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Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898569/altered-task-related-modulation-of-long-range-connectivity-in-children-with-autism
#1
Ajay S Pillai, Danielle McAuliffe, Balaji M Lakshmanan, Stewart H Mostofsky, Nathan E Crone, Joshua B Ewen
Functional connectivity differences between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children have been described in multiple datasets. However, few studies examine the task-related changes in connectivity in disorder-relevant behavioral paradigms. In this paper, we examined the task-related changes in functional connectivity using EEG and a movement-based paradigm that has behavioral relevance to ASD. Resting-state studies motivated our hypothesis that children with ASD would show a decreased magnitude of functional connectivity during the performance of a motor-control task...
September 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861936/pivotal-response-treatment-for-preschoolers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-defining-a-predictor-profile
#2
Kristin-Lee Fossum, Loriann Williams, Nancy Garon, Susan E Bryson, Isabel M Smith
Behavioral characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who respond positively to Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) have been described previously, based on single-subject design research. The present study examined several such characteristics, as well as positive affect, as predictors of expressive language (EL) gains in a representative sample of preschoolers with ASD (n = 57) enrolled in a PRT-based community early intervention program. Children's cognitive ability, positive affect, and levels of appropriate toy contact measured at the start of intervention each contributed significantly to the prediction of EL outcomes...
August 31, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861935/children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-who-improve-with-fever-insights-from-the-simons-simplex-collection
#3
Rebecca Grzadzinski, Catherine Lord, Stephan J Sanders, Donna Werling, Vanessa H Bal
Literature indicates that some children with ASD may show behavioral improvements during fever; however, little is known about the behavioral profiles of these children. This study aims to (a) investigate the subset of children who show parent-reported behavioral improvements associated with fever and (b) compare the demographic, behavioral, and genetic characteristics of this subset of children to children whose parents report no change during fever. Parents of 2,152 children from the Simons Simplex Collection provided information about whether and in which areas their child improved during fever...
August 31, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856868/gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-review-of-the-literature-on-ascertainment-and-prevalence
#4
REVIEW
Calliope Holingue, Carol Newill, Li-Ching Lee, Pankaj J Pasricha, M Daniele Fallin
There is no standard approach to measuring GI symptoms in individuals with ASD, despite postulated interactions. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe the range of GI symptom ascertainment approaches in studies of ASD, (b) describe the range of prevalence estimates across studies, and (c) assess associations between ascertainment approach and prevalence estimates. Studies published from 1/1/1980 to 1/31/2017 were collected via PubMed. Eligibility included studies with at least ten individuals with ASD that measured GI symptoms or conditions...
August 30, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856816/analysis-and-functional-characterization-of-sequence-variations-in-ligand-binding-domain-of-thyroid-hormone-receptors-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-patients
#5
Mahesh Kumar Kalikiri, Madhu Poornima Mamidala, Ananth N Rao, Vidya Rajesh
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro developmental disorder, reported to be on a rise in the past two decades. Thyroid hormone-T3 plays an important role in early embryonic and central nervous system development. T3 mediates its function by binding to thyroid hormone receptors, TRα and TRβ. Alterations in T3 levels and thyroid receptor mutations have been earlier implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders and have been linked to environmental toxins. Limited reports from earlier studies have shown the effectiveness of T3 treatment with promising results in children with ASD and that the thyroid hormone levels in these children was also normal...
August 30, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851114/altered-attentional-processing-in-male-and-female-rats-in-a-prenatal-valproic-acid-exposure-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Kumari Anshu, Ajay Kumar Nair, U D Kumaresan, Bindu M Kutty, Shoba Srinath, T Rao Laxmi
Attention is foundational to efficient perception and optimal goal driven behavior. Intact attentional processing is crucial for the development of social and communication skills. Deficits in attention are therefore likely contributors to the core pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Clinical evidence in ASD is suggestive of impairments in attention and its control, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We examined sustained, spatially divided attention in a prenatal valproic acid (VPA) model of ASD using the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT)...
