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Evolutionary Applications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877207/sockeye-salmon-repatriation-leads-to-population-re-establishment-and-rapid-introgression-with-native-kokanee
#1
Andrew J Veale, Michael A Russello
Re-establishing salmonid populations to areas historically occupied has the substantial potential for conservation gains; however, such interventions also risk negatively impacting native resident stocks. Here, we assessed the success of the hatchery-assisted reintroduction of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) into Skaha Lake, British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated the genetic consequences for native kokanee, a freshwater-obligate ecotype, using single nucleotide polymorphism genotypic data collected from the reference samples of spawning Okanagan River sockeye and Skaha Lake kokanee presockeye reintroduction, along with annual trawl survey and angler-caught samples obtained over an eight-year period...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877206/genomic-signatures-among-oncorhynchus-nerka-ecotypes-to-inform-conservation-and-management-of-endangered-sockeye-salmon
#2
Krista M Nichols, Christine C Kozfkay, Shawn R Narum
Conservation of life history variation is an important consideration for many species with trade-offs in migratory characteristics. Many salmonid species exhibit both resident and migratory strategies that capitalize on benefits in freshwater and marine environments. In this study, we investigated genomic signatures for migratory life history in collections of resident and anadromous Oncorhynchus nerka (Kokanee and Sockeye Salmon, respectively) from two lake systems, using ~2,600 SNPs from restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq)...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877205/spatial-patterns-of-immunogenetic-and-neutral-variation-underscore-the-conservation-value-of-small-isolated-american-badger-populations
#3
Yessica Rico, Danielle M Ethier, Christina M Davy, Josh Sayers, Richard D Weir, Bradley J Swanson, Joseph J Nocera, Christopher J Kyle
Small and isolated populations often exhibit low genetic diversity due to drift and inbreeding, but may simultaneously harbour adaptive variation. We investigate spatial distributions of immunogenetic variation in American badger subspecies (Taxidea taxus), as a proxy for evaluating their evolutionary potential across the northern extent of the species' range. We compared genetic structure of 20 microsatellites and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC DRB exon 2) to evaluate whether small, isolated populations show low adaptive polymorphism relative to large and well-connected populations...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877204/increases-in-the-mean-and-variability-of-thermal-regimes-result-in-differential-phenotypic-responses-among-genotypes-during-early-ontogenetic-stages-of-lake-sturgeon-acipenser-fulvescens
#4
Kari J Dammerman, Juan P Steibel, Kim T Scribner
Climate change is affecting thermal conditions worldwide. Understanding organismal responses associated with predicted changes are essential for predicting population persistence. Few studies have examined the effects of both increased mean and variance in temperature on organismal traits, particularly during early life stages. Using lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) from Black Lake, MI, we tested whether phenotypic variation differed among families reared in two constant (10 and 18°C) and two fluctuating-temperature treatments (10-19°C) representing temperatures experienced in the river and a simulated anthropogenic disturbance...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877203/past-and-present-dynamics-of-sorghum-and-pearl-millet-diversity-in-mount-kenya-region
#5
Vanesse Labeyrie, Monique Deu, Yann Dussert, Bernard Rono, Françoise Lamy, Charles Marangu, Dan Kiambi, Caroline Calatayud, Geo Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Thierry Robert, Christian Leclerc
Crop populations in smallholder farming systems are shaped by the interaction of biological, ecological, and social processes, occurring on different spatiotemporal scales. Understanding these dynamics is fundamental for the conservation of crop genetic resources. In this study, we investigated the processes involved in sorghum and pearl millet diversity dynamics on Mount Kenya. Surveys were conducted in ten sites distributed along two elevation transects and occupied by six ethnolinguistic groups. Varieties of both species grown in each site were inventoried and characterized using SSR markers...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877202/rapid-genetic-and-ecological-differentiation-during-the-northern-range-expansion-of-the-venomous-yellow-sac-spider-cheiracanthium-punctorium-in-europe
#6
Henrik Krehenwinkel, Dennis Rödder, Magdalena Năpăruş-Aljančič, Matjaž Kuntner
Although poleward range expansions are commonly attributed to global change, a complex interaction of ecological and evolutionary factors might contribute to expansion success. Here, we study the expansion of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium, a medically important species in Central Europe. Using microsatellite markers and DNA sequences, morphological and climate niche analyses, we identify factors associated with the spider's expansion success. Our results indicate that the species' initial expansion has been triggered by environmental change and preadaptation in the source populations...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877201/can-local-adaptation-research-in-plants-inform-selection-of-native-plant-materials-an-analysis-of-experimental-methodologies
#7
Alexis L Gibson, Erin K Espeland, Viktoria Wagner, Cara R Nelson
