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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

Yaowalak Panyasing, Roongtham Kedkovid, Apisit Kittawornrat, Ju Ji, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) continues to circulate in commercial swine populations in many regions and in feral swine populations in most parts of the world, that is, ADV continues to present a risk to pork producers everywhere. Current DIVA vaccines and assays are highly effective in the control and/or eradication of ADV, but detection of wild-type ADV infection relies on testing individual pig specimens, for example, serum or muscle exudate ("meat juice"). Oral fluid specimens have been shown to be highly effective for the surveillance of a variety of swine pathogens and could offer the means to improve the efficiency of ADV surveillance in the field...
July 17, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Souvik Ghosh, Esteban Soto, Oscar Illanes, Ryan Navarro, Meiji Soe Aung, Yashpal Singh Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi, Carmen Fuentealba
We report here high rates of detection (50.8%, 31/61 pigs) of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) in kidneys of slaughter-age, apparently healthy pigs on St. Kitts island, Lesser Antilles. TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2a were detected in 23 (37.7%) and 13 (21.3%) pigs, respectively, including mixed infection in five animals. By nucleotide sequence identities and phylogenetic analysis, significant genetic diversity was observed among both TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2a on St. Kitts, with TTSuVk2a showing higher genetic diversity than TTSuV1...
July 17, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Petra Strakova, Monika Kubankova, Petra Vasickova, Zina Juricova, Ivo Rudolf, Zdenek Hubalek
To determine whether hepatitis E virus (HEV) was distributed in the population of wild boars in South Moravia between 1990 and 2008, a total of 366 samples of archived sera from wild boars were investigated using serological (commercial ELISA) and molecular (RT-qPCR) methods. A total of 31 (8.5%) wild boars were seropositive, and from two of them, RNA sequences were recovered by nested RT-PCR. The presented results, with one of the oldest animal's HEV-positive serum (collected in 1990), suggest that wild boars may be a reservoir of HEV in the Czech Republic and that this virus has been circulating in studied areas for more than 20 years...
July 17, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Lihong He, Dong Liu, Jiao Hu, Wenqiang Sun, Ruyi Gao, Lei Shi, Dongchang He, Bo Li, Xiaoquan Wang, Min Gu, Shunlin Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Zenglei Hu, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
Before 2013, zoonotic influenza infections were dominated by H5N1 viruses in China. However, the emergence of the H7N9 viruses in early 2013 changed this dominance greatly, and more than 1,600 laboratory-confirmed human cases of H7N9 infections have been reported since then. To understand the underlying mechanism of the emergence of the fifth epidemic wave that shows an unexpected sharp increase, we systematically investigated the biological characteristics of the highly pathogenic (HP) and low-pathogenic (LP) H7N9 AIVs during this period...
July 17, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J Jeffrey Root, Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Nicole L Marlenee, Richard A Bowen
American robins (Turdus migratorius) are commonly associated with farmsteads in the United States and have shown previous evidence of exposure to an H5 avian influenza A virus (IAV) near a poultry production facility affected by a highly pathogenic (HP) H5 virus in Iowa, USA during 2015. We experimentally infected American robins with three clade HP H5 viruses (H5N2 and H5N8). A total of 22/24 American robins shed virus, and all three strains were represented. The highest virus titres shed were 104...
July 17, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Tao Qin, Jingjing Zhu, Ruonan Ma, Yuncong Yin, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
Genetic reassortments between highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 subtype viruses with different neuraminidase (NA) subtypes have increased in prevalence since 2010 in wild birds and poultry from China. The HA gene slightly evolved from clade 2.3.4 to clade, raising the question of whether novel clade HA broke the balance with N1 but is matched well with NAx to drive viral epidemics. To clarify the role of compatibility between HA and NA on the prevalence of H5Nx subtypes, we constructed 10 recombinant viruses in which the clade 2...
July 12, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Li Zhang, Shuang Li, Shu-Jiang Huang, Ze-Dong Wang, Feng Wei, Xian-Min Feng, De-Xiang Jiang, Quan Liu
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a rodent-borne arenavirus that is considered a neglected cause of neurologic diseases in humans. In this study, we described genomic characterization of newly isolated LCMVs in Haemaphysalis longicornis, Dermacentor nuttalli, Dermacentor silvarum and Ixodes persulcatus in Jilin Province, northeastern China. The complete sequences of the small (S) and large (L) segments of LCMVs in ticks contained 3,375 and 7,235-7,241 nucleotides, respectively. Sequence comparison showed 82...
