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Evolutionary Applications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717392/the-power-of-evolutionary-rescue-is-constrained-by-genetic-load
#1
Gavin S Stewart, Madeline R Morris, Allison B Genis, Marianna Szűcs, Brett A Melbourne, Simon J Tavener, Ruth A Hufbauer
The risk of extinction faced by small isolated populations in changing environments can be reduced by rapid adaptation and subsequent growth to larger, less vulnerable sizes. Whether this process, called evolutionary rescue, is able to reduce extinction risk and sustain population growth over multiple generations is largely unknown. To understand the consequences of adaptive evolution as well as maladaptive processes in small isolated populations, we subjected experimental Tribolium castaneum populations founded with 10 or 40 individuals to novel environments, one more favorable, and one resource poor, and either allowed evolution, or constrained it by replacing individuals one-for-one each generation with those from a large population maintained in the natal environment...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717391/transcriptional-mechanisms-underlying-life-history-responses-to-climate-change-in-the-three-spined-stickleback
#2
Sin-Yeon Kim, Maria M Costa, Anna Esteve-Codina, Alberto Velando
Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of an organism to express different phenotypes depending on the environment, provides an important mechanism by which an animal population can persist under rapid climate change. We experimentally tested both life-history and transcriptional responses of an ecological model species, the three-spined stickleback, to warm acclimation at the southern edge of its European range. We explored cross-environment genetic correlations of key life-history traits in male sticklebacks exposed to long-term temperature changes to examine whether the plasticity pattern was variable among genotypes by using a character-state approach...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717390/tracing-the-origin-of-the-early-wet-season-anopheles-coluzzii-in-the-sahel
#3
Tovi Lehmann, David Weetman, Diana L Huestis, Alpha S Yaro, Yaya Kassogue, Moussa Diallo, Martin J Donnelly, Adama Dao
In arid environments, the source of the malaria mosquito populations that re-establish soon after first rains remains a puzzle and alternative explanations have been proposed. Using genetic data, we evaluated whether the early rainy season (RS) population of Anopheles coluzzii is descended from the preceding late RS generation at the same locality, consistent with dry season (DS) dormancy (aestivation), or from migrants from distant locations. Distinct predictions derived from these two hypotheses were assessed, based on variation in 738 SNPs in eleven A...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717389/sexual-selection-reinforces-a-higher-flight-endurance-in-urban-damselflies
#4
Nedim Tüzün, Lin Op de Beeck, Robby Stoks
Urbanization is among the most important and globally rapidly increasing anthropogenic processes and is known to drive rapid evolution. Habitats in urbanized areas typically consist of small, fragmented and isolated patches, which are expected to select for a better locomotor performance, along with its underlying morphological traits. This, in turn, is expected to cause differentiation in selection regimes, as populations with different frequency distributions for a given trait will span different parts of the species' fitness function...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717388/heritability-of-behavioural-tolerance-to-high-co2-in-a-coral-reef-fish-is-masked-by-nonadaptive-phenotypic-plasticity
#5
Megan J Welch, Philip L Munday
Previous studies have demonstrated limited potential for acclimation of adversely affected olfactory behaviours in reef fishes under elevated CO 2, indicating that genetic adaptation will be required to maintain behavioural performance in the future. Adaptation depends on the presence of heritable phenotypic variation in the trait, which may differ between populations and environments. We used parent-offspring regressions to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of variation in behavioural tolerance to high CO 2 (754 μatm) in both field-collected and laboratory-reared families of Acanthochromis polyacanthus...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717387/human-mediated-evolution-in-a-threatened-species-juvenile-life-history-changes-in-snake-river-salmon
#6
Robin S Waples, Anna Elz, Billy D Arnsberg, James R Faulkner, Jeffrey J Hard, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Linda K Park
Evaluations of human impacts on Earth's ecosystems often ignore evolutionary changes in response to altered selective regimes. Freshwater habitats for Snake River fall Chinook salmon (SRFCS), a threatened species in the US, have been dramatically changed by hydropower development and other watershed modifications. Associated biological changes include a shift in juvenile life history: Historically essentially 100% of juveniles migrated to sea as subyearlings, but a substantial fraction have migrated as yearlings in recent years...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717386/understanding-low-radiation-background-biology-through-controlled-evolution-experiments
#7
Nathanael Lampe, Vincent Breton, David Sarramia, Télesphore Sime-Ngando, David G Biron
Biological experiments conducted in underground laboratories over the last decade have shown that life can respond to relatively small changes in the radiation background in unconventional ways. Rapid changes in cell growth, indicative of hormetic behaviour and long-term inheritable changes in antioxidant regulation have been observed in response to changes in the radiation background that should be almost undetectable to cells. Here, we summarize the recent body of underground experiments conducted to date, and outline potential mechanisms (such as cell signalling, DNA repair and antioxidant regulation) that could mediate the response of cells to low radiation backgrounds...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717385/changes-in-diet-associated-with-cancer-an-evolutionary-perspective
