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Evolutionary Applications

Lenka Macková, Petr Vít, Tomáš Urfus
Crop cultivation can lead to genetic swamping of indigenous species and thus pose a serious threat for biodiversity. The rare Eurasian tetraploid shrub Prunus fruticosa (ground cherry) is suspected of hybridizing with cultivated allochthonous tetraploid P. cerasus and autochthonous diploid P. avium . Three Prunus taxa (447 individuals of P. fruticosa , 43 of P. cerasus and 73 of P. avium ) and their hybrids (198 individuals) were evaluated using analysis of absolute genome size/ploidy level and multivariate morphometrics...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Jennifer A Hoey, Malin L Pinsky
Rapid environmental change is altering the selective pressures experienced by marine species. While adaptation to local environmental conditions depends on a balance between dispersal and natural selection across the seascape, the spatial scale of adaptation and the relative importance of mechanisms maintaining adaptation in the ocean are not well understood. Here, using population assignment tests, Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), and genome scans with double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing data, we evaluated population structure and locus-environment associations in a commercially important species, summer flounder ( Paralichthys dentatus ), along the U...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Jennifer L Summers, Brittany Bernik, Colin J Saunders, Jason S McLachlan, Michael J Blum
Stratigraphic accretion of dormant propagules in soil can result in natural archives useful for studying ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental change. Few attempts have been made, however, to use soil-stored seed banks as natural archives, in part because of concerns over nonrandom attrition and mixed stratification. Here, we examine the persistent seed bank of Schoenoplectus americanus , a foundational brackish marsh sedge, to determine whether it can serve as a resource for reconstructing historical records of demographic and population genetic variation...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Roghaieh Ashrafi, Matthieu Bruneaux, Lotta-Riina Sundberg, Katja Pulkkinen, Janne Valkonen, Tarmo Ketola
Predicting the effects of global increase in temperatures on disease virulence is challenging, especially for environmental opportunistic bacteria, because pathogen fitness may be differentially affected by temperature within and outside host environment. So far, there is very little empirical evidence on the connections between optimal temperature range and virulence in environmentally growing pathogens. Here, we explored whether the virulence of an environmentally growing opportunistic fish pathogen, Flavobacterium columnare , is malleable to evolutionary changes via correlated selection on thermal tolerance...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Zhongqi Chen, Anthony P Farrell, Amanda Matala, Nicholas Hoffman, Shawn R Narum
Temperature is a master environmental factor that limits the geographical distribution of species, especially in ectotherms. To address challenges in biodiversity conservation under ongoing climate change, it is essential to characterize relevant functional limitations and adaptive genomic content at population and species levels. Here, we present evidence for adaptive divergence in cardiac function and genomic regions in redband trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri ) populations from desert and montane streams...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Camille Lavoie, Maxime Courcelle, Baptise Redivo, Nicolas Derome
Stocking methods are used in the Province of Quebec to restore Salmo salar populations. However, Atlantic salmon stocked juveniles show higher mortality rates than wild ones when introduced into nature. Hatchery environment, which greatly differs from the natural environment, is identified as the main driver of the phenotypic mismatch between captive and wild parrs. The latter is also suspected to impact the gut microbiota composition, which can be associated with essential metabolic functions for their host...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Sarah J Lehnert, Claudio DiBacco, Nicholas W Jeffery, April M H Blakeslee, Jonatan Isaksson, Joe Roman, Brendan F Wringe, Ryan R E Stanley, Kyle Matheson, Cynthia H McKenzie, Lorraine C Hamilton, Ian R Bradbury
Two genetically distinct lineages of European green crabs ( Carcinus maenas ) were independently introduced to eastern North America, the first in the early 19th century and the second in the late 20th century. These lineages first came into secondary contact in southeastern Nova Scotia, Canada (NS), where they hybridized, producing latitudinal genetic clines. Previous studies have documented a persistent southward shift in the clines of different marker types, consistent with existing dispersal and recruitment pathways...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Nuno Miguel Silva, Jeremy Rio, Susanne Kreutzer, Christina Papageorgopoulou, Mathias Currat
The retrieval of ancient DNA from osteological material provides direct evidence of human genetic diversity in the past. Ancient DNA samples are often used to investigate whether there was population continuity in the settlement history of an area. Methods based on the serial coalescent algorithm have been developed to test whether the population continuity hypothesis can be statistically rejected by analysing DNA samples from the same region but of different ages. Rejection of this hypothesis is indicative of a large genetic shift, possibly due to immigration occurring between two sampling times...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Claire E Moulton-Brown, Ville-Petri Friman
Antimicrobial resistance has been estimated to be responsible for over 700,000 deaths per year; therefore, new antimicrobial therapies are urgently needed. One way to increase the efficiency of antibiotics is to use them in combination with bacteria-specific parasitic viruses, phages, which have been shown to exert additive or synergistic effects in controlling bacteria. However, it is still unclear to what extent these combinatory effects are limited by rapid evolution of resistance, especially when the pathogen grows as biofilm on surfaces typical for many persistent and chronic infections...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Genevieve Diedericks, Romina Henriques, Sophie von der Heyden, Olaf L F Weyl, Cang Hui
Understanding the demographic history of introduced populations is essential for unravelling their invasive potential and adaptability to a novel environment. To this end, levels of genetic diversity within the native and invasive range of a species are often compared. Most studies, however, focus solely on contemporary samples, relying heavily on the premise that the historic population structure within the native range has been maintained over time. Here, we assess this assumption by conducting a three-way comparison of the genetic diversity of native (historic and contemporary) and invasive (contemporary) smallmouth bass ( Micropterus dolomieu ) populations...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Qian Tang, Gabriel Weijie Low, Jia Ying Lim, Chyi Yin Gwee, Frank E Rheindt
