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Ecancermedicalscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900477/breast-density-and-impacts-on-health
#1
EDITORIAL
Cheryl Cruwys, JoAnn Pushkin
The World Health Organization states 'Early detection in order to improve breast cancer outcome and survival remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control' [WHO (World Health Organization) (2017) Breast cancer: prevention and control Available from: http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/]. Breast Density Matters UK is a non-profit breast cancer organization. The organization's mission is to educate about breast density and its screening and risk implications with the goal of achieving the earliest stage diagnosis possible for women with dense breasts...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900476/breast-cancer-in-angola-molecular-subtypes-a-first-glance
#2
Fernando Miguel, Lygia Vieira Lopes, Eduardo Ferreira, Emília Ribas, Alexis Fuentes Pelaez, Conceição Leal, Teresina Amaro, Paula Lopes, Cristina Mendes Santos, Carlos Lopes, Lúcio Lara Santos
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the breast cancer (BC) molecular subtypes according to its surrogate immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers. We conducted a preliminary study, to correlate the clinical pathological profiles and molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Luanda, Angola. METHODS: From January 2011 to 30 December 2014, 140 consecutive cases of microscopically confirmed invasive breast carcinoma were classified regarding histology and IHC (ER, PR, HER2, and Ki-67)...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900475/serum-biomarkers-to-predict-risk-of-testicular-and-penile-cancer-in-amoris
#3
Arunangshu Ghoshal, Hans Garmo, Rhonda Arthur, Niklas Hammar, Ingmar Jungner, Håkan Malmström, Mats Lambe, Göran Walldius, Mieke Van Hemelrijck
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between commonly measured serum biomarkers of inflammation and penile and testicular cancer risk in the Swedish Apolipoprotein-related MORtality RISk (AMORIS) study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 205,717 subjects had baseline measurements of C-reactive protein, albumin, and haptoglobin. The association between quartiles and dichotomised values of inflammatory markers and penile and testicular cancer risk were analysed by using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900474/malignant-extra-adrenal-pelvic-paraganglioma-in-a-paediatric-patient
#4
Gabriel Cao, Julian Mendez, Daniel Navacchia
The extra-adrenal paraganglioma is a neoplasm originating in regional structures, uncommon in paediatrics. We report on a case of a 13-year-old patient who began with severe arterial hypertension, tachycardia, dilated cardiomyopathy and elevated levels of catecholamines in the blood and urine. The presence of a retrovesical pelvic mass in contact with the right vaginal dome was determined by imaging studies. A diagnosis of malignant extra-adrenal pelvic paraganglioma with lymph node metastases was reached through biopsy and the surgical resection of subsequent local recurrences...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900473/resection-of-rectal-gist-using-a-novel-technique-a-report-of-two-cases
#5
Osama Eldamshety, Islam H Metwally, Elsayed Ghoneem, Wagdi F Elkashef
Rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are uncommon tumours and usually present with large sizes. We present two cases of rectal GIST. Imatinib was used in the setting of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy. Both tumours were resected transanally by the transanal endoscopic operation (TEO) platform. Oncosurgeons are recommended to implement sphincter-sparing surgeries for these cases.
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900472/predictive-and-prognostic-impact-of-tumour-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#6
Carmen Herrero-Vicent, Angel Guerrero, Joaquin Gavilá, Francisco Gozalbo, Abraham Hernández, Sergio Sandiego, Maria Asunción Algarra, Ana Calatrava, Vicente Guillem-Porta, Amparo Ruiz-Simón
INTRODUCTION: In locally and locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) only induces a pCR in 30-35% of patients. Clinical and pathological factors are not enough to distinguish the patients who have no chance of a pCR or not. The tumour microenvironment is critical for cancer and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Moreover, the NAC scenario is the perfect setting to study possible changes in TIL levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using our prospective maintained breast cancer (BC) database, we identified 164 TNBC patients treated with NAC between 1998 and 2015 with enough samples of diagnostic biopsy and after surgery...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900471/metastasizing-pleomorphic-adenoma-of-the-parotid-gland
#7
Javier Soteldo, Nathasha Aranaga
Salivary gland tumours are estimated to represent approximately 3% of all head and neck tumours. About 70-80% of these neoplasms occur in the major salivary glands, with the parotid gland being the most commonly affected site. The metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma (MPA) has histological characteristics of pleomorphic adenoma, but it has the capacity to generate local recurrences and distant metastases (mainly bones, lungs, and lymph nodes). Despite the fact that some authors consider it to be a benign neoplasia, the 2015 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of head and neck tumours considers it to be malignant...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900470/mutational-frequency-of-kras-nras-idh2-pik3ca-and-egfr-in-north-indian-gallbladder-cancer-patients
