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Cardiovascular Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316284/a-propensity-score-matched-comparison-of-biodegradable-polymer-versus-second-generation-durable-polymer-drug-eluting-stents-in-a-real-world-population
#1
Ying Jiao Zhao, Monica Teng, Ai Leng Khoo, Rajiv Ananthakrishna, Tiong Cheng Yeo, Boon Peng Lim, Joshua P Loh, Mark Y Chan
AIMS: The safety and efficacy of BP-DES compared to second-generation DP-DES remain unclear in the real-world setting. We compared the clinical outcomes of biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents (BP-DES) with second-generation durable polymer drug-eluting stents (DP-DES) in an all-comer percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) registry. METHODS/RESULTS: The study included a cohort of 1,065 patients treated with either BP-DES or DP-DES from January 2009 through October 2015...
January 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288528/overexpression-of-mir-22-attenuates-oxidative-stress-injury-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-via-sirt-1
#2
Qinghui Tang, Qiang Len, Zheng Liu, W D Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress injury is believed to be important in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Recent evidence indicates that miR-22 plays an important role in various cardiovascular diseases, but the protective role of miR-22 in diabetic cardiomyopathy remains undetermined. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin combined with a high-fat diet and miR-22 was overexpressed following transfection with adeno-associated virus...
December 29, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283509/exenatide-exhibits-anti-inflammatory-properties-and-modulates-endothelial-response-to-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-mediated-activation
#3
Wojciech Garczorz, Enrique Gallego-Colon, Agnieszka Kosowska, Agnieszka Kłych-Ratuszny, Michał Woźniak, Wiesław Marcol, K J Niesner, Tomasz Francuz
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the industrialized world. Incretin mimetic compounds such as exenatide are currently used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. AIMS: We investigated the effects of incretin drugs on apoptosis, adhesion molecule expression, and concentration of extracellular matrix (ECM) metalloproteinases under inflammatory conditions within the context of atherosclerotic plaque formation of both human coronary artery endothelial cells (hCAECs) and human aortic endothelial cells (hAoECs)...
December 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283501/nicorandil-for-the-prevention-of-contrast-induced-nephropathy-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
Xiaofen Ma, Xiang Li, Zhanfeng Jiao, Yiming Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Nicorandil has been suggested as a preventative strategy against the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). However, results of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were inconsistent. AIMS: We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs to evaluate the preventive efficacy of periprocedural treatment of nicorandil against the incidence of CIN. METHODS: Relevant RCTs were identified via search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane's Library databases...
December 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243335/comparative-performance-of-pharmacogenetics-based-warfarin-dosing-algorithms-derived-from-caucasian-asian-and-mixed-races-in-thai-population
#5
Supatat Chumnumwat, Kong Yi, Aroonrut Lucksiri, Wichit Nosoongnoen, Busba Chindavijak, Suvatna Chulavatnatol, Ajjima Sarapakdi, Surakit Nathisuwan
AIM: This study was conducted to compare predictive accuracy of the available pharmacogenetics (PGx)-guided warfarin-dosing algorithms derived from Caucasian, Asian and mixed population to identify a suitable algorithm for Thai population. METHODS: Ten warfarin-dosing algorithms derived from different population including Caucasian, East Asian, Southeast Asian and mixed races were selected and tested with clinical and genetic data of Thai patients. Comparative performances of these algorithms were tested using mean dose error (MDE) between actual warfarin maintenance dose (AWMD) and predicted dose generated by each dosing algorithm, and percentage of ideal dose prediction (IDP)...
December 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193758/haemodynamic-impact-of-pulmonary-vasodilators-on-single-ventricle-physiology
#6
Biagio Castaldi, Giulia Bordin, Massimo Padalino, Elena Cuppini, Vladimiro Vida, Ornella Milanesi
INTRODUCTION: The Fontan procedure is the palliative procedure for single ventricle physiology. Pulmonary resistance plays a key role in the success of this operation. There are conflicting data concerning the impact of pulmonary vasodilators on survival and functional capacity among Fontan patients. AIM: The aim of this retrospective, single-centre, non-randomised study was to investigate the potential effect of pulmonary vasodilators on pulmonary vasculature in Fontan patients...
November 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171187/the-effect-of-allogeneic-cardiac-stem-cells-in-left-ventricular-geometry-and-function-in-a-rat-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#7
Yinlun Weng, Xueyuan Zhang, Anmin Liu, Wangqing Cai, Fangcheng Li, Tong Wang
BACKGROUND: The development of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (MI) was related to left ventricular (LV) pathological remodeling and dysfunction. Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) provided a new option to treat acute MI. This study was to investigate the effects of CSCs on structural and functional alteration in acute MI. METHODS: Acute MI was induced in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Two weeks after MI, animals were randomized into CSCs or control group...
