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Cardiovascular Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151278/tetrahydrobiopterin-bh4-targeting-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-as-a-potential-therapy-for-pulmonary-hypertension
#1
Bahaa N Francis, Maram Salameh, Rola Khamisy-Farah, Raymond Farah
PURPOSE: Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is complex disease which is associated with endothelial and cardiac dysfunction. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 ) regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce nitric oxide rather than superoxide which maintains normal endothelial and cardiac function. This study explores the therapeutic potential of BH4 in experimental PH. METHODS: Monocrotaline-induced PH in rats and Hph-1 deficiency in mice were used for animal experiments...
November 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080386/the-apex-trial-effects-of-allopurinol-on-exercise-capacity-coronary-and-peripheral-endothelial-function-and-natriuretic-peptides-in-patients-with-cardiac-syndrome-x
#2
Tiong Keng Lim, Awson Noman, AnnaMaria J Choy, Faisel Khan, Allan D Struthers, Chim C Lang
The role of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cardiac syndrome X has recently been recognised. Allopurinol has previously been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction, reduce oxidative stress burden and improve myocardial efficiency. In this 'proof of concept' study, we investigated the effect of allopurinol on exercise capacity, coronary and peripheral endothelial function, and serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP: a marker of cardiac function and myocardial ischaemia) in patients with cardiac syndrome X...
October 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078037/the-effects-of-single-and-multiple-dose-administration-of-bococizumab-rn316-pf-04950615-a-humanized-igg2%C3%AE-a-monoclonal-antibody-binding-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-in-hypercholesterolemic-subjects-treated-with-and-without-atorvastatin-results
#3
Barry Gumbiner, Tenshang Joh, Hong Liang, Hong Wan, Matteo Levisetti, Alicia M Vana, David L Shelton, Philippe Forgues, Stephan Billotte, Jaume Pons, Charles M Baum, Pamela D Garzone
AIMS: Three single-dose and one multiple-dose phase I studies were conducted in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of bococizumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor. METHODS: The dosing schedules for hypercholesterolemic subjects randomized in the four phase I studies were: 1) ascending, single, intravenous (IV) bococizumab (0.3, 1, 3, 6, 12, or 18 mg/kg) or placebo (N=48; baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] ≥130 mg/dL); 2) single, IV bococizumab (0...
October 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078033/warfarin-prescription-in-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-and-one-non-gender-related-risk-factor-cha2ds2vasc-1-or-2-a-treatment-dilemma
#4
Gentian Denas, Giacomo Zoppellaro, Seena Padayattil Jose, Emilia Antonucci, Francesco Marongiu, Daniela Poli, Sophie Testa, Armando Tripodi, Gualtiero Palareti, Vittorio Pengo
INTRODUCTION: The issue of anticoagulation in individuals with atrial fibrillation and 1 non-gender related risk factor is subject to debate. The reported risk of stroke in untreated individuals is not uniform, and the rate of haemorrhage associated with anticoagulation in this group of individuals is not well defined. To this end, we assessed the rate of stroke and major haemorrhage in individuals treated with warfarin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: individuals were extracted from the START register, an observational, multicentre, dynamic inception cohort study that collects data on AF individuals starting anticoagulation therapy...
October 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057618/effects-of-12-weeks-of-treatment-with-intravenously-administered-bococizumab-a-humanized-monoclonal-antibody-blocking-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-in-hypercholesterolemic-subjects-on-high-dose-statin
#5
Sergio Fazio, David G Robertson, Tenshang Joh, Hong Wan, Tom Riel, Philippe Forgues, Charles M Baum, Pamela D Garzone, Barry Gumbiner
AIMS: Two multiple-dose phase II studies were conducted in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia to evaluate the LDL-C lowering efficacy, safety, and tolerability of bococizumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor. METHODS: The results from the two phase II, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies conducted in the USA and Canada were combined. In Study 1, 90 subjects with LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL received intravenous (IV) placebo or bococizumab 0...
October 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940978/effects-of-short-term-add-on-ezetimibe-to-statin-treatment-on-expression-of-adipokines-and-inflammatory-markers-in-diabetic-and-dyslipidemic-patients
#6
Elizandra Silva Guimarães, Alvaro Cerda, Egidio Lima Dorea, Marcia Martins Silveira Bernik, Maria Cecilia Gusukuma, Gelba Almeida Pinto, Cristina Moreno Fajardo, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo Hirata
AIM: The influence of short-term add-on ezetimibe to simvastatin treatment on expression of adipokines and inflammatory markers was investigated in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with hypercholesterolemia. METHOD: Hypercholesterolemic nondiabetic (HC, n = 37) and diabetic (DM, n = 47) patients were treated with simvastatin (SV, 10 or 20 mg/d/8-wk) and then SV plus ezetimibe (SV + EZ, 10 mg each/d/4 wk). Serum lipids, glycemic profile, and inflammatory markers (hsCRP, adiponectin, resistin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1) were evaluated before and after the add-on ezetimibe therapy...
