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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

Giovanni Franzo, Claudia Maria Tucciarone, Michele Drigo, Mattia Cecchinato, Marco Martini, Alessandra Mondin, Maria Luisa Menandro
The genus Circovirus includes one of the most relevant infectious agents affecting domestic pigs, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). The wild boar susceptibility to this pathogen has also been demonstrated although the actual epidemiological role of wild populations is still debated. In recent times, a new circovirus, Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV-3), has been discovered and reported in the presence of several clinical conditions. However, no information is currently available about PCV-3 circulation and prevalence in wild boar...
May 18, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Petra Muellner, Jonathan Watts, Paul Bingham, Mark Bullians, Brendan Gould, Anjali Pande, Tim Riding, Paul Stevens, Daan Vink, Katharina Dc Stärk
Surveillance for biosecurity hazards is being conducted by the New Zealand Competent Authority, the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) to support New Zealand's biosecurity system. Surveillance evaluation should be an integral part of the surveillance life cycle, as it provides a means to identify and correct problems and to sustain and enhance the existing strengths of a surveillance system. The surveillance evaluation Framework (SurF) presented here was developed to provide a generic framework within which the MPI biosecurity surveillance portfolio, and all of its components, can be consistently assessed...
May 16, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Sunhee Lee, Changhee Lee
Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is a globally emerging and re-emerging enteric coronavirus in pigs causing serious economic threats to the world swine industry. Since the re-emergence of massive PEDV outbreaks in South Korea in 2013-2014, domestic pig farms have continued to experience PED epidemics or endemics. This study represents the molecular characterization of PEDV isolates identified in diarrhoeic animals collected across the country in 2017. Initial sequencing analysis of the full-length S genes revealed that 70% of the 2017 isolates (7/10) belong to the G2b subgroup, while the remaining isolates were classified as G1b...
May 16, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
F Esteves, R Cruz, C Vasconcelos-Nóbrega, C Santos, A S Ferreira, T Petrovic, L Cardoso, A C Coelho, H Vala, M S J Nascimento, J R Mesquita
A few years after the initial 2011 large scale Schmallenberg virus (SBV) epidemic that affected Europe, a subsequent decrease in new SBV infections was observed presumably associated with natural substitution of previously exposed animals. In the present work, a 2-year prospective serosurvey was performed to evaluate SBV circulation in a population of sheep living at high altitude in the central region of Portugal and with restricted movement. Blood from a representative sample of 168 autochthonous sheep was collected in 2015 and again in 2016, and tested for the presence of anti-SBV IgG by ELISA...
May 15, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
L Wen, A Mao, F Jiao, D Zhang, J Xie, K He
Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is a novel unclassified circovirus that was first detected in China and may be associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and congenital tremor. In this study, we detected P1 infection in pigs in Hebei Province, China, in 2017. One hundred and forty of 500 (28.0%) serum samples from 25 pig farms with different PMWS status in seven cities were P1 positive on PCR. Twelve P1 strains were sequenced, and the complete genomes of 11 P1 strains were 648 nucleotides (nt) in length, whereas that of strain ZJK02 was 647 nt, with a G deletion at position of 183 in its genome...
May 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
M G Walsh, S M Mor
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is responsible for a substantive disease burden in pastoralist communities and the agricultural sector in the African continent and Arabian Peninsula. Enzootic, epizootic and zoonotic RVFV transmission dynamics remain ill-defined, particularly due to a poor understanding of the role of mammalian hosts in the epidemiology and infection ecology of this arbovirus. Using a piecewise structural equation model, this study sought to identify associations between biological and ecological characteristics of mammalian species and documented RVFV infection to highlight species-level traits that may influence wildlife host status...
May 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Y C Kim, W J Kwon, J G Min, H D Jeong
Betanodaviruses cause the disease viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in finfish. Using a novel approach with two consecutive PCRs, detection semi-nested two-step RT-PCR (DSN-2 RT-PCR) and discriminative multiplex two-step RT-PCR (DMT-2 RT-PCR), we have identified the presence of a new type of betanodavirus in shellfish and called it Korean shellfish nervous necrosis virus (KSNNV). Partial nucleotide sequences of the T4 region in RNA2 fragment of KSNNVs were 73%-75% homologous to those of other reported genotypes and formed a new cluster of betanodavirus in phylogenetic tree analysis...
