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Anatomical Sciences Education

Thomas H Champney, Sabine Hildebrandt, D Gareth Jones, Andreas Winkelmann
With the ongoing and expanding use of willed bodies in medical education and research, there has been a concomitant rise in the need for willed bodies and an increase in the means of supplying these bodies. A relatively recent development to enlarge this supply has been the growth of for-profit willed body companies ("body brokers") in the United States. These companies advertise for donors, cover all cremation and other fees for the donor, distribute the bodies or body parts nationally and internationally, and charge their users for access to the body or body parts...
September 21, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Audra F Schaefer, Adam B Wilson, J Bradley Barger, Homaira M Azim, James J Brokaw, William S Brooks
Anatomical sciences are foundational to the health professions, yet little is known about the qualifications of anatomy educators at the graduate and professional level in the United States. Moreover, there is concern that the number of qualified anatomy educators being trained may be insufficient to meet the growing demand posed by new and expanded programs in medicine and allied health specialties. The authors surveyed anatomists from across the country to (i) characterize the educational credentials of current anatomy educators and (ii) assess the perceived need for education-focused postdoctoral positions or formal mentorships to prepare anatomists for teaching-intensive faculty positions...
September 13, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Beverley Kramer, Erin F Hutchinson, Desiré M Brits, Brendon K Billings
While dissection remains the method of choice for teaching human anatomy, ethical requirements for obtaining cadavers has made the process of acquiring human bodies more strenuous for institutions. In Africa and at the School of Anatomical Sciences in South Africa, dependence on unclaimed bodies has been prevalent. The aim of the present study was to determine whether more rigorous application of ethical consent has altered the provenance of the cadavers in the School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand...
September 4, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Diana J Oakes, Elizabeth M Hegedus, Suzanne L Ollerenshaw, Helen Drury, Helen E Ritchie
This study evaluates a cooperative learning approach for teaching anatomy to health science students incorporating small group and peer instruction based on the jigsaw method first described in the 1970's. Fifty-three volunteers participated in abdominal anatomy workshops. Students were given time to become an "expert" in one of four segments of the topic (sub-topics) by allocating groups to work-stations with learning resources: axial computerized tomography (CT) of abdominal structures, axial CT of abdominal blood vessels, angiograms and venograms of abdominal blood vessels and structures located within abdominal quadrants...
September 4, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
James D Pickering, Bronwen J Swinnerton
Anatomy curricula are becoming increasingly populated with blended learning resources, which utilize the increasing availability of educational technology. The educational literature postulates that the use of technology can support students in achieving greater learning outcomes by increasing engagement. This study attempts to investigate the dimensions of student engagement with technology-enhanced learning (TEL) resources as part of a medical program's anatomy curriculum using exploratory factor analysis...
August 31, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Thomas S King, Ramaswamy Sharma, Jeff Jackson, Kristin R Fiebelkorn
This descriptive article describes the use of clinical case-based portfolios in histopathology teaching laboratories in conjunction with virtual microscopy not only to integrate histology and pathology disciplines for first and second year medical students but also to stimulate student engagement, promote self-directed and group-based learning and enhance student-to-student interaction in a structured manner. Portfolios consisted of PowerPoint files encompassing four to five clinical case studies relevant to the topics covered that week...
August 17, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Mamata Chimmalgi
Traditionally, cadaver dissection and didactic lectures have formed the mainstay of teaching gross anatomy, but, apathy of the learners toward didactic lectures and reduction in the time allotted for teaching anatomy have necessitated adoption of interactive teaching methods that require lesser student contact time. In this study, for two consecutive years, first-year medical students were taught selected gross anatomy topics using Interactive Lecture in the Dissection Hall (ILDH). Instead of discarding the traditional methods, ILDH combined the two into a single, cohesive, interactive session, to teach the topic through multiple, short, segments of lecture alternating with interactive demonstration on the specimen...
August 17, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Sutton R Williams, Kenneth L Thompson, Andrew J Notebaert, Allan R Sinning
Due to the current trend of decreasing contact hours and less emphasis being given to the basic science courses in the pre-clinical years of medical education, it is essential that new approaches to teaching gross anatomy are investigated to ensure medical students are being adequately exposed to anatomical content. This study retrospectively analyzed practical examination data from four medical gross anatomy classes (N = 569) to ascertain which pedagogical approach, student participation in the dissection process, or interaction with prosected specimens is best for teaching the anatomy of the hand and foot...
August 17, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Stephen Reid, Leonard Shapiro, Graham Louw
Students' engagement with two-dimensional (2D) representations as opposed to three-dimensional (3D) representations of anatomy such as in dissection, is significant in terms of the depth of their comprehension. This qualitative study aimed to understand how students learned anatomy using observational and drawing activities that included touch, called haptics. Five volunteer second year medical students at the University of Cape Town participated in a six-day educational intervention in which a novel "haptico-visual observation and drawing" (HVOD) method was employed...
August 14, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Julia C Young, Michelle R Quayle, Justin W Adams, John F Bertram, Paul G McMenamin
The practical aspect of human developmental biology education is often limited to the observation and use of animal models to illustrate developmental anatomy. This is due in part to the difficulty of accessing human embryonic and fetal specimens, and the sensitivity inherent to presenting these specimens as teaching materials. This report presents a new approach using three-dimensional (3D) printed replicas of actual human materials in practical classes, thus allowing for the inclusion of accurate examples of human developmental anatomy in the educational context...
