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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414859/source-receptor-probability-of-atmospheric-long-distance-dispersal-of-viruses-to-israel-from-the-eastern-mediterranean-area
#1
Z Klausner, E Klement, E Fattal
Viruses that affect the health of humans and farm animals can spread over long distances via atmospheric mechanisms. The phenomenon of atmospheric long-distance dispersal (LDD) is associated with severe consequences because it may introduce pathogens into new areas. The introduction of new pathogens to Israel was attributed to LDD events numerous times. This provided the motivation for this study which is aimed to identify all the locations in the eastern Mediterranean that may serve as sources for pathogen incursion into Israel via LDD...
April 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407381/arrival-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-2-to-northern-europe-emergence-and-outbreaks-in-wild-and-domestic-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-in-sweden
#2
A S Neimanis, H Ahola, S Zohari, U Larsson Pettersson, C Bröjer, L Capucci, D Gavier-Widén
Incursion of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Sweden was documented in 1990 and it is now considered endemic in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a new, related lagovirus was first detected in France in 2010, and has spread rapidly throughout Europe and beyond. However, knowledge of RHDV2 in northern Europe is sporadic and incomplete, and in Sweden, routinely available diagnostic methods to detect rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) do not distinguish between types of virus causing disease...
April 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406577/evidence-of-african-horse-sickness-virus-infection-of-equus-zebra-hartmannae-in-the-south-western-khomas-region-namibia
#3
E Becker, G J Venter, T Greyling, U Molini, H van Hamburg
Equine mortalities suspected to be due to African horse sickness (AHS) were reported from the arid Khomas Region, Namibia, in 2008. The area was previously considered a localized AHS-free area. Hartmann's mountain zebra (Equus zebra hartmannae), a potential but unconfirmed reservoir host of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), occurs in the region. Between 2009 and 2010 serum, blood and tissue samples from 31 culled E. z. hartmannae were analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (n = 31) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (n = 18) to determine the presence of AHSV and/or antibodies against AHSV...
April 12, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391652/investigation-on-the-incidence-of-adverse-reactions-viraemia-and-haematological-changes-following-field-immunization-of-cattle-using-a-live-attenuated-vaccine-against-lumpy-skin-disease
#4
P-D Katsoulos, S C Chaintoutis, C I Dovas, Z S Polizopoulou, G D Brellou, E I Agianniotaki, K E Tasioudi, E Chondrokouki, O Papadopoulos, H Karatzias, C Boscos
The present study was performed to investigate the clinical impact and certain virological and haematological parameters following immunization of cattle against lumpy skin disease (LSD). The study was conducted in a dairy cattle farm (215 animals), immunized with a Neethling strain-based live vaccine. Twenty-seven animals (14 lactating cows, four dry cows and nine calves) were randomly selected for repetitive blood and saliva samplings. An EvaGreen-based real-time PCR was designed to differentiate vaccine from field LSDVs...
April 8, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391623/cost-based-optimization-of-the-stopping-threshold-for-local-disease-surveillance-during-progressive-eradication-of-tuberculosis-from-new-zealand-wildlife
#5
A M Gormley, D P Anderson, G Nugent
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is managed in New Zealand largely via population reduction of the major wildlife disease reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, the introduced brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula. New Zealand aims to eradicate M. bovis infection from its livestock and wildlife within 40 years, as the culmination of progressive regional eradication programmes. Declarations of regional eradication are decided after extensive possum population control and post-control surveillance; hence, we developed a modelling framework, based on eco-epidemiological simulation data, to provide cost-evaluated options for deciding when to make these declarations...
April 8, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387065/safe-and-cost-effective-protocol-for-shipment-of-samples-from-foot-and-mouth-disease-suspected-cases-for-laboratory-diagnostic
#6
A Romey, A Relmy, K Gorna, E Laloy, S Zientara, S Blaise-Boisseau, L Bakkali Kassimi
An essential step towards the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the identification of circulating virus strains in endemic regions to implement adequate outbreak control measures. However, due to the high biological risk and the requirement for biological samples to be shipped frozen, the cost of shipping samples becomes one of major obstacles hindering submission of suspected samples to reference laboratories for virus identification. In this study, we report the development of a cost-effective and safe method for shipment of FMD samples...
April 7, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345819/outbreak-investigations-and-molecular-characterization-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-viruses-circulating-in-south-west-niger
#7
B Souley Kouato, F M Elliot, D P King, J Hyera, N J Knowles, A B Ludi, V Mioulet, G Matlho, K De Clercq, E Thys, H Marichatou, S Issa, C Saegerman
In Niger, the epidemiological situation regarding foot-and-mouth disease is unclear as many outbreaks are unreported. This study aimed (i) to identify Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains currently circulating in cattle herds, and (ii) to identify risk factors associated with Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-seropositive animals in clinical outbreaks. Epithelial tissues (n = 25) and sera (n = 227) were collected from cattle in eight districts of the south-western part of Niger. Testing of clinical material revealed the presence of FMDV serotype O that was characterized within the O/WEST AFRICA topotype...
