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Ecancermedicalscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290761/the-olympiad-trial-who-won-the-gold
#1
EDITORIAL
Bishal Gyawali
OlympiAD was a phase 3 randomized controlled trial of a PARP inhibitor olaparib for metastatic HER2 negative breast cancer patients harboring a BRCA mutation. Although the OlympiAD trial met its primary endpoint, there are concerns regarding whether olaparib truly improves meaningful outcomes for these patients. In this editorial, I examine these issues in detail. An exploration of these issues will provide important educational insights for oncologists and cancer policy makers. I conclude that although olaparib seems to have won the Gold with OlympiAD, the patients probably have not...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290760/highlights-from-the-inaugural-international-cancer-microbiome-consortium-meeting-icmc-5-6-september-2017-london-uk
#2
Alasdair J Scott, Claire A Merrifield, James L Alexander, Julian R Marchesi, James M Kinross
The International Cancer Microbiome Consortium (ICMC) is a recently launched collaborative between academics and academic-clinicians that aims to promote microbiome research within the field of oncology, establish expert consensus and deliver education for academics and clinicians. The inaugural two-day meeting was held at the Royal Society of Medicine (RSM), London, UK, 5-6 September 2017. Microbiome and cancer experts from around the world first delivered a series of talks during an educational day and then sat for a day of roundtable discussion to debate key topics in microbiome-cancer research...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290759/united-against-cancer-prevention-to-end-of-life-care-highlights-from-the-uganda-cancer-institute-palliative-care-association-of-uganda-joint-international-conference-on-cancer-and-palliative-care-and-the-7th-palliative-care-conference-24-25-august-2017-kampala
#3
Julia Downing, Henry Ddungu, Fatia Kiyange, Mwazi Batuli, James Kafeero, Harriet Kebirungi, Rose Kiwanuka, Noleb Mugisha, Eddie Mwebesa, Mark Mwesiga, Elizabeth Namukwaya, Nixon Niyonzima, Warren Phipps, Jackson Orem
The Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) and the Palliative Care Association of Uganda (PCAU) jointly hosted an international conference on cancer and palliative care in August 2017 in Kampala, Uganda. At the heart of the conference rested a common commitment to see patient care improved across Uganda and the region. The theme - United Against Cancer: Prevention to End-of-Life Care - reflected this joint vision and the drive to remember that cancer care should include prevention, early diagnosis and screening, treatment, rehabilitation and palliative care...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290758/primary-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-of-the-prostate-a-case-report
#4
Oscar D Martín, Luis Alfredo Wadskier, Yesica Quiroz, Heilen P Bravo, Giovanni Cacciamani, Paola Umaña, Luis Medina
This report is of a 68-year-old male patient with a three-year history of severe, progressive, low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with a score of 20 points on the International Symptom Scale. The patient received alpha-1-blocker therapy without adequate response. Transurethral resection of the prostate was performed, and the anatomopathological report indicated the presence of a haematolymphoid small-cell neoplasia and glandulostromal prostatic hyperplasia. Posterior immunohistochemistry evaluation reported an extra-nodal marginal zone-B lymphoma non-Hodgkin lymphoma...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290757/mortality-assessment-of-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-in-mexico-2000-2014
#5
Omar González-Santiago, Myrna L Yeverino-Gutiérrez, María Del Rosario González-González, Ruth Corral-Symes, Pilar C Morales-San-Claudio
The five-year survival rate remains low for pancreatic cancer (PC). The objective of this study was to describe PC mortality rates in Mexico and its seven socioeconomic regions. The data for the deaths were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography databases. The adjusted rates were calculated using the world standard population. During the study period, the average mortality rate was 4.29 per 100,000 inhabitants. By gender, the rate was 4.35 and 4.29 per 100,000 inhabitants for men and women, respectively...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225696/colorectal-cancer-towards-new-challenges-and-concepts-of-preventive-healthcare
#6
EDITORIAL
Lidia Colace, Stefania Boccia, Ruggero De Maria, Ann Zeuner
Colorectal cancer (CRC) holds the woeful record of being the most preventable but least prevented type of cancer. Although healthy lifestyles and screening programs associated to early polyp removal greatly reduce CRC incidence and CRC-related death, the overall lack of information and of effective preventive policies is promoting an overwhelming global escalation of this disease. Moreover, new challenges such as the increasing occurrence of aggressive CRC in young adults highlight underlying changes not only in the incidence but also in the nature of this disease...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225695/when-populism-takes-over-the-delivery-of-health-care-venezuela
#7
EDITORIAL
Sunil Daryanani
Adequate and modern health care is not available in Venezuela at this moment. A humanitarian crisis of post war dimensions is currently rampant and afflicting all Venezuelans alike. The delivery and availability of cancer care is severely limited and inadequate. No funding is available as populist measures, mismanagement, pillaging, corruption, lack of forethought and expertise have brought the country into severe economic collapse and political turmoil.
