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Early Intervention in Psychiatry

Gagan Fervaha, Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, George Foussias, Margaret K Hahn, Ofer Agid, Gary Remington
BACKGROUND: Individuals with schizophrenia engage in goal-directed activities significantly less often compared to healthy individuals in the community. There is ample evidence documenting the presence of motivational deficits in schizophrenia using observer-based ratings; however, purely self-reported accounts of patients' motivation are less well understood. This study examined subjective accounts of trait achievement motivation among relatively young, clinically stable, early-course outpatients with schizophrenia...
February 23, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Jo Davison, Jan Scott
BACKGROUND: Studies of potential interventions for asymptomatic individuals at risk of severe mental disorders (ie, clinical stage 0) have focused on genetic counselling or the views of adults with established disease. No study has interviewed youth at risk of bipolar disorders (BD). METHODS: Qualitative analysis of interviews with asymptomatic adolescent offspring of adults with BD (OSBD = 7) and unrelated parents with bipolar disorders (PBD = 6) to examine manifest and latent themes in the dialogue...
February 11, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Sarah E Hetrick, Denise A O'Connor, Heather Stavely, Frank Hughes, Kerryn Pennell, Eoin Killackey, Patrick D McGorry
AIM: Our aim was to develop an implementation guide that was informed by an analysis of context-specific barriers and enablers, behaviour change theory, as well as evidence about the effects of implementation interventions, for the establishment and scaling up of an early intervention model for psychosis (called Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC)). METHODS: We used a systematic approach involving four steps. First, the target behaviours of the EPPIC model for implementation were specified...
February 8, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Shruthi Venkataraman, Gerald Jordan, Megan A Pope, Srividya N Iyer
AIM: To better understand cultural competence in early intervention for psychosis, we compared service users' and service providers' perceptions of the importance of providers being culturally competent and attentive to aspects of culture. METHODS: At a Canadian early intervention programme, a validated scale was adapted to assess service user (N = 51) and provider (N = 30) perceptions of service providers' cultural competence and the importance accorded thereto...
January 26, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Anna Ärmänen, Marius Lahti, Sebastian Therman, Jaana Suvisaari, Maija Lindgren
AIM: Recent evidence from psychosis risk studies of preselected samples suggests that early functional impairment may be a vulnerability marker for psychosis. We investigated whether functional impairment predicted later risk of psychotic disorder and psychiatric hospitalizations in adolescents at entry to general psychiatric services. METHODS: A total of 154 adolescents, aged 15 to 18 years, were recruited to the study at entry to general adolescent psychiatric services in Helsinki, Finland...
January 26, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Matthew J Taylor, Tania Blanco Pena, Rocio Perez-Iglesias
AIM: Prognosis following early psychosis is highly variable. Long-term prognostic information from research studies is available in only a few areas. We sought to understand how well routine discharge information allows prediction of long-term readmission prognosis. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 239 people leaving Early Intervention services, after an average of 2.5 years, and counted the number of relapses. The distribution was modelled and extrapolated to a predicted 10 year outcome...
January 26, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Laura Giusti, Donatella Ussorio, Anna Salza, Maurizio Malavolta, Annalisa Aggio, Valeria Bianchini, Massimo Casacchia, Rita Roncone
BACKGROUND: People with anxiety disorders tend to focus on unpleasant and threatening stimuli. Our aims were to evaluate: (1) the presence of paranoid ideation, and the jumping to conclusions (JTC) bias in young suffering from an anxiety disorder and (2) the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural intervention (CBT) to manage anxiety combined with 2 modules to reduce the JTC bias. METHODS: Psychopathology, social functioning, metacognition and the JTC bias were investigated in 60 subjects, randomly assigned to the experimental CBT group + treatment-as-usual (TAU) (n = 35) or to a wait-list group (n = 25) receiving only TAU...
January 26, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Rowena Jones, Luke Banbury
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of research looking into the high rates of victimization amongst people with severe mental illness. Studies to date have tended to look at victimization rates in people with chronic mental illness over a wide age range. However, national crime surveys indicate that younger people are more likely to be the victim of crime than older people. There is also evidence that people from ethnic minorities are more likely to experience and less likely to report criminal victimization...
January 26, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Nicholas J K Breitborde, Aubrey M Moe, Cindy Woolverton, Patricia Harrison-Monroe, Emily K Bell
Growing evidence suggests that specialized, multi-component treatment programmes produce improvements in numerous outcomes among individuals with first-episode psychosis. However, these programmes often lack interventions specifically designed to address deficits in social cognition. This raises questions about the effectiveness of such programmes in addressing deficits in social cognition that accompany psychotic disorders. We investigated the effect of participation in a multi-component treatment programme on social cognition among 71 individuals with first-episode psychosis...
January 25, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Marie Sutton, Donal O'Keeffe, Timothy Frawley, Kevin Madigan, Felicity Fanning, Elizabeth Lawlor, Eric Roche, Aine Kelly, Niall Turner, Arielle Horenstein, Eadbhard O'Callaghan, Mary Clarke
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a psychosis information intervention for professionals in contact with young people in Ireland. A quasi-experimental pre- and post-intervention design was used. One thousand and thirty-two professionals received an information intervention designed to improve mental health literacy (MHL) and confidence in providing help to people with psychosis. Seven hundred and fifty-five participants completed the Psychosis Information and Confidence Questionnaire pre- and post-intervention...
January 19, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Aswin Ratheesh, Susan M Cotton, Christopher G Davey, Sophie Adams, Andreas Bechdolf, Craig Macneil, Michael Berk, Patrick D McGorry
AIM: Early intervention and prevention of serious mental disorders such as bipolar disorder has the promise of decreasing the burden associated with these disorders. With increasing early and preventive intervention efforts among cohorts such as those with a familial risk for bipolar disorder, there is a need to examine the associated ethical concerns. The aim of this review was to examine the ethical issues underpinning the clinical research on pre-onset identification and preventive interventions for bipolar disorder...
