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Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164825/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-birth-spacing-findings-from-the-study-to-explore-early-development-seed
#1
Laura A Schieve, Lin H Tian, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Gayle C Windham, Craig Newschaffer, Julie L Daniels, Li-Ching Lee, Lisa A Croen, M Danielle Fallin
Previous studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and birth spacing had limitations; few examined phenotypic case subtypes or explored underlying mechanisms for associations and none assessed whether other (non-ASD) developmental disabilities (DDs) were associated with birth spacing. We assessed associations between inter-pregnancy interval (IPI) and both ASD and other DDs using data from the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi-site case-control study with rigorous case-finding and case-classification methods and detailed data collection on maternal reproductive history...
November 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160023/the-self-reference-effect-on-perception-undiminished-in-adults-with-autism-and-no-relation-to-autism-traits
#2
David M Williams, Toby Nicholson, Catherine Grainger
Memory for (and perception of) information about the self is superior to memory for (and perception of) other kinds of information. This self-reference effect (SRE) in memory appears diminished in ASD and related to the number of ASD traits manifested by neurotypical individuals (fewer traits = larger SRE). Here, we report the first experiments exploring the relation between ASD and the SRE in perception. Using a "Shapes" Task (Sui et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105, 2012), participants learned to associate three different shapes (triangle, circle, square) with three different labels representing self, a familiar other, or an unfamiliar other (e...
November 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159906/sexual-orientation-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
R George, M A Stokes
Clinical impressions suggest a different sexual profile between individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is presently known about the demographics of sexual orientation in ASD. Sexual Orientation was surveyed using the Sell Scale of Sexual Orientation in an international online sample of individuals with ASD (N = 309, M = 90, F= 219), aged (M = 32.30 years, SD = 11.93) and this was compared to sexual orientation of typically-developing individuals (N = 310, M = 84, F= 226), aged (M = 29...
November 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155494/modulating-attentional-biases-of-adults-with-autistic-traits-using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-pilot-study
#4
Michael C W English, Emma S Kitching, Murray T Maybery, Troy A W Visser
While neurotypical individuals over-attend to the left-side of centrally-presented visual stimuli, this bias is reduced in individuals with autism/high levels of autistic traits. Because this difference is hypothesized to reflect relative reductions in right-hemisphere activation, it follows that increasing right-hemisphere activation should increase leftward bias. We administered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right posterior parietal cortex to individuals with low levels (n = 19) and high levels (n = 19) of autistic traits whilst they completed a greyscales task...
November 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155492/the-prevalence-of-gluten-free-diet-use-among-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Eric Rubenstein, Laura Schieve, Chyrise Bradley, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Eric Moody, Kathleen Thomas, Julie Daniels
Our objective was to estimate prevalence of current or ever use of a gluten free diet (GFD) in children aged 30-68 months with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and population controls (POP); and to identify characteristics associated with ever having used GFD among children with ASD. We used data from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site, case-control study of children with ASD. Caregivers reported GFD use by their children through structured questionnaires about diet patterns, gastrointestinal (GI) issues, and ASD-specific treatments...
November 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149519/early-executive-dysfunction-in-asd-simple-versus-complex-skills
#6
Nancy Garon, Isabel M Smith, Susan E Bryson
Despite the strong evidence of executive function (EF) impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), findings in the preschool period have been inconsistent. Whereas some research has supported an early deficit, many studies have not found early differences in EF. The present study assessed simple and complex components of three EF abilities: working memory, inhibition, and shifting, using a novel battery, the Preschool EF Battery (PEFB; Garon, Smith & Bryson, Child Neuropsychology, 20, 713-736, 2014). Previous research has indicated that the PEFB is sensitive to age differences in typically developing (TD) children aged 18-60 months...
November 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125691/virtual-environment-for-social-information-processing-assessment-of-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Nicole Russo-Ponsaran, Clark McKown, Jason Johnson, Jaclyn Russo, Jacob Crossman, Ilana Reife
Social information processing (SIP) skills are critical for developing and maintaining peer relationships. Building on existing assessment techniques, Virtual Environment for SIP (VESIP(TM) ), a simulation-based assessment that immerses children in social decision-making scenarios, was developed. This study presents preliminary evidence of VESIP's usefulness for measuring SIP skills in children with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-one children with ASD and 29 control children participated...