August 29, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851095/toward-the-identification-of-adaptive-functioning-intervention-targets-for-intellectually-able-transition-aged-youth-with-autism-an-examination-of-caregiver-responses-on-the-vineland-ii
#7
Nicole L Matthews, Amanda Malligo, Christopher J Smith
Little is known about specific adaptive functioning impairments in intellectually-able individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In adolescents (n = 22) and young adults (n = 22) matched on composite IQ scores, this study examined profiles of cognitive and adaptive functioning, and caregiver responses on individual Vineland-II items. Adaptive functioning standard scores were significantly lower than IQ scores, and the adult group had significantly lower adaptive functioning standard scores than the adolescent group...
August 29, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842941/characterization-of-early-communicative-behavior-in-mouse-models-of-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#8
Susan E Maloney, Krystal C Chandler, Corina Anastasaki, Michael A Rieger, David H Gutmann, Joseph D Dougherty
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a monogenic neurodevelopmental disease caused by germline loss-of-function mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Cognitive impairments are observed in approximately 80% of children with this disease, with 45-60% exhibiting autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology. In light of the high comorbidity rate between ASD and NF1, we assessed early communicative behavior by maternal-separation induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) and developmental milestones in two distinct Nf1 genetically engineered models, one modeling clinical germline heterozygous loss of Nf1 function (Nf1(+/-) mice), and a second with somatic biallelic Nf1 inactivation in neuroglial progenitor cells (Nf1(GFAP) CKO mice)...
August 26, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834350/processing-of-co-reference-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Philippa L Howard, Simon P Liversedge, Valerie Benson
Accuracy for reading comprehension and inferencing tasks has previously been reported as reduced for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relative to typically developing (TD) controls. In this study, we used an eye movements and reading paradigm to examine whether this difference in performance accuracy is underpinned by differences in the inferential work required to compute a co-referential link. Participants read two sentences that contained a category noun (e.g., bird) that was preceded by and co-referred to an exemplar that was either typical (e...
August 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834327/reading-comprehension-of-ambiguous-sentences-by-school-age-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Meghan M Davidson, Susan Ellis Weismer
Weak central coherence (processing details over gist), poor oral language abilities, poor suppression, semantic interference, and poor comprehension monitoring have all been implicated to affect reading comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study viewed the contributions of different supporting skills as a collective set of skills necessary for context integration-a multi-component view-to examine individual differences in reading comprehension in school-age children (8-14 years) with ASD (n = 23) and typically developing control peers (n = 23)...
August 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816000/investigating-facial-phenotype-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-the-importance-of-a-hypothesis-driven-approach
#11
Maryam Boutrus, Murray T Maybery, Gail A Alvares, Diana Weiting Tan, Kandice J Varcin, Andrew J O Whitehouse
Atypical facial characteristics have been observed in many disorders associated with developmental disability. While autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have not previously been thought to be associated with a distinct facial phenotype, an emerging research literature is casting doubt on this assumption. The identification of differences in the facial phenotype of individuals with ASC may contribute to efforts to promote early identification of the condition and help elucidate etiological pathways. With the aim of identifying facial phenotypes associated with ASC, this commentary evaluated facial features purported to distinguish ASC from typical development...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815985/sticking-with-it-psychotherapy-outcomes-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-university-counseling-center-setting
#12
Emily Anderberg, Jonathan C Cox, E Shannon Neeley Tass, David M Erekson, Terisa P Gabrielsen, Jared S Warren, Jared Cline, Devin Petersen, Mikle South
Young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience high rates of comorbid mental health concerns in addition to distress arising from the core symptoms of autism. Many adults with ASD seek psychological treatment in outpatient facilities in their communities that are not specifically geared toward individuals with ASD. However, few studies have looked at the effectiveness of standard psychotherapeutic care in adults with ASD. This study aimed to discover how individuals with ASD fare in psychotherapy within a college counseling setting, compared to their neurotypical peers...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815940/production-and-perception-of-emotional-prosody-by-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Daniel J Hubbard, Daniel J Faso, Peter F Assmann, Noah J Sasson
This study examined production and perception of affective prosody by adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research has reported increased pitch variability in talkers with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) controls in grammatical speaking tasks (e.g., comparing interrogative vs. declarative sentences), but it is unclear whether this pattern extends to emotional speech. In this study, speech recordings in five emotion contexts (angry, happy, interested, sad, and neutral) were obtained from 15 adult males with ASD and 15 controls (Experiment 1), and were later presented to 52 listeners (22 with ASD) who were asked to identify the emotion expressed and rate the level of naturalness of the emotion in each recording (Experiment 2)...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801991/early-autism-symptoms-in-infants-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#14
Nicole M McDonald, Kandice J Varcin, Rujuta Bhatt, Joyce Y Wu, Mustafa Sahin, Charles A Nelson, Shafali S Jeste
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic syndrome that confers significantly increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with 50-60% of infants with TSC meeting criteria for ASD by 3 years of age. In a previous study of the current longitudinal cohort, we found that infants with TSC who develop ASD (TSC/ASD) evidence decreased cognitive abilities that diverge from infants with TSC and no ASD (TSC/no ASD). We extended this work by asking whether TSC/ASD infants (n = 13) differed from TSC/no ASD infants (n = 10) and infants with low developmental risk and no ASD (LR; n = 21) in their social communication functioning during the first year of life...
