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Evolutionary Applications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035239/identifying-patterns-of-dispersal-connectivity-and-selection-in-the-sea-scallop-placopecten-magellanicus-using-radseq-derived-snps
#1
Mallory Van Wyngaarden, Paul V R Snelgrove, Claudio DiBacco, Lorraine C Hamilton, Naiara Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Nicholas W Jeffery, Ryan R E Stanley, Ian R Bradbury
Understanding patterns of dispersal and connectivity among marine populations can directly inform fisheries conservation and management. Advances in high-throughput sequencing offer new opportunities for estimating marine connectivity. We used restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing to examine dispersal and realized connectivity in the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus, an economically important marine bivalve. Based on 245 individuals sampled rangewide at 12 locations from Newfoundland to the Mid-Atlantic Bight, we identified and genotyped 7163 single nucleotide polymorphisms; 112 (1...
January 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035238/manipulating-virulence-factor-availability-can-have-complex-consequences-for-infections
#2
Michael Weigert, Adin Ross-Gillespie, Anne Leinweber, Gabriella Pessi, Sam P Brown, Rolf Kümmerli
Given the rise of bacterial resistance against antibiotics, we urgently need alternative strategies to fight infections. Some propose we should disarm rather than kill bacteria, through targeted disruption of their virulence factors. It is assumed that this approach (i) induces weak selection for resistance because it should only minimally impact bacterial fitness, and (ii) is specific, only interfering with the virulence factor in question. Given that pathogenicity emerges from complex interactions between pathogens, hosts and their environment, such assumptions may be unrealistic...
January 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035237/geographic-extent-of-introgression-in-sebastes%C3%A2-mentella-and-its-effect-on-genetic-population-structure
#3
Atal Saha, Torild Johansen, Rasmus Hedeholm, Einar E Nielsen, Jon-Ivar Westgaard, Lorenz Hauser, Benjamin Planque, Steven X Cadrin, Jesper Boje
Genetic population structure is often used to identify management units in exploited species, but the extent of genetic differentiation may be inflated by geographic variation in the level of hybridization between species. We identify the genetic population structure of Sebastes mentella and investigate possible introgression within the genus by analyzing 13 microsatellites in 2,562 redfish specimens sampled throughout the North Atlantic. The data support an historical divergence between the "shallow" and "deep" groups, beyond the Irminger Sea where they were described previously...
January 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035236/evolution-informed-modeling-improves-outcome-prediction-for-cancers
#4
Li Liu, Yung Chang, Tao Yang, David P Noren, Byron Long, Steven Kornblau, Amina Qutub, Jieping Ye
Despite wide applications of high-throughput biotechnologies in cancer research, many biomarkers discovered by exploring large-scale omics data do not provide satisfactory performance when used to predict cancer treatment outcomes. This problem is partly due to the overlooking of functional implications of molecular markers. Here, we present a novel computational method that uses evolutionary conservation as prior knowledge to discover bona fide biomarkers. Evolutionary selection at the molecular level is nature's test on functional consequences of genetic elements...
January 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035235/ancestry-and-adaptive-evolution-of-anadromous-resident-and-adfluvial-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-in-the-san-francisco-bay-area-application-of-adaptive-genomic-variation-to-conservation-in-a-highly-impacted-landscape
#5
Maeva Leitwein, John Carlos Garza, Devon E Pearse
The streams draining of into San Francisco Bay, California, have been impacted by habitat alteration for over 150 years, and roads, dams, water diversions, and other impediments now block the paths of many aquatic migratory species. These changes can affect the genetic structure of fish populations, as well as driving adaptive evolution to novel environmental conditions. Here, we determine the evolutionary relationships of San Francisco Bay Area steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations and show that (i) they are more closely related to native coastal steelhead than to the California Central Valley lineage, with no evidence of introgression by domesticated hatchery rainbow trout, (ii) populations above and below barriers within watersheds are each other's closest relatives, and (iii) adaptive genomic variation associated with migratory life-history traits in O...
January 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035234/genetic-diversity-and-connectivity-within-mytilus-spp-in-the-subarctic-and-arctic
#6
Sofie Smedegaard Mathiesen, Jakob Thyrring, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Jørgen Berge, Alexey Sukhotin, Peter Leopold, Michaël Bekaert, Mikael Kristian Sejr, Einar Eg Nielsen
Climate changes in the Arctic are predicted to alter distributions of marine species. However, such changes are difficult to quantify because information on present species distribution and the genetic variation within species is lacking or poorly examined. Blue mussels, Mytilus spp., are ecosystem engineers in the coastal zone globally. To improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp. individuals sampled at 13 sites to provide baseline data for distribution and genetic variation of Mytilus mussels in the European Arctic...
