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Cardiovascular Therapeutics

Zhao Zhiqiang, Xiaowei Niu, ZhaoJie Dong, Wenwei Qi, Enzhao Liu, Tong Liu, Lifeng Li, Yingzi Liang, Guangping Li
AIMS: To investigate the upstream therapeutic effects of fluvastatin and valsartan on hypertensive patients with non-permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: 189 patients who were admitted to outpatient and inpatient department from eight medical centers in China, diagnosed as hypertension with non-permanent AF, were divided into four groups randomly: the CCBs group (group A, n=45); CCB+Fluvastatin group (group B, n=48); Valsartan group (group C, n=46); Valsartan+Fluvastatin group (group D, n=50)...
November 3, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Kezhi Dai, Yaoyao Wang, Sichao Tai, Huajing Ni, Hao Lian, Yu Yan, Weifang Liao, Zheng Cheng, Qing Chen, Aarti Kuver, Jia Li
AIMS: To investigate whether there exists a cardio-protective effect of Fasudil, a selective Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, in an experimental murine model of acute viral myocarditis. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control, myocarditis treated with placebo and myocarditis treated with Fasudil (n=40 animals per group). Myocarditis was established by intraperitoneal injection with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3). 24 hours after infection, Fasudil was intraperitoneally administered for 14 consecutive days...
October 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Kyung-Yeon Park, Tae-Hwe Heo
AIMS: Despite the therapeutic efficacy of statins and antiplatelet agents for atherosclerosis, monotherapy with each drug alone is often insufficient to achieve the patient's therapeutic goals. We previously showed that combined statin/antiplatelet agent/anti-TNF agent therapy (pravastatin/sarpogrelate/etanercept) reduces atherosclerotic lesions by inhibiting TNF, an atherogenic cytokine that contributes to the progression of arteriosclerosis. In addition, our previous study showed that combined treatment with pravastatin and cilostazol is effective for reducing TNF-driven inflammation through anti-TNF activity...
October 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Ming Yuan, Gary Tse, Zhiwei Zhang, Xu Han, William Kk Wu, Guangping Li, Yunlong Xia, Tong Liu
AIM: Cases of cardiotoxicity related to trastuzumab have been reported. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients of breast cancer treated with trastuzumab. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched until September 2017 for articles that investigated AF incidence in patients receiving trastuzumab for breast cancer. RESULTS: A total of Fifteen studies involving 8124 patients treated with trastuzumab were included...
October 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Harshal Deshmukh, Emma Barker, Thineshkrishna Ambarasan, Daniel Levin, Samira Bell, Miles D Witham, Jacob George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Results of interventional trials in renovascular hypertension have been disappointing and medical therapy is the current recommended gold standard. However, the comparative long-term benefits of different antihypertensive drug classes in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis are not known. We aim to assess the effect of different antihypertensive drug classes on outcomes in renovascular hypertension DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: Using Tayside Health Informatics Centre database, anonymised data over a 6-year period was analysed...
October 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Yu Zhang, Xurong Gao, Su Yuan, Jingfei Guo, Huanran Lv, Yong Zhou, Yuefu Wang, Hongwen Ji, Guyan Wang, Lihuan Li, Jia Shi
AIMS: Safety evaluations of tranexamic acid (TXA) remain sparse, especially with respect to its impact on long-term outcomes in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We hypothesized that the effects of TXA on perioperative bleeding and allogeneic transfusion and its impact on long-term clinical outcomes of patients receiving on-pump CABG are superior to those in the control group. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 210 patients undergoing primary and isolated on-pump CABG were randomly assigned to receive TXA or a corresponding volume of saline solution...
October 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Xin Yang, Minghua Zhang, Rensheng Song, Changfu Liu, Yong Huo, Geng Qian
OBJECTIVE: In a subgroup analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, we aimed to explore the impact of folic acid supplementation on arterial stiffness, and assess the modifying effect of the MTHFR gene in Chinese patients with hypertension. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 2529 hypertensive Chinese patients. Participants were randomized to receive treatment with either a combination of enalapril and folic acid or enalapril. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured by trained medical staff using PWV instruments at both baseline and exit visits, approximately 5 years after enrollment...
