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Dan Feng, Haiyan Nan, Wen Wang, Linfeng Yan, Pang Du, Lin Zuo, Kun Zhang, Minggao Zhao, Guangbin Cui
This study aimed to investigate the expression and function of BKCa channels in the Sphincter of Oddi (SO) in a rabbit model of hypercholesterolemia (HC). New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: the control group was fed standard chow (n = 18) whereas the high-cholesterol group was fed cholesterol-enriched chow containing 1.5% cholesterol (n = 18). The serum cholesterol level was significantly greater in the HC groups than in the control group, but there was no significant difference in body weight between the control and HC groups...
January 19, 2017: Channels
Constanza Alcaino, Kaitlyn Knutson, Philip A Gottlieb, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells are the primary mechanosensors of the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium. In response to mechanical stimuli EC cells release serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). The molecular details of EC cell mechanosensitivity are poorly understood. Recently, our group found that human and mouse EC cells express the mechanosensitive ion channel Piezo2. The mechanosensitive currents in a human EC cell model QGP-1 were blocked by the mechanosensitive channel blocker D-GsMTx4. In the present study we aimed to characterize the effects of the mechanosensitive ion channel inhibitor spider peptide D-GsMTx4 on the mechanically stimulated currents from both QGP-1 and human Piezo2 transfected HEK-293 cells...
January 13, 2017: Channels
Naaz Andharia, Ancy Joseph, Mikio Hayashi, Masayoshi Okada, Hiroko Matsuda
The TREK-1 channel, the TWIK-1-related potassium (K(+)) channel, is a member of a family of two-pore-domain K(+) (K2P) channels, through which background or leak K(+) currents occur. An interesting feature of the TREK-1 channel is the run-up of current: i.e. the current through TREK-1 channels spontaneously increases within several minutes of the formation of the whole-cell configuration. To investigate whether intracellular transport is involved in the run-up, we established 293T cell lines stably expressing the TREK-1c channel (K2P2...
January 13, 2017: Channels
Lars Jørn Jensen, Morten Schak Nielsen, Max Salomonsson, Charlotte Mehlin Sørensen
L-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels are considered to be the primary source of calcium influx during the myogenic response. However, many vascular beds also express T-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels. Recent studies suggest that these channels may also play a role in autoregulation. At low pressures (40-80 mm Hg) T-type channels affect myogenic responses in cerebral and mesenteric vascular beds. T-type channels also seem to be involved in skeletal muscle autoregulation. This review discusses the expression and role of T-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in the autoregulation of several different vascular beds...
January 5, 2017: Channels
Teresa Giraldez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: Channels
Larry Fliegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Channels
Emma N Bardsley, Hege E Larsen, David J Paterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2016: Channels
Jeffery A Boychuk, G Campbell Teskey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Channels
Krishnendu Pal, Gautam Gangopadhyay
Inactivation path of voltage gated sodium channel has been studied here under various voltage protocols as it is the main governing factor for the periodic occurrence and shape of the action potential. These voltage protocols actually serve as non-equilibrium response spectroscopic tools to study the ion channel in non-equilibrium environment. In contrast to a lot of effort in finding the crystal structure based molecular mechanism of closed-state(CSI) and open-state inactivation(OSI); here our approach is to understand the dynamical characterization of inactivation...
November 2016: Channels
Heather D Snell, Eric B Gonzales
Guanidine compounds act as ion channel modulators. In the case of Cys-loop receptors, the guanidine compound amiloride antagonized the heteromeric GABA-A, glycine, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. However, amiloride exhibits characteristics consistent with a positive allosteric modulator for the human GABA-A (hGABA-A) ρ1 receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the positive allosteric modulation was influenced by the GABA-A ρ1 second transmembrane domain 15' position, a site implicated in ligand allosteric modulation of Cys-loop receptors...
