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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

Luca De Sabato, Fabio Ostanello, Luigi De Grossi, Anita Marcario, Barbara Franzetti, Marina Monini, Ilaria Di Bartolo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus causing an acute generally self-limited disease in humans. An increasing number of autochthonous cases linked to zoonotic transmission of HEV genotype 3 have been reported over the last 10 years in Europe. Pigs and wild boars are considered the main reservoirs. The principal route of transmission in Europe is food-borne, linked by direct or indirect evidence to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork products and wild boar meat. In this study, we sampled 92 wild boar (Sus scrofa) livers during active surveillance in five municipalities in Central Italy throughout the hunting season 2016-2017...
September 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Xiangdong Sun, Nina Yu-Hsin Kung, Lu Gao, Yongjun Liu, Songhe Zhan, Xin Qi, Xin Wang, Xianmin Dong, Zhining Jia, Roger Stewart Morris
In this survey study, the networks among poultry farms and related poultry enterprises in two counties in China (Feixi County in Anhui Province and Beizhen city in Liaoning Province) were analysed and evaluated focusing on the connectivity of contacts, movements, and potential pathogen transmission. The Feixi County poultry production network exhibited greater connectivity, which incorporated approximately 94% of the farms interviewed in a major component (a set of connected farms not linked with each other), mainly due to linkages of backyard farms through local produce stores and individual agents, whilst the Beizhen City network was more fragmented owing to independent in-house operations (from breed, raise, to slaughter and process) of a few large companies, with multiple smaller components...
September 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Xiangdong Li, Hongchao Wu, Lingxiao Wang, Norman Spibey, Caihong Liu, Hangtian Ding, Wujie Liu, Yuxiu Liu, Kegong Tian
Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) infections are highly contagious and cause serious enteric diseases, with high fatality rates of cats and dogs. Given the importance of cats as a potential source of genetic diversity for parvoviruses, parvovirus strains detected in cats with gastroenteritis signs were analyzed, and molecular characterization, sequence analysis and phylogeny were evaluated on the VP2 gene. The results showed that FPV, new CPV-2a and CPV-2 are co-circulating in the cat population in Henan province of China...
September 6, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Ana Moreno, Davide Lelli, Antonio Lavazza, Enrica Sozzi, Irene Zanni, Chiara Chiapponi, Emanuela Foni, Lorenzo Capucci, Emiliana Brocchi
Influenza D virus (IDV) was first reported in 2011 in swine in Oklahoma and consequently found in cattle, sheep, and goats across North America and Eurasia. Cattle have been proposed as the natural reservoir. In this study, we developed and validated a MAb-based competitive ELISA for the detection of antibodies against IDV. Thirty-one hybridomas specific to IDV were generated using Balb/C mice immunised with purified IDV/Swine/Italy/199724-3/2015. The specificity of MAbs was determined by comparing their reactivity with the homologous and other influenza A viruses along with additional bovine and swine viruses...
September 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J F García Marín, L J Royo, A Oleaga, E Gayo, O Alarcia, D Pinto, I Z Martínez, P González, Ramón Balsera, J L Marcos, A Balseiro
Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) is responsible for infectious canine hepatitis. The disease has been described in captive American black bear (Ursus americanus) and European brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos), with just one recently reported case in a cub of a free-ranging brown bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) from Alaska. The aim of this work is to summarize findings related to presence and associated mortality of CAdV-1 in twenty-one free-ranging Cantabrian brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) submitted to necropsy in Asturias and Castilla y León (northwestern Spain) from 1998 to 2018...
September 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Elena Hatalová, Alexandra Valenčáková, Lenka Luptáková, Michaela Špalková, Jana Kalinová, Monika Halánová, Veronika Bednárová, Juliana Gabzdilová, Kinga Dedinská, František Ondriska, Vojtech Boldiš
The aim of our study was to determine species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in patients suffering from immunosuppressive illnesses, but also in immunocompetent patients suffering from diarrhoea. A total of 80 samples of faeces were collected from both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. The immunosuppressed patients (65 samples) - 35 adult patients (group A) and 30 children (group B) were hospitalized at the Clinic of Oncohemathology. Samples from immunocompetent humans (15 samples, group C) were taken from patients with clinical signs of acute diarrhoea...
September 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Petra Černá, Conor O'Halloran, Olga SjatkovskaJ, Danièlle A Gunn-Moore
Mycobacterium bovis is a re-emerging zoonosis; it was diagnosed in five Abyssinian cats in a breeding cattery in Italy. The infection entered the cattery with an imported kitten (cat A); it had a suspected bite wound on its leg that had been treated at a veterinary clinic in Kiev, Ukraine, which is probably where it became infected with M. bovis. When the kitten arrived in Italy there were four cats in the cattery; an adult female, her two kittens, and a kitten imported from Russia. These were all healthy, and had no outdoor access...