August 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801936/normative-data-and-psychometric-properties-of-a-farsi-translation-of-the-strange-stories-test
#15
Zahra Shahrivar, Mehdi Tehrani-Doost, Anahita Khorrami Banaraki, Azar Mohammadzadeh, Francesca Happe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Strange Stories test is one of the most commonly used tests to evaluate advanced "theory of mind," i.e. attribution of mental states. Normative data and psychometric properties of a new Farsi translation of this test were evaluated in a large community-based sample of Iranian school-aged children. METHODS: Through randomized cluster sampling, 398 children aged 9-11 years studying at 20 elementary schools were recruited from 4 central regions of Tehran, Iran...
August 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799289/prenatal-exposure-to-fever-is-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-boston-birth-cohort
#16
Martha Brucato, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Mengying Li, Deanna Caruso, Xiumei Hong, Jamie Kaczaniuk, Elizabeth A Stuart, M Daniele Fallin, Xiaobin Wang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous, with evidence for genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk. Research has focused on the prenatal period as a time where environmental exposures are likely to influence risk for ASD. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA), caused by infections and fever, and ASD. However, due to differences in study design and exposure measurements no consistent patterns have emerged revealing specific times or type of MIA exposure that are most important to ASD risk...
August 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762662/social-motivation-and-implicit-theory-of-mind-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Kimberly Burnside, Kristyn Wright, Diane Poulin-Dubois
According to the social motivation theory of autism, children who develop Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have early deficits in social motivation, which is expressed by decreased attention to social information. These deficits are said to lead to impaired socio-cognitive development, such as theory of mind (ToM). There is little research focused on the relation between social motivation and ToM in this population. The goal of the present study was to investigate the link between one aspect of social motivation, social orienting, and ToM in preschoolers with ASD...
August 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730732/shared-atypical-default-mode-and-salience-network-functional-connectivity-between-autism-and-schizophrenia
#18
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Xujun Duan, Junjie Zheng, Zhiliang Long, Youxue Zhang, Xiaonan Guo, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders sharing some similar genetic basis and clinical features. The extent to which they share common neural substrates remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 35 drug-naïve adolescent participants with first-episode schizophrenia (15.6 ± 1.8 years old) and 31 healthy controls (15.4 ± 1.6 years old). Data from 22 participants with ASD (13.1 ± 3.1 years old) and 21 healthy controls (12...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707805/decreased-parvalbumin-mrna-levels-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-autism
#20
Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, Kunzhong Zhang, Sujithra Reprakash, Gene J Blatt
Recent neuropathology studies in human brains indicate that several areas of the prefrontal cortex have decreased numbers of parvalbumin interneurons or decreased parvalbumin expression in Autism Spectrum disorders (ASD) [Hashemi, Ariza, Rogers, Noctor, & Martinez-Cerdeno, 2017; Zikopoulos & Barbas, 2013]. These data suggest that a deficit in parvalbumin may be a key neuropathology of ASD and contribute to altered GABAergic inhibition. However, it is unclear if a deficit in parvalbumin is a phenomenon that occurs in regions other than the cerebral cortex...
July 14, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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