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Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816000/investigating-facial-phenotype-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-the-importance-of-a-hypothesis-driven-approach
#1
Maryam Boutrus, Murray T Maybery, Gail A Alvares, Diana Weiting Tan, Kandice J Varcin, Andrew J O Whitehouse
Atypical facial characteristics have been observed in many disorders associated with developmental disability. While autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have not previously been thought to be associated with a distinct facial phenotype, an emerging research literature is casting doubt on this assumption. The identification of differences in the facial phenotype of individuals with ASC may contribute to efforts to promote early identification of the condition and help elucidate etiological pathways. With the aim of identifying facial phenotypes associated with ASC, this commentary evaluated facial features purported to distinguish ASC from typical development...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815985/sticking-with-it-psychotherapy-outcomes-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-university-counseling-center-setting
#2
Emily Anderberg, Jonathan C Cox, E Shannon Neeley Tass, David M Erekson, Terisa P Gabrielsen, Jared S Warren, Jared Cline, Devin Petersen, Mikle South
Young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience high rates of comorbid mental health concerns in addition to distress arising from the core symptoms of autism. Many adults with ASD seek psychological treatment in outpatient facilities in their communities that are not specifically geared toward individuals with ASD. However, few studies have looked at the effectiveness of standard psychotherapeutic care in adults with ASD. This study aimed to discover how individuals with ASD fare in psychotherapy within a college counseling setting, compared to their neurotypical peers...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815940/production-and-perception-of-emotional-prosody-by-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Daniel J Hubbard, Daniel J Faso, Peter F Assmann, Noah J Sasson
This study examined production and perception of affective prosody by adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research has reported increased pitch variability in talkers with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) controls in grammatical speaking tasks (e.g., comparing interrogative vs. declarative sentences), but it is unclear whether this pattern extends to emotional speech. In this study, speech recordings in five emotion contexts (angry, happy, interested, sad, and neutral) were obtained from 15 adult males with ASD and 15 controls (Experiment 1), and were later presented to 52 listeners (22 with ASD) who were asked to identify the emotion expressed and rate the level of naturalness of the emotion in each recording (Experiment 2)...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801991/early-autism-symptoms-in-infants-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#4
Nicole M McDonald, Kandice J Varcin, Rujuta Bhatt, Joyce Y Wu, Mustafa Sahin, Charles A Nelson, Shafali S Jeste
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic syndrome that confers significantly increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with 50-60% of infants with TSC meeting criteria for ASD by 3 years of age. In a previous study of the current longitudinal cohort, we found that infants with TSC who develop ASD (TSC/ASD) evidence decreased cognitive abilities that diverge from infants with TSC and no ASD (TSC/no ASD). We extended this work by asking whether TSC/ASD infants (n = 13) differed from TSC/no ASD infants (n = 10) and infants with low developmental risk and no ASD (LR; n = 21) in their social communication functioning during the first year of life...
August 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801936/normative-data-and-psychometric-properties-of-a-farsi-translation-of-the-strange-stories-test
#5
Zahra Shahrivar, Mehdi Tehrani-Doost, Anahita Khorrami Banaraki, Azar Mohammadzadeh, Francesca Happe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Strange Stories test is one of the most commonly used tests to evaluate advanced "theory of mind," i.e. attribution of mental states. Normative data and psychometric properties of a new Farsi translation of this test were evaluated in a large community-based sample of Iranian school-aged children. METHODS: Through randomized cluster sampling, 398 children aged 9-11 years studying at 20 elementary schools were recruited from 4 central regions of Tehran, Iran...
August 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799289/prenatal-exposure-to-fever-is-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-boston-birth-cohort
#6
Martha Brucato, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Mengying Li, Deanna Caruso, Xiumei Hong, Jamie Kaczaniuk, Elizabeth A Stuart, M Daniele Fallin, Xiaobin Wang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous, with evidence for genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk. Research has focused on the prenatal period as a time where environmental exposures are likely to influence risk for ASD. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA), caused by infections and fever, and ASD. However, due to differences in study design and exposure measurements no consistent patterns have emerged revealing specific times or type of MIA exposure that are most important to ASD risk...
