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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

X Y Zhou, Y Wang, J Zhu, Q-H Miao, L Q Zhu, S H Zhan, G J Wang, G Q Liu
In this study, we investigated an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) at a Hydropotes inermis (water deer) farm in Anhui Province, China. These results demonstrated that PPR viruses (PPRVs) can infect H. inermis and also revealed that virulent lineage II PPRVs exist in China, where they have been responsible for the deaths of wild animals. The government should pay close attention to the threat of PPRV epidemiology in China.
July 23, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
D Sun, F Vannucci, T P Knutson, C Corzo, D G Marthaler
In 2015 and 2016, Senecavirus A (SVA) emerged as an infectious disease in Brazil, China and the United States (US). In a Colombian commercial swine farm, vesicles on the snout and coronary bands were reported and tested negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDv), but positive for SVA. The whole-genome phylogenetic analysis indicates the Colombian strain clusters with the strains from the United States, not with the recent SVA strains from Brazil.
July 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
P S Ekong, N M Fountain-Jones, M A Alkhamis
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was first observed in Nigeria in early 2006 and has now spread to more than 17 African countries having severe economic and public health implications. Here, we explore the spatiotemporal patterns of viral dispersal both among West African countries and within Nigeria using sequence data from hemagglutinin (HA) gene region of the virus. Analyses were performed within a statistical Bayesian framework using phylodynamic models on data sets comprising of all publically available HA sequence data collected from seven West African countries and Egypt between 2006 and 2015...
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A-A Brown, M L Penrith, F O Fasina, D Beltran-Alcrudo
African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious, highly fatal, haemorrhagic viral disease that only affects members of the Suidae family. Currently, no vaccine or treatment exists, so the disease has potentially devastating consequences for the pig industries, availability of affordable protein livelihoods and trade. This study aimed to consolidate historical information generated by working towards the control and eradication of ASF in previously unaffected countries in West Africa during 1996-2002. This descriptive analysis entailed the evaluation and review of archived records and reports of outbreaks, data from veterinary services, veterinary consultants and peer-reviewed publications...
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
D Mbotha, B Bett, S Kairu-Wanyoike, D Grace, A Kihara, M Wainaina, A Hoppenheit, P-H Clausen, J Lindahl
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute mosquito-borne viral zoonosis whose outbreaks are often associated with prolonged rainfall and flooding, during which large numbers of vectors emerge. Recent studies into the inter-epidemic maintenance of RVF virus (RVFV) suggest that both vertical transmission in vectors and direct transmission between hosts act in combination with predisposing factors for persistence of the virus. A comparative longitudinal survey was carried out in Tana River County, Kenya, in irrigated, riverine and pastoral ecosystems from September 2014-June 2015...
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
H Zhang, W Wen, G Hao, Y Hu, H Chen, P Qian, X Li
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been considered a novel pestivirus and causative agent of congenital tremor type A-II. An APPV CH-GX2016 strain was characterized from newly born piglets with clinical symptoms of congenital tremor in Guangxi, China. The genome of APPV CH-GX 2016 strain was 11,475 bp in length and encoded a polyprotein composed of the 3,635 amino acids. This genome sequence exhibited 88.0% to 90.8% nucleotide sequence homology with other APPV reference sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis further showed that APPV CH-GX is a novel pestivirus compared with previously described classical pestivirus strains...
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
B Borah, P Deka, K Sharma, S Baro, A K Hazarika, C Das, G B Garam, P Boro, K Ltu
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes substantial and perpetual economic loss. Apart from the contagious nature of the disease, the FMD virus can establish in a "carrier state" among all cloven-hoofed animals. The Mithun (Bos frontalis), popularly called the "Cattle of Mountain," is found in the geographically isolated, hilly region of north-east India: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. Despite the geographical inaccessibility, infection by FMD virus has emerged as the single most devastating disease among Mithun after the eradication of rinderpest from this region...
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
G Elia, G Lanave, E Lorusso, A Parisi, A Trotta, R Buono, V Martella, N Decaro, C Buonavoglia
Equine hepacivirus is the closest homologue of hepatitis C virus. Limited data on the clinical features of this infection are available. We report the identification of a horse with high-titre viremia by equine hepacivirus. Over a 15-month follow-up, the clinical signs and the viremic status persisted, suggesting a chronic evolution.
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
F Ben Chehida, E Ayari-Fakhfakh, P Caufour, J Amdouni, J Nasr, L Messaoudi, H Haj Ammar, S Sghaier, C Bernard, A Ghram, C Cêtre-Sossah
Sheep pox, a well-known endemic capripox infection, has significant impacts on small ruminant populations in Tunisia. It is responsible for high economic losses throughout North Africa due to its enzootic nature and to the active animal transhumance existing in some governorates in Tunisia. The aim of this review was to analyse data gathered on annual vaccination campaigns designed to control its spread by reducing the level of endemicity and to describe diagnostic and management tools adapted to the Tunisian situation...
June 28, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J Vergara-Alert, V S Raj, M Muñoz, F X Abad, I Cordón, B L Haagmans, A Bensaid, J Segalés
Dromedary camels are the main reservoir of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but other livestock species (i.e., alpacas, llamas, and pigs) are also susceptible to infection with MERS-CoV. Animal-to-animal transmission in alpacas was reported, but evidence for transmission in other species has not been proved. This study explored pig-to-pig MERS-CoV transmission experimentally. Virus was present in nasal swabs of infected animals, and limited amounts of viral RNA, but no infectious virus were detected in the direct contact pigs...