September 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901725/alamandine-reverses-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-vascular-dysfunction-via-pka-dependent-mechanisms
#7
Tawar Qaradakhi, Minos Timotheos Matsoukas, Alan Hayes, Emma Rybalka, Martin Caprnda, Kvetoslava Rimarova, Milan Sepsi, Dietrich Büsselberg, Peter Kruzliak, John Matsoukas, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Anthony Zulli
INTRODUCTION: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) impairs nitric oxide endothelium-dependent vasodilation, consequently leading to atherosclerosis, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Novel treatments for HHcy are necessary. AIM: We tested the hypothesis that alamandine, a vasoactive peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), could reverse HHcy-induced vascular dysfunction through the MrgD receptor and that this is mediated by the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway...
September 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880487/oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-ox-ldl-promotes-cardiac-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-activating-erk1-2-signaling
#8
Fenxi Zhang, Congrui Wang, Juntang Lin, Xianwei Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The differentiation efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) is low in vivo after transplantation. Therefore, it is necessary to look for effective reagents for enhancing cardiac differentiation of BM-MSCs. It has been reported that cardiac differentiation of stem cells depends on the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a potent reagent for ERK1/2 activation. This indicates that ox-LDL may be a potential reagent to stimulate cardiac differentiation of stem cells...
September 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869793/the-relationship-between-knowledge-health-literacy-and-adherence-among-patients-taking-oral-anticoagulants-for-stroke-thromboprophylaxis-in-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Chanelle A Rolls, Kehinde O Obamiro, Leanne Chalmers, Luke R E Bereznicki
BACKGROUND: Patients' knowledge regarding their oral anticoagulant (OAC) treatment for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), their level of medication adherence, and health literacy are known to affect treatment outcomes. However, contemporary data regarding the relationships between these variables are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between anticoagulant knowledge, health literacy, and self-reported adherence in patients taking warfarin and the directly acting oral anticoagulants...
September 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859261/long-term-survival-following-the-development-of-heart-failure-in-an-elderly-hypertensive-population
#10
Berhe W Sahle, Alice J Owen, Lindon M H Wing, Lawrence J Beilin, Henry Krum, Christopher M Reid
BACKGROUND: Available data on the prognosis of heart failure (HF) patients are predominantly limited to patients diagnosed at time of hospitalization. AIMS: To describe the long-term survival of incident HF patients and identify clinical characteristics associated with mortality. METHODS: The Second Australian National Blood Pressure Study (ANBP2) randomized 6083 hypertensive subjects aged 65-84 years to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or thiazide diuretic-based therapy and followed them for a median of 4...
August 31, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851085/the-effect-of-apoe-cetp-and-pcsk9-polymorphisms-on-simvastatin-response-in-thai-hypercholesterolemic-patients
#11
Smith Wanmasae, Wisant Sirintronsopon, Sureerut Porntadavity, Nutjaree Jeenduang
AIM: To investigate the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) polymorphisms on the lipid-lowering response to simvastatin therapy in Thai hypercholesterolemic patients. METHOD: Two hundred and twenty-five hypercholesterolemic patients in southern Thailand were enrolled and treated with simvastatin 20 or 40 mg per day for 3 months. Serum lipids were measured before and after the therapy...
August 29, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796934/predictors-of-candesartan-s-effect-on-vascular-reactivity-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#12
So-Ryoung Lee, In-Ho Chae, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Do-Yoon Kang, Sang-Hyun Kim, Hyo-Soo Kim
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness have a prognostic value on adverse long-term outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. We evaluated the efficacy on vascular reactivity of candesartan and analyzed predictors to control the candesartan's effect on vascular reactivity in CAD patients. METHOD: Patients were prospectively enrolled and prescribed candesartan for 6 months. The effect on vascular reactivity was evaluated by the change in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)...