January 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035233/varying-selection-differential-throughout-the-climatic-range-of-norway-spruce-in-central-europe
#7
Stefan Kapeller, Ulf Dieckmann, Silvio Schueler
Predicting species distribution changes in global warming requires an understanding of how climatic constraints shape the genetic variation of adaptive traits and force local adaptations. To understand the genetic capacity of Norway spruce populations in Central Europe, we analyzed the variation in tree heights at the juvenile stage in common garden experiments established from the species' warm-dry to cold-moist distribution limits. We report the following findings: First, 47% of the total tree height variation at trial sites is attributable to the tree populations irrespective of site climate...
January 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035232/back-into-the-wild-apply-untapped-genetic-diversity-of-wild-relatives-for-crop-improvement
#8
REVIEW
Hengyou Zhang, Neha Mittal, Larry J Leamy, Oz Barazani, Bao-Hua Song
Deleterious effects of climate change and human activities, as well as diverse environmental stresses, present critical challenges to food production and the maintenance of natural diversity. These challenges may be met by the development of novel crop varieties with increased biotic or abiotic resistance that enables them to thrive in marginal lands. However, considering the diverse interactions between crops and environmental factors, it is surprising that evolutionary principles have been underexploited in addressing these food and environmental challenges...
January 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877207/sockeye-salmon-repatriation-leads-to-population-re-establishment-and-rapid-introgression-with-native-kokanee
#9
Andrew J Veale, Michael A Russello
Re-establishing salmonid populations to areas historically occupied has the substantial potential for conservation gains; however, such interventions also risk negatively impacting native resident stocks. Here, we assessed the success of the hatchery-assisted reintroduction of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) into Skaha Lake, British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated the genetic consequences for native kokanee, a freshwater-obligate ecotype, using single nucleotide polymorphism genotypic data collected from the reference samples of spawning Okanagan River sockeye and Skaha Lake kokanee presockeye reintroduction, along with annual trawl survey and angler-caught samples obtained over an eight-year period...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877206/genomic-signatures-among-oncorhynchus-nerka-ecotypes-to-inform-conservation-and-management-of-endangered-sockeye-salmon
#10
Krista M Nichols, Christine C Kozfkay, Shawn R Narum
Conservation of life history variation is an important consideration for many species with trade-offs in migratory characteristics. Many salmonid species exhibit both resident and migratory strategies that capitalize on benefits in freshwater and marine environments. In this study, we investigated genomic signatures for migratory life history in collections of resident and anadromous Oncorhynchus nerka (Kokanee and Sockeye Salmon, respectively) from two lake systems, using ~2,600 SNPs from restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq)...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877205/spatial-patterns-of-immunogenetic-and-neutral-variation-underscore-the-conservation-value-of-small-isolated-american-badger-populations
#11
Yessica Rico, Danielle M Ethier, Christina M Davy, Josh Sayers, Richard D Weir, Bradley J Swanson, Joseph J Nocera, Christopher J Kyle
Small and isolated populations often exhibit low genetic diversity due to drift and inbreeding, but may simultaneously harbour adaptive variation. We investigate spatial distributions of immunogenetic variation in American badger subspecies (Taxidea taxus), as a proxy for evaluating their evolutionary potential across the northern extent of the species' range. We compared genetic structure of 20 microsatellites and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC DRB exon 2) to evaluate whether small, isolated populations show low adaptive polymorphism relative to large and well-connected populations...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877204/increases-in-the-mean-and-variability-of-thermal-regimes-result-in-differential-phenotypic-responses-among-genotypes-during-early-ontogenetic-stages-of-lake-sturgeon-acipenser-fulvescens
#12
Kari J Dammerman, Juan P Steibel, Kim T Scribner
Climate change is affecting thermal conditions worldwide. Understanding organismal responses associated with predicted changes are essential for predicting population persistence. Few studies have examined the effects of both increased mean and variance in temperature on organismal traits, particularly during early life stages. Using lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) from Black Lake, MI, we tested whether phenotypic variation differed among families reared in two constant (10 and 18°C) and two fluctuating-temperature treatments (10-19°C) representing temperatures experienced in the river and a simulated anthropogenic disturbance...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877203/past-and-present-dynamics-of-sorghum-and-pearl-millet-diversity-in-mount-kenya-region
#13
Vanesse Labeyrie, Monique Deu, Yann Dussert, Bernard Rono, Françoise Lamy, Charles Marangu, Dan Kiambi, Caroline Calatayud, Geo Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Thierry Robert, Christian Leclerc
Crop populations in smallholder farming systems are shaped by the interaction of biological, ecological, and social processes, occurring on different spatiotemporal scales. Understanding these dynamics is fundamental for the conservation of crop genetic resources. In this study, we investigated the processes involved in sorghum and pearl millet diversity dynamics on Mount Kenya. Surveys were conducted in ten sites distributed along two elevation transects and occupied by six ethnolinguistic groups. Varieties of both species grown in each site were inventoried and characterized using SSR markers...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877202/rapid-genetic-and-ecological-differentiation-during-the-northern-range-expansion-of-the-venomous-yellow-sac-spider-cheiracanthium-punctorium-in-europe
