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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

K Saeng-Chuto, A Lorsirigool, G Temeeyasen, D T Vui, C J Stott, A Madapong, T Tripipat, M Wegner, M Intrakamhaeng, W Chongcharoen, A Tantituvanont, P Kaewprommal, J Piriyapongsa, D Nilubol
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was detected by RT-PCR in 12 of 97 (12.4%) intestinal samples collected during 2015 from piglets with diarrhoea in Thailand, Vietnam and Lao PDR. Spike, membrane and nucleocapsid genes were characterized, and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that PDCoV isolates from Thai and Lao PDR form a novel cluster, separated from US and China isolates, but relatively were more closely related to China PDCoV than US isolates. Vietnam PDCoVs, however, were grouped together with US PDCoV...
October 7, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
H G Ularamu, J O Ibu, B A Wood, J N Abenga, D D Lazarus, Y S Wungak, N J Knowles, J Wadsworth, V Mioulet, D P King, D Shamaki, M I Adah
This study describes the molecular characterization of 47 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses recovered from field outbreaks in Nigeria between 2007 and 2014. Antigen ELISA of viral isolates was used to identify FMD virus serotypes O, A and SAT 2. Phylogenetic analyses of VP1 nucleotide sequences provide evidence for the presence of multiple sublineages of serotype SAT 2, and O/EAST AFRICA 3 (EA-3) and O/WEST AFRICA topotypes in the country. In contrast, for serotype A, a single monophyletic cluster of viruses has persisted within Nigeria (2009-2013)...
October 7, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
B Wilhelm, A Fazil, A Rajić, A Houde, S A McEwen
The role and importance of pigs and pork as sources of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been debated in Canada and abroad for over 20 years. To further investigate this question, we compiled data to populate a risk profile for HEV in pigs or pork in Canada. We organized the risk profile (RP) using the headings prescribed for a foodborne microbial risk assessment and used research synthesis methods and inputs wherever possible in populating the fields of this RP. A scoping review of potential public health risks of HEV, and two Canadian field surveys sampling finisher pigs, and retail pork chops and pork livers, provided inputs to inform this RP...
October 7, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
P Gale
The host reservoir of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) remains elusive. One suggestion is that EBOV emerges in mammals when the precursor virus jumps from mayflies (or other riverine insects) to insectivorous bats. However, this does not fit with the current view that filoviruses cannot infect arthropods. Here, it is first argued that the evidence that arthropods are refractory is not definitive. Second, it is proposed that a combination of filovirus filament length and the high temperature (~42°C) experienced by an insect virus ingested by a flying bat, together with the large number of insects eaten by bats (e...
September 26, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S Welby, G van Schaik, A Veldhuis, H Brouwer-Middelesch, C Peroz, I M Santman-Berends, C Fourichon, P Wever, Y Van der Stede
Quick detection and recovery of country's freedom status remain a constant challenge in animal health surveillance. The efficacy and cost efficiency of different surveillance components in proving the absence of infection or (early) detection of bluetongue serotype 8 in cattle populations within different countries (the Netherlands, France, Belgium) using surveillance data from years 2006 and 2007 were investigated using an adapted scenario tree model approach. First, surveillance components (sentinel, yearly cross-sectional and passive clinical reporting) within each country were evaluated in terms of efficacy for substantiating freedom of infection...
September 26, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
F I Korennoy, V M Gulenkin, A E Gogin, T Vergne, A K Karaulov
In 1977, Ukraine experienced a local epidemic of African swine fever (ASF) in the Odessa region. A total of 20 settlements were affected during the course of the epidemic, including both large farms and backyard households. Thanks to timely interventions, the virus circulation was successfully eradicated within 6 months, leading to no additional outbreaks. Detailed report of the outbreak's investigation has been publically available from 2014. The report contains some quantitative data that allow studying the ASF-spread dynamics in the course of the epidemic...
