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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150913/molecular-epidemiology-of-goat-pox-viruses
#1
P Roy, S Jaisree, S Balakrishnan, K Senthilkumar, R Mahaprabhu, A Mishra, B Maity, T K Ghosh, A P Karmakar
Goat pox disease outbreaks were observed in different places affecting Black Bengal Goats in West Bengal (WB) and Tellicherry, Vembur and non-descriptive breeds in Tamil Nadu (TN) causing severe lesions and mortality up to 30%. Clinical specimens from all the outbreaks were screened by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed the diseases as Goat Pox. Virus isolation in Vero cell line was done with randomly selected ten samples, cytopathic effects (CPE) characterized by syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed after several blind passages...
November 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150905/sarcoptic-mange-in-wombats-a-review-and-future-research-directions
#2
REVIEW
J M Old, C Sengupta, E Narayan, J Wolfenden
Sarcoptic mange is caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of wildlife worldwide. The mite is one of the main causes of population decline in southern hairy-nosed (Lasiorhinus latifrons) and bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This review focuses on Sarcoptes scabiei infestations in wombats and provides insights into why the disease may be so prevalent in wombats. Current treatment practices and trials conducted in the field to reduce the incidence of sarcoptic mange in wombats are described and critically reviewed...
November 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150916/outbreak-investigation-and-molecular-diagnosis-of-lumpy-skin-disease-among-livestock-in-saudi-arabia-2016
#3
S Kasem, M Saleh, I Qasim, O Hashim, A Alkarar, A Abu-Obeida, A Gaafer, R Hussien, A Al-Sahaf, A Al-Doweriej, F Bayoumi, A Hodhood, M Abdelatif
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious disease of cattle caused by a virus of the Capripoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. The disease is a major concern for the dairy industry in Saudi Arabia. In this study, an outbreak of LSD in cattle herds was detected in Saudi Arabia in 2016. LSD outbreak was investigated in five regions of Saudi Arabia: Al-Hassa, Al-Sharqia, Al-Qassim, Riyadh and Al-Taif during the period from April to July 2016. Tissues from skin nodules were collected to characterize the virus by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR)...
November 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150915/epidemiology-of-rhdv2-lagovirus-europaeus-gi-2-in-free-living-wild-european-rabbits-in-portugal
#4
C Rouco, J Abrantes, A Serronha, A M Lopes, E Maio, M J Magalhães, E Blanco, J Bárcena, P J Esteves, N Santos, P C Alves, P Monterroso
As the detection of the first outbreak of a novel aetiological agent of rabbit haemorrhagic disease commonly called RHDV2 or RHDVb (Lagovirus europaeus/GI.2, henceforth GI.2) in France in 2010, the virus rapidly spread throughout continental Europe and nearby islands such as Great Britain, Sardinia, Sicily, the Azores and the Canary Islands among others. The outbreaks of this new lagovirus cause important economic losses in rabbitries, and ecological disruptions by affecting the conservation of rabbit-sensitive top predators...
November 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150903/phylogenetic-and-genetic-variation-analyses-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-isolated-from-china
#5
S Yang, S Yin, Y Shang, B Liu, L Yuan, M U Zafar Khan, X Liu, J Cai
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a causative agent of PCV2-associated disease, which is a growing problem in the swine industry worldwide. High nucleotide substitution occurs in the capsid (Cap) gene of PCV2, which allows the continuous evolution and the emergence of novel PCV2 strains. In this study, we sequenced 24 Chinese PCV2 strains collected from healthy and diseased pigs between 2013 and 2015. Analyses of the genome, Cap and phylogeny classified the 24 Chinese PCV2 strains as PCV-2a (four of 24), PCV-2b (five of 24) and PCV-2d (15 of 24)...
