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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503813/molecular-characterization-of-equine-infectious-anaemia-virus-from-a-major-outbreak-in-southeastern-france
#1
D Gaudaire, F Lecouturier, N Ponçon, E Morilland, C Laugier, S Zientara, A Hans
In 2009, a major outbreak of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) was reported in the south-east of France. This outbreak affected three premises located in the Var region where the index case, a 10-year-old mare that exhibited clinical signs consistent with EIA, occurred at a riding school. Overall, more than 250 horses were tested for EIAV (equine infectious anaemia virus) antibodies, using agar gel immunodiffusion test, and 16 horses were positive in three different holdings. Epidemiological survey confirmed that the three premises were related through the purchase/sale of horses and the use of shared or nearby pastures...
May 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497659/complete-genome-sequence-of-bluetongue-virus-serotype-4-that-emerged-on-the-french-island-of-corsica-in-december-2016
#2
C Sailleau, E Breard, C Viarouge, A Gorlier, H Quenault, E Hirchaud, F Touzain, Y Blanchard, D Vitour, S Zientara
In November 2016, sheep located in the south of Corsica island exhibited clinical signs suggestive of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection. Laboratory analyses allowed to isolate and identify a BTV strain of serotype 4. The analysis of the full viral genome showed that all the 10 genomic segments were closely related to those of the BTV-4 present in Hungary in 2014 and involved in a large BT outbreak in the Balkan Peninsula. These results together with epidemiological data suggest that BTV-4 has been introduced to Corsica from Italy (Sardinia) where BTV-4 outbreaks have been reported in autumn 2016...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497656/identification-of-atypical-porcine-pestivirus-infection-in-swine-herds-in-china
#3
K Zhang, K Wu, J Liu, S Ge, Y Xiao, Y Shang, Z Ning
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) have been detected in swine herds from the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and most recently in Austria, suggesting a wide geographic distribution of this novel virus. Here, for the first time, we reported APPV infection in swine herds in China. Newborn piglets from two separate swine herds in Guangdong province were found showing typical congenital tremors in July and August 2016. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed APPV infection occurred. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Chinese APPV strains, GD1 and GD2, formed independent branch from the USA, Germany and the Netherlands...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497552/a-novel-porcine-kobuvirus-emerged-in-piglets-with-severe-diarrhoea-in-china
#4
S-L Zhai, H Zhang, T Lin, S-N Chen, X Zhou, Q-L Chen, D-H Lv, X-H Wen, X-R Zhou, C-L Jia, W-K Wei
Since the first report of porcine kobuvirus (PKV) in 2008, it has been confirmed that PKV is widely present in several countries and plays an important role in diarrhoea outbreak in pigs. Studies have shown that the biggest difference among PKVs is the presence or absence of a specific 30-amino acid (aa) sequence in the 2B region of the polyprotein gene. Based on this unique feature, most PKV sequences could be divided into two groups (Group 1 without deletion and Group 2 with deletion), but a few sequences did not follow this rule due to possible recombination...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497542/molecular-detection-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-hepatitis-e-virus-strains-circulating-in-wild-boars-in-south-central-italy
#5
G Aprea, M G Amoroso, I Di Bartolo, N D'Alessio, D Di Sabatino, A Boni, B Cioffi, D D'Angelantonio, S Scattolini, L De Sabato, G Cotturone, F Pomilio, G Migliorati, G Galiero, G Fusco
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution, and infects several mammalian species, including pigs and wild boars, which are recognized as its natural reservoirs. The virus causes a usually self-limiting liver disease with a mortality rate generally below 1%, although mortality rates of 15%-25% have been recorded in pregnant woman. Chronic infections can also occur. The prevalence of HEV has been extensively studied in wild boars and pigs in northern Italy, where intensive pig herds are predominantly located...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497505/resurgence-of-rabies-in-hungary-during-2013-2014-an-attempt-to-track-the-origin-of-identified-strains
#6
Á Hornyák, T Juhász, B Forró, S Kecskeméti, K Bányai
In 2013-2014, accumulation of rabies episodes raised concerns regarding ongoing elimination programme in Hungary. Nearly four dozen cases were identified over a 13-month period in the central region of the country far behind the immunization zones. Although the outbreak was successfully controlled, the origin of disease remained unknown. In this study, we sequenced the partial N and G genes from 47 Hungarian rabies virus (RV) strains isolated from the 2013-2014 outbreak. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the N and G genes showed that the Hungarian RV isolates share high nucleotide similarity among each other (up to 100%)...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474854/the-first-detection-of-senecavirus-a-in-pigs-in-thailand-2016
#7
K Saeng-Chuto, P Rodtian, G Temeeyasen, M Wegner, D Nilubol
We report the first detection of Senecavirus A (SVA) in nine of 12 (75%) pigs in Thailand in 2016. The full-length genome demonstrated that Thai SVA isolates were closely related to the first Canada strain (11-55910-3) than the recent strains causing outbreaks in Brazil, the United States and China in 2015-2016.