The rock pigeon, Columba livia , is a cosmopolitan human commensal, domesticated thousands of years ago. However, the human-mediated factors governing its distribution and dispersal are not well understood. In this study, we performed (a) hierarchical distance sampling on ~400 island-wide point transects, (b) a population genomic inquiry based on ~7,000 SNPs from almost 150 individuals, and (c) landscape genomic analyses on the basis of extensive ecological and socio-economic databases to characterize the distribution and dispersal patterns of rock pigeons across Singapore...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Jaromir Guzinski, Marion Ballenghien, Claire Daguin-Thiébaut, Laurent Lévêque, Frédérique Viard
Ports and farms are well-known primary introduction hot spots for marine non-indigenous species (NIS). The extent to which these anthropogenic habitats are sustainable sources of propagules and influence the evolution of NIS in natural habitats was examined in the edible seaweed Undaria pinnatifida , native to Asia and introduced to Europe in the 1970s. Following its deliberate introduction 40 years ago along the French coast of the English Channel, this kelp is now found in three contrasting habitat types: farms, marinas and natural rocky reefs...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Shannon L White, William L Miller, Stephanie A Dowell, Meredith L Bartron, Tyler Wagner
Due to increased anthropogenic pressures on many fish populations, supplementing wild populations with captive-raised individuals has become an increasingly common management practice. Stocking programs can be controversial due to uncertainty about the long-term fitness effects of genetic introgression on wild populations. In particular, introgression between hatchery and wild individuals can cause declines in wild population fitness, resiliency, and adaptive potential and contribute to local population extirpation...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Katherine A Littrell, David Ellis, Stephen R Gephard, Andrew D MacDonald, Eric P Palkovacs, Katherine Scranton, David M Post
The recent increase in river restoration projects is altering habitat connectivity for many aquatic species, increasing the chance that previously isolated populations will come into secondary contact. Anadromous and landlocked alewife ( Alosa pseudoharengus ) are currently undergoing secondary contact as a result of a fishway installation at Rogers Lake in Old Lyme, Connecticut. To determine the degree of prezygotic isolation and potential for hybridization between alewife life history forms, we constructed spawning time distributions for two anadromous and three landlocked alewife populations using otolith-derived age estimates...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Sabina Bajda, Maria Riga, Nicky Wybouw, Stavrini Papadaki, Eleni Ouranou, Seyedeh Masoumeh Fotoukkiaii, John Vontas, Thomas Van Leeuwen
The frequency of insecticide/acaricide target-site resistance is increasing in arthropod pest populations and is typically underpinned by single point mutations that affect the binding strength between the insecticide/acaricide and its target-site. Theory predicts that although resistance mutations clearly have advantageous effects under the selection pressure of the insecticide/acaricide, they might convey negative pleiotropic effects on other aspects of fitness. If such fitness costs are in place, target-site resistance is thus likely to disappear in the absence of insecticide/acaricide treatment, a process that would counteract the spread of resistance in agricultural crops...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Halvor Knutsen, Per Erik Jorde, Jeffrey A Hutchings, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Peter Grønkjær, Kris-Emil Mose Jørgensen, Carl André, Marte Sodeland, Jon Albretsen, Esben M Olsen
Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution, diversification and the potential for organisms to adapt and persist in response to a changing environment. Recent studies have documented cryptic, sympatric populations of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) in coastal areas. We analysed genetic origin of 6,483 individual cod sampled annually over 14 years from 125 locations along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast and document stable coexistence of two genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes throughout the study area and study period...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Robin S Waples, Steven T Lindley
It is now routinely possible to generate genomics-scale datasets for nonmodel species; however, many questions remain about how best to use these data for conservation and management. Some recent genomics studies of anadromous Pacific salmonids have reported a strong association between alleles at one or a very few genes and a key life history trait (adult migration timing) that has played an important role in defining conservation units. Publication of these results has already spurred a legal challenge to the existing framework for managing these species, which was developed under the paradigm that most phenotypic traits are controlled by many genes of small effect, and that parallel evolution of life history traits is common...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Janne K Valkonen, Anni Mäkelä, Johanna Mappes, Andrés López-Sepulcre
Many harmless organisms gain a survival advantage by mimicking venomous species. This is the case of the endangered smooth snake ( Coronella austriaca ), which mimics venomous vipers. Although this may protect the smooth snake against most of its natural predators, it may render them at greater risk of mortality from humans, who are more inclined to kill species, such as vipers, that they consider dangerous. This may cause an evolutionary mismatch, whereby humans may counteract the natural advantage of mimicry...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Quang Huy Nguyen, Lucie Contamin, Thi Van Anh Nguyen, Anne-Laure Bañuls
At present, the successful transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis , including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains, in human populations, threatens tuberculosis control worldwide. Differently from many other bacteria, M. tuberculosis drug resistance is acquired mainly through mutations in specific drug resistance-associated genes. The panel of mutations is highly diverse, but depends on the affected gene and M. tuberculosis genetic background. The variety of genetic profiles observed in drug-resistant clinical isolates underlines different evolutionary trajectories towards multiple drug resistance, although some mutation patterns are prominent...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Astrid Kruitwagen, Leo W Beukeboom, Bregje Wertheim
The development of biological control methods for exotic invasive pest species has become more challenging during the last decade. Compared to indigenous natural enemies, species from the pest area of origin are often more efficient due to their long coevolutionary history with the pest. The import of these well-adapted exotic species, however, has become restricted under the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing, reducing the number of available biocontrol candidates. Finding new agents and ways to improve important traits for control agents ("biocontrol traits") is therefore of crucial importance...
October 2018: Evolutionary Applications
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