November 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151278/tetrahydrobiopterin-bh4-targeting-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-as-a-potential-therapy-for-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
Bahaa N Francis, Maram Salameh, Rola Khamisy-Farah, Raymond Farah
PURPOSE: Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is complex disease which is associated with endothelial and cardiac dysfunction. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 ) regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce nitric oxide rather than superoxide which maintains normal endothelial and cardiac function. This study explores the therapeutic potential of BH4 in experimental PH. METHODS: Monocrotaline-induced PH in rats and Hph-1 deficiency in mice were used for animal experiments...
November 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080386/the-apex-trial-effects-of-allopurinol-on-exercise-capacity-coronary-and-peripheral-endothelial-function-and-natriuretic-peptides-in-patients-with-cardiac-syndrome-x
#9
Tiong Keng Lim, Awson Noman, AnnaMaria J Choy, Faisel Khan, Allan D Struthers, Chim C Lang
The role of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cardiac syndrome X has recently been recognised. Allopurinol has previously been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction, reduce oxidative stress burden and improve myocardial efficiency. In this 'proof of concept' study, we investigated the effect of allopurinol on exercise capacity, coronary and peripheral endothelial function, and serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP: a marker of cardiac function and myocardial ischaemia) in patients with cardiac syndrome X...
October 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078037/the-effects-of-single-and-multiple-dose-administration-of-bococizumab-rn316-pf-04950615-a-humanized-igg2%C3%AE-a-monoclonal-antibody-binding-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-in-hypercholesterolemic-subjects-treated-with-and-without-atorvastatin-results
#10
Barry Gumbiner, Tenshang Joh, Hong Liang, Hong Wan, Matteo Levisetti, Alicia M Vana, David L Shelton, Philippe Forgues, Stephan Billotte, Jaume Pons, Charles M Baum, Pamela D Garzone
AIMS: Three single-dose and one multiple-dose phase I studies were conducted in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of bococizumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor. METHODS: The dosing schedules for hypercholesterolemic subjects randomized in the four phase I studies were: 1) ascending, single, intravenous (IV) bococizumab (0.3, 1, 3, 6, 12, or 18 mg/kg) or placebo (N=48; baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] ≥130 mg/dL); 2) single, IV bococizumab (0...
October 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078033/warfarin-prescription-in-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-and-one-non-gender-related-risk-factor-cha2ds2vasc-1-or-2-a-treatment-dilemma
#11
Gentian Denas, Giacomo Zoppellaro, Seena Padayattil Jose, Emilia Antonucci, Francesco Marongiu, Daniela Poli, Sophie Testa, Armando Tripodi, Gualtiero Palareti, Vittorio Pengo
INTRODUCTION: The issue of anticoagulation in individuals with atrial fibrillation and 1 non-gender related risk factor is subject to debate. The reported risk of stroke in untreated individuals is not uniform, and the rate of haemorrhage associated with anticoagulation in this group of individuals is not well defined. To this end, we assessed the rate of stroke and major haemorrhage in individuals treated with warfarin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: individuals were extracted from the START register, an observational, multicentre, dynamic inception cohort study that collects data on AF individuals starting anticoagulation therapy...
October 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057618/effects-of-12-weeks-of-treatment-with-intravenously-administered-bococizumab-a-humanized-monoclonal-antibody-blocking-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-in-hypercholesterolemic-subjects-on-high-dose-statin
#12
Sergio Fazio, David G Robertson, Tenshang Joh, Hong Wan, Tom Riel, Philippe Forgues, Charles M Baum, Pamela D Garzone, Barry Gumbiner
AIMS: Two multiple-dose phase II studies were conducted in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia to evaluate the LDL-C lowering efficacy, safety, and tolerability of bococizumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor. METHODS: The results from the two phase II, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies conducted in the USA and Canada were combined. In Study 1, 90 subjects with LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL received intravenous (IV) placebo or bococizumab 0...
October 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836730/iron-deficiency-in-heart-failure-efficacy-and-safety-of-intravenous-iron-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Chan-Keat Kang, Michael Pope, Chim C Lang, Paul R Kalra
AIM: To discuss the pathophysiology of iron metabolism in chronic heart failure (CHF) and the current knowledge of the efficacy of intravenous (IV) iron therapy in patients with CHF and identify points of controversy as well as highlight areas for future research. DISCUSSION: Iron deficiency is a recognized complication of many chronic conditions. Numerous studies have reported that iron deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with CHF and is associated with exercise intolerance, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of hospitalization and mortality...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796934/predictors-of-candesartan-s-effect-on-vascular-reactivity-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#14
So-Ryoung Lee, In-Ho Chae, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Do-Yoon Kang, Sang-Hyun Kim, Hyo-Soo Kim
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness have a prognostic value on adverse long-term outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. We evaluated the efficacy on vascular reactivity of candesartan and analyzed predictors to control the candesartan's effect on vascular reactivity in CAD patients. METHOD: Patients were prospectively enrolled and prescribed candesartan for 6 months. The effect on vascular reactivity was evaluated by the change in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)...
