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Ecancermedicalscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263062/highlights-from-the-2018-win-symposium-25-26-june-2018-paris-designing-the-future-of-precision-oncology
#1
Will Davies
The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) Symposium is the annual gathering of WIN consortium members from across the globe, representing academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, technology companies and charitable organisations, to discuss ongoing research and the latest developments in precision oncology. The symposium held in Paris, France on 25-26 June was structured into five plenary sessions, two open forums and poster presentations. This year marked the 10th anniversary of the consortium, and the programme anchored itself with retrospectives of recent breakthroughs in personalised medicine, programme sessions reviewing the iterative design of trials in precision oncology at present, and the future of implementing personalised medicine initiatives in US and EU healthcare systems for the maximum patient benefit...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263061/inspiration-innovation-and-integration-highlights-from-the-third-icpcn-conference-on-children-s-palliative-care-30-may-to-2-june-2018-durban-south-africa
#2
Julia Downing, Sue Boucher, Julia Ambler, Tracey Brand, Zodwa Sithole, Busi Nkosi, Michelle Meiring, Elizabeth Gwyther, Lorna Sithole, Barbara Steel, Alex Daniels
The International Children's Palliative Care Network (ICPCN) held its third international conference on children's palliative care in Durban, South Africa, from May 30 2018 to 2 June 2018. The conference-inspiration, innovation and integration-brought together 250 participants from 41 countries and was held in conjunction with local partners-Umduduzi Hospice Care for Children, Palliative Treatment for Children South Africa (Patch SA) and the Hospice and Palliative Care Association of South Africa. It built on national and global developments in palliative care such as its inclusion in Universal health coverage (UHC), the Lancet Commission report on pain and palliative care and the sustainable development goals (SDGs), and aimed to raise the profile of children's palliative care in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and nationally...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263060/pre-pro-and-synbiotics-in-cancer-prevention-and-treatment-a-review-of-basic-and-clinical-research
#3
REVIEW
Alasdair J Scott, Claire A Merrifield, Jessica A Younes, Elizabeth P Pekelharing
There is a growing appreciation of the role of the human microbiota in the pathophysiology of cancer. Pre-, pro- and synbiotics are some of the best evidenced means of manipulating the microbiota for therapeutic benefit and their potential role in the prevention and treatment of cancer has garnered significant interest. In this review, we discuss how these agents may have oncosuppressive effects by maintaining intestinal barrier function, immunomodulation, metabolism and preventing host cell proliferation. We highlight the epidemiological and trials-based evidence supporting a role for pre-, pro- and synbiotics in the prevention of cancer...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263059/gut-microbiota-chemotherapy-and-the-host-the-influence-of-the-gut-microbiota-on-cancer-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Anna Louise Pouncey, Alasdair James Scott, James Leslie Alexander, Julian Marchesi, James Kinross
The gut microbiota exists in a dynamic balance between symbiosis and pathogenesis and can influence almost any aspect of host physiology. Growing evidence suggests that the gut microbiota not only plays a key role in carcinogenesis but also influences the efficacy and toxicity of anticancer therapy. The microbiota modulates the host response to chemotherapy via numerous mechanisms, including immunomodulation, xenometabolism and alteration of community structure. Furthermore, exploitation of the microbiota offers opportunities for the personalisation of chemotherapeutic regimens and the development of novel therapies...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263058/moving-on-from-metchnikoff-thinking-about-microbiome-therapeutics-in-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Saman Maleki Vareki, Ryan M Chanyi, Kamilah Abdur-Rashid, Liam Brennan, Jeremy P Burton
Precision medicine now needs to also consider the microbiome in oncology treatment. Ingested substances, whether they are a carcinogenic or therapeutic agent, will likely come into contact with the microbiota. Even those delivered extra-intestinally can be influenced beyond xenobiotic metabolism by biochemical factors associated with the microbiota or by an immunological predisposition created by the microbiome. We need to undertake one of the largest paradigm shifts to ever occur in medicine, that is, every drug or ingested substance needs to be re-evaluated for its pharmacological effect post-microbiome interaction...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263057/lung-cancer-a-new-frontier-for-microbiome-research-and-clinical-translation
#6
REVIEW
Luis Aj Mur, Sharon A Huws, Simon Js Cameron, Paul D Lewis, Keir E Lewis
The lung microbiome has been shown to reflect a range of pulmonary diseases-for example: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis. Studies have now begun to show microbiological changes in the lung that correlate with lung cancer (LC) which could provide new insights into lung carcinogenesis and new biomarkers for disease screening. Clinical studies have suggested that infections with tuberculosis or pneumonia increased the risk of LC possibly through inflammatory or immunological changes...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263056/colorectal-carcinogenesis-an-archetype-of-gut-microbiota-host-interaction
#7
REVIEW
