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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

Z Rahim, J Thapa, Y Fukushima, A G M van der Zanden, S V Gordon, Y Suzuki, C Nakajima
Mycobacterium orygis, commonly known as the oryx bacillus and a newly proposed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex subspecies, was isolated from 18 cattle in a dairy farm and two captured rhesus monkeys in a zoo in Bangladesh. All the infected animals had tuberculosis lesions in their lungs, suggesting transmission and infection with M. orygis by an airborne route. The 20 isolates were analysed using a range of conventional and molecular typing methods, and RD-deletion typing and sequencing of selected genes confirmed the isolates as M...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
P P Wang, J G Dong, L Y Zhang, P S Liang, Y L Liu, L Wang, F H Fan, C X Song
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is highly genetically diverse; however, little is known about the molecular epidemiology of PRRSV in the boar farms of South China. In this study, 367 samples were collected from boar farms in South China in 2015. The Nsp2 hypervariable region and ORF5 gene were PCR amplified from 66 PRRSV-positive samples, followed by sequencing and analysis. The percentage of PRRSV antigen-positive samples was 17.98%; 8.72% were positive for highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), and 9...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
K L Baker, C Mowrer, A Canon, D C L Linhares, C Rademacher, L A Karriker, D J Holtkamp
Epidemiological investigations were conducted on a case series of six Senecavirus A (SVA)-affected breeding herds in the United States to determine potential routes of introduction and enhance the swine industry's knowledge of SVA's clinical presentation and spread. Each SVA-affected herd was evaluated using a standard form to ensure that all relevant data were collected. The form was used to guide a detailed discussion about the clinical presentation of SVA and risk events that occurred in the 4 weeks prior to the first observation of clinical signs with the herd veterinarian and farm personnel...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S Pronost, E Hue, C Fortier, M Foursin, G Fortier, F Desbrosse, F A Rey, P-H Pitel, E Richard, B Saunier
Like hepatitis C virus (HCV) in humans, the newly identified equine hepacivirus (NPHV) displays a predominating liver tropism that may evolve into chronic infections. The genomes of the two viruses share several organizational and functional features and are phylogenetically closest amongst the Hepacivirus genus. A limited amount of data is available regarding the spread of hepacivirus infections in horses. In this study, we asked whether in a more representative sample the prevalence and distribution of NPHV infections in France would resemble that reported so far in other countries...
November 24, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J Cui, K Biernacka, J Fan, P F Gerber, T Stadejek, T Opriessnig
Porcine parvoviruses are small non-enveloped DNA viruses, very resistant to inactivation, and ubiquitous in the global pig population. Porcine parvovirus type 1 (PPV1) has been known since the 1960s and is a major causative agent of reproductive failure in breeding herds. During the last decade, several new parvoviruses have been identified in pigs by molecular methods and have been consecutively designated as PPV2 through PPV6. Epidemiology data for these viruses are limited, and the impact of these newly recognized parvoviruses on pigs is largely unknown...