October 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643420/impact-on-survival-of-warfarin-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-receiving-subcutaneous-treprostinil
#15
Mona Ascha, Xuan Zhou, Youlan Rao, Omar A Minai, Adriano R Tonelli
INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulation is a common treatment modality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Further studies are needed to appropriately assess the risk/benefit ratio of anticoagulation, particularly in PAH patients receiving PAH-specific therapies. AIMS: We use observational long-term data on PAH patients treated with subcutaneous (SQ) treprostinil from a large open-label study. Patients were followed for up to 4 years. The use of warfarin and bleeding events were recorded...
October 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940978/effects-of-short-term-add-on-ezetimibe-to-statin-treatment-on-expression-of-adipokines-and-inflammatory-markers-in-diabetic-and-dyslipidemic-patients
#16
Elizandra Silva Guimarães, Alvaro Cerda, Egidio Lima Dorea, Marcia Martins Silveira Bernik, Maria Cecilia Gusukuma, Gelba Almeida Pinto, Cristina Moreno Fajardo, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo Hirata
AIM: The influence of short-term add-on ezetimibe to simvastatin treatment on expression of adipokines and inflammatory markers was investigated in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with hypercholesterolemia. METHOD: Hypercholesterolemic nondiabetic (HC, n = 37) and diabetic (DM, n = 47) patients were treated with simvastatin (SV, 10 or 20 mg/d/8-wk) and then SV plus ezetimibe (SV + EZ, 10 mg each/d/4 wk). Serum lipids, glycemic profile, and inflammatory markers (hsCRP, adiponectin, resistin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1) were evaluated before and after the add-on ezetimibe therapy...
September 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901725/alamandine-reverses-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-vascular-dysfunction-via-pka-dependent-mechanisms
#17
Tawar Qaradakhi, Minos Timotheos Matsoukas, Alan Hayes, Emma Rybalka, Martin Caprnda, Kvetoslava Rimarova, Milan Sepsi, Dietrich Büsselberg, Peter Kruzliak, John Matsoukas, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Anthony Zulli
INTRODUCTION: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) impairs nitric oxide endothelium-dependent vasodilation, consequently leading to atherosclerosis, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Novel treatments for HHcy are necessary. AIM: We tested the hypothesis that alamandine, a vasoactive peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), could reverse HHcy-induced vascular dysfunction through the MrgD receptor and that this is mediated by the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway...
September 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880487/oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-ox-ldl-promotes-cardiac-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-activating-erk1-2-signaling
#18
Fenxi Zhang, Congrui Wang, Juntang Lin, Xianwei Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The differentiation efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) is low in vivo after transplantation. Therefore, it is necessary to look for effective reagents for enhancing cardiac differentiation of BM-MSCs. It has been reported that cardiac differentiation of stem cells depends on the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a potent reagent for ERK1/2 activation. This indicates that ox-LDL may be a potential reagent to stimulate cardiac differentiation of stem cells...
September 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869793/the-relationship-between-knowledge-health-literacy-and-adherence-among-patients-taking-oral-anticoagulants-for-stroke-thromboprophylaxis-in-atrial-fibrillation
#19
Chanelle A Rolls, Kehinde O Obamiro, Leanne Chalmers, Luke R E Bereznicki
BACKGROUND: Patients' knowledge regarding their oral anticoagulant (OAC) treatment for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), their level of medication adherence, and health literacy are known to affect treatment outcomes. However, contemporary data regarding the relationships between these variables are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between anticoagulant knowledge, health literacy, and self-reported adherence in patients taking warfarin and the directly acting oral anticoagulants...
September 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859261/long-term-survival-following-the-development-of-heart-failure-in-an-elderly-hypertensive-population
#20
Berhe W Sahle, Alice J Owen, Lindon M H Wing, Lawrence J Beilin, Henry Krum, Christopher M Reid
BACKGROUND: Available data on the prognosis of heart failure (HF) patients are predominantly limited to patients diagnosed at time of hospitalization. AIMS: To describe the long-term survival of incident HF patients and identify clinical characteristics associated with mortality. METHODS: The Second Australian National Blood Pressure Study (ANBP2) randomized 6083 hypertensive subjects aged 65-84 years to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or thiazide diuretic-based therapy and followed them for a median of 4...
August 31, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
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