April 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Sarah K Liddle, Frank P Deane, Stewart A Vella
AIM: Mental health is a major concern among adolescents. Most mental illnesses have their onset during this period, and around 14% of all young people aged 12 to 17 years experience a mental illness in a 12-month period. However, only 65% of these adolescents access health services to address their mental health problems. Approximately 70% of all Australian adolescents participate in sport, and this presents an opportunity for mental health promotion. METHODS: This paper reviewed current approaches by sporting organizations to mental health promotion, prevention and early intervention by searching peak body websites, as well as the wider Internet...
April 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Marita Pruessner, Kia Faridi, Jai Shah, Mark Rabinovitch, Srividya Iyer, Sherezad Abadi, Nicole Pawliuk, Ridha Joober, Ashok K Malla
AIM: In the context of an increasing focus on indicated prevention of psychotic disorders, we describe the operation of the Clinic for Assessment of Youth at Risk (CAYR) over 10 years, a specialized service for identification, monitoring and treatment of young individuals who meet ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria for psychosis, and its integration within the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychosis (PEPP) in Montreal, Canada. METHODS: We outline rationale, development, inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessment, services offered, community outreach and liaison with potential referral sites, and our research focus on risk and protective factors related to the neural diathesis-stress model of psychosis...
April 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Maija Lindgren, Marko Manninen, Hely Kalska, Ulla Mustonen, Taina Laajasalo, Kari Moilanen, Matti O Huttunen, Tyrone D Cannon, Sebastian Therman, Jaana Suvisaari
AIM: We explored whether cognitive performance, and verbal learning in particular, predicts psychosis or psychiatric hospitalizations among unselected first-admission adolescent patients in general psychiatric care. METHODS: Up to 152 adolescents aged 15-18 were interviewed with the SIPS, tested with a cognitive test battery in the beginning of their psychiatric treatment, and followed for a maximum of 9 years (median 4.5 years). RESULTS: The composite factors of processing speed, verbal performance and visuospatial performance did not predict psychosis (n = 7) or all-cause psychiatric hospitalizations (n = 26) beyond psychosis risk symptoms...
April 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Anika Maraj, Kelly K Anderson, Nina Flora, Manuela Ferrari, Suzanne Archie, Kwame J McKenzie
AIM: To assess variability in symptom presentation and explanatory models of psychosis for people from different ethnic groups. METHODS: Clients with first-episode psychosis (n = 171) who identified as black African, black Caribbean or white European were recruited from early intervention programmes in Toronto and Hamilton. We compared results by ethnic group for symptom profiles and explanatory models of illness. RESULTS: Clients of black Caribbean origin had a lower odds of reporting that they were speaking incomprehensibly (OR = 0...
April 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Maude Schneider, Martial Van der Linden, Sarah Menghetti, Martin Debbané, Stephan Eliez
AIMS: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic condition associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia. Previous studies have shown that negative symptoms represent the most specific clinical characteristic of psychosis in 22q11.2DS and are strongly associated with outcome. However, the psychological mechanisms associated with these symptoms in this population are poorly understood. In accordance with recent conceptualizations in the field of schizophrenia, the present study aims at investigating whether negative symptoms are associated with the presence of negative performance beliefs and cognitive deficits...
April 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Mareike Kommescher, Sonja Gross, Verena Pützfeld, Joachim Klosterkötter, Andreas Bechdolf
AIM: The concept of coping is central to recent models of psychosis. The aim of the present paper is to explore whether specific coping styles relate to certain stages of the disorder. METHODS: Thirty-nine clients at clinical high risk (CHR) of first-episode psychosis, 19 clients with first-episode psychosis and 52 clients with multiple-episode psychosis completed a Stress Coping Questionnaire. This questionnaire consists of 114 items defining one overall positive coping scale (with three subscales) and one negative coping scale...
April 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Docia L Demmin, Jordan E DeVylder, Matthew R Hilimire
AIM: Sub-threshold psychotic experiences (PEs) are common in the general population and may increase risk for psychological distress and psychosis onset, generating a need for effective community screening instruments. This study aimed to explore the utility of a brief, self-report, psychosis risk screening tool in predicting perceived need for psychological treatment among a non-clinical sample, above and beyond that accounted for by accompanying forms of psychopathology or trait neuroticism...
April 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Elisabeth Haug, Merete Øie, Ole A Andreassen, Unni Bratlien, Barnaby Nelson, Ingrid Melle, Paul Møller
AIM: To investigate the relationship between anomalous self-experiences and duration of untreated psychosis in a sample of patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHODS: Anomalous self-experiences were assessed by means of the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience manual in 55 patients referred to their first adequate treatment for schizophrenia. Diagnoses, symptom severity, functioning and childhood trauma were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Premorbid Adjustment Scale, Social Functioning Scale and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire...
April 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Helen L Fisher, Anna Roberts, Fern Day, Nicky Reynolds, Eduardo Iacoponi, Philippa A Garety, Thomas K J Craig, Philip McGuire, Lucia Valmaggia, Paddy Power
AIM: To investigate the clinical and social correlates of a lifetime history of crime victimization among first-episode psychosis patients at entry to an Early Intervention Service and following 18 months of specialist care. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 149 individuals who presented to an Early Intervention Service for the first time with psychosis in the London borough of Lambeth, UK. A range of demographic and clinical measures were completed including self-reported history of victimization along with the type of crime and its subjective effect on the patient...
April 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
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