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Ecancermedicalscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798814/editorial-childhood-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
EDITORIAL
Donald Maxwell Parkin, Cristina Stefan
Measurement of incidence rates of childhood cancer in Africa is difficult. The study 'Cancer of Childhood in sub Saharan Africa' [Stefan C, Bray F, Ferlay J, Parkin DM and Liu B (2017) Cancer of Childhood in sub-Saharan Africaecancer11(755)] brings together results from 16 population-based registries which, as members of the African Cancer Registry Network (AFCRN), have been evaluated as achieving adequate coverage of their target population. The cancers are classified according to the third revision of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC-3) and recorded rates in Africa are compared with those in childhood populations in the UK, France, and the USA...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798813/personalising-your-health-an-eu-imperative
#2
EDITORIAL
Denis Horgan
In the fast-moving world of personalised medicine there are many issues and barriers-not least when it comes to getting novel drugs and treatments swiftly to where they are really needed. Slow bench-to-bedside rates do not help the 500 million potential patients across the EU's current 28 Member States, and the timings are affected by several elements during the development and licensing phases. As we all know, personalised medicine starts with the patient. It holds huge potential for improving the health of many patients and ensuring better outcomes for health systems' efficiency and transparency...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798812/clinical-epidemiological-and-therapeutic-profile-of-patients-with-a-retinoblastoma-diagnosis-experience-in-the-costa-rica-national-children-s-hospital-oncology-unit-from-january-2009-to-december-2015
#3
Jennie Chen Lo, Carlos Rodríguez, Rigoberto Monestel, Arnoldo Zúñiga
INTRODUCTION: Retinoblastoma represents only 3% of paediatric cancers, but it is the most prevalent intraocular tumour in this population. It develops in the retina as a primitive neuroectodermal tumour that affects development during gestation. The tumour presents in two different forms depending on whether or not it expresses a genetic modification. For patients diagnosed at preschool age, 75% are unilateral non-hereditary cases. While enucleation is the preferred treatment for advanced stages of the tumour, other modalities, such as systemic and intraocular chemotherapy, radiotherapy and local treatments with thermotherapy, cryotherapy, and brachytherapy can be used to try to preserve the eye...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798811/pregnancy-testing-in-patients-undergoing-radiation-therapy
#4
Shivam M Kharod, Julie Greenwalt, Camille Dessaigne, Anamaria Yeung
Radiation therapy (RT) can be lethal to a developing fetus; therefore, determining pregnancy status before RT is essential. We here sought to determine how many women treated with RT at our institution for over one year were at risk for pregnancy when starting RT. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all female patients 12-55 years old treated with radiation, i.e. 1 October 2012 to 31 September 2013. Patients were categorised as 'at risk' if they had a uterus and 'no risk' if they had a hysterectomy...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798810/deterioration-of-duodenal-lymphangiectasia-after-radiotherapy-for-gastric-malt-lymphoma
#5
Masaya Iwamuro, Takehiro Tanaka, Hiromitsu Kanzaki, Seiji Kawano, Yoshiro Kawahara, Yoshiaki Iwasaki, Hiroyuki Okada
A 68-year-old Japanese woman underwent radiotherapy for gastric lymphoma. Although lymphangiectasia was sparsely observed in the second portion of the duodenum before radiotherapy, the number of pinpoint white spots obviously increased after the treatment. Although the duodenal lymphangiectasia gradually progressed, the patient had no features of protein-losing enteropathy. This case highlights the importance of endoscopic observation of the duodenum after irradiation to the abdomen as radiotherapy may secondarily cause intestinal lymphangiectasia...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798809/hypoxia-inducible-tumour-specific-promoters-as-a-dual-targeting-transcriptional-regulation-system-for-cancer-gene-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Bita Javan, Majid Shahbazi
Transcriptional targeting is the best approach for specific gene therapy. Hypoxia is a common feature of the tumour microenvironment. Therefore, targeting gene expression in hypoxic cells by placing transgene under the control of a hypoxia-responsive promoter can be a good strategy for cancer-specific gene therapy. The hypoxia-inducible gene expression system has been investigated more in suicide gene therapy and it can also be of great help in knocking down cancer gene therapy with siRNAs. However, this system needs to be optimised to have maximum efficacy with minimum side effects in normal tissues...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717397/how-do-we-avoid-disaster-when-exiting-the-european-medicines-agency-making-the-most-of-brexit-in-pharmaceutical-regulation
#7
EDITORIAL
Anthony James Hatswell
