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Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393953/facial-expression-production-in-autism-a-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Dominic A Trevisan, Maureen Hoskyn, Elina Birmingham
This meta-analysis summarized studies that examined group differences on the production of facial expressions in participants with ASD compared to typically developing or nonautistic clinical comparison groups. The overall summary effect from 67 effect sizes representing the average ASD-comparison group differences in facial expressions was -0.481, indicating a moderate effect size. We conducted subgroup analyses to group effect sizes according to separate facial expression abilities identified in the literature...
November 4, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380202/psychiatric-comorbidities-and-psychotropic-medication-use-in-autism-a-matched-cohort-study-with-adhd-and-general-population-comparator-groups-in-the-united-kingdom
#2
Richard Houghton, Chuang Liu, Federico Bolognani
Psychiatric comorbidities and use of psychotropic medications are common among patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, most previous research used data from the United States (US) and few studies have compared medication use in ASD to control groups, making contextualization of results difficult. In the United Kingdom (UK), general practitioners play a key role in the management of ASD. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study over calendar year 2015, using primary care data from the UK...
October 31, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30375190/considerations-from-the-2017-imfar-preconference-on-measuring-meaningful-outcomes-from-school-age-to-adulthood
#3
Vanessa H Bal, Robert L Hendren, Tony Charman, Leonard Abbeduto, Connie Kasari, Laura Grofer Klinger, Whitney Ence, Tara Glavin, Gregory Lyons, Erin Rosenberg
The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research community is increasingly considering the importance of measuring outcomes that are meaningful to individuals with ASD and their families. The 2017 IMFAR preconference aimed to gain the perspectives of how to define and measure "meaningful outcomes" from 280 participants, including people with ASD and their families, service providers, and researchers. Six themes were identified: (a) the definition of "outcome" varies by context and perspective; (b) the need to broaden the scope of what researchers measure; (c) the need for new assessment tools; (d) the need to expand data analytic methods; (e) where to focus (with emphasis on considering different developmental stages and aspects of diversity); and (f) a need for community partnerships to bridge research and daily practice...
October 30, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30375176/atypical-longitudinal-development-of-functional-connectivity-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Katherine E Lawrence, Leanna M Hernandez, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is consistently associated with alterations in brain connectivity, but there are conflicting results as to where and when individuals with ASD display increased or reduced functional connectivity. Such inconsistent findings may be driven by atypical neurodevelopmental trajectories in ASD during adolescence, but no longitudinal studies to date have investigated this hypothesis. We thus examined the functional connectivity of three neurocognitive resting-state networks-the default mode network (DMN), salience network, and central executive network (CEN)-in a longitudinal sample of youth with ASD (n = 16) and without ASD (n = 22) studied during early/mid- and late adolescence...
October 30, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345721/feasibility-of-utilizing-autism-navigator%C3%A2-for-primary-care-in-south-africa
#5
Nola J Chambers, Petrus J de Vries, Abigail D Delehanty, Amy M Wetherby
There is a significant research-to-practice gap in early detection of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) worldwide but particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where expertise is limited and high-quality training is difficult to access. Autism Navigator® for Primary Care is a web-based course designed to increase awareness of red flags of ASD in the second year of life and thus promote earlier detection and referral for intervention. It contains extensive video illustrations that offer rapid access to multiple exemplars of ASD red flags...
October 22, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345714/autistic-like-traits-in-children-are-associated-with-enhanced-performance-in-a-qualitative-visual-working-memory-task
#6
Colin J Hamilton, Irene C Mammarella, David Giofrè
Prior research has suggested that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) demonstrate heterogeneity in cognitive efficacy, challenged executive resources but efficient visual processing. These contrasts lead to opposing predictions about visuospatial working memory competency in both ASD and the broader autism phenotype (BAP); compromised by constrained executive processes, but potentially scaffolded by effective visual representation. It is surprising therefore, that there is a paucity of visual working memory (VWM) research in both the ASD and BAP populations, which have focused upon the visual features of the to-be-remembered stimulus...
October 22, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345695/belief-attribution-in-adults-with-and-without-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#7
Elisabeth E F Bradford, Vera Hukker, Laura Smith, Heather J Ferguson
An important aspect of daily life is the ability to infer information about the contents of other people's minds, such as what they can see and what they know, in order to engage in successful interactions. This is referred to as possession of a "Theory of Mind" (ToM). Past research has shown that adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often show deficits in social communication abilities, although can successfully pass tests of explicit ToM. The current study utilized a computerized false-belief task to explore subtle differences (i...
