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Evolutionary Applications

Daniela Farinelli, Catherine Breton, Georgios Koubouris, Franco Famiani, Pierre Villemur, André Bervillé
This study was carried out to examine the validity of previous studies on the intercompatibility of olive and to compare the approach and techniques used for proposing the diallelic self-incompatibility system and the sporophytic self-incompatibility system. Analysis of the literature indicates that the mating system of the olive tree is a controversial issue and requires further studies to clearly and fully comprehend it. All possible approaches should be used to maximize reliability of the final conclusions on the olive mating system...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Daniel P Drinan, Kristen M Gruenthal, Michael F Canino, Dayv Lowry, Mary C Fisher, Lorenz Hauser
The discernment of populations as management units is a fundamental prerequisite for sustainable exploitation of species. A lack of clear stock boundaries complicates not only the identification of spatial management units, but also the assessment of mixed fisheries by population assignment and mixed stock analysis. Many marine species, such as Pacific cod, are characterized by isolation by distance, showing significant differentiation but no clear stock boundaries. Here, we used restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to investigate population structure and assess power to genetically assign Pacific cod to putative populations of origin...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Alicia Dalongeville, Marco Andrello, David Mouillot, Stéphane Lobreaux, Marie-Josée Fortin, Frida Lasram, Jonathan Belmaker, Delphine Rocklin, Stéphanie Manel
Genetic variation, as a basis of evolutionary change, allows species to adapt and persist in different climates and environments. Yet, a comprehensive assessment of the drivers of genetic variation at different spatial scales is still missing in marine ecosystems. Here, we investigated the influence of environment, geographic isolation, and larval dispersal on the variation in allele frequencies, using an extensive spatial sampling (47 locations) of the striped red mullet ( Mullus surmuletus ) in the Mediterranean Sea...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Chao Zhang, Mieke Jansen, Luc De Meester, Robby Stoks
Synergistic interactions between temperature and contaminants are a major challenge for ecological risk assessment, especially under global warming. While thermal evolution may increase the ability to deal with warming, it is unknown whether it may also affect the ability to deal with the many contaminants that are more toxic at higher temperatures. We investigated how evolution of genetic adaptation to warming affected the interactions between warming and a novel stressor: zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) in a natural population of Daphnia magna using resurrection ecology...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Yolanda E Morbey, Marin Mema
The long-term evolutionary effects of fishing on maturation schedules can depend on gear type, the shape of the gear type's size-selectivity function, and the size and age structure of a population. Our goal was to better understand how environmentally induced differences in somatic growth influence the evolutionary effects of size-selective fisheries, using lake whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) in Lake Huron as a case study. Using a state-dependent optimization model of energy allocation parameterized for lake whitefish, we show that fishing with gill nets (bell-shaped selectivity) and trap nets (sigmoid-shaped selectivity) can be potent agents of selection on size thresholds for maturity...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Laura Trejo, Julieta A Rosell, Mark E Olson
Organismal parts often covary in their proportions, a phenomenon known as allometry. One way of exploring the causes of widespread allometric patterns is with artificial selection, to test whether or not it is possible to move populations into "empty" allometric space not occupied by the wild type. Domesticated organisms have been subject to many generations of selection, making them ideal model systems. We used the domesticated Christmas poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrima in combination with wild populations to examine the origin of the proportionality between leaf area and stem size, which scales predictably across nearly all plants...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Dustin J Marshall, Rebecca J Lawton, Keyne Monro, Nicholas A Paul
Evolutionary responses to indirect selection pressures imposed by intensive harvesting are increasingly common. While artificial selection has shown that biochemical components can show rapid and dramatic evolution, it remains unclear as to whether intensive harvesting can inadvertently induce changes in the biochemistry of harvested populations. For applications such as algal culture, many of the desirable bioproducts could evolve in response to harvesting, reducing cost-effectiveness, but experimental tests are lacking...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Carly N Cook, Carla M Sgrò
