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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333687/h9n2-influenza-virus-isolated-from-minks-has-enhanced-virulence-in-mice
#1
R Xue, Y Tian, T Hou, D Bao, H Chen, Q Teng, J Yang, X Li, G Wang, Z Li, Q Liu
H9N2 is one of the major subtypes of influenza virus circulating in poultry in China, which has a wide host range from bird to mammals. Two H9N2 viruses were isolated from one mink farm in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that internal genes of the H9N2 viruses have close relationship with those of H7N9 viruses. Interestingly, two H9N2 were separated in phylogenetic trees, indicating that they are introduced to this mink farm in two independent events. And further mice studies showed that one H9N2 caused obvious weight loss and 20% mortality in infected mice, while another virus did not cause any clinical sign in mice infected at the same dose...
January 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333678/supplementary-feeding-as-a-source-of-multiresistant-salmonella-in-endangered-egyptian-vultures
#2
Guillermo Blanco
Wild birds have repeatedly been highlighted as vectors in the dissemination of livestock and human pathogens. Here, the occurrence, serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella were assessed in adult Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus), to test the hypothesis that infection is associated with the consumption of swine carcasses provided at supplementary feeding stations (SFSs). Faeces of year-round resident griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) were also tested to assess whether infection was acquired in the breeding grounds of both species or in the African wintering quarters of Egyptian vultures...
January 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330937/first-time-detection-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-infection-in-uruguay
#3
N Ramos, S Mirazo, G Castro, K Cabrera, F Osorio, J Arbiza
Within the last two decades, several high-impact viruses have emerged in the global swine population, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In Uruguay, the more recent serological survey for PRRSV and other notifiable diseases such as Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) dated from year 2000. The main purpose of this study was to update our information on the infection status of PRRSV, ADV and CSFV in Uruguayan pig herds, in order to keep informed about the epidemiological situation of these notifiable infections in the country...
January 12, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330926/detection-of-bovine-deltapapillomavirus-dna-in-peripheral-blood-of-healthy-sheep-ovis-aries
#4
S Roperto, V Russo, F Corrado, J S Munday, F De Falco, F Roperto
Blood samples from 65 sheep were tested for the presence of bovine Deltapapillomavirus (δPVs) DNA. The sheep were divided into three groups. Sheep in groups 1 and 2 were from Sardinia and Campania, respectively, and were in contact with cattle and grazed on lands contaminated with bracken fern. Sheep in Group 3 lived in closed pens and had no contact with cattle. These sheep were fed hay that did not contain bracken fern. Bovine δPV E5 DNA was detected in blood from 24 of 27 (89%) sheep in Group 1. A single bovine δPV type was detected in the blood from nine (33%) sheep, including the detection of bovine δPV-1 DNA in four sheep, bovine δPV-2 in four and δPV-13 in one sheep...
January 12, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322674/exposure-to-west-nile-virus-and-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-in-dogs-in-spain
#5
I García-Bocanegra, E Jurado-Tarifa, D Cano-Terriza, R Martínez, J E Pérez-Marín, S Lecollinet
In the past decade, the spread of emerging zoonotic flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) has been reported in many regions worldwide, representing a threat to both human and animal health. A serosurvey was carried out to assess exposure and risk factors associated with antigenically related flaviviruses, particularly West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), in dogs in Spain. Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 39 of 815 dogs (4.8%; 95% CI: 3.3-6...
January 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322688/phylodynamics-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-with-emphasis-on-ecuadorian-strains
#6
A D Garrido Haro, M Barrera Valle, A Acosta, F J Flores
Classic swine fever virus (CSFV) is a Pestivirus from the Flaviviridae family that affects pigs worldwide and is endemic in several Latin American countries. However, there are still some countries in the region, including Ecuador, for which CSFV molecular information is lacking. To better understand the epidemiology of CSFV in the Americas, sequences from CSFVs from Ecuador were generated and a phylodynamic analysis of the virus was performed. Sequences for the full-length glycoprotein E2 gene of twenty field isolates were obtained and, along with sequences from strains previously described in the Americas and from the most representative strains worldwide, were used to analyse the phylodynamics of the virus...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322653/viruses-associated-with-congenital-tremor-and-high-lethality-in-piglets
#7
F Possatti, S A Headley, R A Leme, A M Dall Agnol, E Zotti, T E S de Oliveira, A F Alfieri, A A Alfieri
The recently described atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been associated with congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in piglets in different countries. Another important neurological pathogen of pigs is porcine teschovirus (PTV), which has been associated with non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in pigs with severe or mild neurological disorders. There have been no reports of APPV and/or PTV coinfection associated with CT or encephalomyelitis in Brazilian pig herds. The aim of this study was to describe the pathological and molecular findings associated with simultaneous infection of APPV and PTV in piglets with clinical manifestations of CT that were derived from a herd with high rates of CT-associated lethality...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322645/faecal-escherichia-coli-as-biological-indicator-of-spatial-interaction-between-domestic-pigs-and-wild-boar-sus-scrofa-in-corsica
