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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

S K Abdrakhmanov, S B Tyulegenov, F I Korennoy, A A Sultanov, I I Sytnik, K K Beisembaev, A A Bainiyazov, A E Munsey, A M Perez, K VanderWaal
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) poses a significant obstacle to international trade and economic development, and for that reason, FMD prevention, control and eradication are major goals guiding animal health policy in most countries. The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective spatiotemporal analysis of FMD outbreaks among livestock in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) from 1955 to 2013. During that time, several FMD control strategies were implemented in RK, which culminated with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recognition of RK as a country that is FMD-free with partial vaccination (2015)...
March 15, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S Napp, N Majó, R Sánchez-Gónzalez, J Vergara-Alert
Circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses poses a continuous threat to animal and public health. After the 2005-2006 H5N1 and the 2014-2015 H5N8 epidemics, another H5N8 is currently affecting Europe. Up to August 2017, 1,112 outbreaks in domestic and 955 in wild birds in 30 European countries have been reported, the largest epidemic by a HPAI virus in the continent. Here, the main epidemiological findings are described. While some similarities with previous HPAI virus epidemics were observed, for example in the pattern of emergence, significant differences were also patent, in particular the size and extent of the epidemic...
March 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
D Cano-Terriza, M A Risalde, S Jiménez-Ruiz, J Vicente, J Isla, J Paniagua, I Moreno, C Gortázar, J A Infantes-Lorenzo, I García-Bocanegra
In recent decades, habitat change and the intensive management of wild ungulates for hunting have led to an increase in their populations in south-central Spain. This implies a higher generation of hunting waste, which can favour the transmission of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of the proper disposal of hunting waste as TB control measure in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the 2008/2009 to 2016/2017 hunting seasons...
March 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J Jeong, I Kang, S Kim, S-J Park, K H Park, T Oh, S Yang, C Chae
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a commercially available porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-1 modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine against PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 challenge in late-term pregnancy gilts. Gilts were vaccinated with the PRRSV-1 MLV vaccine at 4 weeks prior to breeding and then challenged intranasally with PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 at 93 days of gestation. After PRRSV-1 challenge, vaccinated pregnant gilts had a significantly longer gestation period, significantly higher numbers of live-born and weaned piglets and a significantly lower number of stillborn piglets at birth compared to unvaccinated pregnant gilts...
March 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
G N Cagatay, A Antos, D Meyer, C Maistrelli, O Keuling, P Becher, A Postel
The recently identified atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) was demonstrated to be the causative agent of the neurological disorder "congenital tremor" in newborn piglets. Despite its relevance and wide distribution in domestic pigs, so far nothing is known about the situation in wild boar, representing an important wild animal reservoir for the related classical swine fever virus. In this study, 456 wild boar serum samples obtained from northern Germany were investigated for the presence of APPV genomes and virus-specific antibodies...
March 12, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
L Wen, A Mao, X Zhu, J Xie, K He
A large outbreak of swine abortion, which began in January 2017, is ongoing in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, China. We identified a new porcine circovirus-like agent, designated P4, in the aborted foetuses from several of these cases of swine reproductive failure. PCR and qRT-PCR analyses confirmed that other common abortogenic agents were not present in these animals. P4 contains a 710-nucleotide circular viral genome, and all strains examined in this study were closely related to the dominant genotype of porcine circovirus type 2...
March 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J Sun, L Wei, Z Lu, S Mi, F Bao, H Guo, C Tu, Y Zhu, W Gong
PCV3 is an emerging swine virus associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), reproductive failure, respiratory diseases and systematic inflammation. Although first identified in 2015, the earliest case has been traced back to 2009 in the United States. In China, PCV3 infection was first detected in 2015, but little information has been available about its occurrence and prevalence there before 2015. In this study, 200 porcine clinical samples collected from 20 provinces, five autonomous regions and four municipalities between 1990 and 1999 were analysed for PCV3 infection by PCR...
March 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
P Ninvilai, N Nonthabenjawan, B Limcharoen, W Tunterak, K Oraveerakul, W Banlunara, A Amonsin, A Thontiravong
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), a newly emerging virus in ducks, was first reported in China in 2010. However, an unknown severe contagious disease associated with severe neurological signs and egg production losses in ducks, resembling to DTMUV infection, was observed in Thailand since 2007. To determine the presence of DTMUV in 2007, the clinical samples from affected ducks collected in 2007 were tested for DTMUV using pathological and virological analyses. Gross and histopathological lesions of affected ducks were mostly restricted to the ovary, brain and spinal cord, and correlated with the presence of flavivirus antigen in the brain and spinal cord samples...
March 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
H-M Wang, Y-G Liu, Y-D Tang, T-X Liu, L-L Zheng, T-Y Wang, S-G Liu, G Wang, X-H Cai
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major economically significant pathogen that has adversely affected China's swine industry. Currently, a novel type 2 PRRSV, called the NADC30-like strain, is epidemic in numerous provinces of China, and commercial vaccines provide limited protection for infected animals. The extensive recombination phenomenon among NADC30-like PRRSVs is identified as a unique molecular characteristic of the virus. However, our understanding of how recombination influences NADC30-like PRRSVs is largely inadequate...
March 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
E O Roos, F Olea-Popelka, P Buss, L-M de Klerk-Lorist, D Cooper, P D van Helden, S D C Parsons, M A Miller
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), has been reported in many species including suids. Wild boar are important maintenance hosts of the infection with other suids, that is domestic and feral pigs, being important spillover hosts in the Eurasian ecosystem and in South Africa, warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) may play a similar role in M. bovis-endemic areas. However, novel diagnostic tests for warthogs are required to investigate the epidemiology of bTB in this species. Recent studies have demonstrated that serological assays are capable of discriminating between M...