May 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
L Wang, J Cui, M B Misner, Y Zhang
Brucella canis is one of zoonotic pathogens causing infection in human. In this study, we isolated and sequenced 38 B. canis strains from 11 cases. Core genome multilocus sequence typing analysis classified all B. canis isolates into two genogroups, GI and GII. All 38 isolates cluster together forming a 2016 Ohio cluster, in which they form five subclusters reflecting their geographical differences. Unlike GI, the isolates of the GII are from diverse geographical locations including Asia, America, Africa, and Europe and form Asia and South America clusters...
May 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A Sprygin, E Artyuchova, Y Babin, P Prutnikov, E Kostrova, O Byadovskaya, A Kononov
In 2015, the lumpy skin disease virus spread throughout the Russian Federation. Following a modified stamping-out campaign, the disease re-emerged with a greater incidence across 16 regions of Southern and Central Russia. A total of 313 outbreaks were reported to OIE. The highest outbreak frequency was observed in the republics of Chechnya (108), Kalmykiya (57), and Ingushetiya (35). The disease cases predominantly occurred in June and July 2016, starting from May to December; however, no association between outbreaks and altitudes was identified (p > ...
May 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Z Zhu, F Yang, J He, J Li, W Cao, J Li, Y Xia, J Guo, Y Jin, K Zhang, H Zheng, X Liu
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in China and is predominantly due to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O Mya-98 lineage. In recent years, FMDV O/ME-SA/Ind2001 lineage has spread from the Indian subcontinent to South-East Asia, Middle East and Africa, which may pose potential threats for future trans-regional livestock movements. In this study, we identified the appearance of FMDV O/ME-SA/Ind2001 in China; the first time that this virus lineage has been found there. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences revealed that this newly determined strain belongs to O/ME-SA/Ind2001 sublineage d and is closely related to strains that have caused recent outbreaks of FMD in Nepal, Myanmar, Russia and South Korea...
May 9, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A-S Ruget, C Beck, A Gabassi, K Trevennec, S Lecollinet, V Chevalier, J Cappelle
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the largest worldwide cause of infectious encephalitis in humans and is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus. JE transmission cycle involves Culex mosquitoes, pigs and aquatic birds as principal vertebrate amplifying hosts. JE infection is responsible for reproductive disorder in pigs when occurring after sexual maturity. In tropical areas, JE is endemic and the majority of pigs get infected before the age of 6 months. However, in subtropical areas, pigs may be infected after sexual maturity and thus experience clinical signs, inducing economic loss...
May 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
K Okuya, A Matsuu, T Kawabata, F Koike, M Ito, T Furuya, A Taneno, S Akimoto, E Deguchi, M Ozawa
Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are important not only for pig farming, but also for public health. In fact, pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses [A(H1N1)pdm09] were derived from SIVs. Therefore, timely characterization of locally circulating SIVs is necessary for understanding the global status of SIVs. To genetically characterize SIVs circulating in Japanese pig populations, we isolated 24 SIVs of three subtypes (17 H1N1, four H1N2 and three H3N2 strains) from 14 pig farms in Japan from 2013 to 2016. Genetic analyses revealed that the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the 17 H1N1 and the HA gene of one H1N2, A/swine/Aichi/02/2016 (H1N2), SIVs belonged to the A(H1N1)pdm09 lineage...
May 6, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J-H Kwon, D-H Lee, D E Swayne, J-Y Noh, S-S Yuk, S Jeong, S-H Lee, C Woo, J-H Shin, C-S Song
The wide geographic spread of Eurasian Goose/Guangdong lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) clade viruses by wild birds is of great concern. In December 2014, an H5N8 HPAI clade Group A ( virus was introduced to North America. Long-distance migratory wild aquatic birds between East Asia and North America, such as Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), were strongly suspected of being a source of intercontinental transmission. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity, infectivity and transmissibility of an H5N8 HPAI clade 2...