November 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148270/a-g3p-13-porcine-group-a-rotavirus-emerging-in-china-is-a-reassortant-and-a-natural-recombinant-in-the-vp4-gene
#6
Z Jing, X Zhang, H Shi, J Chen, D Shi, H Dong, L Feng
Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are a major cause of serious intestinal disease in piglets. In this study, a novel pig strain was identified in a stool sample from China. The strain was designated RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P[13] and had a G3-P[13]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1 genome. The viral protein 7 (VP7) and non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) genes of RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P[13] were closely related to cogent genes of human RVAs, suggesting that a reassortment between pig and human strains had occurred. Recombination analysis showed that RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P[13] is a natural recombinant strain between the P[23] and P[7] RVA strains, and crossover points for recombination were found at nucleotides (nt) 456 and 804 of the VP4 gene...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148267/detection-of-teschovirus-type-13-from-two-swine-herds-exhibiting-nervous-clinical-signs-in-growing-pigs
#7
J Carnero, C Prieto, L Polledo, F J Martínez-Lobo
Recently, the number of clinical reports of growing pigs showing neurological signs possibly related to viral infections has increased. The objective of this report was to describe two outbreaks of an atypical condition observed in 6- to 7-week-old pigs with a morbidity of 20% and a fatality rate of 60% in two unrelated farms of the same company. During the acute phase of the disease, fever, sudden death, neurological signs, ear necrosis and occasional corneal opacity were observed. Histopathological examination revealed interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and lymphocytic vasculitis in different organs and mild polioencephalomyelitis suggesting a potential viral infection...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144025/detection-of-atypical-porcine-pestivirus-in-semen-from-commercial-boar-studs-in-the-united-states
#8
I R H Gatto, P H Arruda, C A Visek, J G Victoria, A R Patterson, A C Krull, K J Schwartz, L G de Oliveira, B L Arruda
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has recently been identified as a cause of congenital tremor (CT) in pigs and has been detected in semen and preputial swabs from boars that were known to be clinically affected with CT. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to 1) detect the presence of APPV in semen, preputial fluids and preputial swabs from adult boars by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and 2) genetically characterize a subset of positive samples to better understand the ecology of APPV in commercial boar studs and the potential risk of transmission of APPV via semen...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143492/molecular-epidemiological-survey-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-bovine-influenza-d-virus-in-japan
#9
H Mekata, M Yamamoto, S Hamabe, H Tanaka, T Omatsu, T Mizutani, B M Hause, T Okabayashi
The influenza D virus, a new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, is predominantly found in cattle. Although viral pathology and clinical disease in cattle appear mild, this virus plays an important role as a trigger of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD is a costly illness worldwide. Thus, epidemiological surveys of the influenza D virus are necessary. Here, we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey for the influenza D virus in healthy and respiratory-diseased cattle in Japan. We found that 2.1% (8/377) of the cattle were infected with influenza D...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143488/isolation-and-characterization-of-novel-goose-parvovirus-related-virus-reveal-the-evolution-of-waterfowl-parvovirus
#10
P Li, S Lin, R Zhang, J Chen, D Sun, J Lan, S Song, Z Xie, S Jiang
Short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) has been constantly breaking out in China since 2015. It is caused by a novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) and can severely restrict the growth of ducks. In this study, seven NGPV stains were isolated from different regions in China between 2015 and 2016. To better understand the correlation between NGPV and goose parvovirus (GPV), we conducted complete genome sequencing and a comprehensive analysis of the NGPV genome. The phylogenetic and alignment analysis showed that NGPV is a branch of GPV, sharing 92...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143466/tuberculosis-serosurveillance-and-management-practices-of-captive-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-kavango-zambezi-transfrontier-conservation-area
#11
L E Rosen, T G Hanyire, J Dawson, C M Foggin, A L Michel, K P Huyvaert, M A Miller, F J Olea-Popelka
Transfrontier conservation areas represent an international effort to encourage conservation and sustainable development. Their success faces a number of challenges, including disease management in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tuberculosis (TB) affects humans and a multitude of non-human animal species and is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area encompasses five countries, including Zimbabwe, and is home to the largest contiguous population of free-ranging elephants in Africa...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134777/epidemiological-investigation-of-h9-avian-influenza-virus-newcastle-disease-virus-tembusu-virus-goose-parvovirus-and-goose-circovirus-infection-of-geese-in-china
#12
X Niu, H Wang, L Wei, M Zhang, J Yang, H Chen, Y Tang, Y Diao
To deepen the knowledge about epidemic prevalence in the goose breeding field, a triplex PCR assay was established, and 478 samples were collected from scaled goose farms in 11 provinces in China. The results of this epidemiological investigation showed that incidence rates of H9 avian influenza and goose circovirus were the highest among five infectious diseases that were evaluated. In addition, the triplex PCR assay established remarkable sensitivity, rapidity and versatility compared to other diagnostic methods...
November 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134762/introduction-of-asian-canine-parvovirus-in-europe-through-dog-importation
#13
F Mira, G Purpari, E Lorusso, S Di Bella, F Gucciardi, C Desario, G Macaluso, N Decaro, A Guercio
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important infectious agent of domestic and wild carnivores, responsible for severe and often fatal haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and leukopenia. This paper reports the genomic characterization of a CPV strain collected from a dog recently imported to Italy from Thailand. The virus was detected in all tissue samples collected. The whole genome encompassing the two open reading frames encoding for non-structural (NS1/NS2) and structural (VP1/VP2) proteins was amplified and sequenced...
November 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124910/missing-pieces-of-the-puzzle-to-effectively-control-digital-dermatitis
#14
K Orsel, P Plummer, J Shearer, J De Buck, S D Carter, R Guatteo, H W Barkema
Since the first report of bovine digital dermatitis (DD) in 1974, there is a large body of the literature published; however, effective prevention and control of the disease remain elusive. Although many aspects of the pathogenesis of DD have been investigated, even some of the most basic questions such as the aetiology of this disease remain under debate. Treponema spp. have been strongly associated with DD lesions and occur in abundance in advanced lesions; however, efforts to induce disease with pure cultures of these organisms have been largely underwhelming and inconsistent...