May 5, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474491/schmallenberg-virus-detection-in-culicoides-biting-midges-in-spain-first-laboratory-evidence-for-highly-efficient-infection-of-culicoides-of-the-obsoletus-complex-and-culicoides-imicola
#8
N Pagès, S Talavera, M Verdún, N Pujol, M Valle, A Bensaid, J Pujols
Since Schmallenberg disease was discovered in 2011, the disease rapidly spread across Europe. Culicoides biting midges have been implicated as putative Schmallenberg vectors in Europe. The detection of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in field collected Culicoides was evaluated through retrospective (2011-2012) collections and captures performed in 2013. This study represents the first detection of SBV in field collected Culicoides in Spain. Infectious midges were detected at the foothills of Pyrenees, Aramunt, in the summer 2012...
May 4, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474485/evidence-of-extensive-renewed-schmallenberg-virus-circulation-in-belgium-during-summer-of-2016-increase-in-arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly-cases-expected
#9
C Sohier, I Deblauwe, T Van Loo, J-B Hanon, A B Cay, N De Regge
A seroprevalence study carried out between June and September 2016 in the Belgian sheep population showed a significant increase in overall (from 25% to 62%) and between-herd (from 60% to 96%) seroprevalence against Schmallenberg virus (SBV) during this period, indicating the most extensive recirculation of SBV since its original emergence in 2011. SBV recirculation was confirmed by the detection of SBV RNA-positive Culicoides obsoletus complex midges collected in the region of Antwerp in August 2016, reaching a minimum infection rate of 3%...
May 4, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474402/detection-of-border-disease-virus-in-mexican-cattle
#10
N Gómez-Romero, F J Basurto-Alcántara, A Verdugo-Rodríguez, R Lagunes-Quintanilla, F V Bauermann, J F Ridpath
The genus Pestivirus within Flaviviridae is comprised of four recognized species, namely, bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). BDV, while primarily infecting sheep and goats, has also been reported in cattle and wild animals. Infections of sheep and goats result in economic loss due to abortions and the birth of persistently infected animals that have poor production and reduced life expectancy. In this study, we report the detection of BDV in cattle serum collected as part of pestivirus surveillance programme from six regions of Mexico, where a 67...
May 4, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464486/circulation-of-bluetongue-virus-8-in-french-cattle-before-and-after-the-re-emergence-in-2015
#11
N Courtejoie, B Durand, L Bournez, A Gorlier, E Bréard, C Sailleau, D Vitour, S Zientara, F Baurier, C Gourmelen, F Benoit, H Achour, C Milard, S Poliak, C Pagneux, C Viarouge, G Zanella
Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) re-emerged in Central France in August 2015. The viral strain identified is nearly identical to the one that circulated during the 2006/2009 massive outbreak throughout Europe. To address the question of an undetected BTV-8 circulation on the French territory, a serological study was conducted on young cattle along a transect of seven departments, three of them located in areas where the virus presence had been confirmed by RT-PCR by winter 2015/2016. Sera from 2,565 animals were collected during the winters preceding and following the re-emergence, with 414 animals being sampled in each of the two consecutive years...
May 2, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414859/source-receptor-probability-of-atmospheric-long-distance-dispersal-of-viruses-to-israel-from-the-eastern-mediterranean-area
#12
Z Klausner, E Klement, E Fattal
Viruses that affect the health of humans and farm animals can spread over long distances via atmospheric mechanisms. The phenomenon of atmospheric long-distance dispersal (LDD) is associated with severe consequences because it may introduce pathogens into new areas. The introduction of new pathogens to Israel was attributed to LDD events numerous times. This provided the motivation for this study which is aimed to identify all the locations in the eastern Mediterranean that may serve as sources for pathogen incursion into Israel via LDD...
April 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407381/arrival-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-2-to-northern-europe-emergence-and-outbreaks-in-wild-and-domestic-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-in-sweden
#13
A S Neimanis, H Ahola, S Zohari, U Larsson Pettersson, C Bröjer, L Capucci, D Gavier-Widén
Incursion of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Sweden was documented in 1990 and it is now considered endemic in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a new, related lagovirus was first detected in France in 2010, and has spread rapidly throughout Europe and beyond. However, knowledge of RHDV2 in northern Europe is sporadic and incomplete, and in Sweden, routinely available diagnostic methods to detect rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) do not distinguish between types of virus causing disease...