November 10, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120534/joint-effects-of-prenatal-air-pollutant-exposure-and-maternal-folic-acid-supplementation-on-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Amanda J Goodrich, Heather E Volk, Daniel J Tancredi, Rob McConnell, Fred W Lurmann, Robin L Hansen, Rebecca J Schmidt
Independent studies report that periconceptional folic acid (FA) may decrease the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) while exposure to air pollution may increase ASD risk. We examined the joint effects of gestational FA and air pollution exposures in association with ASD. We studied 346 ASD cases and 260 typically developing controls from the CHARGE case-control study. Self-reported FA intake for each month of pregnancy was quantified. Estimates of exposure to near roadway air pollution (NRP) and criteria air pollutant measures were assigned based on maternal residential history...
November 9, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087045/auditory-brainstem-response-in-infants-and-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-wave-v
#9
Oren Miron, Andrew L Beam, Isaac S Kohane
Infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were recently found to have prolonged auditory brainstem response (ABR); however, at older ages, findings are contradictory. We compared ABR differences between participants with ASD and controls with respect to age using a meta-analysis. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, HOLLIS, and ScienceDirect from their inception to June 2016. The 25 studies that were included had a total of 1349 participants (727 participants with ASD and 622 controls) and an age range of 0-40 years...
October 31, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087041/pupillary-response-and-phenotype-in-asd-latency-to-constriction-discriminates-asd-from-typically-developing-adolescents
#10
Georgina T F Lynch, Stephen M James, Mark VanDam
Brain imaging data describe differences in the ASD brain, including amygdala overgrowth, neural interconnectivity, and a three-phase model of neuroanatomical changes from early post-natal development through late adolescence. The pupil reflex test (PRT), a noninvasive measure of brain function, may help improve early diagnosis and elucidate underlying physiology in expression of ASD endophenotype. Commonly observed characteristics of ASD include normal visual acuity but difficulty with eye gaze and photosensitivity, suggesting deficient neuromodulation of cranial nerves...
October 31, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076255/what-will-my-child-s-future-hold-phenotypes-of-intellectual-development-in-2-8-year-olds-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Marjorie Solomon, Ana-Maria Iosif, Vanessa P Reinhardt, Lauren E Libero, Christine W Nordahl, Sally Ozonoff, Sally J Rogers, David G Amaral
We examined phenotypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on trajectories of intellectual development from early (ages 2-3 ½) to middle (ages 5-8) childhood in a recent clinically ascertained cohort. Participants included 102 children (82 males) initially diagnosed with ASD from the Autism Phenome Project longitudinal sample. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct IQ trajectories. Baseline and developmental course differences among groups were assessed using univariate techniques and repeated measures regression models, respectively...
October 27, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052364/sensorimotor-learning-and-associated-visual-perception-are-intact-but-unrelated-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Spencer J Hayes, Matthew Andrew, Nathan C Foster, Digby Elliott, Emma Gowen, Simon J Bennett
Humans show an astonishing capability to learn sensorimotor behaviours. However, data from sensorimotor learning experiments suggest the integration of efferent sensorimotor commands, afferent sensorimotor information, and visual consequences of a performed action during learning is different in autism, leading to atypical representation of internal action models. Here, we investigated the generalization of a sensorimotor internal action model formed during sensorimotor learning to a different, but associated, visual perception task...
October 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052348/shank3-deficient-rats-exhibit-degraded-cortical-responses-to-sound
#13
Crystal T Engineer, Kimiya C Rahebi, Michael S Borland, Elizabeth P Buell, Kwok W Im, Linda G Wilson, Pryanka Sharma, Sven Vanneste, Hala Harony-Nicolas, Joseph D Buxbaum, Michael P Kilgard
Individuals with SHANK3 mutations have severely impaired receptive and expressive language abilities. While brain responses are known to be abnormal in these individuals, the auditory cortex response to sound has remained largely understudied. In this study, we document the auditory cortex response to speech and non-speech sounds in the novel Shank3-deficient rat model. We predicted that the auditory cortex response to sounds would be impaired in Shank3-deficient rats. We found that auditory cortex responses were weaker in Shank3 heterozygous rats compared to wild-type rats...