As the UK prepares to leave the EU, it must decide what path it is to take with a large number of regulatory and technical agencies who provide collaboration at the European level. In the case of pharmaceuticals, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) provides pan-European licencing for novel pharmaceuticals. Should the UK depart from the EMA system, this article highlights the loss to patients immediately (slower access to novel treatments), and in the long term by having no access to some novel products as companies choose not to launch in the UK...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717396/intraoperative-radiotherapy-review-of-techniques-and-results
#8
REVIEW
Avinash Pilar, Meetakshi Gupta, Sarbani Ghosh Laskar, Siddhartha Laskar
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a technique that involves precise delivery of a large dose of ionising radiation to the tumour or tumour bed during surgery. Direct visualisation of the tumour bed and ability to space out the normal tissues from the tumour bed allows maximisation of the dose to the tumour while minimising the dose to normal tissues. This results in an improved therapeutic ratio with IORT. Although it was introduced in the 1960s, it has seen a resurgence of popularity with the introduction of self-shielding mobile linear accelerators and low-kV IORT devices, which by eliminating the logistical issues of transport of the patient during surgery for radiotherapy or building a shielded operating room, has enabled its wider use in the community...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717395/brain-imaging-before-primary-lung-cancer-resection-a-controversial-topic
#9
Zoe Hudson, Eveline Internullo, Anthony Edey, Isabel Laurence, Davide Bianchi, Alfredo Addeo
OBJECTIVE: International and national recommendations for brain imaging in patients planned to undergo potentially curative resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are variably implemented throughout the United Kingdom [Hudson BJ, Crawford MB, and Curtin J et al (2015) Brain imaging in lung cancer patients without symptoms of brain metastases: a national survey of current practice in EnglandClin Radiol https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2015.02.007]. However, the recommendations are not based on high-quality evidence and do not take into account cost implications and local resources...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717394/immunohistochemical-expression-of-er-%C3%AE-and-pr-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#10
Marwa Mohammed Serag Eldien, Asmaa Gaber Abdou, Tarek Rageh, Eman Abdelrazek, Enas Elkholy
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer with multiple risk factors including exposure to ionising radiation. Oestrogens contribute to papillary carcinoma development by promoting cell proliferation and invasion of mutated epithelial follicular cells. The present study aimed to assess ER-α and PR expression in PTC and to correlate their expression with the clinicopathological parameters in this cancer. This study included 62 primary and six metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma cases...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690678/the-molecular-understanding-of-cancer-from-the-unspeakable-illness-to-a-curable-disease
#11
Marco A Pierotti
The beginning of our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer and the discovery in the 1980s of cancer associated genes, oncogenes, and tumour suppressor genes has led to cancer becoming a treatable condition rather than an unspeakable disease. In 1971, the then USA President, Richard Nixon, declared 'war against cancer' with a far too optimistic perspective of winning in just a few years. This tactic failed because our knowledge of the disease was still very limited and even its origin-viral or due to exposure to external agents-was still highly debated...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690677/the-past-and-future-of-breast-cancer-treatment-from-the-papyrus-to-individualised-treatment-approaches
#12
REVIEW
Felipe Ades, Konstantinos Tryfonidis, Dimitrios Zardavas
Cancer is one of the oldest diseases ever described, since ancient Egypt there have always been attempts to treat and cure this illness. The growing body of knowledge about breast cancer biology and improvements in surgical and medical treatments has been built over time with contributions from many talented and enthusiastic physicians and researchers. Medical advances have changed the approach from a previously incurable condition, into a surgical disease. Further improvements in cancer biology have allowed the development of systemic treatments, hormonal therapies, and targeted drugs...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690676/radioguided-localisation-of-non-palpable-lesions-of-the-breast-in-costa-rica-review-of-results-of-our-first-800-patients-in-private-practice
#13
REVIEW
Marisel Aguilar, Sabrina Alfaro, Ricardo Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of non-palpable breast lesions is controversial. At the European Institute of Oncology in Milan, Italy, Prof Umberto Veronesi introduced a new technique called the radioguided occult lesion localisation (ROLL) in 1996 to replace conventional methods and their disadvantages (Zurrida S, Galimberti V, and Monti S et al (1998) Radioguided localization of occult breast lesionsBreast7 11-13 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-9776(98)90044-3). Given the success experienced in that institution, the method became the technique of choice for the early diagnosis of breast cancer...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690675/development-of-sentinel-node-biopsy-roll-and-iart-in-early-breast-cancer-at-the-european-institute-of-oncology-milan-ieo