May 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, R F de Carvalho, D G Módolo, C E Thompson, R P Araldi, R C Stocco
This study diagnosed cutaneous wart lesions excised from three rams from a sheep farm in São Paulo State, Brazil. Histopathologically, these cases were diagnosed as papilloma. The amplification by PCR, sequencing and bioinformatics analysis showed that all the lesions presented DNA sequences of bovine papillomavirus type 2. This is the first report confirming the detection of BPV2 in papilloma warts from ovines.
May 3, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Y Orba, B M Hang'ombe, A S Mweene, Y Wada, P D Anindita, W Phongphaew, Y Qiu, M Kajihara, A Mori-Kajihara, Y Eto, M Sasaki, W W Hall, Y Eshita, H Sawa
Mosquito surveillance studies to identify mosquito-borne flaviviruses have identified West Nile Virus (WNV) for the first time in Zambia. The Zambian WNV isolate from Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected in the Western Province was closely related genetically to WNV lineage 2 South African strains which have been previously shown to be highly neuroinvasive. These data provide the first evidence of the circulation of WNV in Zambia and suggest there should be an increased awareness of possible associated human and animal diseases in that country...
May 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S-C Ou, H-L Lin, P-C Liu, H-J Huang, M-S Lee, Y-Y Lien, Y-L Tsai
Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is a disease with a highly economic impact in the poultry industry. The infected chickens are characterized by aplastic anaemia and extreme immunosuppression, followed by the increased susceptibility to secondary infectious pathogens and suboptimal immune responses for vaccination. Commercially available CIA vaccines are routinely used in the breeders in Taiwan to protect their progeny with maternal-derived antibodies. However, CIA cases still occur in the field and little is known about the genetic characteristics of Taiwanese chicken anaemia viruses (CAVs)...
April 25, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
E N Njoto, M Scotch, C M Bui, D C Adam, A A Chughtai, C R MacIntyre
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are a major concern to human and animal health in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize transmission dynamics of H5N1 over time using novel Bayesian phylogeography methods to identify factors which have influenced the spread of H5N1 in Indonesia. We used publicly available hemagglutinin sequence data sampled between 2003 and 2016 to model ancestral state reconstruction of HPAI H5N1 evolution. We found strong support for H5N1 transmission routes between provinces in Java Island and inter-island transmissions, such as between Nusa Tenggara and Kalimantan Islands, not previously described...
April 24, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A C Kinsley, K VanderWaal, M E Craft, R B Morrison, A M Perez
Compartmental models have often been used to test the effectiveness and efficiency of alternative control strategies to mitigate the spread of infectious animal diseases. A fundamental principle of epidemiological modelling is that models should start as simple as possible and become as complex as needed. The simplest version of a compartmental model assumes that the population is closed, void of births and deaths and that this closed population mixes homogeneously, meaning that each infected individual has an equal probability of coming into contact with each susceptible individual in the population...
April 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A Petrov, J H Forth, L Zani, M Beer, S Blome
This study targeted the assessment of a potential African swine fever virus (ASFV) carrier state of 30 pigs in total which were allowed to recover from infection with ASFV "Netherlands'86" prior exposure to six healthy sentinel pigs for more than 2 months. Throughout the whole trial, blood and swab samples were subjected to routine virological and serological investigations. At the end of the trial, necropsy of all animals was performed and viral persistence and distribution were assessed. Upon infection, a wide range of clinical and pathomorphological signs were observed...
April 20, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
F Serra, S Dudas, J M Torres, R Anderson, A Oevermann, J C Espinosa, S Czub, T Seuberlich
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is caused by different prion strains that are discriminated by the molecular characteristics of the pathological prion protein. In 2011, Switzerland reported two presumptive cases of BSE in cattle with a prion protein phenotype different from previously described strains, and it was unclear whether these findings were related to a transmissible disease and have implications on animal and public health. In this study, brain tissues of these cases were inoculated into transgenic mice expressing the bovine prion protein (BoPrP-Tg110) and into cattle...
April 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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