October 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045040/neurexin-gene-family-variants-as-risk-factors-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Jia Wang, Jianhua Gong, Li Li, Yanlin Chen, Lingfei Liu, HuaiTing Gu, Xiu Luo, Fang Hou, Jiajia Zhang, Ranran Song
Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal synaptic function leads to neuronal developmental disorders and is an important component of the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that affect the function of synapses and mediate the conduction of nerve signals. Thus, neurexins are attractive candidate genes for autism. Since gene families have greater power to reveal genetic association than single genes, we designed this case-control study to investigate six genetic variants in three neurexin genes (NRXN1, NRXN2, and NRXN3) in a Chinese population including 529 ASD patients and 1,923 healthy controls...
October 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030905/comparing-the-effects-of-age-pubertal-development-and-symptom-profile-on-cortisol-rhythm-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Rachael A Muscatello, Blythe A Corbett
Previous studies in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown elevated evening cortisol; however, few studies have examined diurnal rhythm in adolescents with ASD. Adolescence is a time of significant physical and psychological change, and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may put adolescents with ASD at increased risk for internalizing disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The extent to which cortisol levels are associated with age, puberty and symptom profile was examined in 113 youth (ages 7-17) with ASD and typical development...
October 14, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030901/disrupted-integration-of-exteroceptive-and-interoceptive-signaling-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Jean-Paul Noel, Marisa Lytle, Carissa Cascio, Mark T Wallace
In addition to deficits in social communication, individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) frequently exhibit changes in sensory and multisensory function. Recent evidence has focused on changes in audiovisual temporal processing, and has sought to relate these sensory-based changes to weaknesses in social communication. These changes in audiovisual temporal function manifest as differences in the temporal epoch or "window" within which paired auditory and visual stimuli are integrated or bound, with those with ASD exhibiting expanded audiovisual temporal binding windows (TBWs)...
October 14, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028156/genetic-background-effects-in-neuroligin-3-mutant-mice-minimal-behavioral-abnormalities-on-c57-background
#17
Thomas C Jaramillo, Christine Ochoa Escamilla, Shunan Liu, Lauren Peca, Shari G Birnbaum, Craig M Powell
Neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) is a postsynaptic cell adhesion protein that interacts with presynaptic ligands including neurexin-1 (NRXN1) [Ichtchenko et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 2676-2682, 1996]. Mice harboring a mutation in the NLGN3 gene (NL3R451C) mimicking a mutation found in two brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were previously generated and behaviorally phenotyped for autism-related behaviors. In these NL3R451C mice generated and tested on a hybrid C57BL6J/129S2/SvPasCrl background, we observed enhanced spatial memory and reduced social interaction [Tabuchi et al...
October 13, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963809/psychiatric-comorbidities-and-use-of-psychotropic-medications-in-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-united-states
#18
Richard Houghton, Rose C Ong, Federico Bolognani
This study investigated psychotropic medication usage in two large, cohorts of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) throughout the calendar year 2014. The cohorts referred to individuals with commercial (employer-sponsored) and Medicaid insurance in the United States. We aimed to understand prescribing patterns of such medications across a wide age-range and in the presence/absence of other clinical and non-clinical characteristics, including psychiatric comorbidities. We described the prevalence and length of prescriptions by age, psychiatric comorbidity and overall...
September 30, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960841/everyday-executive-function-predicts-adaptive-and-internalizing-behavior-among-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Emily Gardiner, Grace Iarocci
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate challenges with executive function (EF), adaptive behavior, and mental health, all of which place long-term wellbeing at risk. In the current study we examined the relation between parent-rated EF and adaptive functioning and internalizing symptoms (anxiety, depression), as we expected that identifying the specific EF domains most closely related to these indices of functioning would illuminate opportunities for targeted intervention. Participants included 59 children and adolescents with ASD (M = 10...
September 27, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945319/the-association-between-theory-of-mind-executive-function-and-the-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Catherine R G Jones, Emily Simonoff, Gillian Baird, Andrew Pickles, Anita J S Marsden, Jenifer Tregay, Francesca Happé, Tony Charman
It has been strongly argued that atypical cognitive processes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) contribute to the expression of behavioural symptoms. Comprehensive investigation of these claims has been limited by small and unrepresentative sample sizes and the absence of wide-ranging task batteries. The current study investigated the cognitive abilities of 100 adolescents with ASD (mean age = 15 years 6 months), using 10 tasks to measure the domains of theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF). We used structural equation modelling as a statistically robust way of exploring the associations between cognition and parent-reported measures of social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs)...
September 25, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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