March 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
N Takemae, P T Nguyen, V T Le, T N Nguyen, T L To, T D Nguyen, V P Pham, H V Vo, Q V T Le, H T Do, D T Nguyen, Y Uchida, T Saito
Three subtypes-H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2-of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S) are currently endemic in swine worldwide, but there is considerable genotypic diversity among each subtype and limited geographical distribution. Through IAVs-S monitoring in Vietnam, two H1N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from healthy pigs in Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, Southern Vietnam, on 2 December 2016. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses revealed that their HA and NA genes were derived from those of European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S that contained avian-origin H1 and human-like N2 genes, and were particularly closely related to those of IAVs-S circulating in the Netherlands, Germany or Denmark...
March 6, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
B Souley Kouato, E Thys, V Renault, E Abatih, H Marichatou, S Issa, C Saegerman
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Niger, with outbreaks occurring every year. Recently, there was an increasing interest from veterinary authorities to implement preventive and control measures against FMD. However, for an efficient control, improving the current knowledge on the disease dynamics and factors related to FMD occurrence is a prerequisite. The objective of this study was therefore to obtain insights into the incidence and the spatio-temporal patterns of transmission of FMD outbreaks in Niger based on the retrospective analysis of 9-year outbreak data...
March 5, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J H Kim, J-H Jang, S-W Yoon, J Y Noh, M-J Ahn, Y Kim, D G Jeong, H K Kim
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a causative agent of respiratory and enteric diseases in cattle and calves. BCoV infection was also evident in captive wild ruminants. Recently, water deer are recognized as the most common wildlife to approach farmhouses and livestock barns in Korea. Therefore, we investigated 77 nasal swab samples from non-captive wild water deer (Hydropotes inermis) between November 2016 and September 2017 and identified three samples positive for coronavirus, indicating potential for respiratory shedding...
March 5, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
N R Martínez-Bautista, E Sciutto-Conde, J Cervantes-Torres, R Segura-Velázquez, M C Mercado García, H Ramírez-Mendoza, M E Trujillo Ortega, J Delgadillo Alvarez, H Castillo-Juárez, J I Sanchez-Betancourt
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a genetically diverse RNA virus and is an economically significant disease in the swine industry. In this study, a total of 8,126 serum samples were obtained from 275 technified and semi-technified farms belonging to 30 of the 32 states of Mexico and representative of the eight regions of the country. Anti-PRRSv antibodies against the PRRS vaccine and an isolated wild Mexican virus were tested by ELISA. Antibodies were found in 15%-49% of the tested sera, with 2...
March 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S Zheng, X Wu, J Shi, Z Peng, M Gao, C Xin, Y Liu, S Wang, S Xu, H Han, J Yu, W Sun, X Cong, J Li, J Wang
In this study, a rapid and specific assay for the detection of porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) was established using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Four primers were specifically designed to amplify PCV3. The LAMP assay was effectively optimized to amplify PCV3 by water bath at 60°C for 60 min. The detection limit was approximately 1 × 101 copy in this LAMP assay. Compared to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), both gE and gD genes of pseudorabies virus (PRV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV), the LAMP assay showed a high specific detection of PCV3...
March 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A Djerbib, G Czaplicki, F Grégoire, N Kirschvink, C Saegerman, F Dal Pozzo
Q fever is a cosmopolitan disease affecting both humans and many animal species. Although sheep are often implicated in human Q fever outbreaks, the disease remains largely underestimated in meat sheep flocks. In order to fulfil this gap, a preliminary study was performed aiming to investigate the serological and molecular aspects of infection with Coxiella burnetii among meat sheep flocks in Belgium. Five Belgian sheep flocks were recruited for this work. Indirect ELISA was used, and in addition, real-time PCR was performed on samples of milk, rectal and vaginal swabs, to understand the dynamics of bacterial shedding...
March 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
H D W S Kudagammana, V Thevanesam, D K W Chu, N B Eriyagama, J S M Peiris, F Noordeen
Bats are a unique group of mammals well suited to be hosts for emerging viruses. With current rates of deforestation and urbanization, redistribution of bat habitats to urban and suburban areas may bring bats into closer contact with livestock and humans. Common flying fox, Pteropus medius (previously known as Pteropus giganteus), forms large communal roosts on treetops, often in close proximity to human habitation in Sri Lanka. This report describes the detection of coronavirus RNA in P. medius bat guano collected in Peradeniya, Sri Lanka...
March 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
C Yang, L Wang, H Shen, Y Zheng, S A Bade, P C Gauger, Q Chen, J Zhang, B Guo, K-J Yoon, K M Harmon, R G Main, G Li
Using next-generation sequencing on vesicular swab and serum from swine from the USA exhibiting lameness and vesicles, porcine pegivirus (PPgV) was first identified and genetically characterized in the United States. Further screening using RT-PCR revealed that 24 of 159 (15.1%) serum samples were positive for PPgV. Future studies are needed to understand clinical impacts of the virus.
February 27, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
P Wang, L Lin, H Li, M Shi, Z Gu, P Wei
One avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) strain was isolated from 67 commercial live poultry vaccines produced by various manufacturers during 2013-2016 in China. The complete genomes of the isolate were sequenced and it was found that the genes gag and pol of the strain were relatively conservative, while the gp85 gene of the strain GX14YYA1 had the highest similarities with a field strain GX14ZS14, which was isolated from the chickens of a farm that had once used the same vaccine as the one found to be contaminated with the GX14YYA1...
February 25, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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