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Evolutionary Applications

Masaaki Sudo, Daisuke Takahashi, David A Andow, Yoshito Suzuki, Takehiko Yamanaka
Although theoretical studies have shown that the mixture strategy, which uses multiple toxins simultaneously, can effectively delay the evolution of insecticide resistance, whether it is the optimal management strategy under different insect life histories and insecticide types remains unknown. To test the robustness of this management strategy over different life histories, we developed a series of simulation models that cover almost all the diploid insect types and have the same basic structure describing pest population dynamics and resistance evolution with discrete time steps...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Mara Lisa Alves, Maria Belo, Bruna Carbas, Cláudia Brites, Manuel Paulo, Pedro Mendes-Moreira, Carla Brites, Maria do Rosário Bronze, Zlatko Šatović, Maria Carlota Vaz Patto
Modern maize breeding programs gave rise to genetically uniform varieties that can affect maize's capacity to cope with increasing climate unpredictability. Maize populations, genetically more heterogeneous, can evolve and better adapt to a broader range of edaphic-climatic conditions. These populations usually suffer from low yields; it is therefore desirable to improve their agronomic performance while maintaining their valuable diversity levels. With this objective, a long-term participatory breeding/on-farm conservation program was established in Portugal...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Tania Zaviezo, Romina Retamal, Teddy Urvois, Xavier Fauvergue, Aurélie Blin, Thibaut Malausa
Inbreeding and inbreeding depression are processes in small populations of particular interest for a range of human activities such as animal breeding, species conservation, or pest management. In particular, biological control programs should benefit from a thorough understanding of the causes and consequences of inbreeding because natural enemies experience repetitive bottlenecks during importation, laboratory rearing, and introduction. Predicting the effect of inbreeding in hymenopteran parasitoid wasps, frequently used in biological control programs, is nonetheless a difficult endeavor...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Paul F Gugger, Christina T Liang, Victoria L Sork, Paul Hodgskiss, Jessica W Wright
Identifying and quantifying the importance of environmental variables in structuring population genetic variation can help inform management decisions for conservation, restoration, or reforestation purposes, in both current and future environmental conditions. Landscape genomics offers a powerful approach for understanding the environmental factors that currently associate with genetic variation, and given those associations, where populations may be most vulnerable under future environmental change. Here, we applied genotyping by sequencing to generate over 11,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 311 trees and then used nonlinear, multivariate environmental association methods to examine spatial genetic structure and its association with environmental variation in an ecologically and economically important tree species endemic to Hawaii, Acacia koa...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Heidi Käch, Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Alice B Dennis, Christoph Vorburger
There is growing interest in biological control as a sustainable and environmentally friendly way to control pest insects. Aphids are among the most detrimental agricultural pests worldwide, and parasitoid wasps are frequently employed for their control. The use of asexual parasitoids may improve the effectiveness of biological control because only females kill hosts and because asexual populations have a higher growth rate than sexuals. However, asexuals may have a reduced capacity to track evolutionary change in their host populations...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Michael W Thorn, Yolanda E Morbey
Offspring traits are greatly influenced by maternal effects, and these maternal effects may provide an important pathway through which populations can adapt to changing thermal environments. We investigated the effect of egg size on the among- and within-population variation in early life history traits among introduced Great Lakes Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations under varying thermal conditions. We reared Chinook salmon from three populations in a common-garden hatchery study at 6.5, 9...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Ana Mondon, Gregory L Owens, Mónica Poverene, Miguel Cantamutto, Loren H Rieseberg
Gene flow can have several different applied consequences, ranging from extinction to the escape of transgenes to the evolution of weedy or invasive lineages. Here, we describe patterns of hybridization and gene flow involving domesticated and wild sunflowers in Argentina. To address the risks of introgression of variants from the cultivated sunflower into invasive wild Helianthus, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to genotype 182 samples from 11 sites in Argentina, along with previously published data from samples from the native range (North America), to determine the native source populations of the Argentinian samples and to detect admixture...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Meng-Han He, Dong-Liang Li, Wen Zhu, E-Jiao Wu, Li-Na Yang, Yan-Ping Wang, Abdul Waheed, Jiasui Zhan