James L Alexander, Alasdair J Scott, Anna L Pouncey, Julian Marchesi, James Kinross, Julian Teare
Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major cause of worldwide mortality. Epidemiological evidence of markedly increased risk in populations that migrate to Western countries, or adopt their lifestyle, suggests that CRC is a disease whose aetiology is defined primarily by interactions between the host and his environment. The gut microbiome sits directly at this interface and is now increasingly recognised as a modulator of colorectal carcinogenesis. Bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum and Escherichia coli ( E...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263055/the-implementation-of-omics-technologies-in-cancer-microbiome-research
#8
REVIEW
Benjamin H Mullish, Laura S Osborne, Julian R Marchesi, Julie Ak McDonald
Whilst the interplay between host genetics and the environment plays a pivotal role in the aetiopathogenesis of cancer, there are other key contributors of importance as well. One such factor of central and growing interest is the contribution of the microbiota to cancer. Even though the field is only a few years old, investigation of the 'cancer microbiome' has already led to major advances in knowledge of the basic biology of cancer risk and progression, opened novel avenues for biomarkers and diagnostics, and given a better understanding of mechanisms underlying response to therapy...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174725/surgery-for-brca-tp53-and-palb2-a-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Chin-Vern Song, Soo-Hwang Teo, Nur Aishah Taib, Cheng-Har Yip
Introduction: The presence of a deleterious mutation, most commonly a BRCA mutation, has a tremendous impact on the management of breast cancer. We review the surgical management of BRCA mutation carriers, and two other potentially high-risk mutations, TP53 and PALB2. Methodology: A search was done on PubMed, limited to reviews and the English language only. The search terms used were ' BRCA ' or ' PALB2 ' or ' TP53 ' and 'surgery'. Fifteen articles were identified by searching and one article was obtained from other sources...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174724/quick-and-sustained-clinical-response-to-mek-inhibitor-i-in-a-nf1-patient-with-neurofibromas
#10
Honoré Papalia, Frédérique Audic, Gabriel Revon Rivière, Arnauld Verschuur, Nicolas André
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant tumour predisposition disorder with a birth incidence of about 1 in 2,700 and prevalence of 1 in 4,560. The NF1 gene codes for an ubiquitous protein: neurofibromin. Neurofibromin interacts with the proto-oncogene RAS to suppress tumour formation. Individuals with germline inactivation of the NF1 gene have a propensity to develop both benign and malignant tumours. We report the case of a 12-year-old child with NF1, diagnosed at the age of 15 months, for whom the clinical course has been marked by the appearance of multiple cutaneous and paraspinal neurofibromas responsible for impaired walking, motor deficiency and pain...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174723/pancreatoblastoma-in-a-paediatric-patient-anatomo-pathological-aspects-of-a-case-with-multiple-hepatic-metastases
#11
Gabriel Cao, Julián Mendez, Daniel Navacchia
Pancreatoblastoma is a rare paediatric malignant neoplasm. The treatment of choice is complete surgical resection. However, it is often unresectable due to its large size, local infiltration or distant metastasis. Since the condition is rare, there is currently no standard treatment regimen. We outline the case of a 4-year-old child who presented with abdominal pain and distention, together with an enlarged liver and elevated serum α-fetoprotein levels. Imaging studies showed the presence of an abnormal pancreatic tumour and multiple nodular lesions in the liver, the biopsies from which led to a diagnosis of pancreatoblastoma...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174722/a-cancer-mimicking-diagnosis-of-peritoneal-carcinosis-report-of-a-case-of-abdominal-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-infection
#12
Francesca De Piano, Filippo Savoldi, Francesca Ruju, Mariacristina Ghioni, Vanna Zanagnolo, Stefania Rizzo
Abdominal non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection is a rare condition in healthy patients. When it occurs, it leads to the appearance of typical findings of peritoneal involvement, such as thickening of the peritoneal leaflets and the omentum, ascites and enlargement of lymph nodes and of mesenteric nodules. These findings may be misdiagnosed as tumour peritoneal implants. In case of spontaneous regression of the peritoneal involvement and ascites, as well as in the absence of malignancy, the suspicion of infectious disease, including abdominal nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, should be considered...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174721/lung-cancer-patients-have-the-highest-malignancy-associated-suicide-rate-in-usa-a-population-based-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Mohamed Rahouma, Mohamed Kamel, Ahmed Abouarab, Ihab Eldessouki, Abu Nasar, Sebron Harrison, Benjamin Lee, Eugene Shostak, John Morris, Brendon Stiles, Nasser K Altorki, Jeffrey L Port
Purpose: Previous studies have reported that psychological and social distresses associated with a cancer diagnosis have led to an increase in suicides compared to the general population. We sought to explore lung cancer-associated suicide rates in a large national database compared to the general population, and to the three most prevalent non-skin cancers [breast, prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC)]. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (1973-2013) was retrospectively reviewed to identify cancer-associated suicide deaths in all cancers combined, as well as for each of lung, prostate, breast or CRCs...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174720/recurrent-dermatofibrosarcoma-protuberans-challenging-a-surgeon-s-dexterity-for-the-tricky-margins