#14
REVIEW
Giovanni Paganelli
The problem of unnecessary axillary clearance in many patients with early breast cancer was certainly a major issue at IEO when we started working with Prof. Umberto Veronesi in 1994. At that time, axillary dissection in EBC was offered to all patients and this procedure was often hotly debated during our multidisciplinary breast cancer meetings. The question as to whether we could avoid axillary dissection by using PET scans or other nuclear medicine methods was frequently asked by Veronesi. This eventually prompted us to investigate whether, as for melanoma patients, the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) approach could reliably be applied to breast cancer...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690674/the-veronesi-quadrantectomy-an-historical-overview
#15
Giovanni Corso, Paolo Veronesi, Virgilio Sacchini, Viviana Galimberti, Alberto Luini
Following a clinical trial in which the Halsted mastectomy was compared to the less invasive quadrantectomy, no differences were reported in terms of local recurrence, disease-free or overall survival between the two. As a result, Umberto Veronesi was the first in the world to state that the radical mastectomy appeared to involve unnecessary mutilation in patients with breast cancer of less than 2 cm and no palpable axillary nodes. To date, the Veronesi quadrantectomy is routinely considered for breast cancer treatment...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690673/professor-umberto-veronesi-a-physician-a-researcher-a-brilliant-man
#16
Ketti Mazzocco, Chiara Marzorati, Gabriella Pravettoni
Many of those who work in oncology or deal with cancer patients know of Prof. Umberto Veronesi and none of them could deny the importance of his battle against cancer. He devoted his life to improving cancer treatment and quality of life for patients. He was a physician, and a politician, but above all he was a researcher. He embodied the true spirit of research, i.e., to believe in something and investigate every aspect of it until all the questions about it have been satisfactorily answered. He never gave up when faced with challenges, and he never stopped being curious...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626491/the-impact-of-a-coordinated-joint-multidisciplinary-breast-cancer-clinic
#17
Jamal Zekri
INTRODUCTION: Timely access to cancer treatment is expected to improve patients' satisfaction and treatment outcome. A joint multidisciplinary breast cancer clinic (JMDBCC) was developed in January 2011 which aimed to accelerate access to breast cancer care. Here, we assess the efficacy of this approach. METHODS: Metric data of access to care in 2010 represent the pre-JMDBCC era while those during the subsequent 5 years (2011-2015 inclusive) represent the post-JMDBCC era...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626490/soft-tissue-sarcomas-in-the-head-and-neck-25-years-of-experience
#18
Juan Francisco Liuzzi, Maribel Da Cunha, Daniuska Salas, Saul Siso, Esteban Garriga
Sarcomas are infrequent and heterogeneous tumours. They represent 1-2% of all malignant neoplasms in adults and between 4% and 10% of head and neck cancers. METHODS: The research was retrospective, descriptive, and cross-sectional. RESULTS: A study population of 62 patients with a mean age of 44 years was obtained; the most frequent location was the soft tissues of the neck (25.3%) and the mean tumour size was 7.1 cm; the most frequent diagnosis was undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (25...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626489/conference-report-on-the-indo-global-summit-on-head-and-neck-oncology-igshno-2017-bmcon-iv-24-26-february-2017-jaipur-india
#19
Tej Prakash Soni, Anil K Gupta, Lalit M Sharma, Pawan Singhal, Dinesh Yadav, Umesh Bansal
'The multidisciplinary approach: expanding treatment horizons for head and neck cancer' was the major theme of the Indo Global Summit on Head and Neck Oncology (IGSHNO 2017-BMCON-IV). The meeting, held in Jaipur (Rajasthan, India) from 24 to 26 February 2017, assembled 600 participants from India and worldwide. It was organised by the Bhagwan Mahaveer Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (BMCHRC), Jaipur. BMCHRC Jaipur is one of the largest superspeciality oncology research and treatment centres in north India...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596805/ataxia-telangiectasia-patients-get-a-rare-chance-to-meet-the-experts-at-a-dedicated-workshop-in-ifom-the-firc-institute-of-molecular-oncology
#20
EDITORIAL
Linda Cairns
Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a genetic syndrome characterized by cerebellar degeneration, telangiectasia, immunodeficiency and cancer predisposition. A-T occurs in between 1 in 40,000 and 1 in 100,000 live births. The first symptoms normally occur in early childhood when the infant begins to walk. Affected children have immunodeficiency and an increased predisposition for cancers. A-T is caused by mutations in the ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia, Mutated) gene which encodes a protein of the same name.
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
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