Local adaptation is used as a criterion to select plant materials that will display high fitness in new environments. A large body of research has explored local adaptation in plants, however, to what extent findings can inform management decisions has not been formally evaluated. We assessed local adaptation literature for six key experimental methodologies that have the greatest effect on the application of research to selecting plant materials for natural resource management: experimental environment, response variables, maternal effects, intraspecific variation, selective agents, and spatial and temporal variability...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877200/genomics-advances-the-study-of-inbreeding-depression-in-the-wild
#8
REVIEW
Marty Kardos, Helen R Taylor, Hans Ellegren, Gordon Luikart, Fred W Allendorf
Inbreeding depression (reduced fitness of individuals with related parents) has long been a major focus of ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite decades of research, we still have a limited understanding of the strength, underlying genetic mechanisms, and demographic consequences of inbreeding depression in the wild. Studying inbreeding depression in natural populations has been hampered by the inability to precisely measure individual inbreeding. Fortunately, the rapidly increasing availability of high-throughput sequencing data means it is now feasible to measure the inbreeding of any individual with high precision...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695526/global-change-life-history-complexity-and-the-potential-for-evolutionary-rescue
#9
Dustin J Marshall, Scott C Burgess, Tim Connallon
Most organisms have complex life cycles, and in marine taxa, larval life-history stages tend to be more sensitive to environmental stress than adult (reproductive) life-history stages. While there are several models of stage-specific adaptation across the life history, the extent to which differential sensitivity to environmental stress (defined here as reductions in absolute fitness across the life history) affects the tempo of adaptive evolution to change remains unclear. We used a heuristic model to explore how commonly observed features associated with marine complex life histories alter a population's capacity to cope with environmental change...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695525/growth-rate-evolution-in-improved-environments-under-prodigal-son-dynamics
#10
Sinéad Collins
I use an individual-based model to investigate the evolution of cell division rates in asexual populations under chronic environmental enrichment. I show that maintaining increased growth rates over hundreds of generations following environmental improvement can be limited by increases in cellular damage associated with more rapid reproduction. In the absence of further evolution to either increase damage tolerance or decrease the cost of repair or rate of damage, environmental improvement does not reliably lead to long-term increases in reproductive rate in microbes...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695524/ocean-acidification-influences-host-dna-methylation-and-phenotypic-plasticity-in-environmentally-susceptible-corals
#11
Hollie M Putnam, Jennifer M Davidson, Ruth D Gates
As climate change challenges organismal fitness by creating a phenotype-environment mismatch, phenotypic plasticity generated by epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., DNA methylation) can provide a temporal buffer for genetic adaptation. Epigenetic mechanisms may be crucial for sessile benthic marine organisms, such as reef-building corals, where ocean acidification (OA) and warming reflect in strong negative responses. We tested the potential for scleractinian corals to exhibit phenotypic plasticity associated with a change in DNA methylation in response to OA...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695523/swift-thermal-reaction-norm-evolution-in-a-key-marine-phytoplankton-species
#12
Luisa Listmann, Maxime LeRoch, Lothar Schlüter, Mridul K Thomas, Thorsten B H Reusch
Temperature has a profound effect on the species composition and physiology of marine phytoplankton, a polyphyletic group of microbes responsible for half of global primary production. Here, we ask whether and how thermal reaction norms in a key calcifying species, the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, change as a result of 2.5 years of experimental evolution to a temperature ≈2°C below its upper thermal limit. Replicate experimental populations derived from a single genotype isolated from Norwegian coastal waters were grown at two temperatures for 2...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695522/adaptation-to-climate-change-trade-offs-among-responses-to-multiple-stressors-in-an-intertidal-crustacean
#13
Morgan W Kelly, Melissa B DeBiasse, Vidal A Villela, Hope L Roberts, Colleen F Cecola
Trade-offs may influence both physiological and evolutionary responses to co-occurring stressors, but their effects on both plastic and adaptive responses to climate change are poorly understood. To test for genetic and physiological trade-offs incurred in tolerating multiple stressors, we hybridized two populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus that were divergent for both heat and salinity tolerance. Starting in the F2 generation, we selected for increased tolerance of heat, low salinity, and high salinity in replicate lines...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695521/can-trans-generational-experiments-be-used-to-enhance-species-resilience-to-ocean-warming-and-acidification
#14
Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Emma M Gibbin, Felix Christen, Gloria Massamba-N'Siala, Pierre U Blier, Piero Calosi