August 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762662/social-motivation-and-implicit-theory-of-mind-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Kimberly Burnside, Kristyn Wright, Diane Poulin-Dubois
According to the social motivation theory of autism, children who develop Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have early deficits in social motivation, which is expressed by decreased attention to social information. These deficits are said to lead to impaired socio-cognitive development, such as theory of mind (ToM). There is little research focused on the relation between social motivation and ToM in this population. The goal of the present study was to investigate the link between one aspect of social motivation, social orienting, and ToM in preschoolers with ASD...
August 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730732/shared-atypical-default-mode-and-salience-network-functional-connectivity-between-autism-and-schizophrenia
#8
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Xujun Duan, Junjie Zheng, Zhiliang Long, Youxue Zhang, Xiaonan Guo, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders sharing some similar genetic basis and clinical features. The extent to which they share common neural substrates remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 35 drug-naïve adolescent participants with first-episode schizophrenia (15.6 ± 1.8 years old) and 31 healthy controls (15.4 ± 1.6 years old). Data from 22 participants with ASD (13.1 ± 3.1 years old) and 21 healthy controls (12...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707805/decreased-parvalbumin-mrna-levels-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-autism
#10
Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, Kunzhong Zhang, Sujithra Reprakash, Gene J Blatt
Recent neuropathology studies in human brains indicate that several areas of the prefrontal cortex have decreased numbers of parvalbumin interneurons or decreased parvalbumin expression in Autism Spectrum disorders (ASD) [Hashemi, Ariza, Rogers, Noctor, & Martinez-Cerdeno, 2017; Zikopoulos & Barbas, ]. These data suggest that a deficit in parvalbumin may be a key neuropathology of ASD and contribute to altered GABAergic inhibition. However, it is unclear if a deficit in parvalbumin is a phenomenon that occurs in regions other than the cerebral cortex...
July 14, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695672/developmental-delays-in-emotion-regulation-strategies-in-preschoolers-with-autism
#11
Heather J Nuske, Darren Hedley, Alexandra Woollacott, Phoebe Thomson, Suzanne Macari, Cheryl Dissanayake
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly present with difficulty regulating negative emotions, which has been found to impact their behavioral and mental health. Little research has documented the strategies that children with ASD use to regulate their emotion to understand whether they use qualitatively different strategies to children without ASD, whether these are developmentally delayed, or both. Forty-four children with ASD and 29 typically-developing children (2-4 years) were given tasks designed to mimic everyday life experiences requiring children to manage low-level stress (e...
July 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691307/socio-sexual-functioning-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-existing-literature
#12
Grace I P Hancock, Mark A Stokes, Gary B Mesibov
Socio-sexual functioning encompasses an individual's interests, behaviors, and knowledge with respect to sexual, romantic, and social aspects of life. An individual's understanding of these domains is developed through a range of informal and formal avenues of sexual health education. The current model demonstrated this and proposed that, compared to typically developing individuals, those with ASD develop socio-sexual functioning differently due to having less peer engagement, less relationship experience, more parental guidance, greater use of online materials, receive less school-based sexual health education, and more support from wellbeing services...
July 10, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685996/are-autistic-traits-associated-with-suicidality-a-test-of-the-interpersonal-psychological-theory-of-suicide-in-a-non-clinical-young-adult-sample
#13
M K Pelton, S A Cassidy
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has recently been associated with increased risk of suicidality. However, no studies have explored how autistic traits may interact with current models of suicidal behavior in a non-clinical population. The current study therefore explored how self-reported autistic traits interact with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in predicting suicidal behavior, in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). 163 young adults (aged 18-30 years) completed an online survey including measures of thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire), self-reported autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient), current depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and lifetime suicidality (Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised)...