#14
Deepak Kumar Diwakar, Nikita Wadhwani, Shivani Paruthi
Soft tissue tumours represent 0.2%-1% of all breast malignancies. [Al Tarakji M, Toro A, and Di Carlo I, et al (2015) Unusual presentation of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in a male patient's breast: a case report and review of the literature World J Surg Oncol 13 158 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12957-015-0562-1]. Out of those, Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) of the breast is extremely rare, especially in men with only six cases, including this case, reported so far. We report a case of recurrent DFSP in a 35-year-old male after a latency of 8 years in the region of previous surgical scar...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174719/the-understanding-of-healthcare-workers-on-the-content-of-palliative-care-policy-in-shesilweni-swaziland-a-qualitative-study
#15
EDITORIAL
Teluleko Nhlonipho Maseko, Collin Pfaff, Aziza Mwisongo
We undertook a qualitative study design to explore the understanding of healthcare workers of the content of the palliative care policy in Swaziland. A total of 17 health workers participated in this study. The study showed that there was a lack of knowledge about palliative care, confusion as to where palliative care should be offered and by whom and the role of providing medication as a part of palliative care. Interestingly, the health workers mentioned the importance of different actors, the importance of teamwork and some perceived successes of palliative care implementation...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174718/two-cases-of-white-globe-appearance-in-non-cancerous-stomach
#16
Masaya Iwamuro, Takehiro Tanaka, Hiroyuki Sakae, Yasushi Yamasaki, Hiromitsu Kanzaki, Seiji Kawano, Yoshiro Kawahara, Hiroyuki Okada
In this report, we describe two patients with white globe appearance in the non-cancerous stomach. The patient in Case 1 was an 82-year-old Japanese man who had been taking vonoprazan, dimethicone, acotiamide, sitagliptin, candesartan, dutasteride, etizolam and zolpidem. The patient in Case 2 was a 74-year-old Japanese woman who had been taking esomeprazole, rebamipide, sitagliptin, candesartan, ezetimibe, mirabegron, levocetirizine, zolpidem and lactobacillus preparation. In both cases, endoscopy revealed multiple white spots in the stomach...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093919/breath-biopsy-for-early-detection-and-precision-medicine-in-cancer
#17
EDITORIAL
Marc van der Schee, Hazel Pinheiro, Edoardo Gaude
Breath biopsy enables the non-invasive collection and analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, providing valuable information about disease processes occurring in the body. Metabolic changes occur in cancer cells at the earliest stages of disease. We discuss progress in the use of breath biopsy for discovery of breath-based biomarkers for early detection of cancer, and potential applications for breath biopsy in enabling precision medicine in cancer.
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093918/accountability-in-the-nhs-the-impact-on-cancer-care
#18
EDITORIAL
Aislinn Macklin-Doherty
Accountability of service delivery is becoming increasingly complex and never has this been more apparent than in the field of Oncology. Cancer care has an unrivalled level of complexity not only in the heterogeneity of management of the disease itself but increasingly in the myriad of service providers, specialities, policymakers and regulatory bodies overseeing its delivery. The stepwise series of changes to NHS structures over recent decades has had an enormous impact on our ability to answer key questions which lie at the heart of accountability: who is making the key decisions about changes to cancer care delivery? What are these reforms achieving? How can they be influenced? It is only through clear and transparent decision-making that we may have any hope of implementing, monitoring and influencing the effects of evidence-based change...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093917/survival-probabilities-and-trends-for-lip-oral-cavity-and-oropharynx-cancers-in-northern-portugal-in-the-period-2000-2009
#19
Luís Silva Monteiro, Luís Antunes, Lúcio Lara Santos, Maria José Bento, Saman Warnakulasuriya
Background: Oral cancer represents a serious public health problem worldwide. Our aim was to analyse the survival probabilities and trends of patients presenting with lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancers, who were residents in the north of Portugal. Methods: Using cancer-registry data, we conducted a population-based study of lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancers diagnosed in the period 2000-2009, among residents in the north of Portugal. Net survival was estimated using the Pohar-Perme estimator...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093916/nurse-led-active-surveillance-for-prostate-cancer-is-safe-effective-and-associated-with-high-rates-of-patient-satisfaction-results-of-an-audit-in-the-east-of-england
#20
Estelle Martin, Satyendra Persaud, John Corr, Rowan Casey, Rajiv Pillai
Introduction: Active surveillance (AS) is an option in the management of men with low-stage, low-risk prostate cancer. These patients, who often require prolonged follow-up, can put a strain on outpatient resources. Nurses are ideally placed to develop advanced roles to help meet this increased demand-a model we have utilised since 2014. We set about to comprehensively evaluate our nurse-led AS (NLAS) programme. Patients and methods: An audit of patient notes was carried out to assess compliance with trust and national guidelines...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
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