Human-assisted, trans-generational exposure to ocean warming and acidification has been proposed as a conservation and/or restoration tool to produce resilient offspring. To improve our understanding of the need for and the efficacy of this approach, we characterized life-history and physiological responses in offspring of the marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica exposed to predicted ocean warming (OW: + 3°C), ocean acidification (OA: pH -0.5) and their combination (OWA: + 3°C, pH -0.5), following the exposure of their parents to either control conditions (within-generational exposure) or the same conditions (trans-generational exposure)...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695520/loss-of-genetic-diversity-as-a-consequence-of-selection-in-response-to-high-pco2
#15
Melanie M Lloyd, April D Makukhov, Melissa H Pespeni
Standing genetic variation may allow for rapid evolutionary response to the geologically unprecedented changes in global conditions. However, there is little known about the consequences of such rapid evolutionary change. Here, we measure genetic responses to experimental low and high pCO 2 levels in purple sea urchin larvae, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We found greater loss of nucleotide diversity in high pCO 2 levels (18.61%; 900 μatm) compared to low pCO 2 levels (10.12%; 400 μatm). In the wild, this loss could limit the evolutionary capacity of future generations...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695519/selection-on-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-ribosomal-structure-as-a-multigenerational-response-to-ocean-acidification-in-the-common-copepod-pseudocalanus-acuspes
#16
Pierre De Wit, Sam Dupont, Peter Thor
Ocean acidification is expected to have dramatic impacts on oceanic ecosystems, yet surprisingly few studies currently examine long-term adaptive and plastic responses of marine invertebrates to pCO 2 stress. Here, we exposed populations of the common copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes to three pCO 2 regimes (400, 900, and 1550 μatm) for two generations, after which we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment. A de novo transcriptome was assembled, annotated, and gene expression data revealed that genes involved in RNA transcription were strongly down-regulated in populations with long-term exposure to a high pCO 2 environment, even after transplantation back to control levels...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695518/transgenerational-effects-persist-down-the-maternal-line-in-marine-sticklebacks-gene-expression-matches-physiology-in-a-warming-ocean
#17
Lisa N S Shama, Felix C Mark, Anneli Strobel, Ana Lokmer, Uwe John, K Mathias Wegner
Transgenerational effects can buffer populations against environmental change, yet little is known about underlying mechanisms, their persistence or the influence of environmental cue timing. We investigated mitochondrial respiratory capacity (MRC) and gene expression of marine sticklebacks that experienced acute or developmental acclimation to simulated ocean warming (21°C) across three generations. Previous work showed that acute acclimation of grandmothers to 21°C led to lower (optimized) offspring MRCs...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695517/multi-generational-responses-of-a-marine-polychaete-to-a-rapid-change-in-seawater-pco2
#18
Araceli Rodríguez-Romero, Michael D Jarrold, Gloria Massamba-N'Siala, John I Spicer, Piero Calosi
Little is known of the capacity that marine metazoans have to evolve under rapid p CO 2 changes. Consequently, we reared a marine polychaete, Ophryotrocha labronica, previously cultured for approximately 33 generations under a low/variable pH regime, under elevated and low p CO 2 for six generations. The strain used was found to be tolerant to elevated p CO 2 conditions. In generations F1 and F2 females' fecundity was significantly lower in the low p CO 2 treatment. However, from generation F3 onwards there were no differences between p CO 2 treatments, indicating that trans-generational effects enabled the restoration and maintenance of reproductive output...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695516/transgenerational-plasticity-of-reproduction-depends-on-rate-of-warming-across-generations
#19
Jennifer M Donelson, Marian Wong, David J Booth, Philip L Munday
Predicting the impacts of climate change to biological systems requires an understanding of the ability for species to acclimate to the projected environmental change through phenotypic plasticity. Determining the effects of higher temperatures on individual performance is made more complex by the potential for environmental conditions experienced in previous and current generations to independently affect phenotypic responses to high temperatures. We used a model coral reef fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) to investigate the influence of thermal conditions experienced by two generations on reproductive output and the quality of offspring produced by adults...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695515/an-in%C3%A2-situ-assessment-of-local-adaptation-in-a-calcifying-polychaete-from-a-shallow-co2-vent-system
#20
Noelle M Lucey, Chiara Lombardi, Maurizio Florio, Lucia DeMarchi, Matteo Nannini, Simon Rundle, Maria Cristina Gambi, Piero Calosi
Ocean acidification (OA) is likely to exert selective pressure on natural populations. Our ability to predict which marine species will adapt to OA and what underlies this adaptive potential is of high conservation and resource management priority. Using a naturally low-pH vent site in the Mediterranean Sea (Castello Aragonese, Ischia) mirroring projected future OA conditions, we carried out a reciprocal transplant experiment to investigate the relative importance of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in two populations of the sessile, calcifying polychaete Simplaria sp...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
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