June 26, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S Zheng, X Wu, L Zhang, C Xin, Y Liu, J Shi, Z Peng, S Xu, F Fu, J Yu, W Sun, S Xu, J Li, J Wang
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) was detected in Shandong, China. One hundred and thirty-two of 222 (59.46%) samples were PCV3 positive, while 52 of 132 (39.39%) samples were co-infected with PCV2. There were no clinical signs of infection in either multiparous sows or live-born infants. Two strains of PCV3 were indentified from natural stillborn foetuses. Phylogenetic analysis showed the two strains of PCV3 are 96% identical to the known PCV3/Pig/USA (KX778720.1, KX966193.1 and KX898030.1) and closely related to Barbel Circovirus...
June 26, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
T Stadejek, A Woźniak, D Miłek, K Biernacka
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a novel circovirus species recently discovered in USA and China in cases of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, reproductive failure, respiratory disease and multisystemic inflammation. This study reports on the first identification of PCV3 in Europe, in serum from pigs from Polish farms. A total of 1,050 serum samples were collected between 2014 and 2017 from sows and 3-20 weeks old pigs from 14 commercial farms representing different regions of Poland, different size and health status...
June 26, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
T M L de Oliveira, M I M C Guedes, I S Rehfeld, A C D Matos, A V Rivetti Júnior, A F da Cunha, M M O P Cerqueira, J S Abrahão, Z I P Lobato
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the agent of bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonosis that causes exanthematic lesions on the teats of dairy cows and on the hands of milkers. The virus has been detected in the milk of naturally infected cows. The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify VACV DNA as well as the presence of infectious virus particles in samples of cheese curd, cheese whey and pasteurized milk produced using milk from cows experimentally inoculated with VACV-GP2, a Brazilian isolate of VACV (VACV-BR)...
June 26, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
V Pal, A Saxena, S Singh, A K Goel, J S Kumar, M M Parida, G P Rai
Burkholderia mallei is the aetiological agent of glanders, a highly contagious and re-emerging zoonotic disease. Early diagnosis of glanders is critically important to ensure timely treatment with appropriate antibiotics in humans, and to prevent spread of infection in animals. Molecular detection of B. mallei has always been troublesome because of its genetic similarity with Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. In present investigation, a set of six B. mallei-specific primers were designed and a simple, rapid, specific and sensitive real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for detection of B...
June 25, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Z Zhu, F Yang, P Chen, H Liu, W Cao, K Zhang, X Liu, H Zheng
Since early 2017, several outbreaks of Seneca Valley virus (SVV) infection have re-emerged in China. We report the identification of novel SVV KS15-01-like strains showing a notable distinction with previous Chinese SVV strains. The determined SVV strains are currently causing new outbreaks in two provinces in China where no SVV infection has been reported previously, implying the increased epidemic regions and potential threat to local pig breeds of SVV in China.
May 23, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
D Gaudaire, F Lecouturier, N Ponçon, E Morilland, C Laugier, S Zientara, A Hans
In 2009, a major outbreak of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) was reported in the south-east of France. This outbreak affected three premises located in the Var region where the index case, a 10-year-old mare that exhibited clinical signs consistent with EIA, occurred at a riding school. Overall, more than 250 horses were tested for EIAV (equine infectious anaemia virus) antibodies, using agar gel immunodiffusion test, and 16 horses were positive in three different holdings. Epidemiological survey confirmed that the three premises were related through the purchase/sale of horses and the use of shared or nearby pastures...
May 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
C Sailleau, E Breard, C Viarouge, A Gorlier, H Quenault, E Hirchaud, F Touzain, Y Blanchard, D Vitour, S Zientara
In November 2016, sheep located in the south of Corsica island exhibited clinical signs suggestive of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection. Laboratory analyses allowed to isolate and identify a BTV strain of serotype 4. The analysis of the full viral genome showed that all the 10 genomic segments were closely related to those of the BTV-4 present in Hungary in 2014 and involved in a large BT outbreak in the Balkan Peninsula. These results together with epidemiological data suggest that BTV-4 has been introduced to Corsica from Italy (Sardinia) where BTV-4 outbreaks have been reported in autumn 2016...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
K Zhang, K Wu, J Liu, S Ge, Y Xiao, Y Shang, Z Ning
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) have been detected in swine herds from the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and most recently in Austria, suggesting a wide geographic distribution of this novel virus. Here, for the first time, we reported APPV infection in swine herds in China. Newborn piglets from two separate swine herds in Guangdong province were found showing typical congenital tremors in July and August 2016. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed APPV infection occurred. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Chinese APPV strains, GD1 and GD2, formed independent branch from the USA, Germany and the Netherlands...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S-L Zhai, H Zhang, T Lin, S-N Chen, X Zhou, Q-L Chen, D-H Lv, X-H Wen, X-R Zhou, C-L Jia, W-K Wei
Since the first report of porcine kobuvirus (PKV) in 2008, it has been confirmed that PKV is widely present in several countries and plays an important role in diarrhoea outbreak in pigs. Studies have shown that the biggest difference among PKVs is the presence or absence of a specific 30-amino acid (aa) sequence in the 2B region of the polyprotein gene. Based on this unique feature, most PKV sequences could be divided into two groups (Group 1 without deletion and Group 2 with deletion), but a few sequences did not follow this rule due to possible recombination...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
G Aprea, M G Amoroso, I Di Bartolo, N D'Alessio, D Di Sabatino, A Boni, B Cioffi, D D'Angelantonio, S Scattolini, L De Sabato, G Cotturone, F Pomilio, G Migliorati, G Galiero, G Fusco
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution, and infects several mammalian species, including pigs and wild boars, which are recognized as its natural reservoirs. The virus causes a usually self-limiting liver disease with a mortality rate generally below 1%, although mortality rates of 15%-25% have been recorded in pregnant woman. Chronic infections can also occur. The prevalence of HEV has been extensively studied in wild boars and pigs in northern Italy, where intensive pig herds are predominantly located...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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