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Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212612/when-do-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-take-common-ground-into-account-during-communication
#1
Louise Malkin, Kirsten Abbot-Smith, David Williams, John Ayling
One feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a deficit in verbal reference production, that is, providing an appropriate amount of verbal information for the listener to refer to things, people, and events. However, very few studies have manipulated whether individuals with ASD can take a speaker's perspective to interpret verbal reference. A critical limitation of all interpretation studies is that comprehension of another's verbal reference required the participant to represent only the other's visual perspective...
September 13, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199607/toe-walking-assessment-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-subjects-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Giulio Valagussa, Luca Trentin, Alessio Signori, Enzo Grossi
There is increasing evidence that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subjects have also motor impairments. Toe walking (TW) is a phenomenon that can be found in ASD subjects during gait, even if this condition was found not to be necessarily related only to walking, since these children often also stand and run on their tiptoes. Since persistent TW in ASD subjects may contribute to secondary shortening of the Achilles's tendon, it becomes important to have an assessment tool and/or outcome measure for both the clinical and rehabilitative settings...
September 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194913/longitudinal-assessment-of-stability-of-sensory-features-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-or-other-developmental-disabilities
#3
Grace T Baranek, Mike Carlson, John Sideris, Anne V Kirby, Linda R Watson, Kathryn L Williams, John Bulluck
Prior research on the stability of sensory processing problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other developmental disabilities (DD) has produced inconsistent results. We employed a longitudinal study design to assess the stability of three clinical sensory response patterns: hyporesponsiveness; hyperresponsiveness; and sensory interests, repetitions, and seeking behaviors (SIRS). Parents of children with ASD (n = 55) or DD (n = 35) responded to sensory questionnaires at two time points (T1 and T2) separated by 3...
September 8, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184325/a-matter-of-time-the-necessity-of-temporal-language-in-research-on-health-conditions-that-present-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Eric Rubenstein, Lauren Bishop-Fitzpatrick
Relatively consistent findings from recent studies using population-level data identify heightened physical and psychiatric morbidity in autistic people compared to the general population. Health problems that commonly present with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally discussed in the literature as "co-occurring" or "comorbid" regardless of their known or hypothesized causal mechanisms. In this commentary, we introduce a new temporally focused terminology to describe health conditions that present with ASD...
September 5, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30157312/genome-wide-association-study-and-identification-of-chromosomal-enhancer-maps-in-multiple-brain-regions-related-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Lu Zhang, Li Liu, Yan Wen, Mei Ma, Shiqiang Cheng, Jian Yang, Ping Li, Bolun Cheng, Yanan Du, Xiao Liang, Yan Zhao, Miao Ding, Xiong Guo, Feng Zhang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder with strong genetic components involved. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of non-coding regulatory variants for complex diseases. To explore the roles of chromosomal enhancer regions in the pathogenesis of ASD, we conducted an integrative analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) and brain region related enhancer-gene networks for ASD. The GWAS data of ASD were driven from a published study, involving 7,387 ASD cases and 8,567 controls...
August 29, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145834/differences-in-anticipatory-versus-reactive-stress-to-social-evaluative-threat-in-adults-versus-adolescents-with-autism
#6
Julie Lounds Taylor, Rachael A Muscatello, Blythe A Corbett
Social evaluative threat is a potent activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in typically developing (TD) populations. Studies have shown that children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a blunted cortisol response to this type of stressor; yet, a previous study in adults with ASD reported a more prototypical stress response. The current study compared 24 adolescents and 17 adults with ASD to investigate a possible developmental lag in autism resulting in a more adaptive stress response to social evaluation with development...
August 26, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145812/preschool-predictors-of-reading-ability-in-the-first-year-of-schooling-in-children-with-asd
#7
Marleen F Westerveld, Jessica Paynter, Kathryn O'Leary, David Trembath
A high percentage of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) show elevated challenges in learning to read. We investigated longitudinal predictors of reading skills in 41 children diagnosed with ASD. All children completed measures of precursor literacy skills at the age of 4-5 years, including phonological awareness, letter sound knowledge, rapid automatic naming, name writing, and phonological memory (digit span), along with measures of word- and passage-level reading skills in their first year of formal schooling...
