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Evolutionary Applications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151866/amphibian-species-traits-evolutionary-history-and-environment-predict-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-infection-patterns-but-not-extinction-risk
#1
Dan A Greenberg, Wendy J Palen, Arne Ø Mooers
The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (B. dendrobatidis) has emerged as a major agent of amphibian extinction, requiring conservation intervention for many susceptible species. Identifying susceptible species is challenging, but many aspects of species biology are predicted to influence the evolution of host resistance, tolerance, or avoidance strategies towards disease. In turn, we may expect species exhibiting these distinct strategies to differ in their ability to survive epizootic disease outbreaks...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151865/effect-of-cell-cycle-duration-on-somatic-evolutionary-dynamics
#2
Dominik Wodarz, Ajay Goel, Natalia L Komarova
Cellular checkpoints prevent damage and mutation accumulation in tissue cells. DNA repair is one mechanism that can be triggered by checkpoints and involves temporary cell cycle arrest and thus delayed reproduction. Repair-deficient cells avoid this delay, which has been argued to lead to a selective advantage in the presence of frequent damage. We investigate this hypothesis with stochastic modeling, using mathematical analysis and agent-based computations. We first model competition between two cell types: a cell population that enters temporary cell cycle arrest, corresponding to repair (referred to as arresting cells), and one that does not enter arrest (referred to as nonarresting cells)...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151864/dissecting-functional-components-of-reproductive-isolation-among-closely-related-sympatric-species-of-the-anopheles-gambiae-complex
#3
Marco Pombi, Pierre Kengne, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Billy Tene-Fossog, Diego Ayala, Colince Kamdem, Federica Santolamazza, Wamdaogo Moussa Guelbeogo, N'Falé Sagnon, Vincenzo Petrarca, Didier Fontenille, Nora J Besansky, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Alessandra Della Torre, Frédéric Simard, Carlo Costantini
Explaining how and why reproductive isolation evolves and determining which forms of reproductive isolation have the largest impact on the process of population divergence are major goals in the study of speciation. By studying recent adaptive radiations in incompletely isolated taxa, it is possible to identify barriers involved at early divergence before other confounding barriers emerge after speciation is complete. Sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex offer opportunities to provide insights into speciation mechanisms...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151863/a-phylogenomic-analysis-of-marek-s-disease-virus-reveals-independent-paths-to-virulence-in-eurasia-and-north-america
#4
Jakob Trimpert, Nicole Groenke, Maria Jenckel, Shulin He, Dusan Kunec, Moriah L Szpara, Stephen J Spatz, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Dino P McMahon
Virulence determines the impact a pathogen has on the fitness of its host, yet current understanding of the evolutionary origins and causes of virulence of many pathogens is surprisingly incomplete. Here, we explore the evolution of Marek's disease virus (MDV), a herpesvirus commonly afflicting chickens and rarely other avian species. The history of MDV in the 20th century represents an important case study in the evolution of virulence. The severity of MDV infection in chickens has been rising steadily since the adoption of intensive farming techniques and vaccination programs in the 1950s and 1970s, respectively...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151862/profiling-the-immunome-of-little-brown-myotis-provides-a-yardstick-for-measuring-the-genetic-response-to-white-nose-syndrome
#5
Michael E Donaldson, Christina M Davy, Craig K R Willis, Scott McBurney, Allysia Park, Christopher J Kyle
White-nose syndrome (WNS) has devastated populations of hibernating bats in eastern North America, leading to emergency conservation listings for several species including the previously ubiquitous little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). However, some bat populations near the epicenter of the WNS panzootic appear to be stabilizing after initial precipitous declines, which could reflect a selective immunogenetic sweep. To investigate the hypothesis that WNS exerts significant selection on the immunome of affected bat populations, we developed a novel, high-throughput sequence capture assay targeting 138 adaptive, intrinsic, and innate immunity genes of putative adaptive significance, as well as their respective regulatory regions (~370 kbp of genomic sequence/individual)...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151861/microgeographic-differentiation-in-thermal-performance-curves-between-rural-and-urban-populations-of-an-aquatic-insect
#6
Nedim Tüzün, Lin Op de Beeck, Kristien I Brans, Lizanne Janssens, Robby Stoks
The rapidly increasing rate of urbanization has a major impact on the ecology and evolution of species. While increased temperatures are a key aspect of urbanization ("urban heat islands"), we have very limited knowledge whether this generates differentiation in thermal responses between rural and urban populations. In a common garden experiment, we compared the thermal performance curves (TPCs) for growth rate and mortality in larvae of the damselfly Coenagrion puella from three urban and three rural populations...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151860/dose-dependent-selection-drives-lineage-replacement-during-the-experimental-evolution-of-sdhi-fungicide-resistance-in-zymoseptoria%C3%A2-tritici
#7
Omar Gutiérrez-Alonso, Nichola J Hawkins, Hans J Cools, Michael W Shaw, Bart A Fraaije
