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Cardiovascular Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901725/alamandine-reverses-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-vascular-dysfunction-via-pka-dependent-mechanisms
#1
Tawar Qaradakhi, Minos Timotheos Matsoukas, Alan Hayes, Emma Rybalka, Martin Caprnda, Kvetoslava Rimarova, Milan Sepsi, Dietrich Büsselberg, Peter Kruzliak, John Matsoukas, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Anthony Zulli
INTRODUCTION: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) impairs nitric oxide endothelium-dependent vasodilation, consequently leading to atherosclerosis, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Novel treatments for HHcy are necessary. AIM: We tested the hypothesis that alamandine, a vasoactive peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), could reverse HHcy-induced vascular dysfunction through the MrgD receptor, and that this is mediated by the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway...
September 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880487/oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-ox-ldl-promotes-cardiac-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-activating-erk1-2-signaling
#2
Fenxi Zhang, Congrui Wang, Juntang Lin, Xianwei Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The differentiation efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) is low in vivo after transplantation. Therefore, it is necessary to look for effective reagents for enhancing cardiac differentiation of BM-MSCs. It has been reported that cardiac differentiation of stem cells depends on the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a potent reagent for ERK1/2 activation. This indicates that ox-LDL may be a potential reagent to stimulate cardiac differentiation of stem cells...
September 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869793/the-relationship-between-knowledge-health-literacy-and-adherence-among-patients-taking-oral-anticoagulants-for-stroke-thromboprophylaxis-in-atrial-fibrillation
#3
Chanelle A Rolls, Kehinde O Obamiro, Leanne Chalmers, Luke R E Bereznicki
BACKGROUND: Patients' knowledge regarding their oral anticoagulant (OAC) treatment for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), their level of medication adherence and health literacy are known to affect treatment outcomes. However, contemporary data regarding the relationships between these variables are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between anticoagulant knowledge, health literacy and self-reported adherence in patients taking warfarin and the directly acting oral anticoagulants...
September 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859261/long-term-survival-following-the-development-of-heart-failure-in-an-elderly-hypertensive-population
#4
Berhe W Sahle, Alice J Owen, Lindon Mh Wing, Lawrence J Beilin, Henry Krum, Christopher M Reid
BACKGROUND: Available data on the prognosis of heart failure (HF) patients is predominantly limited to patients diagnosed at time of hospitalization. AIMS: To describe the long-term survival of incident HF patients and identify clinical characteristics associated with mortality. METHODS: The Second Australian National Blood Pressure Study (ANBP2) randomized 6083 hypertensive subjects aged 65-84 years to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or thiazide diuretic-based therapy and followed them for a median of 4...
August 31, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851085/the-effect-of-apoe-cetp-and-pcsk9-polymorphisms-on-simvastatin-response-in-thai-hypercholesterolemic-patients
#5
Smith Wanmasae, Wisant Sirintronsophon, Sureerut Porntadavity, Nutjaree Jeenduang
AIM: To investigate the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) polymorphisms on the lipid-lowering response to simvastatin therapy in Thai hypercholesteolemic patients. METHOD: Two hundred and twenty five hypercholesterolemic patients in Southern Thailand were enrolled and treated with simvastatin 20 or 40 mg per day for 3 months. Serum lipids were measured before and after the therapy...
August 29, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836733/cognitive-impairment-and-cardiovascular-medication-use-results-from-wave-1-of-the-irish-longitudinal-study-on-ageing
#6
Daniela Rohde, Anne Hickey, David Williams, Kathleen Bennett
AIM: To explore the association between cardiovascular medication use and cognitive impairment in adults aged 50 years and over. METHOD: This cross-sectional linked database study involved secondary quantitative analysis of 1,903 participants from wave 1 of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing with available pharmacy claims data. Cognitive impairment was assessed using a cut-off of ≤23 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Cardiovascular medication use was calculated using the proportion of days covered for antihypertensive, antithrombotic, and lipid-modifying medications...
August 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836730/iron-deficiency-in-heart-failure-efficacy-and-safety-of-intravenous-iron-therapy
#7
Chan-Keat Kang, Michael Pope, Chim C Lang, Paul R Kalra
AIM: To discuss the pathophysiology of iron metabolism in chronic heart failure (CHF), the current knowledge of the efficacy of intravenous (IV) iron therapy in patients with CHF and identify points of controversy as well as highlight areas for future research. DISCUSSION: Iron deficiency is a recognised complication of many chronic conditions. Numerous studies have reported that iron deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with CHF and is associated with exercise intolerance, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of hospitalisation and mortality...