The spread of antimicrobial resistance and global change in air temperature represent two major phenomena that are exerting a disastrous impact on natural and social issues but investigation of the interaction between these phenomena in an evolutionary context is limited. In this study, a statistical genetic approach was used to investigate the evolution of antimicrobial resistance in agricultural ecosystem and its association with local air temperature, precipitation, and UV radiation. We found no resistance to mancozeb, a nonspecific fungicide widely used in agriculture for more than half a century, in 215 Alternaria alternata isolates sampled from geographic locations along a climatic gradient and cropping system representing diverse ecotypes in China, consistent with low resistance risk in many nonspecific fungicides...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Ian R MacLachlan, Sam Yeaman, Sally N Aitken
Hybrid zones contain extensive standing genetic variation that facilitates rapid responses to selection. The Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii hybrid zone in western Canada is the focus of tree breeding programs that annually produce ~90 million reforestation seedlings. Understanding the direct and indirect effects of selective breeding on adaptive variation is necessary to implement assisted gene flow (AGF) polices in Alberta and British Columbia that match these seedlings with future climates. We decomposed relationships among hybrid ancestry, adaptive traits, and climate to understand the implications of selective breeding for climate adaptations and AGF strategies...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Emma V A Sylvester, Paul Bentzen, Ian R Bradbury, Marie Clément, Jon Pearce, John Horne, Robert G Beiko
Genetic population assignment used to inform wildlife management and conservation efforts requires panels of highly informative genetic markers and sensitive assignment tests. We explored the utility of machine-learning algorithms (random forest, regularized random forest and guided regularized random forest) compared with FST ranking for selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for fine-scale population assignment. We applied these methods to an unpublished SNP data set for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and a published SNP data set for Alaskan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Wenpeng You, Maciej Henneberg
Cancer incidence increase has multiple aetiologies. Mutant alleles accumulation in populations may be one of them due to strong heritability of many cancers. The opportunity for the operation of natural selection has decreased in the past ~150 years because of reduction in mortality and fertility. Mutation-selection balance may have been disturbed in this process and genes providing background for some cancers may have been accumulating in human gene pools. Worldwide, based on the WHO statistics for 173 countries the index of the opportunity for selection is strongly inversely correlated with cancer incidence in peoples aged 0-49 years and in people of all ages...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Christine Grossen, Iris Biebach, Samer Angelone-Alasaad, Lukas F Keller, Daniel Croll
Restoration of lost species ranges to their native distribution is key for the survival of endangered species. However, reintroductions often fail and long-term genetic consequences are poorly understood. Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) are wild goats that recovered from <100 individuals to ~50,000 within a century by population reintroductions. We analyzed the population genomic consequences of the Alpine ibex reintroduction strategy. We genotyped 101,822 genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism loci in 173 Alpine ibex, the closely related Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) and domestic goat (Capra hircus)...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Bettina Zeis, Luisa Orsini
Anthropogenic global warming has become a major geological and environmental force driving drastic changes in natural ecosystems. Due to the high thermal conductivity of water and the effects of temperature on metabolic processes, freshwater ecosystems are among the most impacted by these changes. The ability to tolerate changes in temperature may determine species long-term survival and fitness. Therefore, it is critical to identify coping mechanisms to thermal and hyper-thermal stress in aquatic organisms...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Eyerusalem Goitom, Laurens J Kilsdonk, Kristien Brans, Mieke Jansen, Pieter Lemmens, Luc De Meester