March 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345293/detection-of-zaire-ebolavirus-in-swine-assay-development-and-optimization
#8
B S Pickering, B Collignon, G Smith, P Marszal, G Kobinger, H M Weingartl
Ebolaviruses (family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales) cause often fatal, haemorrhagic fever in primates including humans. Pigs have been identified as a species susceptible to Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) infection, with indicated transmission to humans in the Philippines; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. To perform surveillance studies, detection of ebolavirus requires a prerequisite validation of viral RNA and antibody detection methods in swine samples. These diagnostic tests also need to be suitable for deployment to low-level containment laboratories...
March 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345292/the-detection-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-porcine-deltacoronavirus-from-guangdong-province-in-southern-china
#9
K Mai, J Feng, G Chen, D Li, L Zhou, Y Bai, Q Wu, J Ma
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly discovered coronavirus that causes diarrhoea, vomiting and dehydration in sucking and nursing piglets. It was first reported in Hong Kong in 2012 and has since been discovered in the United States, Canada, South Korea, mainland China, Thailand and Laos. PDCoV has been experimentally proved to lead to diarrhoea in swine and it was detected positive in pigs in Guangdong, southern China. In our study, 252 faecal and intestinal samples from sucking piglets and sows with diarrhoea were surveyed for common enteric viruses...
March 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345224/involvement-of-multiple-chlamydia-suis-genotypes-in-porcine-conjunctivitis
#10
R Chahota, H Ogawa, K Ohya, T Yamaguchi, K D E Everett, H Fukushi
Chlamydia suis has been detected in numerous disease conditions of pigs, particularly in eye infections. This study examined recurring conjunctivitis cases in five commercial pig farms in Japan. 40.5% of the cases were identified as Chlamydia positive using impression cytology of ocular smears and a genus-specific direct fluorescent antibody. C. suis was detected in 59.5% of the samples using PCR tests targeting 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) and ompA gene. Genetic analysis of PCR amplicons revealed nine sequence variants of 16S-23S rRNA ISR and 20 sequence variants within ompA gene...
March 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342208/serogroups-and-genotypes-of-leptospira-spp-strains-from-bovine-aborted-foetuses
#11
L Delooz, G Czaplicki, F Gregoire, F Dal Pozzo, F Pez, A Kodjo, C Saegerman
Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, with potential major economic impact on livestock industry and important zoonotic capacities. The disease represents a major challenge in the developing countries as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The serovar Hardjo of Leptospira whose primary host is cattle has been studied extensively, but few data exist on other current circulating or emerging serotypes. To better understand the disease in cattle and how to prevent and/or control it, it is necessary to identify the genotype and the serotype of circulating Leptospira...
March 24, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332294/farm-level-risk-factors-associated-with-bovine-tuberculosis-in-the-dairy-sector-in-eritrea
#12
M K Ghebremariam, A L Michel, M Nielen, J C M Vernooij, V P M G Rutten
The aim of our study was to determine the association of selected potential risk factors with the presence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in dairy herds in Eritrea. A case-control study was conducted in the three major milk-producing regions of the country by stratified random sampling of 61 case and 65 control herds combined with completion of a standardized pretested questionnaire pertaining 36 relevant risk factors (variables). The variables were divided into two clusters, based on potential association with either "introduction" or "establishment" of BTB on the farms to elucidate association with incident or prevalent cases separately...
March 22, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317326/identification-and-genetic-characterization-of-porcine-circovirus-type-3-in-china
#13
X Ku, F Chen, P Li, Y Wang, X Yu, S Fan, P Qian, M Wu, Q He
A novel circovirus called porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) was recently reported to exist in the USA. This circovirus is associated with porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome and reproductive failure. This study reports on the first identification, widely epidemic, different phylogenetic clusters, potential role in sow reproductive failure and possible origins of PCV3 in China.
March 19, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303673/assessment-of-the-risk-of-african-swine-fever-introduction-into-finland-using-nora-a-rapid-tool-for-semiquantitative-assessment-of-the-risk
#14
J Kyyrö, L Sahlström, T Lyytikäinen
The NORA rapid risk assessment tool was developed for situations where there is a change in the disease status of easily transmissible animal diseases in neighbouring countries or in countries with significant interactions with Finland. The goal was to develop a tool that is quick to use and will provide consistent results to support risk management decisions. The model contains 63 questions that define the potential for entry and exposure by nine different pathways. The magnitude of the consequences is defined by 23 statements...
