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Evolutionary Applications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515783/trans-generational-plasticity-in-response-to-immune-challenge-is-constrained-by-heat-stress
#1
Olivia Roth, Susanne H Landis
Trans-generational plasticity (TGP) is the adjustment of phenotypes to changing habitat conditions that persist longer than the individual lifetime. Fitness benefits (adaptive TGP) are expected upon matching parent-offspring environments. In a global change scenario, several performance-related environmental factors are changing simultaneously. This lowers the predictability of offspring environmental conditions, potentially hampering the benefits of TGP. For the first time, we here explore how the combination of an abiotic and a biotic environmental factor in the parental generation plays out as trans-generational effect in the offspring...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515782/ecotypic-differentiation-under-farmers-selection-molecular-insights-into-the-domestication-of-pachyrhizus-rich-ex-dc-fabaceae-in-the-peruvian-andes
#2
Marc Delêtre, Beatriz Soengas, Prem Jai Vidaurre, Rosa Isela Meneses, Octavio Delgado Vásquez, Isabel Oré Balbín, Monica Santayana, Bettina Heider, Marten Sørensen
Understanding the distribution of crop genetic diversity in relation to environmental factors can give insights into the eco-evolutionary processes involved in plant domestication. Yam beans (Pachyrhizus Rich. ex DC.) are leguminous crops native to South and Central America that are grown for their tuberous roots but are seed-propagated. Using a landscape genetic approach, we examined correlations between environmental factors and phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in Pachyrhizus landrace populations...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515781/evolutionary-restoration-potential-evaluated-through-the-use-of-a-trait-linked-genetic-marker
#3
Travis M Apgar, Devon E Pearse, Eric P Palkovacs
Human-driven evolution can impact the ecological role and conservation value of impacted populations. Most evolutionary restoration approaches focus on manipulating gene flow, but an alternative approach is to manipulate the selection regime to restore historical or desired trait values. Here we examined the potential utility of this approach to restore anadromous migratory behavior in coastal California steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. We evaluated the effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental variables on the observed frequency of alleles at a genomic marker tightly associated with migratory behavior across 39 steelhead populations from across California, USA...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515780/evolution-and-the-duration-of-a-doomed-population
#4
Richard Gomulkiewicz, Stephen M Krone, Christopher H Remien
Many populations are doomed to extinction, but little is known about how evolution contributes to their longevity. We address this by modeling an asexual population consisting of genotypes whose abundances change independently according to a system of continuous branching diffusions. Each genotype is characterized by its initial abundance, growth rate, and reproductive variance. The latter two components determine the genotype's "risk function" which describes its per capita probability of extinction at any time...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515779/higher-resource-level-promotes-virulence-in-an-environmentally-transmitted-bacterial-fish-pathogen
#5
Hanna Kinnula, Johanna Mappes, Janne K Valkonen, Katja Pulkkinen, Lotta-Riina Sundberg
Diseases have become a primary constraint to sustainable aquaculture, but remarkably little attention has been paid to a broad class of pathogens: the opportunists. Opportunists often persist in the environment outside the host, and their pathogenic features are influenced by changes in the environment. To test how environmental nutrient levels influence virulence, we used strains of Flavobacterium columnare, an environmentally transmitted fish pathogen, to infect rainbow trout and zebra fish in two different nutrient concentrations...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515778/evolution-of-movement-rate-increases-the-effectiveness-of-marine-reserves-for-the-conservation-of-pelagic-fishes
#6
Jonathan A Mee, Sarah P Otto, Daniel Pauly
Current debates about the efficacy of no-take marine reserves (MR) in protecting large pelagic fish such as tuna and sharks have usually not considered the evolutionary dimension of this issue, which emerges because the propensity to swim away from a given place, like any other biological trait, will probably vary in a heritable fashion among individuals. Here, based on spatially explicit simulations, we investigated whether selection to remain in MRs to avoid higher fishing mortality can lead to the evolution of more philopatric fish...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515777/experimental-evolution-to-increase-the-efficacy-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana-against-malaria-mosquitoes-effects-on-mycelial-growth-and-virulence
#7
Claudio A Valero-Jiménez, Jan A L van Kan, Constantianus J M Koenraadt, Bas J Zwaan, Sijmen E Schoustra
Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are currently considered as a potential control agent for malaria mosquitoes. The success of such strategies depends among others on the efficacy of the fungus to kill its hosts. As B. bassiana can use various resources for growth and reproduction, increasing the dependency on mosquitoes as a nutritional source may be instrumental for reaching this goal. Passage of entomopathogenic fungi through an insect host has been shown to increase its virulence. We evaluated the virulence, fungal outgrowth, mycelial growth rate, and sporulation rate of two B...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515776/hormonally-active-phytochemicals-and-vertebrate-evolution
#8
Max R Lambert, Thea M Edwards
Living plants produce a diversity of chemicals that share structural and functional properties with vertebrate hormones. Wildlife species interact with these chemicals either through consumption of plant materials or aquatic exposure. Accumulating evidence shows that exposure to these hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) often has consequences for behavior, physiology, and fecundity. These fitness effects suggest there is potential for an evolutionary response by vertebrates to HAPs. Here, we explore the toxicological HAP-vertebrate relationship in an evolutionary framework and discuss the potential for vertebrates to adapt to or even co-opt the effects of plant-derived chemicals that influence fitness...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352299/genomic-patterns-of-diversity-and-divergence-of-two-introduced-salmonid-species-in-patagonia-south-america
#9
Shawn R Narum, Pablo Gallardo, Cristian Correa, Amanda Matala, Daniel Hasselman, Ben J G Sutherland, Louis Bernatchez
Invasive species have become widespread in aquatic environments throughout the world, yet there are few studies that have examined genomic variation of multiple introduced species in newly colonized environments. In this study, we contrast genomic variation in two salmonid species (anadromous Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, 11,579 SNPs and resident Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis, 13,522 SNPs) with differing invasion success after introduction to new environments in South America relative to populations from their native range in North America...