There is growing evidence of rapid genetic adaptation of natural populations to environmental change, opening the perspective that evolutionary trait change may subsequently impact ecological processes such as population dynamics, community composition, and ecosystem functioning. To study such eco-evolutionary feedbacks in natural populations, however, requires samples across time. Here, we capitalize on a resurrection ecology study that documented rapid and adaptive evolution in a natural population of the water flea Daphnia magna in response to strong changes in predation pressure by fish, and carry out a follow-up mesocosm experiment to test whether the observed genetic changes influence population dynamics and top-down control of phytoplankton...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Arthur E Weis
The resurrection approach is a powerful tool for estimating phenotypic evolution in response to global change. Ancestral generations, revived from dormant propagules, are grown side by side with descendent generations in the same environment. Phenotypic differences between the generations can be attributed to genetic change over time. Project Baseline was established to capitalize on this potential in flowering plants. Project participants collected, froze, and stored seed from 10 or more natural populations of 61 North American plant species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Thomas Lenormand, Odrade Nougué, Roula Jabbour-Zahab, Fabien Arnaud, Laurent Dezileau, Luis-Miguel Chevin, Marta I Sánchez
Resurrection ecology (RE) is a very powerful approach to address a wide range of question in ecology and evolution. This approach rests on using appropriate model systems, and only few are known to be available. In this study, we show that Artemia has multiple attractive features (short generation time, cyst bank and collections, well-documented phylogeography, and ecology) for a good RE model. We show in detail with a case study how cysts can be recovered from sediments to document the history and dynamics of a biological invasion...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
William R Shoemaker, Jay T Lennon
Dormancy is a bet-hedging strategy that allows organisms to persist through conditions that are suboptimal for growth and reproduction by entering a reversible state of reduced metabolic activity. Dormancy allows a population to maintain a reservoir of genetic and phenotypic diversity (i.e., a seed bank) that can contribute to the long-term survival of a population. This strategy can be potentially adaptive and has long been of interest to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. However, comparatively little is known about how dormancy influences the fundamental evolutionary forces of genetic drift, mutation, selection, recombination, and gene flow...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
David R L Burge, Mark B Edlund, Dagmar Frisch
Paleolimnologists have utilized lake sediment records to understand historical lake and landscape development, timing and magnitude of environmental change at lake, watershed, regional and global scales, and as historical datasets to target watershed and lake management. Resurrection ecologists have long recognized lake sediments as sources of viable propagules ("seed or egg banks") with which to explore questions of community ecology, ecological response, and evolutionary ecology. Most researchers consider Daphnia as the primary model organism in these efforts, but many other aquatic biota, from viruses to macrophytes, similarly produce viable propagules that are incorporated in the sediment record but have been underutilized in resurrection ecology...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Shira Houwenhuyse, Emilie Macke, Lien Reyserhove, Lore Bulteel, Ellen Decaestecker
Current natural populations face new interactions because of the re-emergence of ancient microbes and viruses. These risks come from the re-emergence of pathogens kept in laboratories or from pathogens that are retained in the permafrost, which become available upon thawing due to climate change. We here focus on the effects of such re-emergence in natural host populations based on evolutionary theory of virulence and long-term studies, which investigate host-pathogen adaptations. Pathogens tend to be locally and temporally adapted to their co-occurring hosts, but when pathogens from a different environment or different time enter the host community, the degree to which a new host-pathogen interaction is a threat will depend on the specific genotypic associations, the time lag between the host and the pathogen, and the interactions with native or recent host and pathogen species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Steven J Franks, Elena Hamann, Arthur E Weis
The resurrection approach of reviving ancestors from stored propagules and comparing them with descendants under common conditions has emerged as a powerful method of detecting and characterizing contemporary evolution. As climatic and other environmental conditions continue to change at a rapid pace, this approach is becoming particularly useful for predicting and monitoring evolutionary responses. We evaluate this approach, explain the advantages and limitations, suggest best practices for implementation, review studies in which this approach has been used, and explore how it can be incorporated into conservation and management efforts...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
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