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Cardiovascular Therapeutics

Manish Jain, Matthieu Zellweger, Georges Wagnières, Hubert van den Bergh, Stéphane Cook, Marie-Noelle Giraud
Acute coronary syndromeis a life-threatening condition of utmost clinical importance, which, despite recent progress in the field, is still associated with high morbidity and mortality. Acute coronary syndrome results from a rupture or erosion of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque with secondary platelet activation and thrombus formation, which leads to partial or complete luminal obstruction of a coronary artery. During the last decade, scientific evidence demonstrated that, when an acute coronary event occurs, several non-culprit plaques are in a "vulnerable" state...
November 28, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Alfredo Bardají, Manuel Leal, Vicente Arrarte, Xavier Garcia-Moll, Leopoldo Pérez de Isla, Héctor Bueno
INTRODUCTION: Real-world, country-specific studies of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration among survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are important for improving long-term prognosis. AIMS: To investigate DAPT duration after hospital discharge for ACS in Spain. RESULTS: Data from patients enrolled in the Spanish cohort of the EPICOR (long-tErm follow-up of antithrombotic management Patterns In acute CORonary syndrome patients) study (NCT01171404) were analyzed for changes to antithrombotic medication up to 2 years post-discharge according to index event diagnosis and patient characteristics...
November 25, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Samantha A Hollingworth, Remo Ostino, Michael C David, Jennifer H Martin, Susan E Tett
AIM: To analyse the subsidised use and reported adverse events of ezetimibe, used to lower cholesterol, in Australia over the 11 years following its inclusion on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2004. METHODS: Pharmacoepidemiological analysis of dispensed prescriptions from Medicare Australia. Adverse event data were obtained from the Therapeutic Goods Administration. Use was measured by the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1,000 population per day for each calendar year...
November 17, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Maria D'Avino, Carla Sala, Amedeo Mugellini, Vito Vulpis, Salvatore Felis, Luigina Guasti, Riccardo Sarzani, Alessandro Bestetti, Massimo Vanasia, Giovanni Gaudio
AIM: To evaluate the effects of canrenone as add-on therapy in patients already treated with angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and hydrochlorothiazide at the maximum dosage (25 mg/day). METHOD: In this randomized, open label, controlled trial, we enrolled 175 Caucasian patients with essential hypertension not well controlled by concomitant ACE-I or ARBs and hydrochlorothiazide. At baseline 87 patients (57 males and 30 females) were randomized to add canrenone 50 mg, and 88 (56 males and 32 females) patients to canrenone 100 mg, once a day, for three months...
November 12, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Lin Zhu, Fang Jia, Jiang Wei, Yang Yu, Tianhong Yu, Yanjun Wang, Jianhui Sun, Guanghua Luo
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies showed that homocysteine(Hcy) could injure vascular endothelial cells via several mechanisms, including its promotion of oxidative stress pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER-stress) pathway. Salidroside(SAL) is an active component of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative properties. Emerging evidence conformed that SAL attenuated Hcy induced endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress. However, its role in ER-stress pathway remains un-clarified...
November 3, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
P R Anand Vijaya Kumar, Treesa P Varghese, Sreedevi Vanapalli, N K Nair, Menge Denis Mingate
Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) is a potent pro-inflammatory negotiator that shows distinct spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects. Importantly, it participates in a wide range of pathophysiological conditions. In cardiovascular system, PAF has been shown to have an important role in platelet and neutrophil aggregation, vascular permeability, microvascular leakage, thrombus formation, leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial cells and initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this article is to review the PAF, a family of lipids that is associated with the pathology of coronary artery diseases due to their association with leading etiological mechanisms such as inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative and nitrosative stress and platelet reactivity...
October 28, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Wei Qin, Feng Liu, Chen Wan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The role of Body Mass Index (BMI) for the prognosis of heart failure (HF) patients remains to be a great interest for a long time. However, the precise effect of dose-response for BMI and mortality risk in HF patients is still unclear. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the effect of BMI on all-cause mortality in subjects with HF. METHODS: Fourteen prospective cohort studies included 13508 death cases identified among 46794 HF patients...
October 26, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Raktim Kumar Ghosh, Kinjal Banerjee, Ramyashree Tummala, Somedeb Ball, Keyvan Ravakhah, Anjan Gupta
Heart failure continues to be a widely prevalent disease across the world, affecting millions of Americans annually. Acute heart failure (AHF) has a substantial effect on rising health care costs and one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. The search for new drugs for symptom relief and to improve long term outcomes in heart failure has led to development of serelaxin, a recombinant human relaxin-2 hormone. Relaxin was discovered in pregnancy but eventually found to have a number of other physiological actions, not only in pregnancy, but also in non-pregnant women and men...
October 11, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Rainer Zbinden, Stefanie von Felten, Bastian Wein, David Tueller, David J Kurz, Ivano Reho, Soren Galatius, Hannes Alber, David Conen, Matthias Pfisterer, Christoph Kaiser, Franz R Eberli
AIMS: The British National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend to use DES instead of BMS only in lesions >15mm in length or in vessels < 3mm in diameter. We analysed the impact of stent length and stent diameter on ISR in the BASKET-PROVE study population and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of DES compared to BMS. METHODS/RESULTS: The BASKET-PROVE trial compared DES vs. BMS in large coronary arteries (≥3mm). We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves with regard to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and target lesion revascularisations (TLRs) avoided...