October 21, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345650/infant-quantitative-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-predicts-executive-function-in-early-childhood
#8
Rebecca L Stephens, Linda R Watson, Elizabeth R Crais, J Steven Reznick
Much of the current research concerning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) focuses on early identification of behaviors that may indicate future deficits or higher risk for a later diagnosis. Additionally, there exists a strong claim regarding the dimensional nature of ASD, such that even among non-diagnosed individuals, a continuous distribution of symptom severity can be observed. Executive function (EF) has been widely studied in children, adolescents, and adults with ASD, with a robust body of research supporting widespread EF deficits in diagnosed individuals...
October 21, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324656/in-search-of-biomarkers-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Marta Del Valle Rubido, James T McCracken, Eric Hollander, Frederick Shic, Jana Noeldeke, Lauren Boak, Omar Khwaja, Shamil Sadikhov, Paulo Fontoura, Daniel Umbricht
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) lacks validated measures of core social functions across development stages suitable for clinical trials. We assessed the concurrent validity between ASD clinical measures and putative biomarkers of core deficits, and their feasibility of implementation in human studies. Datasets from two adult ASD studies were combined (observational study [n = 19] and interventional study baseline data [n = 19]). Potential biomarkers included eye-tracking, olfaction, and auditory and visual emotion recognition assessed via the Affective Speech Recognition test (ASR) and Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Test (RMET)...
October 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273978/weighty-conversations-caregivers-children-s-and-clinicians-perspectives-and-experiences-of-discussing-weight-related-topics-in-healthcare-consultations
#10
Patrick Jachyra, Evdokia Anagnostou, Tara Joy Knibbe, Catharine Petta, Susan Cosgrove, Lorry Chen, Lucia Capano, Lorena Moltisanti, Amy C McPherson
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at a higher risk of having obesity than their typically developing peers. Although it has been recommended that health care providers (HCPs) speak to caregivers and children about the risk of higher weights, no research has examined how HCPs communicate weight-related information. Furthermore, there is a dearth of evidence regarding how to approach and deliver optimal weight-related discussions among children with ASD and their caregivers. Given these knowledge gaps, 21 in-depth interviews were conducted with children with ASD, their caregivers, and HCPs...
October 1, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273974/sleep-problems-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intellectual-disability
#11
Pura Ballester, María José Martínez, Auxiliadora Javaloyes, María-del-Mar Inda, Noemí Fernández, Pilar Gázquez, Víctor Aguilar, Agustín Pérez, Luís Hernández, Amanda L Richdale, Ana M Peiró
Sleep problems (SP) are recognized as a common comorbid condition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and can influence core autism symptoms and mental and physical health. SPs can be lifelong and have been reported that adults on the autistic spectrum with and without intellectual disability (ID) present SPs (longer sleep latency, frequent night awakenings, and circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders). A prospective, objective sleep study was conducted in 41 adults with ASD (33 ± 6 years old) and ID and 51 typically developing adults (33 ± 5 years old) using ambulatory circadian monitoring (ACM) recording wrist temperature, motor activity, body position, sleep, and light intensity...
October 1, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273450/visual-exploration-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-exploring-age-differences-and-dynamic-features-using-recurrence-quantification-analysis
#12
Nikolay V Manyakov, Abigail Bangerter, Meenakshi Chatterjee, Luke Mason, Seth Ness, David Lewin, Andrew Skalkin, Matthew Boice, Matthew S Goodwin, Geraldine Dawson, Robert Hendren, Bennett Leventhal, Frederick Shic, Gahan Pandina
Eye-tracking studies have demonstrated that individuals with autism spectrum disorder sometimes show differences in attention and gaze patterns. This includes preference for certain nonsocial objects, heightened attention to detail, and more difficulty with attention shifting and disengagement, which may be associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors. This study utilized a visual exploration task and replicates findings of reduced number of objects explored and increased fixation duration on high autism interest objects in a large sample of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (n = 129, age 6-54 years) in comparison with a typically developing group...
October 1, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272390/a-functional-but-atypical-self-influence-of-self-relevant-processing-on-the-gaze-cueing-effect-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Shuo Zhao, Shota Uono, Sayaka Yoshimura, Motomi Toichi
The present study aimed to determine whether the impairments in joint attention observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinical studies were influenced by self-relevant processing. To investigate this possibility, participants were trained to associate two cues (a female face and male face) with distinct words ("self" and "other"). The ASD and typically developing (TD) groups both demonstrated a significant self-relevant effect, responding more quickly to self-pairs than to other pairs...