July 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Nanhua Chen, Mengxue Ye, Shuai Li, Yucheng Huang, Rongyun Zhou, Xiuling Yu, Kegong Tian, Jianzhong Zhu
A novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 (PRRSV2) was isolated from diseased piglets in Shandong, China in 2017 and denominated as SD17-38. ORF5 sequencing showed that SD17-38 contains a unique serine/asparagine deletion at position 33 and an asparagine insertion at position 60 of GP5, which has never been described. The SD17-38 complete genome was then determined, and genome-based phylogenetic analysis showed that SD17-38 is clustered with NADC30-like isolates. Sequence alignment and recombination analyses by RDP4 and SimPlot all indicated that SD17-38 is a recombinant virus from NADC30 (lineage 1), BJ-4 (lineage 5) and TJ (lineage 8) isolates...
July 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Jordi Casal, Alberto Allepuz, Aleksandra Miteva, Ledi Pite, Blagojco Tabakovsky, Dimitar Terzievski, Tsvyatko Alexandrov, Daniel Beltrán-Alcrudo
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging viral disease that was detected for the first time in the Balkan Peninsula in Greece in 2015. In April 2016, there was a reoccurrence in Greece and the spread of the disease for the first time into Bulgaria, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovo, Albania and Montenegro. The veterinary services of the countries responded with different strategies to control the disease, mostly based on mass vaccination campaigns and diverse stamping out approaches. During 2017, the epidemic was mostly controlled except for outbreaks reported in Albania, Greece and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia...
July 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Kore Schlottau, Kerstin Wernike, Leonie Forth, Mark Holsteg, Dirk Höper, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann
During the last years, genetic information of hepaciviruses (family Flaviviridae), whose type species is the human hepatitis C virus, was detected in a wide range of primates and non-primate vertebrates. Here, samples collected from 263 German cattle kept in 22 different holdings were analysed for the presence of hepacivirus N (syn. bovine hepacivirus; BovHepV). One hundred eighty-six cattle that suffered from unspecific clinical signs such as fever and a reduced milk yield as well as 77 apparently healthy animals were included...
July 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Sarah Gallien, Mathieu Andraud, Angélique Moro, Gérald Lediguerher, Nadège Morin, Phillip C Gauger, Lionel Bigault, Frédéric Paboeuf, Mustapha Berri, Nicolas Rose, Béatrice Grasland
From the severe porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) epidemics that struck in 2013 in the United States of America and other countries of North and South America, two types of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) were isolated, namely the InDel and the non-InDel strains. They are differentiated by insertions/deletions in the S1 nucleotide sequence of the S gene, and differences in virulence were observed from the clinical cases. In 2014, a PED outbreak occurred in a pig farm in France, from which an InDel strain was isolated...
July 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Ramón Molina-Barrios, José Luevano-Adame, Yuly Alexandra Henao-Díaz, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Pablo Piñeyro, Ronaldo Magtoto, Jesús Cedillo-Cobián, Concepción Díaz-Rayo, Jesús Hernández, Jeffrey Zimmerman
Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and pigs (Sus scrofa) are two members of superfamily Suoidea that coexist in the Americas and share some of the same viral infections. Although porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is among the most impactful pathogens of swine on a worldwide basis, the susceptibility of peccaries to PRRSV has not been investigated. In this study, three peccaries were intramuscularly inoculated with a PRRSV-2 field virus. One PRRSV-inoculated pig served as a positive control and two pigs and one peccary as negative controls...
July 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Katia Ortiz, Justine Javaux, Marie Simon, Thierry Petit, Sylvie Clavel, Benjamin Lamglait, Barbara Blanc, Alice Brunet, Françoise Myster, Hong Li, Benjamin G Dewals
Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a gammaherpesvirus carried asymptomatically by wildebeests (Connochaetes sp.) in sub-Saharan Africa. Although asymptomatic in wildebeest, AlHV-1 infection in a number of other ruminant species causes a severe and fatal lymphoproliferative disease named wildebeest-derived malignant catarrhal fever (WD-MCF). Several endangered species of captive ruminants are highly susceptible to developing WD-MCF if infected by AlHV-1, which is a critical concern in zoos, game reserves and wildlife parks where wildebeests are also kept in captivity...