August 26, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120881/na-k-atpase-activity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-searching-for-the-reason-s-of-its-decrease-in-blood-cells
#8
Alessandra Bolotta, Paola Visconti, Giorgio Fedrizzi, Alessandro Ghezzo, Marina Marini, Paolo Manunta, Elisabetta Messaggio, Annio Posar, Arianna Vignini, Provvidenza Maria Abruzzo
Na+ , K+ -ATPase (NKA) activity, which establishes the sodium and potassium gradient across the cell membrane and is instrumental in the propagation of the nerve impulses, is altered in a number of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present work, we examined a wide range of biochemical and cellular parameters in the attempt to understand the reason(s) for the severe decrease in NKA activity in erythrocytes of ASD children that we reported previously...
August 18, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114344/alterations-in-hub-organization-in-the-white-matter-structural-network-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-2-year-follow-up-study
#9
Lu Qian, Yao Wang, KangKang Chu, Yun Li, ChaoYong Xiao, Ting Xiao, Xiang Xiao, Ting Qiu, YunHua Xiao, Hui Fang, XiaoYan Ke
Little is currently known about the longitudinal developmental patterns of hubs in the whole-brain white matter (WM) structural networks among toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic tractography to map the WM structural networks in 37 ASD toddlers and 27 age-, gender- and developmental quotient-matched controls with developmental delay (DD) toddlers aged 2-3 years old at baseline (Time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2). Furthermore, graph-theoretical methods were applied to investigate alterations in the network hubs in these patients at the two time points...
August 16, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114343/heart-rate-mean-and-variability-as-a-biomarker-for-phenotypic-variation-in-preschoolers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Tessel Bazelmans, Emily J H Jones, Sheila Ghods, Sarah Corrigan, Karen Toth, Tony Charman, Sara J Webb
Interest in autonomic arousal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasing; however, reliability of these measures in ASD is unknown, and previously reported associations with social and cognitive abilities are inconsistent. This study assesses heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) in preschoolers with ASD or typical development (TD) while they passively watched naturalistic videos. Measurement reliability, group differences, and the relationship with social and cognitive abilities were evaluated. Seventy one ASD and 66 TD children (2-4 years) provided cardiac data from two sessions...
August 16, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107092/the-role-of-reduced-expression-of-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-in-neurons-and-increased-expression-in-astrocytes-in-idiopathic-and-syndromic-autism-duplications-15q11-2-q13
#11
Jarek Wegiel, W Ted Brown, Giuseppe La Fauci, Tatyana Adayev, Richard Kascsak, Regina Kascsak, Michael Flory, Wojciech Kaczmarski, Izabela Kuchna, Krzysztof Nowicki, Veronica Martinez-Cerdeno, Thomas Wisniewski, Jerzy Wegiel
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), is associated with a high prevalence of autism. The deficit of FMRP reported in idiopathic autism suggests a mechanistic overlap between FXS and autism. The overall goal of this study is to detect neuropathological commonalities of FMRP deficits in the brains of people with idiopathic autism and with syndromic autism caused by dup15q11.2-q13 (dup15). This study tests the hypothesis based on our preliminary data that both idiopathic and syndromic autism are associated with brain region-specific deficits of neuronal FMRP and structural changes of the affected neurons...
August 14, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107084/the-autism-spectrum-phenotype-in-adnp-syndrome
#12
Anne B Arnett, Candace L Rhoads, Kendra Hoekzema, Tychele N Turner, Jennifer Gerdts, Arianne S Wallace, Sandra Bedrosian-Sermone, Evan E Eichler, Raphael A Bernier
Pathogenic disruptions to the activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox (ADNP) gene are among the most common heterozygous genetic mutations associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Individuals with ADNP disruptions share a constellation of medical and psychiatric features, including ASD, intellectual disability (ID), dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. However, the profile of ASD symptoms associated with ADNP may differ from that of individuals with another ASD-associated single gene disruption or with ASD without a known genetic cause...
August 14, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107083/oral-microbiome-activity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Steven D Hicks, Richard Uhlig, Parisa Afshari, Jeremy Williams, Maria Chroneos, Cheryl Tierney-Aves, Kayla Wagner, Frank A Middleton
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with several oropharyngeal abnormalities, including buccal sensory sensitivity, taste and texture aversions, speech apraxia, and salivary transcriptome alterations. Furthermore, the oropharynx represents the sole entry point to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI disturbances and alterations in the GI microbiome are established features of ASD, and may impact behavior through the "microbial-gut-brain axis." Most studies of the ASD microbiome have used fecal samples...