Despite wide acceptance that conservation could benefit from greater attention to principles and processes from evolutionary biology, little attention has been given to quantifying the degree to which relevant evolutionary concepts are being integrated into management practices. There has also been increasing discussion of the potential reasons for a lack of evolutionarily enlightened management, but no attempts to understand the challenges from the perspective of those making management decisions. In this study, we asked conservation managers and scientists for their views on the importance of a range of key evolutionary concepts, the degree to which these concepts are being integrated into management, and what would need to change to support better integration into management practices...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Lydia Bousset, Susan J Sprague, Peter H Thrall, Luke G Barrett
Genetic, physiological and physical homogenization of agricultural landscapes creates ideal environments for plant pathogens to proliferate and rapidly evolve. Thus, a critical challenge in plant pathology and epidemiology is to design durable and effective strategies to protect cropping systems from damage caused by pathogens. Theoretical studies suggest that spatio-temporal variation in the diversity and distribution of resistant hosts across agricultural landscapes may have strong effects on the epidemiology and evolutionary potential of crop pathogens...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Lina Yang, Hai-Bing Ouyang, Zhi-Guo Fang, Wen Zhu, E-Jiao Wu, Gui-Huo Luo, Li-Ping Shang, Jiasui Zhan
Effectors, a group of small proteins secreted by pathogens, play a critical role in the antagonistic interaction between plant hosts and pathogens through their dual functions in regulating host immune systems and pathogen infection capability. In this study, evolution in effector genes was investigated through population genetic analysis of Avr3a sequences generated from 96 Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from six locations representing a range of thermal variation and cropping systems in China. We found high genetic variation in the Avr3a gene resulting from diverse mechanisms extending beyond point mutations, frameshift, and defeated start and stop codons to intragenic recombination...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Fernanda Dotti do Prado, Manuel Vera, Miguel Hermida, Carmen Bouza, Belén G Pardo, Román Vilas, Andrés Blanco, Carlos Fernández, Francesco Maroso, Gregory E Maes, Cemal Turan, Filip A M Volckaert, John B Taggart, Adrian Carr, Rob Ogden, Einar Eg Nielsen, Paulino Martínez
Unraveling adaptive genetic variation represents, in addition to the estimate of population demographic parameters, a cornerstone for the management of aquatic natural living resources, which, in turn, represent the raw material for breeding programs. The turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ) is a marine flatfish of high commercial value living on the European continental shelf. While wild populations are declining, aquaculture is flourishing in southern Europe. We evaluated the genetic structure of turbot throughout its natural distribution range (672 individuals; 20 populations) by analyzing allele frequency data from 755 single nucleotide polymorphism discovered and genotyped by double-digest RAD sequencing...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Jeffrey R Row, Kevin E Doherty, Todd B Cross, Michael K Schwartz, Sara J Oyler-McCance, Dave E Naugle, Steven T Knick, Bradley C Fedy
Functional connectivity, quantified using landscape genetics, can inform conservation through the identification of factors linking genetic structure to landscape mechanisms. We used breeding habitat metrics, landscape attributes, and indices of grouse abundance, to compare fit between structural connectivity and genetic differentiation within five long-established Sage-Grouse Management Zones (MZ) I-V using microsatellite genotypes from 6,844 greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ) collected across their 10...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Paul A Egan, Anne Muola, Johan A Stenberg
Crop wild relatives (CWRs) offer novel genetic resources for crop improvement. To assist in the urgent need to collect and conserve CWR germplasm, we advance here the concept of an "evolutionary" approach. Central to this approach is the predictive use of spatial proxies of evolutionary processes (natural selection, gene flow and genetic drift) to locate and capture genetic variation. As a means to help validate this concept, we screened wild-collected genotypes of woodland strawberry ( Fragaria vesca ) in a common garden...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Guim Aguadé-Gorgorió, Ricard Solé
