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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

Sunhee Lee, Changhee Lee
Enterovirus species G (EV-G) comprises a highly diversity of 20 genotypes that is prevalent in pig populations, with or without diarrhea. In the present study, a novel EV-G strain (KOR/KNU-1811/2018) that resulted from cross-order recombination was discovered in diagnostic fecal samples from neonatal pigs with diarrhea that were negative for swine enteric coronaviruses and rotavirus. The recombinant EV-G genome possessed an exogenous 594-nucleotide (198-amino acid) sequence, flanked by two viral 3Cpro cleavage sites at the 5' and 3' ends in its 2C/3A junction region...
November 15, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Nicolás Céspedes Cárdenas, Jason Onell Ardila Galvis, Alicia Appel Farinati, José Henrique Hildebrand Grisi-Filho, Gustavo Nogueira Diehl, Gustavo Machado
Glanders is a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Burkholderia mallei. The transmission of B. mallei occurs mainly by direct contact, and horses are the natural reservoir. Therefore, the identification of infection sources within horse populations and animal movements is critical to enhance disease control. Here, we analyzed the dynamics of horse movements from 2014 to 2016 using network analysis in order to understand the flow of animals in two hierarchical levels, municipalities and farms. The municipality-level network was used to investigate both community clustering and the balance between the municipality's trades and the farm-level network associations between B...
November 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Jianda Li, Jinbao Wang, Yueyue Liu, Jie Yang, Lihui Guo, Sufang Ren, Zhi Chen, Zhaoshan Liu, Yuyu Zhang, Wenbin Qiu, Yubao Li, Shujin Zhang, Jiang Yu, Jiaqiang Wu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), an economically significant pandemic disease, commonly results in increased impact of bacterial infections, including those by Streptococcus suis (S. suis). In recent years, PRRS virus (PRRSV) NADC30-like strain has emerged in different regions of China, and co-infected with S. suis and PRRSV has also gradually increased in clinical performance. However, the mechanisms involved in host innate responses towards S. suis and their implications of co-infection with NADC30-like strain remain unknown...
November 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Manuel José Sanchez-Vazquez, Lia Puppim Buzanovsky, Alexandre Guerra Dos Santos, Rossana Maria Allende, Ottorino Cosivi, Alejandro Mauricio Rivera
This study investigates the historical temporal trend and geographical distribution of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDv) serotype C in South America; discussing the findings within the context of the actions and strategies carried out for the elimination of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). This is the first time that such a comprehensive historical compilation has been carried out in the Region; hence, the study is intended as a reference and source of evidence about the presence/absence of FMDv serotype C in South America...
November 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Alan B Franklin, Sarah N Bevins, Jeremy W Ellis, Ryan S Miller, Susan A Shriner, J Jeffrey Root, Daniel P Walsh, Thomas J Deliberto
Using data on waterfowl band recoveries, we identified spatially-explicit hotspots of concentrated waterfowl movement to predict occurrence and spatial spread of a novel influenza A virus (clade introduced from Asia by waterfowl from an initial outbreak in North America in November 2014. In response to the outbreak, the hotspots of waterfowl movement were used to help guide sampling for clade viruses in waterfowl as an early warning for the U.S. poultry industry during the outbreak. After surveillance sampling of waterfowl, we tested whether there was greater detection of clade 2...
November 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
C A Evans, B Pinior, M Larska, D Graham, M Schweizer, C Guidarini, N Decaro, J Ridpath, M C Gates
The significant economic impacts of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus have prompted many countries worldwide to embark on regional or national BVD eradication programmes. Unlike other infectious diseases, BVD control is highly feasible in cattle production systems because the pathogenesis is well understood and there are effective tools to break the disease transmission cycle at the farm and industry levels. Coordinated control approaches typically involve directly testing populations for virus or serological screening of cattle herds to identify those with recent exposure to BVD, testing individual animals within affected herds to identify and eliminate persistently infected (PI) cattle, and implementing biosecurity measures such as double-fencing shared farm boundaries, vaccinating susceptible breeding cattle, improving visitor and equipment hygiene practices, and maintaining closed herds to prevent further disease transmission...
November 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yan-Kuo Sun, Qi Li, Zhi-Qing Yu, Xiao-Liang Han, Ying-Fang Wei, Chi-Han Ji, Gang Lu, Chun-Quan Ma, Gui-Hong Zhang, Heng Wang
Lineage 3 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses, which belong to North America type 2, has a long epidemic history in China. The novel lineage 3 viruses constantly emerging in recent years are characterized by a high detection rate and significant pathogenicity. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of lineage 3 in southern China and selected two isolated strains for genome and virulence analyses. A cross-sectional epidemiology investigation indicated that the prevalence of lineage 3 antigens was 35...