July 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685955/language-and-motor-skills-in-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-meta-analytic-review
#14
REVIEW
Dunia Garrido, Dafina Petrova, Linda R Watson, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Gloria Carballo
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show significant linguistic and motor impairments compared to children with typical development (TD). Findings from studies of siblings of children with ASD show similarities to conclusions from studies of children with ASD. The current meta-analysis reviewed studies reporting linguistic and/or motor skills in siblings of children with ASD compared to siblings of children with TD. Thirty-four studies published between 1994 and 2016 met all inclusion criteria. We compared three different age groups (12 months or younger, 13 to 24 months, and 25 to 36 months)...
July 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681538/prenatal-maternal-stress-events-and-phenotypic-outcomes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Kandice J Varcin, Gail A Alvares, Mirko Uljarević, Andrew J O Whitehouse
There is significant heterogeneity amongst individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in symptom presentation and severity. An understanding of the factors that contribute to and modulate symptom severity are critical to informing prognosis, stratification, and treatment decisions. Maternal prenatal stress exposure is a nonspecific risk factor for a wide array of neurodevelopmental outcomes in subsequent offspring. Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal maternal stress may increase ASD risk and contribute to variability in autism-like traits in the general population...
July 6, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656683/associations-of-endocrine-stress-related-gene-polymorphisms-with-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-evidence-from-an-integrated-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Ping-Yuan Yang, Ya-Jing Menga, Tao Li, Yi Huang
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are related to serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) as two most monoaminergic polymorphic variations. However, multiple studies assessing rs4680 and 5-HTTLPR variants in ASD have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted an integrated meta-analysis to combine case-control and transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) studies to determine whether COMT and 5-HTT are associated with ASD. We searched multiple electronic databases (PubMed, EmBase and Web of Science) to identify studies assessing the rs4680 and 5-HTTLPR variants in ASD from Jan 1997 to Dec 2016...
June 28, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639417/auditory-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-mismatch-negativity-deficits
#17
Chantal Vlaskamp, Bob Oranje, Gitte Falcher Madsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen, Sarah Durston, Cathriona Cantio, Birte Glenthøj, Niels Bilenberg
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism are highly inconsistent, partly due to small sample sizes in the studies and differences in MMN paradigms. Therefore, in the current study, MMN and P3a amplitude were assessed in a relatively large sample of children with ASD, using a more extensive MMN paradigm and compared with that of typically developing children (TDC)...
June 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639396/the-influence-of-parental-concern-on-the-utility-of-autism-diagnostic-instruments
#18
Karoline Alexandra Havdahl, Somer L Bishop, Pål Surén, Anne-Siri Øyen, Catherine Lord, Andrew Pickles, Stephen von Tetzchner, Synnve Schjølberg, Nina Gunnes, Mady Hornig, W Ian Lipkin, Ezra Susser, Michaeline Bresnahan, Per Magnus, Nina Stenberg, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Camilla Stoltenberg
The parental report-based Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the clinician observation-based Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) have been validated primarily in U.S. clinics specialized in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in which most children are referred by their parents because of ASD concern. This study assessed diagnostic agreement of the ADOS-2 and ADI-R toddler algorithms in a more broadly based sample of 679 toddlers (age 35-47 months) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort...
June 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639377/validating-the-social-responsiveness-scale-for-adults-with-autism
#19
Wai Chan, Leann E Smith, Jinkuk Hong, Jan S Greenberg, Marsha R Mailick
The Social Responsiveness Scale [SRS; Constantino & Gruber, 2005] is a widely-used measure of autism symptoms, but its application for the study of adults with autism spectrum disorders has not been fully evaluated. Using a factor structure consistent with The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., DSM-V) criteria for autism spectrum disorder [Frazier et al., 2014], the primary purpose of the current study was to establish the validity of the SRS with a sample of adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 237)...
June 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632303/audition-specific-temporal-processing-deficits-associated-with-language-function-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Kimberly B Schauder, Alexandra P Key, Mark T Wallace, Wendy L Stone
Sensory processing alterations are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neurobiologically-based theories of ASD propose that abnormalities in the processing of temporal aspects of sensory input could underlie core symptoms of ASD. For example, rapid auditory temporal processing is critical for speech perception, and language difficulties are central to the social communication deficits defining the disorder. This study assessed visual and auditory temporal processing abilities and tested their relation to core ASD symptoms...
June 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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