April 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352298/low-genetic-diversity-but-strong-population-structure-reflects-multiple-introductions-of-western-flower-thrips-thysanoptera-thripidae-into-china-followed-by-human-mediated-spread
#10
Li-Jun Cao, Ze-Hua Wang, Ya-Jun Gong, Liang Zhu, Ary Anthony Hoffmann, Shu-Jun Wei
Historical invasion scenarios based on observational records are usually incomplete and biased, but these can be supplemented by population genetic data. The western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, invaded China in the last 13 years and has rapidly become one of the most serious pests in the country. To assess whether this invasion involved a single event or multiple events, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and population structure of WFT across 12 Chinese populations and a native US population based on mitochondrial DNA and/or 18 microsatellite loci...
April 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352297/adaptive-evolution-and-demographic-history-contribute-to-the-divergent-population-genetic-structure-of-potato-virus-y-between-china-and-japan
#11
Fangluan Gao, Wenchao Zou, Lianhui Xie, Jiasui Zhan
Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant pathogen causing considerable economic loss to potato production. Knowledge of the population genetic structure and evolutionary biology of the pathogen, particularly at a transnational scale, is limited but vital in developing sustainable management schemes. In this study, the population genetic structure and molecular evolution of PVY were studied using 127 first protein (P1) and 137 coat protein (CP) sequences generated from isolates collected from potato in China and Japan...
April 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352296/hidden-diversity-and-phylogeographic-history-provide-conservation-insights-for-the-edible-seaweed-sargassum-fusiforme-in-the-northwest-pacific
#12
Zi-Min Hu, Jing-Jing Li, Zhong-Min Sun, Xu Gao, Jian-Ting Yao, Han-Gil Choi, Hikaru Endo, De-Lin Duan
Understanding the evolutionary processes that have created diversity and the genetic potential of species to adapt to environmental change is an important premise for biodiversity conservation. Herein, we used mitochondrial trnW-L and cox3 and plastid rbcL-S data sets to analyze population genetic variation and phylogeographic history of the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme, whose natural resource has been largely exterminated in the Asia-Northwest Pacific in the past decades. Phylogenetic trees and network analysis consistently revealed three major haplotype groups (A, B, and C) in S...
April 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352295/keeping-things-local-subpopulation-nb-and-ne-in-a-stream-network-with-partial-barriers-to-fish-migration
#13
Andrew R Whiteley, Jason A Coombs, Matthew J O'Donnell, Keith H Nislow, Benjamin H Letcher
For organisms with overlapping generations that occur in metapopulations, uncertainty remains regarding the spatiotemporal scale of inference of estimates of the effective number of breeders (N^b) and whether these estimates can be used to predict generational Ne. We conducted a series of tests of the spatiotemporal scale of inference of estimates of Nb in nine consecutive cohorts within a long-term study of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We also tested a recently developed approach to estimate generational Ne from N^b and compared this to an alternative approach for estimating N^e that also accounts for age structure...
April 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352294/population-specific-genotype-x-genotype-x-environment-interactions-in-bacterial-disease-of-early-life-stages-of-pacific-oyster-larvae
#14
Carolin C Wendling, Armin G Fabritzek, K Mathias Wegner
The consequences of emerging marine diseases on the evolutionary trajectories of affected host populations in the marine realm are largely unexplored. Evolution in response to natural selection depends on the genetic variation of the traits under selection and the interaction of these traits with the environment (GxE). However, in the case of diseases, pathogen genotypes add another dimension to this interaction. Therefore, the study of disease resistance needs to be extended to the interaction of host genotype, pathogen genotype and environment (GxGxE)...