September 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yi-Quan Xiong, Fang-Fei You, Xue-Jiao Chen, Yan-Xia Chen, Yu-Qi Wen, Qing Chen
Bocaparvovirus infections of humans and both wild and domestic animals have been widely reported around the world. In this study, we detected and genetically characterized porcine bocavirus (PBoV) carried by murine rodents (Rattus norvegicus, Rattus tanezumi, and Rattus losea) and house shrews (Suncus murinus) in China. Between May 2015 and May 2017, 496 murine rodents and 23 house shrews were captured in four Chinese provinces. Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the prevalence of PBoV in throat swab, faecal and serum samples...
September 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
L Zhou, Y Sun, T Lan, R T Wu, J W Chen, Z X Wu, Q M Xie, X B Zhang, J Y Ma
Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), a novel coronavirus, was first discovered in southern China in January 2017 and caused a large scale outbreak of fatal diarrheal disease in piglets. Here, we conducted a retrospective investigation of 236 samples from 45 swine farms with a clinical history of diarrheal disease to evaluate the emergence and the distribution of SADS-CoV in pigs in China. Our results suggest that SADS-CoV has emerged in China at least since August 2016. Meanwhile, we detected a prevalence of SADS-CoV (43...
September 1, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Tao Song, Shoucong Zhang, Jianxiang Hao, Shuyang Xin, Weirong Hui, Menghu Tang, Wenao Li, Rui Tian, Xuanfu Liu, Ping Rui, Hai Ren, Chunfang Wang, Qiyuan Fu, Zengjun Ma
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), which is a serious problem in the swine industry worldwide. In recent years, nonporcine-origin PCV2 has attracted more and more attention of the researchers. This study reported on the first identification of PCV2 in farmed foxes with reproductive failure. Three fox-origin PCV2 strains were successfully isolated, sequenced and designated as FoxHB1, FoxHB2 and FoxHB3, respectively. Pairwise-sequence comparisons of the complete genomes revealed that three fox-origin PCV2 strains had nucleotide identities varied from 91...
August 28, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yanyu Chen, Zhuang Ding, Xinxin Liu, Jianjun Chen, Junjiao Li, Yidong Fei, Zhe Liu, Tobias Stoeger, Yuhai Bi, Renfu Yin
Up to now only nine whole genome sequences of avian avulavirus 6 (AAvV-6) had been documented in the world since the first discovery of AAvV-6 (AAvV-6/duck/HongKong/18/199/77) at a domestic duck in 1977 from Hong Kong of China. Very limited information is known about the regularities of transmission, genetic and biological characteristics of AAvV-6 because of the lower isolation rate and mild losses for poultry industry. To better further explore the relationships among above factors, an AAvV-6 epidemiological surveillance of domestic poultry and wild birds in 6 provinces of China suspected of sites of interspecies transmission and being intercontinental flyways during the year 2013 to 2017 was conducted...
August 26, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Paul A Brown, Céline Courtillon, Erik A W S Weerts, Mathieu Andraud, Chantal Allée, Anthony Vendembeuche, Michel Amelot, Nicolas Rose, Monique H Verheije, Nicolas Eterradossi
Numerous viruses, mostly in mixed infections, have been associated worldwide with poult enteritis complex (PEC). In 2008 a coronavirus (Fr-TCoV 080385d) was isolated in France from turkey poults exhibiting clinical signs compatible with this syndrome. In the present study, the median infectious dose (ID50 ), transmission kinetics and pathogenicity of Fr-TCoV were investigated in 10-day-old SPF turkeys. Results revealed a titre of 104.88 ID50 /ml with 1 ID50 /ml being beyond the limit of genome detection using a well-characterized qRT-PCR for avian coronaviruses...
August 26, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Marine Combe, Rodolphe Elie Gozlan
International biodiversity assessments often overlook the role of emerging infectious pathogens in the decline of freshwater fish populations despite the many examples of emerging diseases in other more visible taxa on a global scale. Whilst the introduction of the rosette agent S. destruens in Europe remained an epidemiological enigma, recent findings have shown that this parasite arrived in Europe with the introduction of the healthy carrier P. parva from China nearly 60 years ago and its emergence went unnoticed for over 45 years despite its severe impact on European fish biodiversity...
August 24, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Mohamed El-Tholoth, Mohamed F Hamed, Ahmed A Matter, Kamel I Abou El-Azm
In winter 2016, a fatal disease outbreak suspected to be duck virus enteritis (DVE) stroke over a million ducklings in 10 white Pekin and Muscovy ducks flocks in Dakahlia and Gharbia Governorates, Egypt, causing heavy economic losses. The disease quickly killed 20%-60% of affected farms. The clinical signs were inappetence, ataxia, crowding in corners, partially closed eye lids and blue beaks. Post mortem examination revealed white necrotic foci in liver, mottled spleen and sometimes cecal core. A total of 10 intestines, livers and spleens samples were collected from diseased flocks...