October 1, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270547/dynamic-functional-connectivity-analysis-reveals-decreased-variability-of-the-default-mode-network-in-developing-autistic-brain
#14
Changchun He, Yanchi Chen, Taorong Jian, Heng Chen, Xiaonan Guo, Jia Wang, Lijie Wu, Huafu Chen, Xujun Duan
Accumulating neuroimaging evidence suggests that abnormal functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) contributes to the social-cognitive deficits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although most previous studies relied on conventional functional connectivity methods, which assume that connectivity patterns remain constant over time, understanding the temporal dynamics of functional connectivity during rest may provide new insights into the dysfunction of the DMN in ASD. In this work, dynamic functional connectivity analysis based on sliding time window correlation was applied to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 28 young children with ASD (age range: 3-7 years) and 29 matched typically developing controls (TD group)...
October 1, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270526/adaptive-trajectories-and-early-risk-factors-in-the-autism-spectrum-a-15-year-prospective-study
#15
Amaria Baghdadli, Cécile Michelon, Eric Pernon, Marie-Christine Picot, Stéphanie Miot, Sandrine Sonié, Cécile Rattaz, Laurent Mottron
Little is known about long-term outcomes. We investigate the adaptive trajectories and their risk factors in ASD. Data were obtained from 281 children prospectively followed untill adulthood. The final sample consisted of 106 individuals. Vineland scores were collected at baseline (T1), 3 (T2), 10 (T3), and 15 (T4) years later. A group-based method was used to identify homogeneous patterns of adaptive skills trajectories. Results show that among the children initially categorized as autistic, 82.6% remained over the ADOS diagnostic threshold, 11...
October 1, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270514/aberrant-functional-connectivity-of-inhibitory-control-networks-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Willa Voorhies, Dina R Dajani, Shruti G Vij, Sahana Shankar, Turel Ozerk Turan, Lucina Q Uddin
Development of inhibitory control is a core component of executive function processes and a key aspect of healthy development. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impairments in performance on inhibitory control tasks. Nevertheless, the research on the neural correlates of these impairments is inconclusive. Here, we explore the integrity of inhibitory control networks in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children using resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imagaing (MRI). In a large multisite sample, we find evidence for significantly greater functional connectivity (FC) of the right inferior frontal junction (rIFJ) with the posterior cingulate gyrus, and left and right frontal poles in children with ASD compared with TD children...
October 1, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230708/maternal-pre-pregnancy-weight-and-autistic-like-traits-among-offspring-in-the-general-population
#17
Kandice J Varcin, John P Newnham, Andrew J O Whitehouse
There is an emerging body of evidence demonstrating that maternal obesity at the time of conception increases the risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) among offspring. We explored whether pre-pregnancy weight was related to autistic-like traits among offspring not diagnosed with ASD. A large sample of women, recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy, had their height measured and reported their pre-pregnancy weight. These measurements were then converted to a Body Mass Index (BMI) using the formula: (weight in kilograms)/(height in metres2 )...
September 19, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194913/longitudinal-assessment-of-stability-of-sensory-features-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-or-other-developmental-disabilities
#18
Grace T Baranek, Mike Carlson, John Sideris, Anne V Kirby, Linda R Watson, Kathryn L Williams, John Bulluck
Prior research on the stability of sensory processing problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other developmental disabilities (DD) has produced inconsistent results. We employed a longitudinal study design to assess the stability of three clinical sensory response patterns: hyporesponsiveness; hyperresponsiveness; and sensory interests, repetitions, and seeking behaviors (SIRS). Parents of children with ASD (n = 55) or DD (n = 35) responded to sensory questionnaires at two time points (T1 and T2) separated by 3...
September 8, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184325/a-matter-of-time-the-necessity-of-temporal-language-in-research-on-health-conditions-that-present-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Eric Rubenstein, Lauren Bishop-Fitzpatrick
Relatively consistent findings from recent studies using population-level data identify heightened physical and psychiatric morbidity in autistic people compared to the general population. Health problems that commonly present with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally discussed in the literature as "co-occurring" or "comorbid" regardless of their known or hypothesized causal mechanisms. In this commentary, we introduce a new temporally focused terminology to describe health conditions that present with ASD...
September 5, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30157312/genome-wide-association-study-and-identification-of-chromosomal-enhancer-maps-in-multiple-brain-regions-related-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Lu Zhang, Li Liu, Yan Wen, Mei Ma, Shiqiang Cheng, Jian Yang, Ping Li, Bolun Cheng, Yanan Du, Xiao Liang, Yan Zhao, Miao Ding, Xiong Guo, Feng Zhang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder with strong genetic components involved. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of non-coding regulatory variants for complex diseases. To explore the roles of chromosomal enhancer regions in the pathogenesis of ASD, we conducted an integrative analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) and brain region related enhancer-gene networks for ASD. The GWAS data of ASD were driven from a published study, involving 7,387 ASD cases and 8,567 controls...
August 29, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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