April 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406577/evidence-of-african-horse-sickness-virus-infection-of-equus-zebra-hartmannae-in-the-south-western-khomas-region-namibia
#14
E Becker, G J Venter, T Greyling, U Molini, H van Hamburg
Equine mortalities suspected to be due to African horse sickness (AHS) were reported from the arid Khomas Region, Namibia, in 2008. The area was previously considered a localized AHS-free area. Hartmann's mountain zebra (Equus zebra hartmannae), a potential but unconfirmed reservoir host of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), occurs in the region. Between 2009 and 2010 serum, blood and tissue samples from 31 culled E. z. hartmannae were analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (n = 31) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (n = 18) to determine the presence of AHSV and/or antibodies against AHSV...
April 12, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391652/investigation-on-the-incidence-of-adverse-reactions-viraemia-and-haematological-changes-following-field-immunization-of-cattle-using-a-live-attenuated-vaccine-against-lumpy-skin-disease
#15
P-D Katsoulos, S C Chaintoutis, C I Dovas, Z S Polizopoulou, G D Brellou, E I Agianniotaki, K E Tasioudi, E Chondrokouki, O Papadopoulos, H Karatzias, C Boscos
The present study was performed to investigate the clinical impact and certain virological and haematological parameters following immunization of cattle against lumpy skin disease (LSD). The study was conducted in a dairy cattle farm (215 animals), immunized with a Neethling strain-based live vaccine. Twenty-seven animals (14 lactating cows, four dry cows and nine calves) were randomly selected for repetitive blood and saliva samplings. An EvaGreen-based real-time PCR was designed to differentiate vaccine from field LSDVs...
April 8, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391623/cost-based-optimization-of-the-stopping-threshold-for-local-disease-surveillance-during-progressive-eradication-of-tuberculosis-from-new-zealand-wildlife
#16
A M Gormley, D P Anderson, G Nugent
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is managed in New Zealand largely via population reduction of the major wildlife disease reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, the introduced brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula. New Zealand aims to eradicate M. bovis infection from its livestock and wildlife within 40 years, as the culmination of progressive regional eradication programmes. Declarations of regional eradication are decided after extensive possum population control and post-control surveillance; hence, we developed a modelling framework, based on eco-epidemiological simulation data, to provide cost-evaluated options for deciding when to make these declarations...
April 8, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387065/safe-and-cost-effective-protocol-for-shipment-of-samples-from-foot-and-mouth-disease-suspected-cases-for-laboratory-diagnostic
#17
A Romey, A Relmy, K Gorna, E Laloy, S Zientara, S Blaise-Boisseau, L Bakkali Kassimi
An essential step towards the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the identification of circulating virus strains in endemic regions to implement adequate outbreak control measures. However, due to the high biological risk and the requirement for biological samples to be shipped frozen, the cost of shipping samples becomes one of major obstacles hindering submission of suspected samples to reference laboratories for virus identification. In this study, we report the development of a cost-effective and safe method for shipment of FMD samples...
April 7, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345819/outbreak-investigations-and-molecular-characterization-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-viruses-circulating-in-south-west-niger
#18
B Souley Kouato, F M Elliot, D P King, J Hyera, N J Knowles, A B Ludi, V Mioulet, G Matlho, K De Clercq, E Thys, H Marichatou, S Issa, C Saegerman
In Niger, the epidemiological situation regarding foot-and-mouth disease is unclear as many outbreaks are unreported. This study aimed (i) to identify Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains currently circulating in cattle herds, and (ii) to identify risk factors associated with Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-seropositive animals in clinical outbreaks. Epithelial tissues (n = 25) and sera (n = 227) were collected from cattle in eight districts of the south-western part of Niger. Testing of clinical material revealed the presence of FMDV serotype O that was characterized within the O/WEST AFRICA topotype...
March 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345293/detection-of-zaire-ebolavirus-in-swine-assay-development-and-optimization
#19
B S Pickering, B Collignon, G Smith, P Marszal, G Kobinger, H M Weingartl
Ebolaviruses (family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales) cause often fatal, haemorrhagic fever in primates including humans. Pigs have been identified as a species susceptible to Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) infection, with indicated transmission to humans in the Philippines; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. To perform surveillance studies, detection of ebolavirus requires a prerequisite validation of viral RNA and antibody detection methods in swine samples. These diagnostic tests also need to be suitable for deployment to low-level containment laboratories...
March 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345292/the-detection-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-porcine-deltacoronavirus-from-guangdong-province-in-southern-china
#20
K Mai, J Feng, G Chen, D Li, L Zhou, Y Bai, Q Wu, J Ma
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly discovered coronavirus that causes diarrhoea, vomiting and dehydration in sucking and nursing piglets. It was first reported in Hong Kong in 2012 and has since been discovered in the United States, Canada, South Korea, mainland China, Thailand and Laos. PDCoV has been experimentally proved to lead to diarrhoea in swine and it was detected positive in pigs in Guangdong, southern China. In our study, 252 faecal and intestinal samples from sucking piglets and sows with diarrhoea were surveyed for common enteric viruses...
March 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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