November 24, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
E Wera, M C M Mourits, M M Siko, H Hogeveen
A dynamic deterministic simulation model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of different mass dog vaccination strategies against rabies in a dog population representative of a typical village on Flores Island. Cost-effectiveness was measured as public cost per averted dog-rabies case. Simulations started with the introduction of one infectious dog into a susceptible dog population of 399 dogs and subsequently ran for a period of 10 years. The base scenario represented a situation without any control intervention...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A J Rogers, Y-W Huang, C L Heffron, T Opriessnig, A R Patterson, X-J Meng
The family Anelloviridae includes a number of viruses infecting humans (Torque teno viruses, TTV) and other animals including swine (Torque teno sus viruses, TTSuV). Two genetically distinct TTSuV species have been identified from swine thus far (TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2), although their definitive association with disease remains debatable. In 2012, a novel TTSuV species was identified from commercial swine serum and classified in the genus Kappatorquevirus as TTSuVk2b. The other Kappatorquevirus species, TTSuVk2a, has been associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) when coinfected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
O Lung, T Furukawa-Stoffer, K Burton Hughes, J Pasick, D P King, D Hodko
Microarrays can be a useful tool for pathogen detection as it allow for simultaneous interrogation of the presence of a large number of genetic sequences in a sample. However, conventional microarrays require extensive manual handling and multiple pieces of equipment for printing probes, hybridization, washing and signal detection. In this study, a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with an accompanying novel automated microarray for simultaneous detection of eight viruses that affect cattle [vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 and type 2, bovine herpesvirus 1, bluetongue virus, malignant catarrhal fever virus, rinderpest virus (RPV) and parapox viruses] is described...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
N Decaro, M S Lucente, G Lanave, P Gargano, V Larocca, M Losurdo, L Ciambrone, P A Marino, A Parisi, F Casalinuovo, C Buonavoglia, G Elia
Recently, bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2c (BVDV-2c) was responsible for a severe outbreak in cattle in northern Europe. Here, we present the results of an epidemiological survey for pestiviruses in ruminants in southern Italy. Pooled serum samples were obtained from 997 bovine, 800 ovine, 431 caprine and eight bubaline farms, and pestiviral RNA was detected by molecular methods in 44 farms consisting of 16 cattle and one buffalo herds and of 21 sheep and six goat flocks. Twenty-nine and 15 farms were infected by BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains, respectively...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A Globig, E Starick, T Homeier, A Pohlmann, C Grund, P Wolf, A Zimmermann, C Wolf, D Heim, H Schlößer, S Zander, M Beer, F J Conraths, T C Harder
Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N8, clade, were first reported in January 2014 from South Korea. These viruses spread rapidly to Europe and the North American continent during autumn 2014 and caused, in Germany, five outbreaks in poultry holdings until February 2015. In addition, birds kept in a zoo in north-eastern Germany were affected. Only a few individual white storks (Ciconia ciconia) showed clinical symptoms and eventually died in the course of the infection, although subsequent in-depth diagnostic investigations showed that other birds kept in the same compound of the white storks were acutely positive for or had undergone asymptomatic infection with HPAIV H5N8...
November 15, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
K Saeng-Chuto, A Lorsirigool, G Temeeyasen, D T Vui, C J Stott, A Madapong, T Tripipat, M Wegner, M Intrakamhaeng, W Chongcharoen, A Tantituvanont, P Kaewprommal, J Piriyapongsa, D Nilubol
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was detected by RT-PCR in 12 of 97 (12.4%) intestinal samples collected during 2015 from piglets with diarrhoea in Thailand, Vietnam and Lao PDR. Spike, membrane and nucleocapsid genes were characterized, and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that PDCoV isolates from Thai and Lao PDR form a novel cluster, separated from US and China isolates, but relatively were more closely related to China PDCoV than US isolates. Vietnam PDCoVs, however, were grouped together with US PDCoV...
October 7, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
H G Ularamu, J O Ibu, B A Wood, J N Abenga, D D Lazarus, Y S Wungak, N J Knowles, J Wadsworth, V Mioulet, D P King, D Shamaki, M I Adah
This study describes the molecular characterization of 47 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses recovered from field outbreaks in Nigeria between 2007 and 2014. Antigen ELISA of viral isolates was used to identify FMD virus serotypes O, A and SAT 2. Phylogenetic analyses of VP1 nucleotide sequences provide evidence for the presence of multiple sublineages of serotype SAT 2, and O/EAST AFRICA 3 (EA-3) and O/WEST AFRICA topotypes in the country. In contrast, for serotype A, a single monophyletic cluster of viruses has persisted within Nigeria (2009-2013)...
October 7, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
B Wilhelm, A Fazil, A Rajić, A Houde, S A McEwen
The role and importance of pigs and pork as sources of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been debated in Canada and abroad for over 20 years. To further investigate this question, we compiled data to populate a risk profile for HEV in pigs or pork in Canada. We organized the risk profile (RP) using the headings prescribed for a foodborne microbial risk assessment and used research synthesis methods and inputs wherever possible in populating the fields of this RP. A scoping review of potential public health risks of HEV, and two Canadian field surveys sampling finisher pigs, and retail pork chops and pork livers, provided inputs to inform this RP...