November 2016: Channels
Isabel Rubio-Aliaga, Carsten A Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Channels
Giedrius Kanaporis, Lothar A Blatter
Cardiac alternans, defined beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude, is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias. We investigated mechanisms of cardiac alternans in single rabbit ventricular myocytes. CaTs were monitored simultaneously with membrane currents or APs recorded with the patch clamp technique. A strong correlation between beat-to-beat alternations of AP morphology and CaT alternans was observed. During CaT alternans application of voltage clamp protocols in form of pre-recorded APs revealed a prominent Ca(2+)-dependent membrane current consisting of a large outward component coinciding with AP phases 1 and 2, followed by an inward current during AP repolarization...
November 2016: Channels
Sulayman D Dib-Hajj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Channels
Cintia Jozefkowicz, Florencia Scochera, Karina Alleva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Channels
Angelika Lampert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Channels
Yuriy Rzhepetskyy, Joanna Lazniewska, Iulia Blesneac, Roger Pamphlett, Norbert Weiss
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. In a recent study by Steinberg and colleagues, 2 recessive missense mutations were identified in the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel gene (CACNA1H), in a family with an affected proband (early onset, long duration ALS) and 2 unaffected parents. We have introduced and functionally characterized these mutations using transiently expressed human Cav3.2 channels in tsA-201 cells...
November 2016: Channels
Qin Xu, Xianming Lin, Arvydas Matiukas, Xian Zhang, Richard D Veenstra
The N-terminal (NT) domain of the connexins forms an essential transjunctional voltage (Vj) sensor and pore-forming domain that when truncated, tagged, or mutated often leads to formation of a nonfunctional channel. The NT domain is relatively conserved among the connexins though the α- and δ-group connexins possess a G2 residue not found in the β- and γ-group connexins. Deletion of the connexin40 G2 residue (Cx40G2Δ) affected the Vj gating, increased the single channel conductance (γj), and decreased the relative K(+)/Cl(-) permeability (PK/PCl) ratio of the Cx40 gap junction channel...
November 2016: Channels
Toshiaki Okada, Md Rafiqul Islam, Nargiza A Tsiferova, Yasunobu Okada, Ravshan Z Sabirov
The broadly expressed volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying anion channel (VSOR, also called VRAC) plays essential roles in cell survival and death. Recent findings have suggested that LRRC8A is a core component of VSOR in human cells. In the present study, VSOR currents were found to be largely reduced by siRNA against LRRC8A in mouse C127 cells as well. In contrast, LRRC8A knockdown never affected activities of 4 other types of anion channel activated by acid, Ca(2+), patch excision or cAMP. While cisplatin-resistant KCP-4 cells poorly expressed endogenous VSOR activity, molecular expression levels of LRRC8A, LRRC8D and LRRC8E were indistinguishable between VSOR-deficient KCP-4 cells and the parental VSOR-rich KB cells...
October 20, 2016: Channels
Manoj Yadav, Chandan Goswami
TRPV3 is a non-selective cationic channel and is important for several physiological functions. It can be activated by physiological temperature and selective endogenous and exogenous compounds. TRPV3 is one of the key ion channel involved in Ca(2+)-signaling in keratinocyte and thus involved in skin-related functions. Recently, naturally occurring mutations in TRPV3, namely G573A, G573S, G573C and W692G have been detected which are linked with the development of pathophysiological conditions such as Olmsted Syndrome (OS) and other skin disorders...
October 18, 2016: Channels
N Bavi, O Bavi, M Vossoughi, R Naghdabadi, A P Hill, B Martinac, Y Jamali
Gating of mechanosentive (MS) channels is driven by a hierarchical cascade of movements and deformations of transmembrane helices in response to bilayer tension. Determining the intrinsic mechanical properties of the individual transmembrane helices is therefore central to understanding the intricacies of the gating mechanism of MS channels. We used a constant-force steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach to perform unidirectional pulling tests on all the helices of MscL in M. tuberculosis and E. coli homologs...
October 18, 2016: Channels
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