Fungicide resistance is a constant threat to agricultural production worldwide. Molecular mechanisms of fungicide resistance have been studied extensively in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. However, less is known about the evolutionary processes driving resistance development. In vitro evolutionary studies give the opportunity to investigate this. Here, we examine the adaptation of Z. tritici to fluxapyroxad, a succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) inhibitor. Replicate populations of Z. tritici derived from the sensitive isolate IPO323 were exposed to increasing concentrations of fluxapyroxad with or without UV mutagenesis...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151859/population-genetic-structure-and-connectivity-of-deep-sea-stony-corals-order-scleractinia-in-the-new-zealand-region-implications-for-the-conservation-and-management-of-vulnerable-marine-ecosystems
#8
Cong Zeng, Ashley A Rowden, Malcolm R Clark, Jonathan P A Gardner
Deep-sea stony corals, which can be fragile, long-lived, late to mature and habitat-forming, are defined as vulnerable marine ecosystem indicator taxa. Under United Nations resolutions, these corals require protection from human disturbance such as fishing. To better understand the vulnerability of stony corals (Goniocorella dumosa, Madrepora oculata, Solenosmilia variabilis) to disturbance within the New Zealand region and to guide marine protected area design, genetic structure and connectivity were determined using microsatellite loci and DNA sequencing...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151858/effective-population-sizes-of-a-major-vector-of-human-diseases-aedes-aegypti
#9
Norah P Saarman, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Eric C Anderson, Benjamin R Evans, Evlyn Pless, Luciano V Cosme, Cassandra Gonzalez-Acosta, Basile Kamgang, Dawn M Wesson, Jeffrey R Powell
The effective population size (Ne ) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that determines the relative strength of selection and random genetic drift, the effect of migration, levels of inbreeding, and linkage disequilibrium. In many cases where it has been estimated in animals, Ne is on the order of 10%-20% of the census size. In this study, we use 12 microsatellite markers and 14,888 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to empirically estimate Ne in Aedes aegypti, the major vector of yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151857/directional-selection-to-improve-the-sterile-insect-technique-survival-and-sexual-performance-of-desiccation-resistant-anastrepha-ludens-strains
#10
Marco T Tejeda, José Arredondo-Gordillo, Dina Orozco-Dávila, Luis Quintero-Fong, Francisco Díaz-Fleischer
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an effective, environmentally friendly method for insect control whose success depends on the sexual performance and survival of sterile males. These two parameters are influenced by environmental conditions of target areas, and releasing insects with a higher tolerance to stressful environments can improve SIT efficiency. Directional selection can be used to produce insect strains with higher tolerance to extreme environmental conditions, such as low humidity, for extended periods...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151856/a-pedigree-based-experiment-reveals-variation-in-salinity-and%C3%A2-thermal-tolerance-in-the-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#11
Lina Eva Robin Ljungfeldt, María Quintela, François Besnier, Frank Nilsen, Kevin Alan Glover
The salmon louse is a highly abundant ectoparasitic copepod of salmonids in the North Pacific and Atlantic. Widespread and rapid development of resistance to chemical agents used to delouse salmonids on marine farms is now threatening the continued development of the aquaculture industry and have served as a potent catalyst for the development of alternative pest management strategies. These include freshwater and warm-water treatments to which the louse is sensitive. However, given the well-documented evolutionary capacity of this species, the risk of developing tolerance towards these environmental treatments cannot be dismissed...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151855/toward-a-mechanistic-understanding-of-vulnerability-to-hook-and-line-fishing-boldness-as-the-basic-target-of-angling-induced-selection
#12
Thomas Klefoth, Christian Skov, Anna Kuparinen, Robert Arlinghaus
In passively operated fishing gear, boldness-related behaviors should fundamentally affect the vulnerability of individual fish and thus be under fisheries selection. To test this hypothesis, we used juvenile common-garden reared carp (Cyprinus carpio) within a narrow size range to investigate the mechanistic basis of behavioral selection caused by angling. We focused on one key personality trait (i.e., boldness), measured in groups within ponds, two morphological traits (body shape and head shape), and one life-history trait (juvenile growth capacity) and studied mean standardized selection gradients caused by angling...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151854/strong-population-structure-deduced-from-genetics-otolith-chemistry-and-parasite-abundances-explains-vulnerability-to-localized-fishery-collapse-in-a-large-sciaenid-fish-protonibea%C3%A2-diacanthus
#13
Laura Taillebois, Diane P Barton, David A Crook, Thor Saunders, Jonathan Taylor, Mark Hearnden, Richard J Saunders, Stephen J Newman, Michael J Travers, David J Welch, Alan Greig, Christine Dudgeon, Safia Maher, Jennifer R Ovenden
As pressure on coastal marine resources is increasing globally, the need to quantitatively assess vulnerable fish stocks is crucial in order to avoid the ecological consequences of stock depletions. Species of Sciaenidae (croakers, drums) are important components of tropical and temperate fisheries and are especially vulnerable to exploitation. The black-spotted croaker, Protonibea diacanthus, is the only large sciaenid in coastal waters of northern Australia where it is targeted by commercial, recreational and indigenous fishers due to its food value and predictable aggregating behaviour...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151853/in-situ-conservation-harnessing-natural-and-human-derived-evolutionary-forces-to-ensure-future-crop-adaptation
#14
REVIEW
Mauricio R Bellon, Ehsan Dulloo, Julie Sardos, Imke Thormann, Jeremy J Burdon