August 14, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Kylie Pickles, Jason J Ivanusic, Junhua Xiao, Callum Durward, Andrea B Ryan, Jennifer A Hayes
Historical loss of staff and teaching resources in Cambodia has resulted in significant challenges to anatomy education. Small group anatomy teaching opportunities are limited. A visit to Cambodia by a teaching team from the University of Melbourne in 2010 demonstrated it was possible to implement well-resourced anatomy workshops for this purpose. However, continuation of the workshop program was inhibited by the limited number of local teaching staff. In 2015, another team from the University of Melbourne returned to Cambodia to implement anatomy workshops that incorporated peer tutoring...
July 31, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Juha Laakkonen, Hanni Muukkonen
Collaborative learning has been used in anatomy courses to support students' learning of challenging topics but the success of group work depends significantly on the students' ability to communicate in a professional manner. Veterinary students' experiences with tasks related to collaborative learning and professional conduct were studied by comparing learning collaborative competences and pedagogy, as well as perceived positive and challenging aspects, in two gross anatomy courses. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from students' experiences of course assignments and collaboration, as well as from self-evaluated collaboration competence development...
July 27, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
April Richardson-Hatcher, Brian MacPherson, Douglas Gould, Jennifer Brueckner-Collins
There are few graduate programs available for pursuing a doctorate in anatomy where students gain specific training in gross anatomy dissection and the responsibilities of a medical educator. In light of this fact, the University of Kentucky created a Graduate Certificate in Anatomical Sciences Instruction in 2006. This 12-credit hour curriculum includes detailed training in gross anatomy and/or neuroscience courses, practicum experiences, a seminar class in pedagogical literature, and a course in educational strategies for the anatomical sciences...
September 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Lisa M J Lee, Haviva M Goldman, Michael Hortsch
Over the last 20 years, virtual microscopy has become the predominant modus of teaching the structural organization of cells, tissues, and organs, replacing the use of optical microscopes and glass slides in a traditional histology or pathology laboratory setting. Although virtual microscopy image files can easily be duplicated, creating them requires not only quality histological glass slides but also an expensive whole slide microscopic scanner and massive data storage devices. These resources are not available to all educators and researchers, especially at new institutions in developing countries...
September 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Anne-Marie A Verenna, Kim A Noble, Helen E Pearson, Susan M Miller
The first four levels of Bloom's taxonomy were used to create quiz questions designed to assess student learning of the gross anatomy, histology, and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Information on GI histology and physiology was presented to separate samples of medical, dental, and podiatry students in computer based tutorials where the information from the two disciplines was presented either separately or in an integrated fashion. All students were taught GI gross anatomy prior to this study by course faculty as part of the required curriculum of their respective program...
September 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
D Gareth Jones, Jing-Bao Nie
Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted...
September 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Courtney D Eleazer, Rebecca Scopa Kelso
Many pre-health professional programs require completion of an undergraduate anatomy course with a laboratory component, yet grades in these courses are often low. Many students perceive anatomy as a more challenging subject than other coursework, and the resulting anxiety surrounding this perception may be a significant contributor to poor performance. Well-planned and deliberate guidance from instructors, as well as thoughtful course design, may be necessary to assist students in finding the best approach to studying for anatomy...
September 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Thomas I Nathaniel, Jordan C Gainey, Jessica A Williams, Bianca L Stewart, Michael C Hood, Leanne E Brechtel, Rakiya V Faulkner, Jasmine S Pendergrass, Leigh-Ann Black, Scott K Griffin, Christopher E Troup, Jayne S Reuben, Asa C Black
The complexity of the material being taught in clinical neuroscience within the medical school curriculum requires creative pedagogies to teach medical students effectively. Many clinical teaching strategies have been developed and are well described to address these challenges. However, only a few have been evaluated to determine their impact on the performance of students studying clinical neuroscience. Interactive, 2-hour, self-directed small-group interactive clinical case-based learning sessions were conducted weekly for 4 weeks to integrate concepts learned in the corresponding didactic lectures...
September 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Yenya Hu, Hong Gao, Marcia M Wofford, Claudio Violato
This is a longitudinal study of first year medical students that investigates the relationship between the pattern change of the learning preferences and academic performance. Using the visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic inventory at the beginning of the first and second year for the same class, it was found that within the first year, 36% of the class remained unimodal (single) modality learners (SS), 14% changed from unimodal to multimodality learners (SM), 27% changed from multimodality to unimodal modality learners (MS) and 21% remained as multimodality learners (MM)...
September 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Rodney A Green, Laura Y Whitburn, Anita Zacharias, Graeme Byrne, Diane L Hughes
Blended learning has become increasingly common in higher education. Recent findings suggest that blended learning achieves better student outcomes than traditional face-to-face teaching in gross anatomy courses. While face-to-face content is perceived as important to learning there is less evidence for the significance of online content in improving student outcomes. Students enrolled in a second-year anatomy course from the physiotherapy (PT), exercise physiology (EP), and exercise science (ES) programs across two campuses were included (n = 500)...
September 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
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