October 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Stefano Omboni, Massimo Volpe
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality burden related to cardio-metabolic risk. Current guidelines indicate that controlling and lowering BP promotes cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction. Among antihypertensive agents, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are characterized by an efficacy profile equivalent to other antihypertensive agents, and are provided with excellent tolerability profile and low discontinuation rates during chronic treatments. Moreover, CV outcomes are reduced by ARBs...
October 25, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Qurat-Ul-Ain Jelani, Bhisham Harchandani, Ritchard G Cable, Yu Guo, Hua Zhong, Timothy Hilbert, Jonathan D Newman, Stuart D Katz
INTRODUCTION: Blood donation has been proposed as a potential therapy to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, but the effects of phlebotomy on vascular function in human subjects have not been well characterized. AIMS: We conducted a prospective randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of serial phlebotomy on vascular endothelial function in the brachial artery. Eighty-four iron-replete, non-anemic subjects were randomly assigned to one of three study treatment groups: (a) four serial phlebotomy procedures each followed by intravenous infusion of placebo normal saline; (b) four serial phlebotomy procedures each followed by intravenous infusion to replete lost iron; and (c) four serial sham phlebotomy procedures each followed by intravenous infusion of placebo normal saline...
October 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Michal M Farkowski, Aleksander Maciag, Malgorzata Zurawska, Ilona Kowalik, Hanna Szwed, Mariusz Pytkowski
INTRODUCTION: Options for a pharmacological cardioversion (CV) of short-duration atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with a stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited to amiodarone or vernakalant. Antazoline has been reported to achieve high rates of AF conversion to sinus rhythm, but data on its effectiveness and, more importantly, safety in stable CAD patients, have been sparse. AIMS: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antazoline-based therapy in patients with a stable CAD undergoing pharmacological CV of short-duration AF in the emergency department (ED)...
October 3, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Pieter Martens, Guy Jacobs, Matthias Dupont, Wilfried Mullens
BACKGROUND: Both cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and Multidisciplinary Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) beneficially influence symptomatic status, exercise capacity, quality of life, and heart failure readmission rates. However, the interaction between both therapies remain incompletely addressed. METHODS: Consecutive CRT patients implanted in a single tertiary care center were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were dived according to the participation in a structured CR-program following CRT-implant...
September 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Ya-Se Zhuang, Ying-Ying Liao, Bo-Yi Liu, Zhi-Cheng Fang, Li Chen, Li Min, Wei Chen
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the influence of MicroRNA-27a (miR-27a)-mediated Wnt/β-catenin pathway on the myocardial fibrosis in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS: The CHF rat models were constructed and randomly divided into four groups (Sham, Model, AntagomiR-27a, and NC antagomiR-27a groups). Echocardiography was used to test the cardiac function indexes, HE (haematoxylin-eosin) staining to observe the pathological injury of myocardium, Masson staining to analyze the collagen volume fraction (CVF), and qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR) and Western blotting to detect the expressions of miR-27a and Wnt/β-catenin pathway-related proteins...
September 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Kai Zhang, Zuowang Ma, Weiding Wang, Ruimeng Liu, Yue Zhang, Meng Yuan, Guangping Li
INTRODUCTION: Atrial remodeling in the form of fibrosis is considered as the substrate for the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tolvaptan on chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) induced atrial remodeling and the mechanisms underlying such changes. METHODS: A total of 45 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: Control group, CIH group, CIH with tolvaptan treatment (CIH-T) group (n = 15)...