November 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Dennis Rubbenstroth, Elisabeth Peus, Eva Schramm, Daniel Kottmann, Hilke Bartels, Christina McCowan, Christoph Schulze, Valerij Akimkin, Nicole Fischer, Claudia Wylezich, Andreas Hlinak, Anja Spadinger, Ernst Großmann, Henning Petersen, Adam Grundhoff, Silke Rautenschlein, Lydia Teske
Rotaviruses are well-known causative agents of enteric disorders in humans and other mammals, but little is known about their virulence and pathogenic role in pigeons and other birds. Starting in summer 2017, a series of outbreaks of an acute disease with high mortalities was reported in domestic pigeons in Germany, Belgium and Denmark. The clinical picture was characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, hepatic necrosis, and sudden fatalities. From these severe outbreaks, we discovered several previously unknown group A rotavirus (RVA) lineages of genotype G18P[17]-I4-R4-C4-M4-A4-T4-N4-E19-H4, which were closely related but not identical to an RVA variant identified in cases of fatal hepatic necrosis in Australian pigeon lofts in 2016...
November 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Gianluigi Rossi, Pascale Aubry, Caroline Dubé, Rebecca L Smith
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a chronic disease typical of cattle. Nonetheless, it can affect many mammals including humans, making it one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. In industrialized countries, the main pathways of introduction of bTB into a herd are animal trade and contact with infected wildlife. In addition, for slow-spreading diseases with a long latent period such as bTB, shared seasonal pastures might be a between-herd transmission pathway, indeed farmers might unknowingly send infected animals to the pasture, since clinical signs are rarely evident in early infection...
November 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Zeng Wang, Pan-Pan Yang, Yu-Han Zhang, Kai-Yue Tian, Chuan-Zhou Bian, Jun Zhao
H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been detected from wild birds and domestic poultry worldwide. Serious diseases combined with secondary infection have caused high mortality and great economic losses to poultry industry. Therefore, simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate methods suitable for field detection of H9N2 AIVs are crucial to efficiently control virus infection and spread in time. In this study, an isothermal reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification with lateral-flow dipstick (RT-RPA-LFD) assay for detection of hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H9 subtype influenza viruses was developed...
November 7, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Emmanuel Bréard, Axel Gorlier, Cyril Viarouge, Fabien Donnet, Corinne Sailleau, Claudia Schulz, Bernd Hoffmann, Loic Comtet, Martin Beer, Stéphan Zientara, Damien Vitour
Competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) is the most widely used serological test for the detection of Bluetongue virus (BTV) viral protein 7 (VP7) antibodies (Ab). However, these BTV c-ELISAs cannot to distinguish between IgG and IgM. IgM Ab are generated shortly after the primary immune response against an infectious agent, indicating a recent infection or exposure to antigens, such as after vaccination. Because the BTV genome or anti-VP7 Ab can be detected in ruminant blood months after infection, BTV diagnostic tools cannot discriminate between recent and old infections...
November 5, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Scott M Reid, Ruth Manvell, James M Seekings, Vanessa Ceeraz, Helen Errington, Chad M Fuller, Wendy M Shell, Steve Essen, Anita Puranik, Ian H Brown, Richard M Irvine
A detailed veterinary and laboratory investigation revealed an unusual case of concurrent avian avulavirus type 1 (AAvV-1, formerly called avian paramyxovirus type 1)) and low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus infections of chickens during March 2010 in a mixed poultry and livestock farm in Great Britain. Respiratory signs and daily mortality of 5-6 birds in a broiler flock 8-weeks of age prompted submission of two carcasses to an Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) regional laboratory. Infectious bronchitis virus infection was suspected initially and virus isolation in SPF embryonated fowls' eggs was attempted at APHA-Weybridge...
November 3, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Manakorn Sukmak, Narut Thanantong, Pariwat Poolperm, Alongkot Boonsoongnern, Nattavut Ratanavanichrojn, Pichai Jirawattanapong, Yonlayong Woonwong, Nantana Soda, Tanyanant Kaminsonsakul, Sahathat Phuttapatimok, Worawidh Wajjwalku
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) has recently been detected in pigs worldwide, with similar clinical manifestations to porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection. Here, we report the identification and molecular epidemiology of PCV3 in swine in Thailand from clinical samples retrieved from 2006 to 2017. The epidemiological data revealed co-infection with PCV2, PRRSV, and PCV2/PRRSV was common in our samples. Circulating PCV3 from this study shared a high similarity of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the partial capsid gene (96...