#14
Henrik Krehenwinkel, Dennis Rödder, Magdalena Năpăruş-Aljančič, Matjaž Kuntner
Although poleward range expansions are commonly attributed to global change, a complex interaction of ecological and evolutionary factors might contribute to expansion success. Here, we study the expansion of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium, a medically important species in Central Europe. Using microsatellite markers and DNA sequences, morphological and climate niche analyses, we identify factors associated with the spider's expansion success. Our results indicate that the species' initial expansion has been triggered by environmental change and preadaptation in the source populations...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877201/can-local-adaptation-research-in-plants-inform-selection-of-native-plant-materials-an-analysis-of-experimental-methodologies
#15
Alexis L Gibson, Erin K Espeland, Viktoria Wagner, Cara R Nelson
Local adaptation is used as a criterion to select plant materials that will display high fitness in new environments. A large body of research has explored local adaptation in plants, however, to what extent findings can inform management decisions has not been formally evaluated. We assessed local adaptation literature for six key experimental methodologies that have the greatest effect on the application of research to selecting plant materials for natural resource management: experimental environment, response variables, maternal effects, intraspecific variation, selective agents, and spatial and temporal variability...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877200/genomics-advances-the-study-of-inbreeding-depression-in-the-wild
#16
REVIEW
Marty Kardos, Helen R Taylor, Hans Ellegren, Gordon Luikart, Fred W Allendorf
Inbreeding depression (reduced fitness of individuals with related parents) has long been a major focus of ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite decades of research, we still have a limited understanding of the strength, underlying genetic mechanisms, and demographic consequences of inbreeding depression in the wild. Studying inbreeding depression in natural populations has been hampered by the inability to precisely measure individual inbreeding. Fortunately, the rapidly increasing availability of high-throughput sequencing data means it is now feasible to measure the inbreeding of any individual with high precision...
December 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695526/global-change-life-history-complexity-and-the-potential-for-evolutionary-rescue
#17
Dustin J Marshall, Scott C Burgess, Tim Connallon
Most organisms have complex life cycles, and in marine taxa, larval life-history stages tend to be more sensitive to environmental stress than adult (reproductive) life-history stages. While there are several models of stage-specific adaptation across the life history, the extent to which differential sensitivity to environmental stress (defined here as reductions in absolute fitness across the life history) affects the tempo of adaptive evolution to change remains unclear. We used a heuristic model to explore how commonly observed features associated with marine complex life histories alter a population's capacity to cope with environmental change...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695525/growth-rate-evolution-in-improved-environments-under-prodigal-son-dynamics
#18
Sinéad Collins
I use an individual-based model to investigate the evolution of cell division rates in asexual populations under chronic environmental enrichment. I show that maintaining increased growth rates over hundreds of generations following environmental improvement can be limited by increases in cellular damage associated with more rapid reproduction. In the absence of further evolution to either increase damage tolerance or decrease the cost of repair or rate of damage, environmental improvement does not reliably lead to long-term increases in reproductive rate in microbes...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695524/ocean-acidification-influences-host-dna-methylation-and-phenotypic-plasticity-in-environmentally-susceptible-corals
#19
Hollie M Putnam, Jennifer M Davidson, Ruth D Gates
As climate change challenges organismal fitness by creating a phenotype-environment mismatch, phenotypic plasticity generated by epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., DNA methylation) can provide a temporal buffer for genetic adaptation. Epigenetic mechanisms may be crucial for sessile benthic marine organisms, such as reef-building corals, where ocean acidification (OA) and warming reflect in strong negative responses. We tested the potential for scleractinian corals to exhibit phenotypic plasticity associated with a change in DNA methylation in response to OA...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695523/swift-thermal-reaction-norm-evolution-in-a-key-marine-phytoplankton-species
#20
Luisa Listmann, Maxime LeRoch, Lothar Schlüter, Mridul K Thomas, Thorsten B H Reusch
Temperature has a profound effect on the species composition and physiology of marine phytoplankton, a polyphyletic group of microbes responsible for half of global primary production. Here, we ask whether and how thermal reaction norms in a key calcifying species, the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, change as a result of 2.5 years of experimental evolution to a temperature ≈2°C below its upper thermal limit. Replicate experimental populations derived from a single genotype isolated from Norwegian coastal waters were grown at two temperatures for 2...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
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