August 14, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101492/autism-spectrum-disorder-symptoms-from-ages-2-to-19-years-implications-for-diagnosing-adolescents-and-young-adults
#14
Vanessa H Bal, So-Hyun Kim, Megan Fok, Catherine Lord
This study explored change in social-communicative symptoms in 140 individuals with childhood autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses. Trajectories of caregiver-reported social-communicative symptoms were examined for three groups (verbal, delayed speech, minimally verbal) from ages 2 to 19 years. Groups showed comparable levels of social-communicative impairment at 2 years and significant decreases in overall symptom levels across the 17-year period (P < .001). Across three subdomains, main effects of time and language (P < ...
August 12, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095242/executive-function-predicts-the-visuospatial-working-memory-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Zengjian Wang, Jin Jing, Kazue Igarashi, Lijun Fan, Siyuan Yang, YongMei Li, Yu Jin
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) always show working memory deficits. However, research findings on the factors that affected the working memory in ASD and ADHD were inconsistent. Thus, we developed the present study to investigate the association of executive function (EF) with the visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in ASD and ADHD. Three groups of participants were examined: 21 children with ASD, 28 children with ADHD and 28 typically developing (TD) children as the controls...
August 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095240/family-history-of-immune-conditions-and-autism-spectrum-and-developmental-disorders-findings-from-the-study-to-explore-early-development
#16
Lisa A Croen, Yinge Qian, Paul Ashwood, Julie L Daniels, Daniele Fallin, Diana Schendel, Laura A Schieve, Alison B Singer, Ousseny Zerbo
Numerous studies have reported immune system disturbances in individuals with autism and their family members; however, there is considerable variability in findings with respect to the specific immune conditions involved, their timing, and the family members affected and little understanding of variation by autism subphenotype. Using data from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site case-control study of children born 2003-2006 in the United States, we examined the role of family history of autoimmune diseases, asthma, and allergies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as other developmental disorders (DD)...
August 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095232/a-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-hebrew-adaptation-of-the-peers-%C3%A2-intervention-behavioral-and-questionnaire-based-outcomes
#17
Shai Joseph Rabin, Sandra Israel-Yaacov, Elizabeth A Laugeson, Irit Mor-Snir, Ofer Golan
Social interaction deficits form a core characteristic of ASD that is commonly targeted through social-skill groups. The Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS® ) is a well-established parent-assisted intervention for adolescents, which addresses key areas of social functioning. PEERS® has been mainly studied in North-America and its evaluations were mostly questionnaire based. The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of the adapted and translated Hebrew version of the PEERS® intervention in a randomized controlled trial, using behavioral measures of peer interaction, in addition to self, parent, and teacher reports...
August 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095230/the-feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-pass-plus-a-lay-health-worker-delivered-comprehensive-intervention-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-pilot-rct-in-a-rural-low-and-middle-income-country-setting
#18
Gauri Divan, Vivek Vajaratkar, Percy Cardozo, Shilpa Huzurbazar, Mamta Verma, Elizabeth Howarth, Richard Emsley, Carol Taylor, Vikram Patel, Jonathan Green
The treatment gap for autism globally is high. Our previous PASS intervention, delivered by community based lay health workers, showed effectiveness. This article reports the development and evaluation of a new "PASS 'Plus'" intervention in a rural population in India. Using formative research methods, we supplemented the PASS intervention with additional (Plus) modules to address autism comorbidities. This is the first time that a rigorous methodology has been used to evaluate autism symptom outcomes in a low and middle-income country setting...
August 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29979494/emotion-regulation-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-where-we-are-and-where-we-need-to-go
#19
Ru Ying Cai, Amanda L Richdale, Mirko Uljarević, Cheryl Dissanayake, Andrea C Samson
Emotion dysregulation is a common issue experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and has been associated with a wide range of negative mental and physical health outcomes. This commentary highlights the role emotion dysregulation plays in ASD by first considering the literature on emotion regulation (ER) in the general population and then summarizing the ER research in ASD. Based on the evaluation of previous research findings, we conclude that individuals with ASD have more ER difficulties and consistently self-report or demonstrate a less adaptive pattern of ER strategy use...
July 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29979489/happiness-self-esteem-and-prosociality-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-evidence-from-a-uk-population-cohort-study
#20
Gillian McChesney, Umar Toseeb
High levels of childhood happiness, self-esteem, and prosociality are associated with positive social and emotional outcomes. Little is known about whether these constructs co-occur and how levels of co-occurrence are different in children with or without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Data was obtained from 13,285 11-year olds (408 with ASD) from a UK based prospective cohort study. Latent class analysis revealed five distinct classes: The "very low prosociality class" (with ASD 32% vs. without ASD 7%) was characterized by children who were happy and had high self-esteem but they were not prosocial...
July 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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