#8
S A Barth, S Blome, D Cornelis, J Pietschmann, M Laval, O Maestrini, L Geue, F Charrier, E Etter, C Menge, M Beer, F Jori
On the Mediterranean island of Corsica, cohabitation between sympatric domestic pigs and Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is common and widespread and can facilitate the maintenance and dissemination of several pathogens detrimental for the pig industry or human health. In this study, we monitored a population of free-ranging domestic pigs reared in extensive conditions within a 800-ha property located in Central Corsica which was frequently visited by a sympatric population of wild boar between 2013 and 2015...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322642/peste-des-petits-ruminants-in-china-since-its-first-outbreak-in-2007-a-10-year-review
#9
REVIEW
F Liu, J Li, L Li, Y Liu, X Wu, Z Wang
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease of small ruminants and caused by small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV), formerly called peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). This disease is circulating in Africa (except most countries in southern Africa), the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, and Central, East and South-East Asia. Peste des petits ruminants is still regarded as an exotic disease in China, where its first outbreak was reported in the Ngari region of Tibet in 2007, but effectively controlled by slaughter, vaccination and animal movement restriction in PPR-infected areas...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319233/genetic-evolution-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-under-immune-environments-conditioned-by-genotype-1-based-modified-live-virus-vaccine
#10
S J Yoo, T Kwon, K Kang, H Kim, S C Kang, J A Richt, Y S Lyoo
Modified live vaccines (MLVs) based on genotype 1 strains, particularly C-strain, have been used to prevent and control classical swine fever virus (CSFV) worldwide. Nevertheless, a shift in the predominant CSFV strains circulating in the field from genotype 1 or 3 to genotype 2 is seen. Genotype 2 is genetically distant from the vaccine strains and was recently reported during outbreaks after vaccine failure; this has raised concerns that vaccination has influenced viral evolution. In Korea in 2016, there was an unexpected CSF outbreak in a MLV-vaccinated commercial pig herd...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318786/detection-of-pathogenic-leptospira-species-associated-with-phyllostomid-bats-mammalia-chiroptera-from-veracruz-mexico
#11
G G Ballados-González, S Sánchez-Montes, D Romero-Salas, P Colunga Salas, R Gutiérrez-Molina, L León-Paniagua, I Becker, M L Méndez-Ojeda, C Barrientos-Salcedo, R Serna-Lagunes, A Cruz-Romero
The genus Leptospira encompass 22 species of spirochaetes, with ten pathogenic species that have been recorded in more than 160 mammals worldwide. In the last two decades, the numbers of records of these agents associated with bats have increased exponentially, particularly in America. Although order Chiroptera represents the second most diverse order of mammals in Mexico, and leptospirosis represents a human and veterinary problem in the country, few studies have been conducted to identify potential wildlife reservoirs...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318757/knowledge-gaps-and-research-priorities-in-the-prevention-and-control-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#12
W H M Van der Poel, H R Dalton, R Johne, N Pavio, M Bouwknegt, T Wu, N Cook, X J Meng
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, is a main cause of epidemic hepatitis in developing countries and sporadic and cluster cases of hepatitis in industrialized countries. There are an increasing number of reported cases in humans especially in industrialized countries, and there is a high potential for transboundary spread of zoonotic genotypes of the virus through the transport of pigs, pig products and by-products. Bloodborne transmission of the virus has been reported with a significant medical concern...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314759/reduced-specificity-of-erns-antibody-elisas-for-samples-from-piglets-with-maternally-derived-antibodies-induced-by-vaccination-of-sows-with-classical-swine-fever-marker-vaccine-cp7_e2alf
#13
D Meyer, W Loeffen, A Postel, S Fritsche, P Becher
Successful implementation of marker vaccines against classical swine fever virus is dependent on a reliable accompanying diagnostic assay that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) as well as the development of a testing scheme during emergency vaccination. In this context, special attention needs to be paid to breeding farms, because the offspring of marker vaccinated sows possess maternally derived antibodies (MDAs). So far, limited information is available on the influence of MDAs on serological testing in the context of a DIVA strategy...
January 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314736/development-of-a-chlamydia-suis-specific-antibody-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-based-on-the-use-of-a-b-cell-epitope-of-the-polymorphic-membrane-protein-c
#14
K De Puysseleyr, E Kieckens, L De Puysseleyr, H Van den Wyngaert, B Ahmed, S Van Lent, H H Creasy, G S A Myers, D Vanrompay
Chlamydia suis infections lead to economic loss in the pork industry. Chlamydia suis infections could be successfully treated with tetracyclines until the appearance of a tetracycline resistant phenotype, which was acquired via horizontal gene transfer of the tet(C) gene. Given the importance of C. suis as a swine pathogen and as a recently emerged tetracycline resistant pathogen with zoonotic potential, our aim was to develop a sensitive C. suis-specific antibody ELISA based on the polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps)...
