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Evolutionary Applications

Daniel A Grear, Jeffrey S Hall, Robert J Dusek, Hon S Ip
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a multihost pathogen with lineages that pose health risks for domestic birds, wild birds, and humans. One mechanism of intercontinental HPAIV spread is through wild bird reservoirs, and wild birds were the likely sources of a Eurasian (EA) lineage HPAIV into North America in 2014. The introduction resulted in several reassortment events with North American (NA) lineage low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the reassortant EA/NA H5N2 went on to cause one of the largest HPAIV poultry outbreaks in North America...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Udayan Joseph, Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Gavin J D Smith, Yvonne C F Su
An H1N1 subtype influenza A virus with all eight gene segments derived from wild birds (including mallards), ducks and chickens, caused severe disease outbreaks in swine populations in Europe beginning in 1979 and successfully adapted to form the European avian-like swine (EA-swine) influenza lineage. Genes of the EA-swine lineage that are clearly segregated from its closest avian relatives continue to circulate in swine populations globally and represent a unique opportunity to study the adaptive process of an avian-to-mammalian cross-species transmission...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
José Lourenço, Warren Tennant, Nuno R Faria, Andrew Walker, Sunetra Gupta, Mario Recker
The dengue virus is now the most widespread arbovirus affecting human populations, causing significant economic and social impact in South America and South-East Asia. Increasing urbanization and globalization, coupled with insufficient resources for control, misguided policies or lack of political will, and expansion of its mosquito vectors are some of the reasons why interventions have so far failed to curb this major public health problem. Computational approaches have elucidated on dengue's population dynamics with the aim to provide not only a better understanding of the evolution and epidemiology of the virus but also robust intervention strategies...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Anna Borlase, Joanne P Webster, James W Rudge
Multihost multiparasite systems are evolutionarily and ecologically dynamic, which presents substantial trans-disciplinary challenges for elucidating their epidemiology and designing appropriate control. Evidence for hybridizations and introgressions between parasite species is gathering, in part in line with improvements in molecular diagnostics and genome sequencing. One major system where this is becoming apparent is within the Genus Schistosoma , where schistosomiasis represents a disease of considerable medical and veterinary importance, the greatest burden of which occurs in sub-Saharan Africa...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Mafalda Viana, Christina L Faust, Daniel T Haydon, Joanne P Webster, Poppy H L Lamberton
Natural selection acts on all organisms, including parasites, to maximize reproductive fitness. Drug resistance traits are often associated with life-history costs in the absence of treatment. Schistosomiasis control programmes rely on mass drug administration to reduce human morbidity and mortality. Although hotspots of reduced drug efficacy have been reported, resistance is not widespread. Using Bayesian state-space models (SSMs) fitted to data from an in vivo laboratory system, we tested the hypothesis that the spread of resistant Schistosoma mansoni may be limited by life-history costs not present in susceptible counterparts...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Alheli Flores-Ferrer, Olivier Marcou, Etienne Waleckx, Eric Dumonteil, Sébastien Gourbière
The aetiological agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi , is a key human pathogen afflicting most populations of Latin America. This vectorborne parasite is transmitted by haematophageous triatomines, whose control by large-scale insecticide spraying has been the main strategy to limit the impact of the disease for over 25 years. While those international initiatives have been successful in highly endemic areas, this systematic approach is now challenged by the emergence of insecticide resistance and by its low efficacy in controlling species that are only partially adapted to human habitat...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Thierry Lefevre, Johanna Ohm, Kounbobr R Dabiré, Anna Cohuet, Marc Choisy, Matthew B Thomas, Lauren Cator
Evaluating the risk of emergence and transmission of vector-borne diseases requires knowledge of the genetic and environmental contributions to pathogen transmission traits. Compared to the significant effort devoted to understanding the biology of malaria transmission from vertebrate hosts to mosquito vectors, the strategies that malaria parasites have evolved to maximize transmission from vectors to vertebrate hosts have been largely overlooked. While determinants of infection success within the mosquito host have recently received attention, the causes of variability for other key transmission traits of malaria, namely the duration of parasite development and its virulence within the vector, as well as its ability to alter mosquito behavior, remain largely unknown...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Philip L G Birget, Megan A Greischar, Sarah E Reece, Nicole Mideo
Drug resistance has been reported against all antimalarial drugs, and while parasites can evolve classical resistance mechanisms (e.g., efflux pumps), it is also possible that changes in life history traits could help parasites evade the effects of treatment. The life history of malaria parasites is governed by an intrinsic resource allocation problem: specialized stages are required for transmission, but producing these stages comes at the cost of producing fewer of the forms required for within-host survival...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Katey D Glunt, Maureen Coetzee, Silvie Huijben, A Alphonsine Koffi, Penelope A Lynch, Raphael N'Guessan, Welbeck A Oumbouke, Eleanore D Sternberg, Matthew B Thomas
In spite of widespread insecticide resistance in vector mosquitoes throughout Africa, there is limited evidence that long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) are failing to protect against malaria. Here, we showed that LLIN contact in the course of host-seeking resulted in higher mortality of resistant Anopheles spp . mosquitoes than predicted from standard laboratory exposures with the same net. We also found that sublethal contact with an LLIN caused a reduction in blood feeding and subsequent host-seeking success in multiple lines of resistant mosquitoes from the laboratory and the field...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Silvie Huijben, Krijn P Paaijmans
Since 2000, the world has made significant progress in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, and several countries in Africa, South America and South-East Asia are working hard to eliminate the disease. These elimination efforts continue to rely heavily on antimalarial drugs and insecticide-based interventions, which remain the cornerstones of malaria treatment and prevention. However, resistance has emerged against nearly every antimalarial drug and insecticide that is available. In this review we discuss the evolutionary consequences of the way we currently implement antimalarial interventions, which is leading to resistance and may ultimately lead to control failure, but also how evolutionary principles can be applied to extend the lifespan of current and novel interventions...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Eleanore D Sternberg, Matthew B Thomas
Key to contemporary management of diseases such as malaria, dengue, and filariasis is control of the insect vectors responsible for transmission. Insecticide-based interventions have contributed to declines in disease burdens in many areas, but this progress could be threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance in vector populations. Insecticide resistance is likewise a major concern in agriculture, where insect pests can cause substantial yield losses. Here, we explore overlaps between understanding and managing insecticide resistance in agriculture and in public health...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Michael Kosoy, Roman Kosoy
More is not automatically better. Generation and accumulation of information reflecting the complexity of zoonotic diseases as ecological systems do not necessarily lead to improved interpretation of the obtained information and understanding of these complex systems. The traditional conceptual framework for analysis of diseases ecology is neither designed for, nor adaptable enough, to absorb the mass of diverse sources of relevant information. The multidirectional and multidimensional approaches to analyses form an inevitable part in defining a role of zoonotic pathogens and animal hosts considering the complexity of their inter-relations...