Ensuring the availability of the broadest possible germplasm base for agriculture in the face of increasingly uncertain and variable patterns of biotic and abiotic change is fundamental for the world's future food supply. While ex situ conservation plays a major role in the conservation and availability of crop germplasm, it may be insufficient to ensure this. In situ conservation aims to maintain target species and the collective genotypes they represent under evolution. A major rationale for this view is based on the likelihood that continued exposure to changing selective forces will generate and favor new genetic variation and an increased likelihood that rare alleles that may be of value to future agriculture are maintained...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151852/ancient-oncogenesis-infection-and-human-evolution
#15
REVIEW
Riaan F Rifkin, Marnie Potgieter, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Don A Cowan
The recent discovery that malignant neoplastic lesions date back nearly 2 million years ago not only highlights the antiquity of cancer in the human lineage, but also provides remarkable insight into ancestral hominin disease pathology. Using these Early Pleistocene examples as a point of departure, we emphasize the prominent role of viral and bacterial pathogens in oncogenesis and evaluate the impact of pathogens on human evolutionary processes in Africa. In the Shakespearean vernacular "what's past is prologue," we highlight the significance of novel information derived from ancient pathogenic DNA...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151884/a-critical-assessment-of-estimating-census-population-size-from-genetic-population-size-or-vice-versa-in-three-fishes
#16
Matthew Carl Yates, Thais A Bernos, Dylan J Fraser
Technological and methodological advances have facilitated the use of genetic data to infer census population size (Nc) in natural populations, particularly where traditional mark-and-recapture is challenging. The effective number of breeders (Nb) describes how many adults effectively contribute to a cohort and is often correlated with Nc. Predicting Nc from Nb or vice versa in species with overlapping generations has important implications for conservation by permitting (i) estimation of the more difficult to quantify variable and (ii) inferences of Nb/Nc relationships in related species lacking data...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151883/speciation-history-of-a-species-complex-of-primulina-eburnea-gesneriaceae-from-limestone-karsts-of-southern-china-a-biodiversity-hot-spot
#17
Jing Wang, Bin Ai, Hanghui Kong, Ming Kang
Limestone karsts in southern China are characterized by high edaphic and topographic heterogeneity and host high levels of species richness and endemism. However, the evolutionary mechanisms for generating such biodiversity remain poorly understood. Here, we performed species delimitation, population genetic analyses, simulations of gene flow and analyses of floral morphological traits to infer the geographic history of speciation in a species complex of Primulina eburnea from limestone karsts of southern China...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151882/progression-of-phosphine-resistance-in-susceptible-tribolium-castaneum-herbst-populations-under-different-immigration-regimes-and-selection-pressures
#18
Michelle A Rafter, Graham A McCulloch, Gregory J Daglish, Gimme H Walter
Insecticide resistance is an escalating global issue for a wide variety of agriculturally important pests. The genetic basis and biochemical mechanisms of resistance are well characterized in some systems, but little is known about the ecological aspects of insecticide resistance. We therefore designed a laboratory experiment to quantify the progression of phosphine resistance in Tribolium castaneum populations subject to different immigration regimes and selection pressures. Mated resistant females were added to originally susceptible populations under two distinct migration rates, and in addition, half of the populations in each migration treatment were exposed to selection pressures from phosphine fumigation...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151881/genomic-insights-into-adaptive-divergence-and-speciation-among-malaria-vectors-of-the-anopheles-nili-group
#19
Caroline Fouet, Colince Kamdem, Stephanie Gamez, Bradley J White
Ongoing speciation in the most important African malaria vectors gives rise to cryptic populations, which differ remarkably in their behavior, ecology, and capacity to vector malaria parasites. Understanding the population structure and the drivers of genetic differentiation among mosquitoes is crucial for effective disease control because heterogeneity within vector species contributes to variability in malaria cases and allow fractions of populations to escape control efforts. To examine population structure and the potential impacts of recent large-scale control interventions, we have investigated the genomic patterns of differentiation in mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles nili group-a large taxonomic group that diverged ~3 Myr ago...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151880/invest-more-and-die-faster-the-life-history-of-a-parasite-on-intensive-farms
#20
Adèle Mennerat, Mathias Stølen Ugelvik, Camilla Håkonsrud Jensen, Arne Skorping
Organisms are expected to respond to alterations in their survival by evolutionary changes in their life history traits. As agriculture and aquaculture have become increasingly intensive in the past decades, there has been growing interest in their evolutionary effects on the life histories of agri- and aquacultural pests, parasites, and pathogens. In this study, we used salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) to explore how modern farming might have affected life history evolution in parasites. We infected salmon hosts with lice from either farmed or unfarmed locations, and monitored life history traits of those parasites in laboratory conditions...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
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