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Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188687/the-influence-of-sex-and-age-on-prevalence-rates-of-comorbid-conditions-in-autism
#1
Kaustubh Supekar, Tara Iyer, Vinod Menon
Individuals with ASD frequently experience one or more comorbid conditions. Here, we investigate the influence of sex and age-two important, yet understudied factors-on ten common comorbid conditions in ASD, using cross-sectional data from 4790 individuals with ASD and 1,842,575 individuals without ASD. Epilepsy, ADHD, and CNS/cranial anomalies showed exceptionally large proportions in both male (>19%) and female (>15%), children/adolescents with ASD. Notably, these prevalence rates decreased drastically with age in both males and females...
February 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188684/atypical-pupillary-light-reflex-in-2-6-year-old-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Dinalankara M R Dinalankara, Judith H Miles, T Nicole Takahashi, Gang Yao
The purpose of this study was to investigate pupillary light reflex (PLR) in 2-6-years-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A total of 117 medication-free 2-6-year-old boys participated in this study. Sixty participants were diagnosed with ASD (the "ASD group") and the other 57 were in the control group of typical development (the "TD group"). A questionnaire was completed by the parent/guardian for assessing potential dysfunctions in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The base pupil radius, PLR latency, and constriction time showed a significant age-related trend in both the ASD and TD groups...
February 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181411/infant-muscle-tone-and-childhood-autistic-traits-a-longitudinal-study-in-the-general-population
#3
Fadila Serdarevic, Akhgar Ghassabian, Tamara van Batenburg-Eddes, Tonya White, Laura M E Blanken, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier
In a longitudinal population-based study of 2,905 children, we investigated if infants' neuromotor development was associated with autistic traits in childhood. Overall motor development and muscle tone were examined by trained research assistants with an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination between ages 2 and 5 months. Tone was assessed in several positions and items were scored as normal, low, or high tone. Parents rated their children's autistic traits with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Pervasive Developmental Problems (PDP) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist at 6 years...
February 9, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112487/distinct-profiles-of-social-skill-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#4
Kerrianne E Morrison, Amy E Pinkham, David L Penn, Skylar Kelsven, Kelsey Ludwig, Noah J Sasson
Overlapping social impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SCZ) contributed to decades of diagnostic confusion that continues to this day in some clinical settings. The current study provides the first direct and detailed comparison of social behavior in the two disorders by identifying profiles of social skill in adults with ASD (n = 54), SCZ (n = 54), and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 56) during a real-world social interaction. ASD and SCZ groups exhibited poorer social skill, both overall and on most discrete abilities, relative to the TD group...
January 23, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102641/evidence-of-a-reduction-over-time-in-the-behavioral-severity-of-autistic-disorder-diagnoses
#5
Andrew J O Whitehouse, Matthew N Cooper, Keely Bebbington, Gail Alvares, Ashleigh Lin, John Wray, Emma J Glasson
The increasing prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may in part be due to a shift in the diagnostic threshold that has led to individuals with a less severe behavioral phenotype receiving a clinical diagnosis. This study examined whether there were changes over time in the qualitative and quantitative phenotype of individuals who received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder. Data were from a prospective register of new diagnoses in Western Australia (n = 1252). From 2000 to 2006, we examined differences in both the percentage of newly diagnosed cases that met each criterion as well as severity ratings of the behaviors observed (not met, partially met, mild/moderate and extreme)...
January 19, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910247/auditory-processing-in-noise-is-associated-with-complex-patterns-of-disrupted-functional-connectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Fahimeh Mamashli, Sheraz Khan, Hari Bharadwaj, Konstantinos Michmizos, Santosh Ganesan, Keri-Lee A Garel, Javeria Ali Hashmi, Martha R Herbert, Matti Hämäläinen, Tal Kenet
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with difficulty in processing speech in a noisy background, but the neural mechanisms that underlie this deficit have not been mapped. To address this question, we used magnetoencephalography to compare the cortical responses between ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals to a passive mismatch paradigm. We repeated the paradigm twice, once in a quiet background, and once in the presence of background noise. We focused on both the evoked mismatch field (MMF) response in temporal and frontal cortical locations, and functional connectivity with spectral specificity between those locations...
December 2, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910235/the-impact-of-caregiver-mediated-jasper-on-child-restricted-and-repetitive-behaviors-and-caregiver-responses
#7
Clare Harrop, Amanda Gulsrud, Wendy Shih, Lilit Hovsepyan, Connie Kasari
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Compared to the social-communication impairments children show, we know less about why children engage in these repetitive actions and behaviors and how to help children (and their caregivers) with these behaviors. As a result, early intervention has typically focused on social-communication. In this study, we were interested in understanding how child RRBs changed following an intervention that targeted social-communication behaviors and if the training caregivers received changed how they responded to their child's RRBs...
December 2, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910232/strategies-of-readers-with-autism-when-responding-to-inferential-questions-an-eye-movement-study
#8
Martina Micai, Holly Joseph, Mila Vulchanova, David Saldaña
Previous research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with inference generation in reading tasks. However, most previous studies have examined how well children understand a text after reading or have measured on-line reading behavior without response to questions. The aim of this study was to investigate the online strategies of children and adolescents with autism during reading and at the same time responding to a question by monitoring their eye movements. The reading behavior of participants with ASD was compared with that of age-, language-, nonverbal intelligence-, reading-, and receptive language skills-matched participants without ASD (control group)...