October 7, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
P Gale
The host reservoir of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) remains elusive. One suggestion is that EBOV emerges in mammals when the precursor virus jumps from mayflies (or other riverine insects) to insectivorous bats. However, this does not fit with the current view that filoviruses cannot infect arthropods. Here, it is first argued that the evidence that arthropods are refractory is not definitive. Second, it is proposed that a combination of filovirus filament length and the high temperature (~42°C) experienced by an insect virus ingested by a flying bat, together with the large number of insects eaten by bats (e...
September 26, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S Welby, G van Schaik, A Veldhuis, H Brouwer-Middelesch, C Peroz, I M Santman-Berends, C Fourichon, P Wever, Y Van der Stede
Quick detection and recovery of country's freedom status remain a constant challenge in animal health surveillance. The efficacy and cost efficiency of different surveillance components in proving the absence of infection or (early) detection of bluetongue serotype 8 in cattle populations within different countries (the Netherlands, France, Belgium) using surveillance data from years 2006 and 2007 were investigated using an adapted scenario tree model approach. First, surveillance components (sentinel, yearly cross-sectional and passive clinical reporting) within each country were evaluated in terms of efficacy for substantiating freedom of infection...
September 26, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
F I Korennoy, V M Gulenkin, A E Gogin, T Vergne, A K Karaulov
In 1977, Ukraine experienced a local epidemic of African swine fever (ASF) in the Odessa region. A total of 20 settlements were affected during the course of the epidemic, including both large farms and backyard households. Thanks to timely interventions, the virus circulation was successfully eradicated within 6 months, leading to no additional outbreaks. Detailed report of the outbreak's investigation has been publically available from 2014. The report contains some quantitative data that allow studying the ASF-spread dynamics in the course of the epidemic...
September 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
E Breard, A Garnier, P Despres, S Blaise Boisseau, L Comtet, C Viarouge, L Bakkali-Kassimi, P Pourquier, P Hudelet, D Vitour, S Rossi, G Belbis, C Sailleau, S Zientara
Bluetongue viruses (BTV) are arboviruses responsible for infections in ruminants. The confirmation of BTV infections is based on rapid serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using the BTV viral protein 7 (VP7) as antigen. The determination of the BTV serotype by serological analyses could be only performed by neutralization tests (VNT) which are time-consuming and require BSL3 facilities. VP2 protein is considered the major serotype-defining protein of BTV. To improve the serological characterization of BTV infections, the recombinant VP7 and BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) VP2 were synthesized using insect cells expression system...
September 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Y Luo, S Ji, Y Liu, J-L Lei, S-L Xia, Y Wang, M-L Du, L Shao, X-Y Meng, M Zhou, Y Sun, H-J Qiu
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a devastating infectious disease of pigs caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In China, CSF has been under control owing to extensive vaccination with the lapinized attenuated vaccine (C-strain) since 1950s, despite sporadic or endemic in many regions. However, recently, CSF outbreaks occurred in a large number of swine herds in China. Here, we isolated 15 CSFV strains from diverse C-strain-vaccinated pig farms in China and characterized the genetic variations and antigenicity of the new isolates...
September 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
C Faverjon, A Leblond, S Lecollinet, R Bødker, A A de Koeijer, E A J Fischer
African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) are Culicoides-borne viral diseases that could have the potential to spread across Europe if introduced, thus being potential threats for the European equine industry. Both share similar epidemiology, transmission patterns and geographical distribution. Using stochastic spatiotemporal models of virus entry, we assessed and compared the probabilities of both viruses entering France via two pathways: importation of live-infected animals or importation of infected vectors...
September 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
I H Mendenhall, S Borthwick, E S Neves, D Low, M Linster, B Liang, M Skiles, J Jayakumar, H Han, V Gunalan, B P Y-H Lee, K Okahara, L-F Wang, S Maurer-Stroh, Y C F Su, G J D Smith
Coronaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that infect mammals and birds. Bats are reservoirs for several different coronaviruses in the Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus genera. They also appear to be the natural reservoir for the ancestral viruses that generated the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreaks. Here, we detected coronavirus sequences in next-generation sequence data created from Eonycteris spelaea faeces and urine. We also screened by PCR urine samples, faecal samples and rectal swabs collected from six species of bats in Singapore between 2011 and 2014, all of which were negative...
September 16, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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