September 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Julio Núñez, Raquel Heredia, Ana Payá, Ignacio Sanchis, Susana Del Prado, Gema Miñana, Enrique Santas, Rafael de la Espriella, Eduardo Núñez, Juan Sanchis, Antoni Bayés-Genís
AIMS: Optimal diuretic treatment of patients with refractory congestive heart failure (CHF) remains to be elucidated. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the serial changes of functional class and surrogates of fluid overload (weight and antigen carbohydrate 125) after addition of oral acetazolamide in patients with refractory CHF. Likewise, serial changes in renal function, serum electrolytes and pH were evaluated. METHOD: This is an observational retrospective study in which 25 ambulatory patients with refractory CHF that received acetazolamide in addition to standard intensive diuretic strategy were evaluated...
September 6, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Zeena Eblimit, Sundararajah Thevananther, Saul J Karpen, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, David D Moore, Luciano Adorini, Daniel J Penny, Moreshwar S Desai
INTRODUCTION: Administration of cholic acid, or its synthetic derivative, 6-alpha-ethyl-23(S)-methylcholic acid (INT-777), activates the membrane GPCR, TGR5, influences whole body metabolism, reduces atherosclerosis, and benefits the cardiovascular physiology in mice. Direct effects of TGR5 agonists, and the role for TGR5, on myocardial cell biology and stress response are unknown. METHODS: Mice were fed chow supplemented with 0.5% cholic acid (CA) or 0.025% INT-777, a specific TGR5 agonist, or regular chow for 3 weeks...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Rong Yuan, Qiqi Xin, Weili Shi, Wei Liu, Simon-M Lee, Puiman Hoi, Lin Li, Jun Zhao, Weihong Cong, Keji Chen
AIM: It is not clear whether treatment by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transfer can improve myocardial ischemia through a proangiogenesis mechanism and is effective against coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared VEGF gene therapy and standard treatments in CAD. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases and relevant references for RCTs (published up to May 2018; no language restrictions) and performed meta-analysis using both fixed and random effects models...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Wei Gong, Youcai Ma, Aobo Li, Han Shi, Shaoping Nie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac rupture (CR) is a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction (MI). At present, there are no effective pharmacological strategies for preventing post-MI rupture. Here we investigated the effect of trimetazidine (TMZ) on post-MI CR. METHODS: MI models were induced by left coronary artery ligation in male C57BL/6 mice. Animals allocated to the rupture incidence were closely monitored for 7 days; autopsy was performed once animals were found dead to determine the reason of death...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Anna Jonsson, Helena Norberg, Ellinor Bergdahl, Krister Lindmark
AIM: Previous studies and national assessments indicate an undertreatment of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This study aimed to investigate why MRA is not used to full extent. METHODS: A complete community-based heart failure population was studied. Several variables were collected, and medical records were scrutinized to identify reasons for not prescribing MRA. RESULTS: Of 2029 patients, 812 had EF ≤40%...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Luca Zanella, Giacomo Zoppellaro, Lucia Marigo, Gentian Denas, Seena Padayattil Jose, Vittorio Pengo
BACKGROUND: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is the most fearful side effect of oral anticoagulant therapy. It is still unclear which risk factor is involved in ICH during vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) treatment and if commonly used bleeding risk scores are able to predict ICH. PURPOSE: Search for individual risk factors and bleeding risk scores (HAS-BLED, ATRIA and ORBIT) associated with ICHs in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with VKAs. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study in a single Thrombosis Center...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Zhen Ge, Michela Faggioni, Usman Baber, Samantha Sartori, Sabato Sorrentino, Serdar Farhan, Jaya Chandrasekhar, Birgit Vogel, Abdul Qadeer, Jonathan Halperin, Vivek Reddy, Srinivas Dukkipati, George Dangas, Roxana Mehran
AIMS: Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a transitory increase in the risk of both thromboembolic and bleeding events. Evidence on the use of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients undergoing AF ablation mostly comes from small observational studies, underpowered to detect differences in clinical outcomes between NOACs and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) treated patients. This updated meta-analysis aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of periprocedural anticoagulation with NOACs compared with VKAs in AF patients undergoing catheter ablation...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
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