#8
Frédéric Thomas, Sophie Rome, Frédéric Mery, Erika Dawson, Jacques Montagne, Peter A Biro, Christa Beckmann, François Renaud, Robert Poulin, Michel Raymond, Beata Ujvari
Changes in diet are frequently correlated with the occurrence and progression of malignant tumors (i.e., cancer) in both humans and other animals, but an integrated conceptual framework to interpret these changes still needs to be developed. Our aim is to provide a new perspective on dietary changes in tumor-bearing individuals by adapting concepts from parasitology. Dietary changes may occur alongside tumor progression for several reasons: (i) as a pathological side effect with no adaptive value, (ii) as the result of self-medication by the host to eradicate the tumor and/or to slow down its progression, (iii) as a result of host manipulation by the tumor that benefits its progression, and finally (iv) as a host tolerance strategy, to alleviate and repair damages caused by tumor progression...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616070/persistence-of-antibiotic-resistance-plasmids-in-bacterial-biofilms
#9
Benjamin J Ridenhour, Genevieve A Metzger, Michael France, Karol Gliniewicz, Jack Millstein, Larry J Forney, Eva M Top
The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance is a crisis in health care today. Antibiotic resistance is often horizontally transferred to susceptible bacteria by means of multidrug resistance plasmids that may or may not persist in the absence of antibiotics. Because bacterial pathogens often grow as biofilms, there is a need to better understand the evolution of plasmid persistence in these environments. Here we compared the evolution of plasmid persistence in the pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii when grown under antibiotic selection in biofilms versus well-mixed liquid cultures...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616069/population-genetic-and-field-ecological-analyses-return-similar-estimates-of-dispersal-over-space-and-time-in-an-endangered-amphibian
#10
Ian J Wang, H Bradley Shaffer
The explosive growth of empirical population genetics has seen a proliferation of analytical methods leading to a steady increase in our ability to accurately measure key population parameters, including genetic isolation, effective population size, and gene flow, in natural systems. Assuming they yield similar results, population genetic methods offer an attractive complement to, or replacement of, traditional field-ecological studies. However, empirical assessments of the concordance between direct field-ecological and indirect population genetic studies of the same populations are uncommon in the literature...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616068/genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-lolium-perenne-ssp-multiflorum-in-california-vineyards-and-orchards-indicate-potential-for-spread-of-herbicide-resistance-via-gene-flow
#11
Elizabeth Karn, Marie Jasieniuk
Management of agroecosystems with herbicides imposes strong selection pressures on weedy plants leading to the evolution of resistance against those herbicides. Resistance to glyphosate in populations of Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum is increasingly common in California, USA, causing economic losses and the loss of effective management tools. To gain insights into the recent evolution of glyphosate resistance in L. perenne in perennial cropping systems of northwest California and to inform management, we investigated the frequency of glyphosate resistance and the genetic diversity and structure of 14 populations...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616067/selection-by-higher-order-effects-of-salinity-and-bacteria-on-early-life-stages-of-western-baltic-spring-spawning-herring
#12
Maude Poirier, Luisa Listmann, Olivia Roth
Habitat stratification by abiotic and biotic factors initiates divergence of populations and leads to ecological speciation. In contrast to fully marine waters, the Baltic Sea is stratified by a salinity gradient that strongly affects fish physiology, distribution, diversity and virulence of important marine pathogens. Animals thus face the challenge to simultaneously adapt to the concurrent salinity and cope with the selection imposed by the changing pathogenic virulence. Western Baltic spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) migrate to spawning grounds characterized by different salinities to which herring are supposedly adapted...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616066/the-evolutionary-trade-off-between-stem-cell-niche-size-aging-%C3%A2-and-tumorigenesis
#13
Vincent L Cannataro, Scott A McKinley, Colette M St Mary
Many epithelial tissues within multicellular organisms are continually replenished by small independent populations of stem cells largely responsible for maintaining tissue homeostasis. These continually dividing populations are subject to mutations that can lead to tumorigenesis but also contribute to aging. Mutations accumulate in stem cell niches and change the rate of cell division and differentiation; the pace of this process and the fate of specific mutations depend strongly on niche population size. Here, we create a mathematical model of the intestinal stem cell niche, crypt system, and epithelium...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616065/human-management-and-hybridization-shape-treegourd-fruits-in-the-brazilian-amazon-basin
#14
Priscila Ambrósio Moreira, Cédric Mariac, Leila Zekraoui, Marie Couderc, Doriane Picanço Rodrigues, Charles R Clement, Yves Vigouroux