In most instances of tumour development, genetic instability plays a role in allowing cancer cell populations to respond to selection barriers, such as physical constraints or immune responses, and rapidly adapt to an always changing environment. Modelling instability is a nontrivial task, since by definition evolving instability leads to changes in the underlying landscape. In this article, we explore mathematically a simple version of unstable tumour progression using the formalism of adaptive dynamics (AD) where selection and mutation are explicitly coupled...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Dora Henriques, Melanie Parejo, Alain Vignal, David Wragg, Andreas Wallberg, Matthew T Webster, M Alice Pinto
The most important managed pollinator, the honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.), has been subject to a growing number of threats. In western Europe, one such threat is large-scale introductions of commercial strains (C-lineage ancestry), which is leading to introgressive hybridization and even the local extinction of native honeybee populations (M-lineage ancestry). Here, we developed reduced assays of highly informative SNPs from 176 whole genomes to estimate C-lineage introgression in the most diverse and evolutionarily complex subspecies in Europe, the Iberian honeybee ( Apis mellifera iberiensis )...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Sirilak Dusitsittipon, Charles D Criscione, Serge Morand, Chalit Komalamisra, Urusa Thaenkham
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , the rat lungworm, is a zoonotic pathogen that is one of the leading causes of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. This parasite is regarded as an emerging pathogen with a global range expansion out of southeastern Asia post-WWII. To date, molecular systematic/phylogeographic studies on A. cantonensis have mainly used two mitochondrial (mtDNA) markers, cytochrome c oxidase 1 ( CO 1) and cytochrome b ( CYTB ), where the focus has largely been descriptive in terms of reporting local patterns of haplotype variants...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Benoît S Assogba, Haoues Alout, Alphonsine Koffi, Cédric Penetier, Luc S Djogbénou, Patrick Makoundou, Mylène Weill, Pierrick Labbé
While gene copy-number variations play major roles in long-term evolution, their early dynamics remains largely unknown. However, examples of their role in short-term adaptation are accumulating: identical repetitions of a locus (homogeneous duplications) can provide a quantitative advantage, while the association of differing alleles (heterogeneous duplications) allows carrying two functions simultaneously. Such duplications often result from rearrangements of sometimes relatively large chromosome fragments, and even when adaptive, they can be associated with deleterious side effects that should, however, be reduced by subsequent evolution...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Joel G Kingsolver, Lauren B Buckley
Species have responded to climate change via seasonal (phenological) shifts, morphological plasticity, and evolutionary adaptation, but how these responses contribute to changes and variation in population fitness are poorly understood. We assess the interactions and relative importance of these responses for fitness in a montane butterfly, Colias eriphyle , along an elevational gradient. Because environmental temperatures affect developmental rates of each life stage, populations along the gradients differ in phenological timing and the number of generations each year...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Hope M Draheim, Jennifer A Moore, Marie-Josée Fortin, Kim T Scribner
Landscape genetic studies typically focus on the evolutionary processes that give rise to spatial patterns that are quantified at a single point in time. Although landscape change is widely recognized as a strong driver of microevolutionary processes, few landscape genetic studies have directly evaluated the change in spatial genetic structure (SGS) over time with concurrent changes in landscape pattern. We introduce a novel approach to analyze landscape genetic data through time. We demonstrate this approach using genotyped samples ( n  = 569) from a large black bear ( Ursus americanus ) population in Michigan (USA) that were harvested during 3 years (2002, 2006, and 2010)...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Fred W Allendorf
The Buddha taught that everything is connected and constantly changing. These fundamental observations of the world are shared by ecology and evolution. We are living in a time of unprecedented rates of extinction. Science provides us with the information that we need to address this extinction crisis. However, the problems underlying extinction generally do not result from a lack of scientific understanding, but they rather result from an unwillingness to take the needed action. I present mindfulness and meditative aspects of Zen practice that provide the deeper "knowing," or awareness that we need to inspire action on these problems...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
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