September 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
E Breard, A Garnier, P Despres, S Blaise Boisseau, L Comtet, C Viarouge, L Bakkali-Kassimi, P Pourquier, P Hudelet, D Vitour, S Rossi, G Belbis, C Sailleau, S Zientara
Bluetongue viruses (BTV) are arboviruses responsible for infections in ruminants. The confirmation of BTV infections is based on rapid serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using the BTV viral protein 7 (VP7) as antigen. The determination of the BTV serotype by serological analyses could be only performed by neutralization tests (VNT) which are time-consuming and require BSL3 facilities. VP2 protein is considered the major serotype-defining protein of BTV. To improve the serological characterization of BTV infections, the recombinant VP7 and BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) VP2 were synthesized using insect cells expression system...
September 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Y Luo, S Ji, Y Liu, J-L Lei, S-L Xia, Y Wang, M-L Du, L Shao, X-Y Meng, M Zhou, Y Sun, H-J Qiu
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a devastating infectious disease of pigs caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In China, CSF has been under control owing to extensive vaccination with the lapinized attenuated vaccine (C-strain) since 1950s, despite sporadic or endemic in many regions. However, recently, CSF outbreaks occurred in a large number of swine herds in China. Here, we isolated 15 CSFV strains from diverse C-strain-vaccinated pig farms in China and characterized the genetic variations and antigenicity of the new isolates...
September 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
C Faverjon, A Leblond, S Lecollinet, R Bødker, A A de Koeijer, E A J Fischer
African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) are Culicoides-borne viral diseases that could have the potential to spread across Europe if introduced, thus being potential threats for the European equine industry. Both share similar epidemiology, transmission patterns and geographical distribution. Using stochastic spatiotemporal models of virus entry, we assessed and compared the probabilities of both viruses entering France via two pathways: importation of live-infected animals or importation of infected vectors...
September 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
I H Mendenhall, S Borthwick, E S Neves, D Low, M Linster, B Liang, M Skiles, J Jayakumar, H Han, V Gunalan, B P Y-H Lee, K Okahara, L-F Wang, S Maurer-Stroh, Y C F Su, G J D Smith
Coronaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that infect mammals and birds. Bats are reservoirs for several different coronaviruses in the Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus genera. They also appear to be the natural reservoir for the ancestral viruses that generated the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreaks. Here, we detected coronavirus sequences in next-generation sequence data created from Eonycteris spelaea faeces and urine. We also screened by PCR urine samples, faecal samples and rectal swabs collected from six species of bats in Singapore between 2011 and 2014, all of which were negative...
September 16, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
N B Cleton, K van Maanen, S A Bergervoet, N Bon, C Beck, G-J Godeke, S Lecollinet, R Bowen, D Lelli, N Nowotny, M P G Koopmans, C B E M Reusken
The genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae includes some of the most important examples of emerging zoonotic arboviruses that are rapidly spreading across the globe. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne members of the JEV serological group. Although most infections in humans are asymptomatic or present with mild flu-like symptoms, clinical manifestations of JEV, WNV, SLEV, USUV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can include severe neurological disease and death...
September 15, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
P Sameea Yousefi, K Mardani, B Dalir-Naghadeh, G Jalilzadeh-Amin
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly contagious transboundary disease of cattle with major economic losses. This study was undertaken to address the emergence and epidemiological features of LSD in four north-western provinces of Iran. These provinces have extensive borders with others country including Iraq, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Armenia. A population of 683 cattle from 91 farms were examined during LSD outbreak in Iran during 2014-2016. The information of the farms including the population size, gender, age, vaccination status, clinical signs and the number of death because of LSD were recorded in the designed questionnaires...
September 15, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
C Senthilkumaran, H Bittner, A Ambagala, O Lung, S Babiuk, M Yang, J Zimmerman, L G Giménez-Lirola, C Nfon
The use of swine oral fluid (OF) for the detection of nucleic acids and antibodies is gaining significant popularity. Assays have been developed for this purpose for endemic and foreign animal diseases of swine. Here, we report the use of OF for the detection of virus and antibodies in pigs experimentally infected with swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), a virus that causes a disease clinically indistinguishable from the economically devastating foot-and-mouth disease. Viral genome was detected in OF by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) from 1 day post-infection (DPI) to 21 DPI...