January 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285901/characterization-of-porcine-sapelovirus-isolated-from-japanese-swine-with-plc-prf-5-cells
#15
H Bai, J Liu, L Fang, M Kataoka, N Takeda, T Wakita, T-C Li
Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is a causative agent of neurological disorders, fertility disorders and dermal lesions of swine. In this study, we isolated two PSV strains, Jpsv477 and Jpsv1315, from swine faecal specimens using a PLC/PRF/5 cell culture system. The PSV infection of PLC/PRF/5 cells induced a cytopathic effect (CPE). Two types of virus particles with identical diameter (~35 nm) but different densities (1.300 and 1.285 g/cm3 ) were observed in the cell culture supernatants. Analysis of the entire genome sequence of Jpsv477 and Jpsv1315 revealed that both strains possess 7,558 nucleotides and the poly (A) tail and have a typical PSV genome organization consisting of a 5' terminal untranslated region (5'UTR), a large open reading frame (ORF), and a 3' terminal untranslated region (3'UTR)...
December 28, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285888/presence-of-torque-teno-sus-virus-1-and-2-in-porcine-circovirus-3-positive-pigs
#16
S Zheng, J Shi, X Wu, Z Peng, C Xin, L Zhang, Y Liu, M Gao, S Xu, H Han, J Yu, W Sun, X Cong, J Li, J Wang
In this study, the co-infection of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) and porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) was reported. One hundred and ten of 132 (83.3%) PCV3-positive samples were co-infected with Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1). Ninety-four of 132 (71.2%) PCV3-positive samples were co-infected with Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2). Sixty-six of 132 (50.0%) of PCV3-positive samples were co-infected with both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2. There were no clinical signs of infection in pigs that were both PCV3-positive and PCV2-negative, in either multiparous sows or live-born infants...
December 28, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266850/experimental-infection-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-clade-2-3-4-4-h5n6-and-h5n8-in-mandarin-ducks-from-south-korea
#17
K Son, Y-K Kim, J-K Oem, W-H Jheong, J M Sleeman, J Jeong
Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have been reported worldwide. Wild waterfowl play a major role in the maintenance and transmission of HPAI. Highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N6 and H5N8 viruses simultaneously emerged in South Korea. In this study, the comparative pathogenicity and infectivity of Clade 2.3.4.4 Group B H5N8 and Group C H5N6 viruses were evaluated in Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata). None of the ducks infected with H5N6 or H5N8 viruses showed clinical signs or mortality...
December 20, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250933/diagnostic-potential-of-the-peptide-mediated-magnetic-separation-pms-phage-assay-and-pms-culture-to-detect-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-bovine-milk-samples
#18
L M O'Brien, C G McAloon, L D Stewart, S A J Strain, I R Grant
Controlling the spread of Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), in domestic livestock is challenging. Current diagnostic methods lack sufficient sensitivity to detect subclinically infected animals, and thus, better diagnostic methods are needed. This study was carried out to investigate the diagnostic potential of two novel peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-based tests-a PMS-phage assay and PMS-culture-both of which have been developed and optimized to detect viable MAP cells in bovine milk...
December 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250929/prior-exposure-to-non-pathogenic-calicivirus-rcv-a1-reduces-both-infection-rate-and-mortality-from-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-in-a-population-of-wild-rabbits-in-australia
#19
B D Cooke, R P Duncan, I McDonald, J Liu, L Capucci, G J Mutze, T Strive
Mortality caused by rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in wild rabbits is reduced in parts of Australia where the related, non-pathogenic calicivirus RCV-A1 is endemic. Laboratory experiments previously showed that prior infection with RCV-A1 enabled rabbits to better withstand subsequent infection with highly virulent RHDV, and this was assumed to explain higher survival. Here, we analyse serological data from the field suggesting that reduced mortality rates among wild rabbits may also result from rabbits previously infected with RCV-A1 having a reduced likelihood of RHDV infection...
December 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250924/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-isolated-from-lymph-nodes-and-faecal-samples-of-healthy-slaughtered-cattle-and-the-abattoir-environment
#20
G Ghielmetti, U Friedel, S Scherrer, E Sarno, P Landolt, O Dietz, M Hilbe, C Zweifel, R Stephan
Infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are reported as emerging disease in many countries worldwide. The occurrence of NTM in different hosts and their implication as obligate or opportunistic pathogen remain largely unclear. Lymph nodes and faecal samples of clinically healthy Swiss cattle at slaughter were analysed for the presence of NTM. Based on the examined lymph nodes, NTM were detected in 20% of 108 cattle originating from different premises. The 22 isolates belonged to five different species of Mycobacteria (M...
December 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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