November 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124904/mind-the-gaps-in-research-on-the-control-of-gastrointestinal-nematodes-of-farmed-ruminants-and-pigs
#15
J Charlier, S M Thamsborg, D J Bartley, P J Skuce, F Kenyon, T Geurden, H Hoste, A R Williams, S Sotiraki, J Höglund, C Chartier, P Geldhof, J van Dijk, L Rinaldi, E R Morgan, G von Samson-Himmelstjerna, J Vercruysse, E Claerebout
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode control has an important role to play in increasing livestock production from a limited natural resource base and to improve animal health and welfare. In this synthetic review, we identify key research priorities for GI nematode control in farmed ruminants and pigs, to support the development of roadmaps and strategic research agendas by governments, industry and policymakers. These priorities were derived from the DISCONTOOLS gap analysis for nematodes and follow-up discussions within the recently formed Livestock Helminth Research Alliance (LiHRA)...
November 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124908/review-of-transmission-routes-of-24-infectious-diseases-preventable-by-biosecurity-measures-and-comparison-of-the-implementation-of-these-measures-in-pig-herds-in-six-european-countries
#16
REVIEW
M E Filippitzi, A Brinch Kruse, M Postma, S Sarrazin, D Maes, L Alban, L R Nielsen, J Dewulf
This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures...
November 9, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124905/rapid-and-simple-detection-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-evaluation-of-a-cartridge-based-molecular-detection-system-for-use-in-basic-laboratories
#17
K V Goller, V Dill, M Madi, P Martin, Y Van der Stede, V Vandenberge, B Haas, S Van Borm, F Koenen, C J Kasanga, N Ndusilo, M Beer, L Liu, V Mioulet, B Armson, D P King, V L Fowler
Highly contagious transboundary animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are major threats to the productivity of farm animals. To limit the impact of outbreaks and to take efficient steps towards a timely control and eradication of the disease, rapid and reliable diagnostic systems are of utmost importance. Confirmatory diagnostic assays are typically performed by experienced operators in specialized laboratories, and access to this capability is often limited in the developing countries with the highest disease burden...
November 9, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120114/molecular-prevalence-of-chlamydia-and-chlamydia-like-bacteria-in-tunisian-domestic-ruminant-farms-and-their-influencing-risk-factors
#18
M Barkallah, H Jribi, A Ben Slima, Y Gharbi, Z Mallek, M Gautier, I Fendri, R Gdoura
Chlamydia and Chlamydia-like bacteria are well known to infect several organisms and may cause a wide range of diseases, particularly in ruminants. To gain insight into the prevalence and diversity of these intracellular bacteria, we applied a pan-Chlamydiales real-time PCR to 1,134 veterinary samples taken from 130 Tunisian ruminant herds. The true adjusted animal population-level prevalence was 12.9% in cattle, against 8.7% in sheep. In addition, the true adjusted herd-level prevalence of Chlamydiae was 80% in cattle and 25...
November 9, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120101/inferring-within-herd-transmission-parameters-for-african-swine-fever-virus-using-mortality-data-from-outbreaks-in-the-russian-federation
#19
C Guinat, T Porphyre, A Gogin, L Dixon, D U Pfeiffer, S Gubbins
Mortality data are routinely collected for many livestock and poultry species, and they are often used for epidemiological purposes, including estimating transmission parameters. In this study, we infer transmission rates for African swine fever virus (ASFV), an important transboundary disease of swine, using mortality data collected from nine pig herds in the Russian Federation with confirmed outbreaks of ASFV. Parameters in a stochastic model for the transmission of ASFV within a herd were estimated using approximate Bayesian computation...
November 9, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120083/isolation-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-australasian-topotype-of-bluetongue-virus-serotype-4-from-india
#20
Y V Reddy, B Susmitha, S Patil, Y Krishnajyothi, K Putty, K V Ramakrishna, G Sunitha, B V Devi, K Kavitha, B Deepthi, S Krovvidi, Y N Reddy, G H Reddy, K P Singh, N S Maan, D Hemadri, S Maan, P P Mertens, N R Hegde, P P Rao
Bluetongue (BT) is a Culicoides-borne disease caused by several serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV). Similar to other insect-borne viral diseases, distribution of BT is limited to distribution of Culicoides species competent to transmit BTV. In the tropics, vector activity is almost year long, and hence, the disease is endemic, with the circulation of several serotypes of BTV, whereas in temperate areas, seasonal incursions of a limited number of serotypes of BTV from neighbouring tropical areas are observed...
November 9, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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