November 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Abdul Rehman, Franz J Conraths, Carola Sauter-Louis, Jürgen Krücken, Ard M Nijhof
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have a large impact on animal health and the livelihood of livestock owners, particularly in developing countries. Although climatic and ecological conditions in Pakistan may favour the transmission of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), only a few systematic studies have been carried out on TBPs and the diseases that they cause in this country. To improve our understanding of the distribution of TBPs, 3,807 ticks were collected from ruminants (n=369) on 108 livestock farms (semi-arid zone=36, arid zone=72) in Punjab Province...
November 1, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Annick Linden, Alain Licoppe, Rosario Volpe, Julien Paternostre, Christophe Lesenfants, Dominique Cassart, Mutien Garigliany, Marylène Tignon, Thierry van den Berg, Daniel Desmecht, Ann Brigitte Cay
In a new example of pathogens hopscotching the globe, a livestock virus originating in Africa hit northwestern Europe's wildlife this summer, marking a further spread of a disease that had recently hit pig farms in eastern Europe and China. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 1, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Jobin Jose Kattoor, Yashpal Singh Malik, Sharad Saurabh, Shubhankar Sircar, Obli Rajendran Vinodhkumar, Durlav Prasad Bora, Kuldeep Dhama, Souvik Ghosh, Krisztian Banyai, Nadia Touil, Ahmed Sayed Abdel Moneim, Anastasia N Vlasova, Nobumichi Kobayashi, Raj Kumar Singh
Porcine astroviruses (PAstVs) have extended their distribution globally and have a high prevalence; however, their clinical significance is still under investigation. Thus far, information about their prevalence and diversity in the Indian pig population is unknown. This study is the first report on the prevalence and genetic characterization of PAstVs in diarrheic piglets in India. From January 2013 to December 2017, 757 samples were screened using an RT-PCR assay and PAstV infection was detected in 17.6% (133/757) pigs...
October 31, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Zhou Zhang, Yongning Zhang, Lin Xiangmei, Zhenhai Chen, Wu Shaoqiang
In pigs, Senecavirus A (SVA) causes a vesicular disease that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease. Sensitive and specific detection of SVA is critical for controlling this emerging disease. In this study, a novel reverse transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) assay, targeting the conserved viral polymerase 3D gene, was established for the detection of SVA. This assay exhibited good linearity, repeatability and reproducibility, and maintained linearity at extremely low concentrations of SVA nucleic acid templates...
October 30, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Mutien Garigliany, Noëmie El Agrebi, Mathieu Franssen, Louis Hautier, Claude Saegerman
We report the detection of Moku virus in honey bees (Apis mellifera) collected in 2017 from hives with a history of attacks by invasive Asian hornets (Vespa velutina nigrithorax) in Belgium. End 2016, Moku virus was reported in Asian hornets from the same area. In addition, the Moku virus was already present in historical samples of bees collected in 2013, i.e. two years after the official first detection of Asian hornets in the same area of Belgium. This study suggests a spread of Moku virus to honey bees with possible consequences...
October 30, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Ana Zabalza-Baranguá, Beatriz San Román, Carlos Chacón-Díaz, María-Jesús de Miguel, Pilar-María Muñoz, Maite Iriarte, José-María Blasco, María-Jesús Grilló
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis causing important economic losses and a public health problem. Small ruminants are the preferred hosts of Brucella melitensis and thus the main source of human infections. Effective control of sheep and goat brucellosis has been achieved in several countries through vaccination with the live-attenuated B. melitensis Rev1 vaccine. However, Rev1 induces a long-lasting serological response that hinders the differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. A Rev1::gfp strain expressing constitutively the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was built by stable insertion of a mini-Tn7-gfp in the glmS-recG non-codifying chromosomal region...
October 29, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
T Habitu, D Areda, A Muwonge, G T Tessema, E Skjerve, T Gebrehiwot
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a disease of animal and public health importance in developing countries. In rural Ethiopia, there is potential for a shift in the epidemiologic of this disease driven by transformation of dairy industry. This includes gradual change from the traditional mixed-crop livestock husbandry practice to a semi-intensification system. It is therefore, essential to document the prevalence and risk factors of BTB to continuously update the designing and implementation of control and prevention strategies...
October 29, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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