#8
Aarti Sharma, Ashok Kumar, Niraj Kumari, Narendra Krishnani, Neeraj Rastogi
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) has a peculiar geographical distinction, with a high prevalence seen in North India and Chile. There are various aetiopathogenetic mechanisms of GBC causation; one of them is a series of pathogenic mutations, which is responsible for the malignant transformation of gallbladder epithelium. Therefore, the present study aimed to find out cancer-specific hot spot mutations in five major cancer-related genes KRAS exon1 &2, NRAS exon1, IDH2 exon, PIK3CA exon 20, IDH2 exon 4 and EGFR exon 20 in North Indian GBC patients and their association with clinicopathological variables...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900469/necrotic-ulcerated-and-bleeding-striae-distensae-following-bevacizumab-in-a-palliative-setting-for-gliobastomatosis-cerebri
#9
Olivia Laugier, Laetitia Padovani, Arnauld Verschuur, Caroline Gaudy-Marqueste, Nicolas André
Glioblastoma cerebri is a rare paediatric malignancy with dismal prognosis [Chappé C, Riffaud L, and Tréguier C et al (2013) Primary gliomatosis cerebri involving gray matter in pediatrics: a distinct entity? A multicenter study of 14 casesChilds Nerv Syst29 565-571 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-012-2016-1 PMID: 23306961] and no established standard of care. Here, we report a case of ulcerated and bleeding striae distensae in a teenage girl following palliative treatment with bevacizumab and steroids.
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900468/cancer-of-childhood-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
REVIEW
Cristina Stefan, Freddie Bray, Jacques Ferlay, Biying Liu, D Maxwell Parkin
Measurement of incidence rates of childhood cancer in Africa is difficult. The study 'Cancer of Childhood in sub Saharan Africa' brings together results from 16 population-based registries which, as members of the African Cancer Registry Network (AFCRN), have been evaluated as achieving adequate coverage of their target population. The cancers are classified according to the third revision of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC-3) and recorded rates in Africa are compared with those in childhood populations in the UK, France, and the USA...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798814/editorial-childhood-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa
#11
EDITORIAL
Donald Maxwell Parkin, Cristina Stefan
Measurement of incidence rates of childhood cancer in Africa is difficult. The study 'Cancer of Childhood in sub Saharan Africa' [Stefan C, Bray F, Ferlay J, Parkin DM and Liu B (2017) Cancer of Childhood in sub-Saharan Africaecancer11(755)] brings together results from 16 population-based registries which, as members of the African Cancer Registry Network (AFCRN), have been evaluated as achieving adequate coverage of their target population. The cancers are classified according to the third revision of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC-3) and recorded rates in Africa are compared with those in childhood populations in the UK, France, and the USA...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798813/personalising-your-health-an-eu-imperative
#12
EDITORIAL
Denis Horgan
In the fast-moving world of personalised medicine there are many issues and barriers-not least when it comes to getting novel drugs and treatments swiftly to where they are really needed. Slow bench-to-bedside rates do not help the 500 million potential patients across the EU's current 28 Member States, and the timings are affected by several elements during the development and licensing phases. As we all know, personalised medicine starts with the patient. It holds huge potential for improving the health of many patients and ensuring better outcomes for health systems' efficiency and transparency...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798812/clinical-epidemiological-and-therapeutic-profile-of-patients-with-a-retinoblastoma-diagnosis-experience-in-the-costa-rica-national-children-s-hospital-oncology-unit-from-january-2009-to-december-2015
#13
Jennie Chen Lo, Carlos Rodríguez, Rigoberto Monestel, Arnoldo Zúñiga
INTRODUCTION: Retinoblastoma represents only 3% of paediatric cancers, but it is the most prevalent intraocular tumour in this population. It develops in the retina as a primitive neuroectodermal tumour that affects development during gestation. The tumour presents in two different forms depending on whether or not it expresses a genetic modification. For patients diagnosed at preschool age, 75% are unilateral non-hereditary cases. While enucleation is the preferred treatment for advanced stages of the tumour, other modalities, such as systemic and intraocular chemotherapy, radiotherapy and local treatments with thermotherapy, cryotherapy, and brachytherapy can be used to try to preserve the eye...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798811/pregnancy-testing-in-patients-undergoing-radiation-therapy
#14
Shivam M Kharod, Julie Greenwalt, Camille Dessaigne, Anamaria Yeung