December 2, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896947/reduced-modulation-of-thalamocortical-connectivity-during-exposure-to-sensory-stimuli-in-asd
#9
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration...
November 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896942/mid-childhood-outcomes-of-infant-siblings-at-familial-high-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Elizabeth Shephard, Bosiljka Milosavljevic, Greg Pasco, Emily J H Jones, Teodora Gliga, Francesca Happé, Mark H Johnson, Tony Charman
Almost one-in-five infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), due to having an older sibling with an ASD diagnosis, develop ASD themselves by age 3 years. Less is known about the longer-term outcomes of high-risk infants. To address this issue, we examined symptoms of ASD and associated developmental conditions (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); anxiety), language, IQ, and adaptive behaviour at age 7 years in high- and low-risk children studied from infancy. We compared outcomes between high-risk children who met criteria for ASD at age 7, high-risk children without ASD, and low-risk control children...
November 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891820/investigating-diagnostic-bias-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-an-item-response-theory-analysis-of-sex-bias-in-the-aq-10
#11
Aja Louise Murray, Carrie Allison, Paula L Smith, Simon Baron-Cohen, Tom Booth, Bonnie Auyeung
Diagnostic bias is a concern in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) where prevalence and presentation differ by sex. To ensure that females with ASC are not under-identified, it is important that ASC screening tools do not systematically underestimate autistic traits in females relative to males. We evaluated whether the AQ-10, a brief screen for ASC recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence in cases of suspected ASC, exhibits such a bias. Using an item response theory approach, we evaluated differential item functioning and differential test functioning...
November 28, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891819/autism-and-emotional-face-viewing
#12
Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Daniel Hovey, Nicole Zürcher, Loyse Hippolyte, Eric Lemonnier, Christopher Gillberg, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Atypical patterns of face-scanning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to difficulties in social interactions, but there is little agreement regarding what exactly characterizes face-viewing in ASD. In addition, little research has examined how face-viewing is modulated by the emotional expression of the stimuli, in individuals with or without ASD. We used eye-tracking to explore viewing patterns during perception of dynamic emotional facial expressions in relatively large groups of individuals with (n = 57) and without ASD (n = 58) and examined diagnostic- and age-related effects, after subgrouping children and adolescents (≤18 years), on the one hand, and adults (>18 years), on the other...
November 28, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220691/abstracts
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404771/children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-have-reduced-otoacoustic-emissions-at-the-1-khz-mid-frequency-region
#14
Loisa Bennetto, Jessica M Keith, Paul D Allen, Anne E Luebke
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally diagnosed disorder of early onset characterized by impairment in social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors. Some of the earliest signs of ASD involve auditory processing, and a recent study found that hearing thresholds in children with ASD in the mid-range frequencies were significantly related to receptive and expressive language measures. In addition, otoacoustic emissions have been used to detect reduced cochlear function in the presence of normal audiometric thresholds...
February 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220677/prevalence-and-associated-features-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-extremely-low-gestational-age-newborns-at-age-10-years
#15
Robert M Joseph, Thomas M O'Shea, Elizabeth N Allred, Tim Heeren, Deborah Hirtz, Nigel Paneth, Alan Leviton, Karl C K Kuban
We sought to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children born extremely preterm relative to the U.S. population risk of 1.5% [CDC, 2014] using the best-available diagnostic procedures and minimizing confounding with other neurodevelopmental impairments. Eight hundred and eighty nine of 966 (92%) 10-year-old children from the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn birth cohort, delivered at 23-27 weeks gestation in 2002-2004, participated. Children meeting ASD screening criteria on the Social Communication Questionnaire were evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)...
February 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130876/reviewer-thank-you-2016
#16
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130875/editorial-time-to-give-up-on-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
EDITORIAL
Ralph-Axel Müller, David G Amaral
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130874/abstracts
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520580/neuron-density-is-decreased-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-williams-syndrome
#19
Caroline Horton Lew, Chelsea Brown, Ursula Bellugi, Katerina Semendeferi
Williams Syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a hemideletion in chromosome 7, which manifests a distinct behavioral phenotype characterized by a hyperaffiliative social drive, in striking contrast to the social avoidance behaviors that are common in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). MRI studies have observed structural and functional abnormalities in WS cortex, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region implicated in social cognition. This study utilizes the Bellugi Williams Syndrome Brain Collection, a unique resource that comprises the largest WS postmortem brain collection in existence, and is the first to quantitatively examine WS PFC cytoarchitecture...
January 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492494/novel-shank3-mutant-exhibits-behaviors-with-face-validity-for-autism-and-altered-striatal-and-hippocampal-function
#20
Thomas C Jaramillo, Haley E Speed, Zhong Xuan, Jeremy M Reimers, Christine Ochoa Escamilla, Travis P Weaver, Shunan Liu, Irina Filonova, Craig M Powell
Mutations/deletions in the SHANK3 gene are associated with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability. Here, we present electrophysiological and behavioral consequences in novel heterozygous and homozygous mice with a transcriptional stop cassette inserted upstream of the PDZ domain-coding exons in Shank3 (Shank3(E13) ). Insertion of a transcriptional stop cassette prior to exon 13 leads to loss of the two higher molecular weight isoforms of Shank3. Behaviorally, both Shank3(E13) heterozygous (HET) and homozygous knockout (KO) mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in social interaction tasks, and decreased rearing...
January 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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