July 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Bai Wei, Min Kang, Hyung-Kwan Jang
In this study, we genotyped Campylobacter isolates from wild birds by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and analysed their virulence genes by PCR with the aim to gain a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of Campylobacter infection. Amongst 60 Campylobacter isolates from 12 wild bird species, we identified 32 sequence types (STs; 29 STs from Campylobacter jejuni and 3 STs from Campylobacter coli). Clonal complex 45 (CC-45), was the most common CC (n = 17 isolates), followed by CC-692 (n = 10). ST-137 was the most prevalent (n = 9), originating from 4 avian species...
June 30, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A Sprygin, Y Pestova, P Prutnikov, A Kononov
Since 2012, lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has been spreading from the Middle East to south-east Europe and Russia. Although vaccination campaigns have managed to contain LSDV outbreaks, the risk of further spread is still high. The most likely route of LSDV transmission in short distance spread is vector-borne. Several arthropod species have been suggested as potential vectors, but no proven vector has yet been identified. To check whether promiscuous-landing synanthropic flies such as the common housefly (Musca domestica) could be involved, we carried out entomological trapping at the site of a recent LSDV outbreak caused by a vaccine-like LSDV strain...
June 22, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
R Song, Q Wang, F Guo, X Liu, S Song, C Chen, C Tu, H Wureli, Y Wang
Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma ovis are important intracellular agents that are transmitted by tick bites. However, Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and A. ovis in ticks have not been systematically reported along the border of northwestern China. In this study, a total of 1,084 adult ticks, including 134 Haemaphysalis punctata, 337 Hyalomma asiaticum, 233 Dermacentor nuttalli, 69 Rhipicephalus turanicus and 265 Dermacentor marginatus were collected from 11 counties or cities of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region...
June 22, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Gen Li, Shiyu Yuan, Menglian He, Manda Zhao, Xiaojing Hao, Minxun Song, Lingjuan Zhang, Changming Qiao, Libo Huang, Li Zhang, Chengui Li, Guihua Wang, Ziqiang Cheng
Gyrovirus 3 (GyV3) has been identified in faeces from children with acute gastroenteritis. However, whether GyV3 is prevalent in poultry has not been determined to date. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to isolate GyV3 from commercial broiler chickens with transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP) in China. The complete genome of the virus shares 98.4% sequence identity with the FecGy strain that causes acute gastroenteritis in children. Epidemiological investigation from 2013 to 2017 revealed that the infection rate of GyV3 reached 12...
June 20, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Edyta Świętoń, Krzysztof Śmietanka
Sixty-five poultry outbreaks and sixty-eight events in wild birds were reported during the highly pathogenic H5N8/H5N5 avian influenza epidemic in Poland in 2016-2017. The analysis of all gene segment sequences of selected strains revealed cocirculation of at least four different genome configurations (genotypes) generated through reassortment of clade H5N8 viruses detected in Russia and China in mid-2016. The geographical and temporal distribution of three H5N8 genotypes indicates separate introductions...
June 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Jing Yang, Jiajun Tian, Yi Tang, Youxiang Diao
A severe infectious disease characterized with gout, haemorrhage and swellings of kidneys has affected goslings around the major goose-producing regions in China since November 2016. A Novel goose-origin astrovirus (AStV), designated as AStV/SDPY/Goose/1116/17 (AStV-SDPY) strain, was isolated from diseased goslings, and experimental reproduction of gout was successful using the AStV-SDPY strain. Additionally, the AStV-SDPY was conducted for its full genome sequencing characterization using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique on Illumina HiSeq platform...
June 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Gustavo Machado, Carla Weiblen, Luis E Escobar
Pythium insidiosum is a widespread pathogen that causes pythiosis, a disease with severe health consequences in horses and humans worldwide. Latin America hosts one of the largest, but scattered, horse herds, making it critical to identify areas at high risk of pythiosis transmission to help guide surveillance in areas with disease transmission risk. We utilized ecological niche modelling and epidemiological data to reconstruct the ecological conditions for pathogen circulation to identify areas with potential risk of pythiosis in Brazil and Uruguay...
June 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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