August 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834298/the-vasorelaxant-effect-of-anti-diabetic-drug-nateglinide-via-activation-of-voltage-dependent-k-channels-in-aortic-smooth-muscle
#8
Hongliang Li, Hye Won Kim, Sung Eun Shin, Mi Seon Seo, Jin Ryeol An, Won-Kyo Jung, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eun-Taek Han, Seok-Ho Hong, Hyoweon Bang, Il-Whan Choi, Sung Hun Na, Won Sun Park
AIMS: We investigated the vasorelaxant effect of nateglinide and its related mechanisms using phenylephrine (Phe)-induced pre-contracted aortic rings. METHODS: Arterial tone measurement was performed in aortic smooth muscle. RESULTS: The application of nateglinide induced vasorelaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the large conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) (BKCa ) channel inhibitor paxilline, the inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel inhibitor Ba(2+) , and ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP ) channel inhibitor glibenclamide, did not affect the vasorelaxant effect of nateglinide...
August 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799251/comparison-of-anticoagulation-regimens-for-pregnant-women-with-prosthetic-heart-valves-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#9
Jing Wang, Kangqi Li, Hongyan Li, Weiwei Zhu, Haiyan Sun, Congxiao Lu
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state, which makes pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves at high risk of thromboembolism. Proper anticoagulation regimen should take both the maternal protection and the fetal outcomes into consideration. However, no consensus on the present anticoagulation regimen for those women has been reached yet, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy. AIMS: The present meta-analysis is conducted to compare anticoagulation efficiency and feto-maternal complications of heparin and warfarin in the first trimester...
August 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796934/predictors-of-candesartan-s-effect-on-vascular-reactivity-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#10
So-Ryoung Lee, In-Ho Chae, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Do-Yoon Kang, Sang-Hyun Kim, Hyo-Soo Kim
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness have a prognostic value on adverse long-term outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. We evaluated the efficacy on vascular reactivity of candesartan and analyzed predictors to control the candesartan's effect on vascular reactivity in CAD patients. METHOD: Patients were prospectively enrolled and prescribed candesartan for 6 months. The effect on vascular reactivity was evaluated by the change in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)...
August 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750147/micro-catheter-balloon-pinning-technique-to-facilitate-wiring-of-a-left-circumflex-cto
#11
Kevin N Oguayo, Chris C Oguayo, Ravi Vallabhan, James W Choi
INTRODUCTION: Coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are commonly encountered during diagnostic angiograms. With recent advances, especially in experienced centers, success rates with CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have approached 80% or higher. It is important to note that despite these advancements in techniques, CTOs remain difficult to treat. We present a case of a left circumflex artery (LCX) CTO that was successfully revascularized using a microcatheter balloon pinning technique that allowed additional wire support...
July 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726291/high-dose-humanin-analogue-applied-during-ischemia-exerts-cardioprotection-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-reducing-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#12
Savitree Thummasorn, Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Although the gold standard treatment for acute myocardial infarction is reperfusion therapy, reperfusion itself can cause myocardial damage via induction of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. This can lead to increased myocardial infarct size, arrhythmias and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Recently, a newly discovered peptide, Humanin, has been shown to exert several beneficial effects including anti-oxidative and anti-apoptosis effects. We recently reported that a Humanin analogue (HNG, 84 μg/kg) given prior to cardiac ischemia exerted cardioprotection against I/R injury, but failed to do so when it was given after ischemia was induced...
July 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715142/cholinesterase-inhibition-reduces-arrhythmias-in-asymptomatic-chagas-disease
#13
Renata Rodrigues Teixeira de Castro, Graciema Porphirio, Sergio Salles Xavier, Ruy Silveira Moraes, Elton Luis Ferlin, Jorge Pinto Ribeiro, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega
INTRODUCTION: Parasympathetic dysfunction may play a role in the genesis of arrhythmias in Chagas disease. AIM: This study evaluates the acute effects of pyridostigmine (PYR), a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, on the occurrence of arrhythmias in patients with Chagas cardiac disease. METHOD: Following a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol, 17 patients (age 50±2 years) with Chagas cardiac disease type B underwent 24-hour Holter recordings after oral administration of either pyridostigmine bromide (45 mg, 3 times/day) or placebo (PLA)...