April 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352293/using-fine-scale-spatial-genetics-of-norway-rats-to-improve-control-efforts-and-reduce-leptospirosis-risk-in-urban-slum-environments
#15
Jonathan L Richardson, Mary K Burak, Christian Hernandez, James M Shirvell, Carol Mariani, Ticiana S A Carvalho-Pereira, Arsinoê C Pertile, Jesus A Panti-May, Gabriel G Pedra, Soledad Serrano, Josh Taylor, Mayara Carvalho, Gorete Rodrigues, Federico Costa, James E Childs, Albert I Ko, Adalgisa Caccone
The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a key pest species globally and responsible for seasonal outbreaks of the zoonotic bacterial disease leptospirosis in the tropics. The city of Salvador, Brazil, has seen recent and dramatic increases in human population residing in slums, where conditions foster high rat density and increasing leptospirosis infection rates. Intervention campaigns have been used to drastically reduce rat numbers. In planning these interventions, it is important to define the eradication units - the spatial scale at which rats constitute continuous populations and from where rats are likely recolonizing, post-intervention...
April 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352292/climate-drives-adaptive-genetic-responses-associated-with-survival-in-big-sagebrush-artemisia-tridentata
#16
Lindsay Chaney, Bryce A Richardson, Matthew J Germino
A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation for survival in Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush). Artemisia tridentata is a widespread and foundational shrub species in western North America. This species has become extremely fragmented, to the detriment of dependent wildlife, and efforts to restore it are now a land management priority. Common-garden experiments were established at three sites with seedlings from 55 source-populations. Populations included each of the three predominant subspecies, and cytotype variations...
April 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250813/modelling-the-evolution-of-hiv-1-virulence-in-response-to-imperfect-therapy-and-prophylaxis
#17
David R M Smith, Nicole Mideo
Average HIV-1 virulence appears to have evolved in different directions in different host populations since antiretroviral therapy first became available, and models predict that HIV drugs can select for either higher or lower virulence, depending on how treatment is administered. However, HIV virulence evolution in response to "leaky" therapy (treatment that imperfectly suppresses viral replication) and the use of preventive drugs (pre-exposure prophylaxis) has not been explored. Using adaptive dynamics, we show that higher virulence can evolve when antiretroviral therapy is imperfectly effective and that this evolution erodes some of the long-term clinical and epidemiological benefits of HIV treatment...
March 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250812/a-genome-scan-for-selection-signatures-comparing-farmed-atlantic-salmon-with-two-wild-populations-testing-colocalization-among-outlier-markers-candidate-genes-and-quantitative-trait-loci-for-production-traits
#18
Lei Liu, Keng Pee Ang, J A K Elliott, Matthew Peter Kent, Sigbjørn Lien, Danielle MacDonald, Elizabeth Grace Boulding
Comparative genome scans can be used to identify chromosome regions, but not traits, that are putatively under selection. Identification of targeted traits may be more likely in recently domesticated populations under strong artificial selection for increased production. We used a North American Atlantic salmon 6K SNP dataset to locate genome regions of an aquaculture strain (Saint John River) that were highly diverged from that of its putative wild founder population (Tobique River). First, admixed individuals with partial European ancestry were detected using STRUCTURE and removed from the dataset...
March 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250811/the-other-96-can-neglected-sources-of-fitness-variation-offer-new-insights-into-adaptation-to-global-change
#19
Evatt Chirgwin, Dustin J Marshall, Carla M Sgrò, Keyne Monro
Mounting research considers whether populations may adapt to global change based on additive genetic variance in fitness. Yet selection acts on phenotypes, not additive genetic variance alone, meaning that persistence and evolutionary potential in the near term, at least, may be influenced by other sources of fitness variation, including nonadditive genetic and maternal environmental effects. The fitness consequences of these effects, and their environmental sensitivity, are largely unknown. Here, applying a quantitative genetic breeding design to an ecologically important marine tubeworm, we examined nonadditive genetic and maternal environmental effects on fitness (larval survival) across three thermal environments...
March 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250810/managing-cryptic-biodiversity-fine-scale-intralacustrine-speciation-along-a-benthic-gradient-in-alpine-whitefish-coregonus-spp
#20
Alan G Hudson, Baenz Lundsgaard-Hansen, Kay Lucek, Pascal Vonlanthen, Ole Seehausen
Whitefish (Coregonus spp.) are an important catch for many freshwater fisheries, particularly in Switzerland. In support of this, supplemental stocking of whitefish species is carried out, despite lacking complete knowledge of the extent, distribution and origin of whitefish diversity in these lakes, potentially threatening local endemics via artificial gene flow. Here, we investigate phenotypic and genetic differentiation among coexisting whitefish species spawning along a depth gradient in a subalpine Swiss lake to better delineate intralacustrine whitefish biodiversity...
March 2017: Evolutionary Applications
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