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Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

H Negussie, D Gizaw, L Tesfaw, Y Li, K Oguma, H Sentsui, T S Tessema, H J Nauwynck
Infections with equine herpesviruses (EHVs) are widespread in equine populations worldwide. Whereas both EHV-1 and EHV-4 produce well-documented respiratory syndromes in equids, the contribution of EHV-2 and EHV-5 to disease of the respiratory tract is still enigmatic. This study describes the detection and genetic characterization of EHVs from equids with and without clinical respiratory disease. Virus-specific PCRs were used to detect EHV-1, -2, -4 and -5. From the total of 160 equids with respiratory disease, EHV-5 was detected at the highest prevalence (23...
January 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J Li, L Li, X Wu, F Liu, Y Zou, Q Wang, C Liu, J Bao, W Wang, W Ma, H Lin, J Huang, X Zheng, Z Wang
Peste des petits ruminants viruses (PPRVs) re-emerged in China at the end of 2013 and then spread rapidly into 22 provinces through movement of live goats and sheep. In this study, 96 samples of domestic animals and 13 samples of wildlife were analysed for the presence of PPRV infection by ELISA or RT-PCR. Of 96 samples from sheep and goats, 91 were PPRV positive, whereas all of the 13 samples from three wild species, Capra ibex (Capra ibex sibirica), argali (Ovis ammon) and Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), were found to be positive...
January 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
D O Ehizibolo, A Haegeman, A R De Vleeschauwer, J U Umoh, H M Kazeem, E C Okolocha, K De Clercq, S Van Borm
Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak...
January 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J Manyweathers, H Field, D Jordan, N Longnecker, K Agho, C Smith, M Taylor
Hendra virus was identified in horses and humans in 1994, in Queensland, Australia. Flying foxes are the natural host. Horses are thought to acquire infection by direct or indirect contact with infected flying fox urine. Humans are infected from close contact with infected horses. To reduce risk of infection in horses and humans, Australian horse owners are encouraged to vaccinate horses against the virus and adopt property risk mitigation practices that focus on reducing flying fox horse contact and contamination of horses' environment with flying fox bodily fluids...
January 4, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
M A Ramakrishnan, R Santhamani, A B Pandey
Generally, capripoxvirus infections are host specific in nature and occasionally infect more than one species. In this study, an investigation was carried out from an outbreak of capripox in a mixed flock of sheep and goats which occurred in 2013 in the State of Jammu & Kashmir. The genetic analysis of P32, RPO30 and GPCR genes revealed that both goats and sheep were infected with goatpox virus.
December 27, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
D Hemadri, S Maan, M M Chanda, P P Rao, K Putty, Y Krishnajyothi, G H Reddy, V Kumar, K Batra, Y V Reddy, N S Maan, Y N Reddy, K P Singh, S B Shivachandra, N R Hegde, H Rahman, P P C Mertens
Bluetongue is endemic in India and has been reported from most Indian states. Of late, the clinical disease is most frequently seen in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana (erstwhile Andhra Pradesh state), Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Our analysis of diagnostic samples from bluetongue outbreaks during 2010-2011 from the state of Karnataka identified bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 5 (BTV-5) for the first time in India. One of the diagnostic samples (CH1) and subsequent virus isolate (IND2010/02) contained both BTV-2 and BTV-5...
December 21, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
L Elvira Partida, M Fernández, J Gutiérrez, A Esnal, J Benavides, V Pérez, A de la Torre, M Álvarez, F Esperón
Outbreaks of abortions and lambs born with nervous clinical signs and/or congenital malformations affected different sheep farms in Spain. Initial diagnosis of 'border disease-like' was established, based on clinical signs, serology and/or RNA detection by a pan-pestivirus RT-PCR. However, further investigation using immunohistochemical and molecular techniques identified BVDV-2b as the aetiological agent.
December 21, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Z Rahim, J Thapa, Y Fukushima, A G M van der Zanden, S V Gordon, Y Suzuki, C Nakajima
Mycobacterium orygis, commonly known as the oryx bacillus and a newly proposed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex subspecies, was isolated from 18 cattle in a dairy farm and two captured rhesus monkeys in a zoo in Bangladesh. All the infected animals had tuberculosis lesions in their lungs, suggesting transmission and infection with M. orygis by an airborne route. The 20 isolates were analysed using a range of conventional and molecular typing methods, and RD-deletion typing and sequencing of selected genes confirmed the isolates as M...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
P P Wang, J G Dong, L Y Zhang, P S Liang, Y L Liu, L Wang, F H Fan, C X Song
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is highly genetically diverse; however, little is known about the molecular epidemiology of PRRSV in the boar farms of South China. In this study, 367 samples were collected from boar farms in South China in 2015. The Nsp2 hypervariable region and ORF5 gene were PCR amplified from 66 PRRSV-positive samples, followed by sequencing and analysis. The percentage of PRRSV antigen-positive samples was 17.98%; 8.72% were positive for highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), and 9...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
K L Baker, C Mowrer, A Canon, D C L Linhares, C Rademacher, L A Karriker, D J Holtkamp
Epidemiological investigations were conducted on a case series of six Senecavirus A (SVA)-affected breeding herds in the United States to determine potential routes of introduction and enhance the swine industry's knowledge of SVA's clinical presentation and spread. Each SVA-affected herd was evaluated using a standard form to ensure that all relevant data were collected. The form was used to guide a detailed discussion about the clinical presentation of SVA and risk events that occurred in the 4 weeks prior to the first observation of clinical signs with the herd veterinarian and farm personnel...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S Pronost, E Hue, C Fortier, M Foursin, G Fortier, F Desbrosse, F A Rey, P-H Pitel, E Richard, B Saunier
Like hepatitis C virus (HCV) in humans, the newly identified equine hepacivirus (NPHV) displays a predominating liver tropism that may evolve into chronic infections. The genomes of the two viruses share several organizational and functional features and are phylogenetically closest amongst the Hepacivirus genus. A limited amount of data is available regarding the spread of hepacivirus infections in horses. In this study, we asked whether in a more representative sample the prevalence and distribution of NPHV infections in France would resemble that reported so far in other countries...