March 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299912/orf3a-deletion-in-field-strains-of-porcine-transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-in-china-a-hint-of-association-with-porcine-respiratory-coronavirus
#15
X Zhang, Y Zhu, X Zhu, J Chen, H Shi, D Shi, H Dong, L Feng
Porcine-transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a pathogenic coronavirus responsible for high diarrhoea-associated morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets. We analysed the TGEV ORF3 gene using nested polymerase chain reaction and identified an ORF3a deletion in three field strains of TGEV collected from piglets in China in 2015. Eight TGEV ORF3 sequences were obtained in this study. Phylogenetic tree analysis of ORF3 showed that the eight TGEV ORF3 genes all belonged to the Miller cluster. CH-LNCT and CH-MZL were closely correlated with Miller M6, while CH-SH was correlated with Miller M60...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299897/towards-canine-rabies-elimination-economic-comparisons-of-three-project-sites
#16
J L Elser, B G Hatch, L H Taylor, L H Nel, S A Shwiff
An appreciation of the costs of implementing canine rabies control in different settings is important for those planning new or expanded interventions. Here we compare the costs of three canine rabies control projects in South Africa, the Philippines and Tanzania to identify factors that influence the overall costs of rabies control efforts. There was considerable variation in the cost of vaccinating each dog, but across the sites these were lower where population density was higher, and later in the projects when dog vaccination coverage was increased...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299895/deep-sequencing-and-variant-analysis-of-an-italian-pathogenic-field-strain-of-equine-infectious-anaemia-virus
#17
K Cappelli, R F Cook, V Stefanetti, F Passamonti, G L Autorino, M T Scicluna, M Coletti, A Verini Supplizi, S Capomaccio
Equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus with an almost worldwide distribution that causes persistent infections in equids. Technical limitations have restricted genetic analysis of EIAV field isolates predominantly to gag sequences resulting in very little published information concerning the extent of inter-strain variation in pol, env and the three ancillary open reading frames (ORFs). Here, we describe the use of long-range PCR in conjunction with next-generation sequencing (NGS) for rapid molecular characterization of all viral ORFs and known transcription factor binding motifs within the long terminal repeat of two EIAV isolates from the 2006 Italian outbreak...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299893/co-circulation-of-multiple-genotypes-of-african-swine-fever-viruses-among-domestic-pigs-in-zambia-2013-2015
#18
E Simulundu, H M Chambaro, Y Sinkala, M Kajihara, H Ogawa, A Mori, J Ndebe, G Dautu, L Mataa, C H Lubaba, C Simuntala, P Fandamu, M Simuunza, G S Pandey, K L Samui, G Misinzo, A Takada, A S Mweene
During 2013-2015, several and severe outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) affected domestic pigs in six provinces of Zambia. Genetic characterization of ASF viruses (ASFVs) using standardized genotyping procedures revealed that genotypes I, II and XIV were associated with these outbreaks. Molecular and epidemiological data suggest that genotype II ASFV (Georgia 2007/1-like) detected in Northern Province of Zambia may have been introduced from neighbouring Tanzania. Also, a genotype II virus detected in Eastern Province of Zambia showed a p54 phylogenetic relationship that was inconsistent with that of p72, underscoring the genetic variability of ASFVs...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299883/a-novel-bluetongue-virus-serotype-3-strain-in-tunisia-november-2016
#19
S Sghaier, A Lorusso, O Portanti, M Marcacci, M Orsini, M E Barbria, A S Mahmoud, S Hammami, A Petrini, G Savini
Since 1998, southern Europe has experienced multiple incursions of different serotypes and topotypes of Bluetongue virus, a vector-borne transmitted virus, the causative agent of Bluetongue (BT), a major disease of ruminants. Some of these incursions originated from northern Africa, likely because of wind-blown dissemination of infected midges. In this report, we describe the detection and whole genome characterization of a novel BTV-3 strain identified in a symptomatic sheep in Tunisia. Sequences were immediately deposited with the GenBank Database under Accession Nos KY432369-KY432378...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296281/understanding-african-swine-fever-infection-dynamics-in-sardinia-using-a-spatially-explicit-transmission-model-in-domestic-pig-farms
#20
L Mur, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, E Fernández-Carrión, C Jurado, S Rolesu, F Feliziani, A Laddomada, B Martínez-López
African swine fever virus (ASFV) has been endemic in Sardinia since 1978, resulting in severe losses for local pig producers and creating important problems for the island's veterinary authorities. This study used a spatially explicit stochastic transmission model followed by two regression models to investigate the dynamics of ASFV spread amongst domestic pig farms, to identify geographic areas at highest risk and determine the role of different susceptible pig populations (registered domestic pigs, non-registered domestic pigs [brado] and wild boar) in ASF occurrence...
March 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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