September 15, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
G J Belsham, T B Rasmussen, P Normann, P Vaclavek, B Strandbygaard, A Bøtner
During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both of these coronaviruses. However, further analyses, using other TGEV- and PEDV-specific RT-qPCR assays, provided results inconsistent with infection by either of these viruses. Sequencing of an amplicon (ca. 1.6 kb), generated by an RT-PCR specific for the PEDV S-gene, indicated a very close similarity (ca...
September 12, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J Schulz, C Staubach, F J Conraths, K Schulz
Animal surveillance systems need regular evaluation. We developed an easily applicable simulation model of the German wild boar population to investigate two evaluation attributes: the sensitivity and timeliness (i.e. the ability to detect a disease outbreak rapidly) of a surveillance system. Classical swine fever (CSF) was used as an example for the model. CSF is an infectious disease that may lead to massive economic losses. It can affect wild boar as well as domestic pigs, and CSF outbreaks in domestic pigs have been linked to infections in wild boar...
September 12, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Y Berhane, D Ojkic, N Pople, O Lung, J Pasick
Soon after the emergence of 2009 pandemic H1N1, the first outbreaks in breeder turkey operations were reported that implicated human-to-turkey transmission. In the spring of 2016, the reoccurrence of 2009 pandemic H1N1 lineage viruses infecting breeder turkey flocks in Ontario and Manitoba, Canada, also implicated human-to-turkey transmission. In addition to raising concerns over biosecurity and vaccine failures, these cases once again raise the issue of whether turkeys have the potential to act as a bridge species to generate novel influenza A virus reassortants with public health implications...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
R Velarde, P Cavadini, A Neimanis, O Cabezón, M Chiari, A Gaffuri, S Lavín, G Grilli, D Gavier-Widén, A Lavazza, L Capucci
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that can cause fatal hepatitis (rabbit haemorrhagic disease, RHD) with mortality of 80-90% in farmed and wild rabbits. Since 1986, RHDV has caused outbreaks in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Europe, but never in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus, EBH). In 2010, a new RHDV-related virus, called RHDV2, emerged in Europe, causing extended epidemics because it largely overcame the immunity to RHDV present in most rabbit populations. RHDV2 also was identified in Cape hare (Lepus capensis subsp...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
F J Salguero, S Gibson, W Garcia-Jimenez, J Gough, T S Strickland, H M Vordermeier, B Villarreal-Ramos
Cattle vaccination against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) has been proposed as a supplementary method to help control the incidences of this disease. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the only viable candidate vaccine for immunization of cattle against bTB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). In an attempt to characterize the differences in the immune response following M. bovis infection between BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals, a combination of gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses was used...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
F V Bauermann, S M Falkenberg, J F Ridpath
The ability of ruminant pestivirus including bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and the related emerging pestivirus, HoBi-like virus, to establish persistent infection (PI) following foetal infection is central to keeping these viruses in circulation. Non-PI dams carrying BVDV PI calves develop high levels of immunity due constantly viral exposure. A study to determine whether the immunity developed following the generation of a BVDV PI is enough to prevent HoBi-like virus infection of a subsequent foetus was performed...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
R M Gil da Costa, M C Peleteiro, M A Pires, D DiMaio
Over recent years, a growing number of papillomaviruses have been identified, which cause a wide range of lesions in domestic and wild animals. Papillomavirus-induced lesions may have a great impact on animal health, and some diseases observed in farm animals are associated with significant economic losses. This concise review brings together recent advancements on animal papillomavirus research, providing the scientific community and veterinary practitioners with an update on this rapidly evolving field. Among others, bovine, canine and feline papillomaviruses (BPV, CPV and FcaPV) are most extensively discussed, in view of the recent discovery of new viral types and their worldwide importance for animal health...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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