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Pierre Echaubard, James W Rudge, Thierry Lefevre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Marta J Piotrowska, Carolyn Riddell, Peter N Hoebe, Richard A Ennos
To manage emerging forest diseases and prevent their occurrence in the future, it is essential to determine the origin(s) of the pathogens involved and identify the management practices that have ultimately caused disease problems. One such practice is the widespread planting of exotic tree species within the range of related native taxa. This can lead to emerging forest disease both by facilitating introduction of exotic pathogens and by providing susceptible hosts on which epidemics of native pathogens can develop...
March 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Omar E Cornejo, Roxana J Hickey, Haruo Suzuki, Larry J Forney
Gardnerella vaginalis has long been associated with bacterial vaginosis, a condition that increases the risk of women to preterm birth, sexually transmitted infections, and other adverse sequelae. However, G. vaginalis is also commonly found in healthy asymptomatic women of all ages. This raises the question if genetic differences among strains might distinguish potentially pathogenic from commensal strains. To disentangle the diversity of  G. vaginalis, we invoked the concept of ecotypes-lineages of genetically and ecologically distinct strains within a named species-to better understand their evolutionary history and identify functional characteristics...
March 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Masaaki Sudo, Daisuke Takahashi, David A Andow, Yoshito Suzuki, Takehiko Yamanaka
Although theoretical studies have shown that the mixture strategy, which uses multiple toxins simultaneously, can effectively delay the evolution of insecticide resistance, whether it is the optimal management strategy under different insect life histories and insecticide types remains unknown. To test the robustness of this management strategy over different life histories, we developed a series of simulation models that cover almost all the diploid insect types and have the same basic structure describing pest population dynamics and resistance evolution with discrete time steps...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Mara Lisa Alves, Maria Belo, Bruna Carbas, Cláudia Brites, Manuel Paulo, Pedro Mendes-Moreira, Carla Brites, Maria do Rosário Bronze, Zlatko Šatović, Maria Carlota Vaz Patto
Modern maize breeding programs gave rise to genetically uniform varieties that can affect maize's capacity to cope with increasing climate unpredictability. Maize populations, genetically more heterogeneous, can evolve and better adapt to a broader range of edaphic-climatic conditions. These populations usually suffer from low yields; it is therefore desirable to improve their agronomic performance while maintaining their valuable diversity levels. With this objective, a long-term participatory breeding/on-farm conservation program was established in Portugal...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Tania Zaviezo, Romina Retamal, Teddy Urvois, Xavier Fauvergue, Aurélie Blin, Thibaut Malausa
Inbreeding and inbreeding depression are processes in small populations of particular interest for a range of human activities such as animal breeding, species conservation, or pest management. In particular, biological control programs should benefit from a thorough understanding of the causes and consequences of inbreeding because natural enemies experience repetitive bottlenecks during importation, laboratory rearing, and introduction. Predicting the effect of inbreeding in hymenopteran parasitoid wasps, frequently used in biological control programs, is nonetheless a difficult endeavor...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Paul F Gugger, Christina T Liang, Victoria L Sork, Paul Hodgskiss, Jessica W Wright
Identifying and quantifying the importance of environmental variables in structuring population genetic variation can help inform management decisions for conservation, restoration, or reforestation purposes, in both current and future environmental conditions. Landscape genomics offers a powerful approach for understanding the environmental factors that currently associate with genetic variation, and given those associations, where populations may be most vulnerable under future environmental change. Here, we applied genotyping by sequencing to generate over 11,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 311 trees and then used nonlinear, multivariate environmental association methods to examine spatial genetic structure and its association with environmental variation in an ecologically and economically important tree species endemic to Hawaii, Acacia koa ...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Heidi Käch, Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Alice B Dennis, Christoph Vorburger
There is growing interest in biological control as a sustainable and environmentally friendly way to control pest insects. Aphids are among the most detrimental agricultural pests worldwide, and parasitoid wasps are frequently employed for their control. The use of asexual parasitoids may improve the effectiveness of biological control because only females kill hosts and because asexual populations have a higher growth rate than sexuals. However, asexuals may have a reduced capacity to track evolutionary change in their host populations...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
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