Local people's perceptions of cultivated and wild agrobiodiversity, as well as their management of hybridization are still understudied in Amazonia. Here we analyze domesticated treegourd (Crescentia cujete), whose versatile fruits have technological, symbolic, and medicinal uses. A wild relative (C. amazonica) of the cultivated species grows spontaneously in Amazonian flooded forests. We demonstrated, using whole chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites, that the two species are strongly differentiated...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616064/plasticity-in-gene-transcription-explains-the-differential-performance-of-two-invasive-fish-species
#15
Kyle W Wellband, Daniel D Heath
Phenotypic plasticity buffers organisms from environmental change and is hypothesized to aid the initial establishment of nonindigenous species in novel environments and postestablishment range expansion. The genetic mechanisms that underpin phenotypically plastic traits are generally poorly characterized; however, there is strong evidence that modulation of gene transcription is an important component of these responses. Here, we use RNA sequencing to examine the transcriptional basis of temperature tolerance for round and tubenose goby, two nonindigenous fish species that differ dramatically in the extent of their Great Lakes invasions despite similar invasion dates...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616063/benefits-of-gene-flow-are-mediated-by-individual-variability-in-self-compatibility-in-small-isolated-populations-of-an-endemic-plant-species
#16
Christopher T Frye, Maile C Neel
Many rare and endemic species experience increased rates of self-fertilization and mating among close relatives as a consequence of existing in small populations within isolated habitat patches. Variability in self-compatibility among individuals within populations may reflect adaptation to local demography and genetic architecture, inbreeding, or drift. We use experimental hand-pollinations under natural field conditions to assess the effects of gene flow in 21 populations of the central Appalachian endemic Trifolium virginicum that varied in population size and degree of isolation...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616062/severe-consequences-of-habitat-fragmentation-on-genetic-diversity-of-an-endangered-australian-freshwater-fish-a-call-for-assisted-gene-flow
#17
Alexandra Pavlova, Luciano B Beheregaray, Rhys Coleman, Dean Gilligan, Katherine A Harrisson, Brett A Ingram, Joanne Kearns, Annika M Lamb, Mark Lintermans, Jarod Lyon, Thuy T T Nguyen, Minami Sasaki, Zeb Tonkin, Jian D L Yen, Paul Sunnucks
Genetic diversity underpins the ability of populations to persist and adapt to environmental changes. Substantial empirical data show that genetic diversity rapidly deteriorates in small and isolated populations due to genetic drift, leading to reduction in adaptive potential and fitness and increase in inbreeding. Assisted gene flow (e.g. via translocations) can reverse these trends, but lack of data on fitness loss and fear of impairing population "uniqueness" often prevents managers from acting. Here, we use population genetic and riverscape genetic analyses and simulations to explore the consequences of extensive habitat loss and fragmentation on population genetic diversity and future population trajectories of an endangered Australian freshwater fish, Macquarie perch Macquaria australasica...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515783/trans-generational-plasticity-in-response-to-immune-challenge-is-constrained-by-heat-stress
#18
Olivia Roth, Susanne H Landis
Trans-generational plasticity (TGP) is the adjustment of phenotypes to changing habitat conditions that persist longer than the individual lifetime. Fitness benefits (adaptive TGP) are expected upon matching parent-offspring environments. In a global change scenario, several performance-related environmental factors are changing simultaneously. This lowers the predictability of offspring environmental conditions, potentially hampering the benefits of TGP. For the first time, we here explore how the combination of an abiotic and a biotic environmental factor in the parental generation plays out as trans-generational effect in the offspring...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515782/ecotypic-differentiation-under-farmers-selection-molecular-insights-into-the-domestication-of-pachyrhizus-rich-ex-dc-fabaceae-in-the-peruvian-andes
#19
Marc Delêtre, Beatriz Soengas, Prem Jai Vidaurre, Rosa Isela Meneses, Octavio Delgado Vásquez, Isabel Oré Balbín, Monica Santayana, Bettina Heider, Marten Sørensen
Understanding the distribution of crop genetic diversity in relation to environmental factors can give insights into the eco-evolutionary processes involved in plant domestication. Yam beans (Pachyrhizus Rich. ex DC.) are leguminous crops native to South and Central America that are grown for their tuberous roots but are seed-propagated. Using a landscape genetic approach, we examined correlations between environmental factors and phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in Pachyrhizus landrace populations...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515781/evolutionary-restoration-potential-evaluated-through-the-use-of-a-trait-linked-genetic-marker
#20
Travis M Apgar, Devon E Pearse, Eric P Palkovacs
Human-driven evolution can impact the ecological role and conservation value of impacted populations. Most evolutionary restoration approaches focus on manipulating gene flow, but an alternative approach is to manipulate the selection regime to restore historical or desired trait values. Here we examined the potential utility of this approach to restore anadromous migratory behavior in coastal California steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. We evaluated the effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental variables on the observed frequency of alleles at a genomic marker tightly associated with migratory behavior across 39 steelhead populations from across California, USA...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
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