September 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Jinhua Zhang, Lihong Tian, Jinlong Huang, Sihan Huang, Tingting Chai, Jianzhen Shen
AIM: To assess the effect of Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) gene polymorphism on pediatric warfarin maintenance dosage requirement. METHODS: A previously developed search strategy was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Eligible studies published prior to January 27, 2016, were identified and compared against strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. Required data were extracted, and researchers were consulted for additional data if needed. Review Manager Version 5...
September 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Mingming Ren, Tao Wang, Lei Huang, Xiaoqiang Ye, Zhifeng Xv, Chun Ouyang, Zhen Han
AIM: Accumulating evidence showed that transient receptor potential channels play an important role in the regulation of cardiomyocyte differentiation. The vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) is a member of the transient receptor channel super family and is expressed in cardiomyocytes. However, its function in cardiomyocytes remains unclear. METHODS: Herein, the aim of this study was to investigate the functional role of VR1 in the cardiomyocyte differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Yukio Mizuguchi, Hiroki Shibutani, Sho Hashimoto, Takeshi Yamada, Norimasa Taniguchi, Shunsuke Nakajima, Tetsuya Hata, Akihiko Takahashi
AIM: The influence of the time of arrival at the hospital on the door-to-device (DTD) time has been investigated; however, the influence on the onset-to-device (OTD) time is unclear in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the time of arrival at the hospital and the OTD time in STEMI patients. METHODS: We evaluated 377 STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) between January 2008 and December 2014...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Hong-Hui Yang, Yan Chen, Chuan-Yu Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlations of three P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) gene polymorphisms (rs7428575 T>G, rs2046934 C>T, and rs3732759 A>G) with susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CHD) and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel treatment for CHD. METHODS: From May 2014 to May 2015, 178 CHD patients (the case group) and 182 healthy controls (the control group) were selected from our hospital. The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) turbidimetry was used to measure the rate of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation before and after clopidogrel treatment...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Fredrik Björck, Agnes Ek, Lars Johansson, Anders Själander
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Warfarin treatment discontinuation is significant among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Studies mainly focused on whether the proportion of warfarin persistence and discontinuation are clinically appropriate are absent. This study evaluates warfarin persistence with focus on predictors for, and reasons to, warfarin discontinuation in AF patients. METHODS: From the national quality register AuriculA, all AF patients in Sundsvall, Sweden, on warfarin treatment on January 1, 2010 were included...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Erru Yang, Michael Stokes, Saga Johansson, Carl Mellström, Elizabeth Magnuson, David J Cohen, Phillip Hunt
OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal data are limited regarding outcomes and costs beyond 1 year after acute myocardial infarction (MI) among elderly (≥65 years old) US patients. This study examined long-term outcomes and healthcare costs among elderly MI survivors. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 2002-2009 Medicare healthcare claims (5% random sample). Patients were ≥65 years old and survived ≥1 year without recurrent MI after MI hospitalization. Mortality, incidence of hospitalizations for stroke, major bleeding, MI, a composite endpoint (death, MI, or stroke), and nonpharmacy healthcare costs were determined...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Wei Xin, Shuhua Mi, Zhiqin Lin
AIMS: The effect of allopurinol on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an index of endothelial function in humans, remains inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether allopurinol therapy could improve FMD. METHODS: Human intervention studies were identified by systematic searches of Medline, Embase, Cochrane's library, and references of related reviews and studies. A random-effect model was applied to estimate the pooled results. RESULTS: Ten randomized controlled trials with 594 subjects at risk of cardiovascular risks were included...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Juliana C N Chan, Alice P S Kong, Weihang Bao, Rana Fayyad, Rachel Laskey
INTRODUCTION: Data on statin safety in Asian patients are limited compared with evidence from Western populations. AIM: This study assessed atorvastatin safety among Asian patients enrolled in 58 randomized clinical trials. METHODS: Data from 52 short-term trials (median exposure 4-72 weeks) and six long-term cardiovascular outcomes trials (median exposure 3.1-4.9 years) conducted across the atorvastatin 10-80-mg dose range were analyzed retrospectively to assess the incidence of safety endpoints...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Anthony S Gunnell, Joseph Hung, Matthew W Knuiman, Lee Nedkoff, Malcolm Gillies, Elizabeth Geelhoed, Michael S T Hobbs, Judith M Katzenellenbogen, Jamie M Rankin, Michael Ortiz, Tom G Briffa, Frank M Sanfilippo
AIM: Describe the dispensing patterns for guideline-recommended medications during 2008 in people with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and how dispensing varies by gender and time since last ACS hospitalization. METHOD: A descriptive cohort spanning 20 years of people alive post-ACS in 2008. We extracted all ACS hospitalizations and deaths in Western Australia (1989-2008), and all person-linked Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme claims nationally for 2008. Participants were 23 642 men and women (36...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Kathleen A Packard, Daniel E Hilleman
AIM: Suboptimal adherence to medications taken chronically for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD, e.g., aspirin) continues to burden the healthcare system despite the well-established benefits of prevention. We conducted a literature search to examine patient adherence to medications for secondary prevention of CVD-as evaluated by prescription refill data, electronic medication monitors, pill counts, and physiologic markers-to better identify an unmet need for measures to improve patient adherence to these therapies...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Savitree Thummasorn, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
AIM: Myocardial reperfusion via the re-canalization of occluded coronary arteries is gold standard for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. However, reperfusion itself can cause myocardial damage due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, a process known as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Cardiac mitochondria are the major organelle of ROS production in the heart. Cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction caused by an increased ROS production can increase cardiac arrhythmia incidence, myocardial infarct size, and cardiac dysfunction...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
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