August 24, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
María Gil Molino, David Risco Pérez, Pilar Gonçalves Blanco, Pedro Fernandez Llario, Alberto Quesada Molina, Alfredo García Sánchez, Jesús María Cuesta Gerveno, Luis Gómez Gordo, Francisco Eduardo Martín Cano, Remigio Pérez Martínez, Elisa Varela Fernández, Joaquín Rey Pérez
Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis is the aetiological agent of swine paratyphoid being a highly invasive zoonotic pathogen. Wild boar natural populations are experiencing a demographical expansion as well as some farms are breeding this species to release for hunting with management sometimes identical to that of domestic pigs, including supplementation, grouping, and antibiotic treatments. This situation increases the chance of contact between wild boars and livestock, and potentially induces stress, with different sanitary consequences...
August 24, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Christine Baechlein, Anna Lena Baron, Denise Meyer, Lara Gorriz-Martin, Vanessa Maria Pfankuche, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Susanne Polywka, Sven Peine, Nicole Fischer, Jürgen Rehage, Paul Becher
Bovine hepacivirus (BovHepV) is a recently added member to the growing genus Hepacivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Animal hepaciviruses are rarely characterized so far. Apart from norway rat hepacivirus which represents a promising HCV surrogate model, only equine hepaciviruses have been studied to some extent. BovHepV has been initially identified in bovine samples and was shown to establish persistent infections in cattle. However, consequences of those chronic infections, humoral immune response and the possibility of an extended host spectrum have not been explored so far...
August 20, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Andrea Laconi, Valeria Listorti, Giovanni Franzo, Mattia Cecchinato, Clive Naylor, Caterina Lupini, Elena Catelli
Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) genotype Q1 was detected for the first time in China in 1996, and then spread worldwide. The first report of Q1 genotype in Italy occurred in 2011 and a deep molecular investigation of a Q1 isolated in Italy in 2013 has led to speculation regarding the origin of this genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 sequence of a Q1 Italian strain revealed a close relationship with sequences of the 624I strains circulating in Italy in the early 1990s and this led to the idea that 624I was an ancestor of the Q1 genotype...
August 20, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Tapan Kumar Dutta, Parimal Roychoudhury, Lallianpuii Kawlni, Joy Lalmuanpuia, Ankan Dey, Dhanavelu Muthuchelvan, Rajkumari Mandakini, Arunava Sarkar, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Prasant Kumar Subudhi
Goatpox virus (GTPV) belongs to the genus Capripoxvirus associated with characteristic clinical lesions in fully susceptible breeds of sheep and goats. To date, there is no report of outbreaks of GTPV infection in any wild animals. This study reports the outbreak of GTPV infection in wild Red Serow (Capricornis rubidus.) in Mizoram, India. A total of 113 wild Serow carcasses were recovered from seven districts of Mizoram between May 2015 to October 2016. A postmortem revealed presumptive pox-like lesions. Clinical specimens (lung, skin, and trachea) were examined for the aetiological agents...
August 20, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Manuel Saavedra-Montañez, Luis Vaca, Humberto Ramírez-Mendoza, Carmen Gaitán-Peredo, Rebeca Bautista-Martínez, Rene Segura-Velázquez, Jacquelynne Cervantes-Torres, Ivan Sánchez-Betancourt
Swine influenza is a worldwide disease, which causes damage to the respiratory system of pigs. The H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes circulate mainly in the swine population of Mexico. There is evidence that new subtypes of influenza virus have evolved genetically and have been rearranged with human viruses and from other species; therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and characterize the genetic changes that have been generated in the different subtypes of the swine influenza virus in Mexican pigs. By sequencing and analyzing phylogenetically the eight segments that form the virus genome, the following subtypes were identified: H1N1, H3N2, H1N2 and H5N2; of which, a H1N1 subtype had a high genetic relationship with the human influenza virus...
August 20, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Cristina Jurado, Giulia Paternoster, Beatriz Martínez-López, Kenneth Burton, Lina Mur
On average 8,000 pork derived products are annually confiscated by Customs and Border Protection at the United States (US) ports of entry such as international airports, harbours or mail offices. These swine products with unknown sanitary status could pose a risk for foreign animal diseases introduction into the US. This study aimed at analysing the risk of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) being introduced into the US through prohibited swine products carried by air passengers (PSPAP) and identifying locations and time periods at higher risk where and when preventive and mitigation measures should be implemented...
August 20, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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