July 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665545/inhibition-of-mevalonate-pathway-prevents-ischemia-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-in-rats-via-rhoa-independent-signaling-pathway
#14
Ying Yang, Xiqing Rong, Xue Lv, Wenbing Jiang, Yuan Yang, Dongwu Lai, Shiming Xu, Guosheng Fu
AIM: We previously demonstrated that anoxia-mediated Ca(2+) handling dysfunction could be ameliorated through inhibition of mevalonate pathway via RhoA- and Ras-related mechanisms in H9c2 cells. In this study, we further explored whether inhibition of mevalonate pathway is associated with cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in ischemic cardiomyopathy, and discuss the possible role of Ras, Rac and RhoA in cardiac dysfunction. METHODS: We investigated the role of mevalonate pathway in cardiac remodeling and cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) handling proteins expression in a rat model of cardiac dysfunction due to myocardial infarction (MI)...
June 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665544/pioglitazone-attenuates-atrial-remodeling-and-vulnerability-to-atrial-fibrillation-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rabbits
#15
Changle Liu, Ruimeng Liu, Huaying Fu, Jian Li, Xinghua Wang, Lijun Cheng, Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, Gary Tse, Guangping Li, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent evidence indicates that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activators exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions. However, the underlying mechanisms by which these agents prevent atrial remodeling in diabetes are not completely elucidated. We sought to investigate the potential effects of pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ activator, on atrial remodeling and atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility in diabetic rabbits. METHODS: Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: diabetes only, diabetes treated with low-dose pioglitazone (4 mg/day/kg), or diabetes treated with high dose pioglitazone (8 mg/day/kg) (n = 24 for each group)...
June 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665537/mir-195-promotes-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-media-remodeling-by-targeting-smad3
#16
Bing Liang, Jianbo Che, Hui Zhao, Zhi Zhang, Gongning Shi
INTRODUCTION: miR-195 has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully addressed. AIM: To explore the roles of miR-195 in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), as well as its molecular basis in vitro. METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to determine the expression levels of miR-195 and Smad3 in aortic media specimens or VSMCs...
June 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664677/comparative-evaluation-of-torasemide-and-spironolactone-on-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#17
Somasundaram Arumugam, Remya Sreedhar, Vengadeshprabhu Karuppagounder, Meilei Harima, Masahiko Nakamura, Hiroshi Suzuki, Hirohito Sone, Kenichi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) involves fluid retention and volume overload, leading to impaired cardiac function. In these conditions, diuretic agents are most commonly used to treat edema and thereby reducing the volume load on the failing heart. There are several other beneficial effects of diuretics apart from their action on urinary excretion. METHODS: In order to identify the effects of diuretic agents on adverse cardiac remodeling in CHF, the present study was carried out, where we have compared the effects of torasemide and spironolactone in a rat model of dilated cardiomyopathy induced by porcine cardiac myosin mediated experimental autoimmune myocarditis...
June 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664667/pitavastatin-up-regulate-enos-production-by-suppressing-mir-155-expression-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#18
Changqin Jing, Menglong Guo, Xiaodan Bao, Tianhan Li, Juntang Lin, Xinjie Lu, Wenfeng Wang
AIM: Pitavastatin (Pit) has been proved to efficiently inhibit the onset and progression of atheroscleosis. However the mechanism by which Pit exert non-lipid related effects, such as anti-inflammatory actions, is not quite clear. Our study aimed at investigating the effect of Pit on the expression of eNOS and miR-155 in LPS-stimulated HUVECs to reveal the anti-inflammatory mechanism of pitavastatin. METHODS: HUVECs were isolated from newborn umbilical cords and used in the experiments at passages 2-5...
June 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643478/critical-role-of-tnf-inhibition-in-combination-therapy-for-elderly-mice-with-atherosclerosis
#19
Kyung-Yeon Park, Tae-Hwe Heo
We have previously shown that the combination of pravastatin and sarpogrelate is synergistically beneficial for atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated whether the pravastatin-sarpogrelate combination was sufficient for treatment in an old mouse model of atherosclerosis or if additional intervention would be needed to address the newly included aging factor and its complex pathophysiological impact on the atherosclerogenic state. We added an anti-TNF biologic to the combination treatment cocktail because of the known pathologic roles of TNF in the aging process...
June 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643448/post-conditioning-with-metformin-attenuates-apoptotic-events-in-cardiomyoblasts-associated-with-ischemic-reperfusion-injury
#20
Rajesh Ramachandran, Mini S
Ischemic post-conditioning is considered as a potent method to combat ischemic reperfusion injury than pre-conditioning since the latter is non predictive and risky. Rapid initiation of reperfusion with potent anti oxidant compound can be one of the most effective treatments to reduce the infract size and behavioural deficits as a result of ischemic insult. Apoptosis/Necrotic events undisputedly hold significant role in determining the fate of cardiomyocytes post ischemic injury but current studies are speculative regrading the role of post-conditioning in maintaining cellular homeostasis...
June 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
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