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225694/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treatment-r-evolution-ten-years-of-advances-and-more-to-come
#8
REVIEW
Luca Toschi, Sabrina Rossi, Giovanna Finocchiaro, Armando Santoro
Diagnostic and treatment algorithms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are evolving at a never-before-seen pace. Histological subtyping to maximise treatment efficacy and avoid toxicity has marked the beginning of the revolution, opening the way to molecular characterisation to guide genomically driven treatments with targeted agents, led by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) inhibitors. More recently, agents against the Program Death 1 receptor (PD-1) and ligand 1 (PD-L1) have entered the clinical arena, offering new hope to NSCLC patients, although several uncertainties remain to be elucidated...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225693/cytoreductive-prostate-radiotherapy-in-oligometastatic-prostate-cancer-a-single-centre-analysis-of-toxicity-and-clinical-outcome
#9
Giulia Riva, Giulia Marvaso, Matteo Augugliaro, Dario Zerini, Cristiana Fodor, Gennaro Musi, Ottavio De Cobelli, Roberto Orecchia, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa
Objectives: The current standard of care for patients with metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) at diagnosis is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with or without anti-androgen and chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to define the role of a local radiotherapy (RT) treatment in the mPCa setting. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data of patients with PCa and bone oligometastases at diagnosis treated in our institution with ADT followed by cytoreductive prostate-RT with or without RT on metastases...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225692/recent-advances-in-radiation-oncology
#10
REVIEW
Cristina Garibaldi, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Giulia Marvaso, Samantha Dicuonzo, Damaris Patricia Rojas, Federica Cattani, Anna Starzyńska, Delia Ciardo, Alessia Surgo, Maria Cristina Leonardi, Rosalinda Ricotti
Radiotherapy (RT) is very much a technology-driven treatment modality in the management of cancer. RT techniques have changed significantly over the past few decades, thanks to improvements in engineering and computing. We aim to highlight the recent developments in radiation oncology, focusing on the technological and biological advances. We will present state-of-the-art treatment techniques, employing photon beams, such as intensity-modulated RT, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, stereotactic body RT and adaptive RT, which make possible a highly tailored dose distribution with maximum normal tissue sparing...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225691/history-of-the-development-of-radiotherapy-in-latin-america
#11
REVIEW
Luis Pinillos, Joseph A Pinto, Gustavo Sarria
Radiotherapy was the first nonsurgical treatment for malignant tumours and represents one of the oldest disciplines of oncology. In Latin America, as in many parts of the world, the history of modern oncology begins with the implementation of radiation therapy facilities. The development of radiotherapy in Latin America was possible thanks to the seminal work of radiation oncologists in different countries. As a large territory, there is a need to implement modern facilities and equipment, but unfortunately there are disparities in the access and quality of radiotherapy services across Latin America and even within individual countries...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225690/do-we-need-regional-guidelines-for-breast-cancer-management-in-the-mena-region-mena-breast-cancer-guidelines-project
#12
Reham Fayed, Dina Hamza, Heba Abdallah, Mohamed Kelany, Amira Tahseen, Adel T Aref
Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide in general and in the Middle East and the North African region (MENA region) in particular. Management of breast cancer in the MENA region faces a lot of challenges, which include younger age at presentation, aggressive behaviour, lack of national breast screening programmes and lack of reliable data registries as well as socioeconomic factors. These factors make applying the international guidelines for breast cancer management very challenging...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225689/acute-myeloid-leukaemia-at-an-early-age-reviewing-the-interaction-between-pesticide-exposure-and-kmt2a-rerrangments
#13
REVIEW
Maria S Pombo-de-Oliveira, Francianne Gomes Andrade, Gisele Dallapicola Brisson, Filipe Vicente Dos Santos Bueno, Ingrid Sardou Cezar, Elda Pereira Noronha
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in early childhood is characterised by a high frequency of recurrent genomic aberrations associated with distinct myeloid subtypes, clinical outcomes and pathogenesis. Genomic instability is the first step of pathogenic mechanism in early childhood AML. A sum of adverse events is necessary to the development of infant AML (i-AML), which includes latency of biochemical-molecular and cellular effects. Inherited genetic susceptibility associated with exposures to biotransformation substances can modulate the risk of DNA damage and it is a very important piece in the pathogenic puzzle...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225688/repurposing-drugs-in-oncology-redo-chloroquine-and-hydroxychloroquine-as-anti-cancer-agents
#14
Ciska Verbaanderd, Hannelore Maes, Marco B Schaaf, Vikas P Sukhatme, Pan Pantziarka, Vidula Sukhatme, Patrizia Agostinis, Gauthier Bouche
Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are well-known 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial agents. Scientific evidence also supports the use of CQ and HCQ in the treatment of cancer. Overall, preclinical studies support CQ and HCQ use in anti-cancer therapy, especially in combination with conventional anti-cancer treatments since they are able to sensitise tumour cells to a variety of drugs, potentiating the therapeutic activity. Thus far, clinical results are mostly in favour of the repurposing of CQ. However, over 30 clinical studies are still evaluating the activity of both CQ and HCQ in different cancer types and in combination with various standard treatments...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225687/a-different-surgical-approach-for-cardiophrenic-lymph-node-resection-in-advanced-ovarian-cancer
#15
Lucas Minig, Miguel Arraras, Cristina Zorrero, Pedro Martinez, Manuel Patron, Juan Carlos Peñalver
Objective: To describe the surgical technique of a subxiphoid approach to remove cardiophrenic lymph nodes in women with advanced ovarian cancer. Materials and methods: The first step is to dissect and separate the anterior insertions of the diaphragm at the xiphoid appendix. Thus, the parietal peritoneum and the upper fibres of the transversus abdominis muscle are incised. Then, the anteroinferior mediastinum is identified and dissected. Diaphragmatic deinsertion may be extended 5-7 cm laterally to the xiphoid appendix following the inferior costal margin according with the localization of the enlarged lymph nodes...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225686/prognostic-value-of-a-patient-reported-functional-score-versus-physician-reported-karnofsky-performance-status-score-in-brain-metastases
#16
Jai Prakash Agarwal, Santam Chakraborty, Sarbani Ghosh Laskar, Naveen Mummudi, Vijay M Patil, Kumar Prabhash, Vanita Noronha, Nilendu Purandare, Amit Joshi, Sandeep Tandon, Jitendra Arora, Rupali Badhe
Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the added prognostic value of a patient-reported functional outcome score over Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with brain metastases. Materials and methods: The baseline data are from a prospective cohort study involving 140 consecutive patients presenting at our institute. A patient reported performance status (PRPS) was obtained by summing the physical- and role-functioning scale scores of the EORTC QLQ C30 questionnaire...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225685/retromammary-fat-axillary-and-arm-metastases-from-a-retroperitoneal-leiomyosarcoma-report-of-a-case-with-an-indolent-behaviour
#17
Walberto Monteiro Neiva Eulálio Filho, Samuel Madeira Campos Melo, Rafaela de Brito Alves, Luiz Ayrton Santos Junior, Danilo da Fonseca Reis Silva
Leiomyosarcomas are sarcomas that originate within smooth muscle cells and generally occur in older patients. These tumours account for 10% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Metastases occur most commonly to the lungs, kidneys, and liver. Cutaneous metastases may also occur but are usually a very rare and late event. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman who developed subcutaneous metastasis to the axilla, arm and breast after surgical resection of the primary tumour. The patient maintained controlled disease with surgical resections and clinical follow-up, initiating chemotherapy one year after the diagnosis of metastatic disease...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104615/can-e-learning-help-you-to-connect-compassionately-commentary-on-a-palliative-care-e-learning-resource-for-india
#18
EDITORIAL
Soumitra Shankar Datta, Sanjit Agrawal
e-learning resources need to be customised to the audience and learners to make them culturally relevant. The 'Palliative care e-learning resource for health care professionals in India' has been developed by the Karunashraya Hospice, Bengaluru in collaboration with the Cardiff Palliative Care Education Team, Wales to address the training needs of professionals in India. The resource, comprising over 20 modules, integrates psychological, social and medical care for patients requiring palliative care for cancer and other diseases...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104614/proton-radiobiology-and-its-clinical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Bleddyn Jones
Denser ionisation clustering and complex DNA damage in proton Bragg peaks far exceeds that seen with conventional X-rays. This results in more efficient cell sterilisation, quantified by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Currently, a 1.1 RBE is used to determine the clinical proton doses by dividing the usual X-rays dose by this amount. This number, derived from short-term experiments, has been criticised as being irrelevant to late normal tissue (NT) effects following radiotherapy and included many control irradiations using lower voltage X-rays (with elevated RBE values) than those used in the clinic...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104613/impact-of-exon-19-versus-exon-21-egfr-activating-mutation-on-outcomes-with-upfront-pemetrexed-carboplatin-chemotherapy
#20
Vanita Noronha, Vijay Patil, Amit Joshi, Anuradha Chougule, Atanu Bhattacharjee, Rajiv Kumar, Sucheta More, Supriya Goud, Ashay Karpe, Anant Ramaswamy, Nikhil Pande, Arun Chandrasekharan, Alok Goel, Vikas Talreja, Abhishek Mahajan, Amit Janu, Nilendu Purandare, Kumar Prabhash
Background: EGFR mutation subtype is a recognised factor impacting outcomes of patients receiving oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Evidence for the effect of this factor on outcomes in patients receiving pemetrexed is limited. Methods: We completed a study comparing pemetrexed-platinum combination versus oral TKI in EGFR mutation-positive patients in lung cancer. We analysed the impact of EGFR mutation subtype, specifically, exon 19 and 21 on the PFS and OS of patients treated with pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2) on day 1) and carboplatin (AUC 5 on day 1) as first-line therapy...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
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