October 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643420/impact-on-survival-of-warfarin-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-receiving-subcutaneous-treprostinil
#13
Mona Ascha, Xuan Zhou, Youlan Rao, Omar A Minai, Adriano R Tonelli
INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulation is a common treatment modality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Further studies are needed to appropriately assess the risk/benefit ratio of anticoagulation, particularly in PAH patients receiving PAH-specific therapies. AIMS: We use observational long-term data on PAH patients treated with subcutaneous (SQ) treprostinil from a large open-label study. Patients were followed for up to 4 years. The use of warfarin and bleeding events were recorded...
October 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836733/cognitive-impairment-and-cardiovascular-medication-use-results-from-wave-1-of-the-irish-longitudinal-study-on-ageing
#14
Daniela Rohde, Anne Hickey, David Williams, Kathleen Bennett
AIM: To explore the association between cardiovascular medication use and cognitive impairment in adults aged 50 years and over. METHOD: This cross-sectional linked database study involved secondary quantitative analysis of 1903 participants from wave 1 of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing with available pharmacy claims data. Cognitive impairment was assessed using a cut-off of ≤23 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Cardiovascular medication use was calculated using the proportion of days covered for antihypertensive, antithrombotic, and lipid-modifying medications...
August 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836730/iron-deficiency-in-heart-failure-efficacy-and-safety-of-intravenous-iron-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Chan-Keat Kang, Michael Pope, Chim C Lang, Paul R Kalra
AIM: To discuss the pathophysiology of iron metabolism in chronic heart failure (CHF) and the current knowledge of the efficacy of intravenous (IV) iron therapy in patients with CHF and identify points of controversy as well as highlight areas for future research. DISCUSSION: Iron deficiency is a recognized complication of many chronic conditions. Numerous studies have reported that iron deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with CHF and is associated with exercise intolerance, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of hospitalization and mortality...
August 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834298/the-vasorelaxant-effect-of-antidiabetic-drug-nateglinide-via-activation-of-voltage-dependent-k-channels-in-aortic-smooth-muscle
#16
Hongliang Li, Hye Won Kim, Sung Eun Shin, Mi Seon Seo, Jin Ryeol An, Won-Kyo Jung, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eun-Taek Han, Seok-Ho Hong, Hyoweon Bang, Il-Whan Choi, Sung Hun Na, Won Sun Park
AIMS: We investigated the vasorelaxant effect of nateglinide and its related mechanisms using phenylephrine (Phe)-induced precontracted aortic rings. METHODS: Arterial tone measurement was performed in aortic smooth muscle. RESULTS: The application of nateglinide induced vasorelaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) (BKCa ) channel inhibitor paxilline, the inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel inhibitor Ba(2+) , and ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP ) channel inhibitor glibenclamide did not affect the vasorelaxant effect of nateglinide...
August 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799251/comparison-of-anticoagulation-regimens-for-pregnant-women-with-prosthetic-heart-valves-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#17
Jing Wang, Kangqi Li, Hongyan Li, Weiwei Zhu, Haiyan Sun, Congxiao Lu
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state, which makes pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves at high risk of thromboembolism. Proper anticoagulation regimen should take both the maternal protection and the fetal outcomes into consideration. However, no consensus on the present anticoagulation regimen for those women has been reached yet, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy. AIMS: The present meta-analysis is conducted to compare anticoagulation efficiency and feto-maternal complications of heparin and warfarin in the first trimester...
August 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710826/corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489317/pharmacogenomics-of-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-and-its-long-term-side-effects
#19
REVIEW
Chayakrit Krittanawong, Takeshi Kitai
The development of the promising agent sacubitril/valsartan, known as an angiotensin receptor blocker-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), to improve heart failure (HF) management, may benefit morbidity, mortality, and readmission rates in patients with HF. The PARADIGM-HF trial demonstrated that the ARNI can reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while ongoing PARAMOUNT and PARAGON-HF trials determined whether the ARNI has morbidity and mortality benefits in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)...
August 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445625/the-use-of-an-occlusion-perfusion-catheter-to-deliver-paclitaxel-to-the-arterial-wall
#20
Marzieh K Atigh, Emily Turner, Uwe Christians, Saami K Yazdani
AIM: Nonstent drug delivery platforms have recently emerged as an alternative treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Perfusion catheters have the potential to directly deliver antiproliferative agents to the medial arterial layer to prevent restenosis. The purpose of this study was to therefore determine the effectiveness of a perfusion catheter to deliver paclitaxel, a proven antiproliferative agent, to combat restenosis. METHODS: A benchtop model was utilized to determine the varying parameters of a novel occlusion perfusion catheter to maximize paclitaxel delivery using pharmacokinetic evaluation and fluorescent microscopy...
August 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
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