Radiation therapy (RT) can be lethal to a developing fetus; therefore, determining pregnancy status before RT is essential. We here sought to determine how many women treated with RT at our institution for over one year were at risk for pregnancy when starting RT. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all female patients 12-55 years old treated with radiation, i.e. 1 October 2012 to 31 September 2013. Patients were categorised as 'at risk' if they had a uterus and 'no risk' if they had a hysterectomy...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798810/deterioration-of-duodenal-lymphangiectasia-after-radiotherapy-for-gastric-malt-lymphoma
#15
Masaya Iwamuro, Takehiro Tanaka, Hiromitsu Kanzaki, Seiji Kawano, Yoshiro Kawahara, Yoshiaki Iwasaki, Hiroyuki Okada
A 68-year-old Japanese woman underwent radiotherapy for gastric lymphoma. Although lymphangiectasia was sparsely observed in the second portion of the duodenum before radiotherapy, the number of pinpoint white spots obviously increased after the treatment. Although the duodenal lymphangiectasia gradually progressed, the patient had no features of protein-losing enteropathy. This case highlights the importance of endoscopic observation of the duodenum after irradiation to the abdomen as radiotherapy may secondarily cause intestinal lymphangiectasia...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798809/hypoxia-inducible-tumour-specific-promoters-as-a-dual-targeting-transcriptional-regulation-system-for-cancer-gene-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Bita Javan, Majid Shahbazi
Transcriptional targeting is the best approach for specific gene therapy. Hypoxia is a common feature of the tumour microenvironment. Therefore, targeting gene expression in hypoxic cells by placing transgene under the control of a hypoxia-responsive promoter can be a good strategy for cancer-specific gene therapy. The hypoxia-inducible gene expression system has been investigated more in suicide gene therapy and it can also be of great help in knocking down cancer gene therapy with siRNAs. However, this system needs to be optimised to have maximum efficacy with minimum side effects in normal tissues...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717397/how-do-we-avoid-disaster-when-exiting-the-european-medicines-agency-making-the-most-of-brexit-in-pharmaceutical-regulation
#17
EDITORIAL
Anthony James Hatswell
As the UK prepares to leave the EU, it must decide what path it is to take with a large number of regulatory and technical agencies who provide collaboration at the European level. In the case of pharmaceuticals, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) provides pan-European licencing for novel pharmaceuticals. Should the UK depart from the EMA system, this article highlights the loss to patients immediately (slower access to novel treatments), and in the long term by having no access to some novel products as companies choose not to launch in the UK...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717396/intraoperative-radiotherapy-review-of-techniques-and-results
#18
REVIEW
Avinash Pilar, Meetakshi Gupta, Sarbani Ghosh Laskar, Siddhartha Laskar
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a technique that involves precise delivery of a large dose of ionising radiation to the tumour or tumour bed during surgery. Direct visualisation of the tumour bed and ability to space out the normal tissues from the tumour bed allows maximisation of the dose to the tumour while minimising the dose to normal tissues. This results in an improved therapeutic ratio with IORT. Although it was introduced in the 1960s, it has seen a resurgence of popularity with the introduction of self-shielding mobile linear accelerators and low-kV IORT devices, which by eliminating the logistical issues of transport of the patient during surgery for radiotherapy or building a shielded operating room, has enabled its wider use in the community...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717395/brain-imaging-before-primary-lung-cancer-resection-a-controversial-topic
#19
Zoe Hudson, Eveline Internullo, Anthony Edey, Isabel Laurence, Davide Bianchi, Alfredo Addeo
OBJECTIVE: International and national recommendations for brain imaging in patients planned to undergo potentially curative resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are variably implemented throughout the United Kingdom [Hudson BJ, Crawford MB, and Curtin J et al (2015) Brain imaging in lung cancer patients without symptoms of brain metastases: a national survey of current practice in EnglandClin Radiol https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2015.02.007]. However, the recommendations are not based on high-quality evidence and do not take into account cost implications and local resources...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717394/immunohistochemical-expression-of-er-%C3%AE-and-pr-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#20
Marwa Mohammed Serag Eldien, Asmaa Gaber Abdou, Tarek Rageh, Eman Abdelrazek, Enas Elkholy
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer with multiple risk factors including exposure to ionising radiation. Oestrogens contribute to papillary carcinoma development by promoting cell proliferation and invasion of mutated epithelial follicular cells. The present study aimed to assess ER-α and PR expression in PTC and to correlate their expression with the clinicopathological parameters in this cancer. This study included 62 primary and six metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma cases...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
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