, Connie Kasari, Jonathan Green, David Mandell, Melissa Maye, Kristelle Hudry
Despite recent advances, the evidence base supporting early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains relatively sparse. The International Society for Autism Research (INSAR) recently sponsored a Special Interest Group (SIG) on Implementing and Evaluating Community-Based Early Intervention. Across three meetings, in 2015, 2016, and 2017, conveners of this SIG engaged >200 members to identify knowledge gaps and research priorities for moving the field forward. Here, we summarize the perspectives that emerged from group discussion at the SIG meetings as represented by scholars working actively in the field...
December 5, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197172/sleep-patterns-predictive-of-daytime-challenging-behavior-in-individuals-with-low-functioning-autism
#19
Simonne Cohen, Ben D Fulcher, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Russell Conduit, Jason P Sullivan, Melissa A St Hilaire, Andrew J K Phillips, Tobias Loddenkemper, Sanjeev V Kothare, Kelly McConnell, Paula Braga-Kenyon, William Ahearn, Andrew Shlesinger, Jacqueline Potter, Frank Bird, Kim M Cornish, Steven W Lockley
Increased severity of problematic daytime behavior has been associated with poorer sleep quality in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In this work, we investigate whether this relationship holds in a real-time setting, such that an individual's prior sleep can be used to predict their subsequent daytime behavior. We analyzed an extensive real-world dataset containing over 20,000 nightly sleep observations matched to subsequent challenging daytime behaviors (aggression, self-injury, tantrums, property destruction and a challenging behavior index) across 67 individuals with low-functioning autism living in two U...
December 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197168/dissociation-between-executed-and-imagined-bimanual-movements-in-autism-spectrum-conditions
#20
Alessandro Piedimonte, Massimiliano Conson, Alessandro Frolli, Stefania Bari, Francesco Della Gatta, Marco Rabuffetti, Roberto Keller, Anna Berti, Francesca Garbarini
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterized by social-communicative deficits and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Altered motor coordination is also observed and a dysfunction of motor imagery has been recently reported on implicit tasks. However, no information on explicit motor imagery abilities is available in ASC. Here, we employed a spatial bimanual task to concurrently assess motor coordination and explicit motor imagery in autism. A secondary objective of the study was to evaluate these abilities across two populations of ASC, namely adolescents and adults with ASC...
December 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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