November 24, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J Cui, K Biernacka, J Fan, P F Gerber, T Stadejek, T Opriessnig
Porcine parvoviruses are small non-enveloped DNA viruses, very resistant to inactivation, and ubiquitous in the global pig population. Porcine parvovirus type 1 (PPV1) has been known since the 1960s and is a major causative agent of reproductive failure in breeding herds. During the last decade, several new parvoviruses have been identified in pigs by molecular methods and have been consecutively designated as PPV2 through PPV6. Epidemiology data for these viruses are limited, and the impact of these newly recognized parvoviruses on pigs is largely unknown...
November 24, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
E Wera, M C M Mourits, M M Siko, H Hogeveen
A dynamic deterministic simulation model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of different mass dog vaccination strategies against rabies in a dog population representative of a typical village on Flores Island. Cost-effectiveness was measured as public cost per averted dog-rabies case. Simulations started with the introduction of one infectious dog into a susceptible dog population of 399 dogs and subsequently ran for a period of 10 years. The base scenario represented a situation without any control intervention...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A J Rogers, Y-W Huang, C L Heffron, T Opriessnig, A R Patterson, X-J Meng
The family Anelloviridae includes a number of viruses infecting humans (Torque teno viruses, TTV) and other animals including swine (Torque teno sus viruses, TTSuV). Two genetically distinct TTSuV species have been identified from swine thus far (TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2), although their definitive association with disease remains debatable. In 2012, a novel TTSuV species was identified from commercial swine serum and classified in the genus Kappatorquevirus as TTSuVk2b. The other Kappatorquevirus species, TTSuVk2a, has been associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) when coinfected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
O Lung, T Furukawa-Stoffer, K Burton Hughes, J Pasick, D P King, D Hodko
Microarrays can be a useful tool for pathogen detection as it allow for simultaneous interrogation of the presence of a large number of genetic sequences in a sample. However, conventional microarrays require extensive manual handling and multiple pieces of equipment for printing probes, hybridization, washing and signal detection. In this study, a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with an accompanying novel automated microarray for simultaneous detection of eight viruses that affect cattle [vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 and type 2, bovine herpesvirus 1, bluetongue virus, malignant catarrhal fever virus, rinderpest virus (RPV) and parapox viruses] is described...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
N Decaro, M S Lucente, G Lanave, P Gargano, V Larocca, M Losurdo, L Ciambrone, P A Marino, A Parisi, F Casalinuovo, C Buonavoglia, G Elia
Recently, bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2c (BVDV-2c) was responsible for a severe outbreak in cattle in northern Europe. Here, we present the results of an epidemiological survey for pestiviruses in ruminants in southern Italy. Pooled serum samples were obtained from 997 bovine, 800 ovine, 431 caprine and eight bubaline farms, and pestiviral RNA was detected by molecular methods in 44 farms consisting of 16 cattle and one buffalo herds and of 21 sheep and six goat flocks. Twenty-nine and 15 farms were infected by BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains, respectively...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A Globig, E Starick, T Homeier, A Pohlmann, C Grund, P Wolf, A Zimmermann, C Wolf, D Heim, H Schlößer, S Zander, M Beer, F J Conraths, T C Harder
Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N8, clade, were first reported in January 2014 from South Korea. These viruses spread rapidly to Europe and the North American continent during autumn 2014 and caused, in Germany, five outbreaks in poultry holdings until February 2015. In addition, birds kept in a zoo in north-eastern Germany were affected. Only a few individual white storks (Ciconia ciconia) showed clinical symptoms and eventually died in the course of the infection, although subsequent in-depth diagnostic investigations showed that other birds kept in the same compound of the white storks were acutely positive for or had undergone asymptomatic infection with HPAIV H5N8...
November 15, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
N Haider, K Sturm-Ramirez, S U Khan, M Z Rahman, S Sarkar, M K Poh, H L Shivaprasad, M A Kalam, S K Paul, P C Karmakar, A Balish, A Chakraborty, A A Mamun, A B Mikolon, C T Davis, M Rahman, R O Donis, J D Heffelfinger, S P Luby, N Zeidner
Mortality in ducks and geese caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) infection had not been previously identified in Bangladesh. In June-July 2011, we investigated mortality in ducks, geese and chickens with suspected H5N1 infection in a north-eastern district of the country to identify the aetiologic agent and extent of the outbreak and identify possible associated human infections. We surveyed households and farms with affected poultry flocks in six villages in Netrokona district and collected cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs from sick birds and tissue samples from dead poultry...
February 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
G J Belsham, T B Rasmussen, P Normann, P Vaclavek, B Strandbygaard, A Bøtner
During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both of these coronaviruses. However, further analyses, using other TGEV- and PEDV-specific RT-qPCR assays, provided results inconsistent with infection by either of these viruses. Sequencing of an amplicon (ca. 1.6 kb), generated by an RT-PCR specific for the PEDV S-gene, indicated a very close similarity (ca...
December 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Y Berhane, D Ojkic, N Pople, O Lung, J Pasick
Soon after the emergence of 2009 pandemic H1N1, the first outbreaks in breeder turkey operations were reported that implicated human-to-turkey transmission. In the spring of 2016, the reoccurrence of 2009 pandemic H1N1 lineage viruses infecting breeder turkey flocks in Ontario and Manitoba, Canada, also implicated human-to-turkey transmission. In addition to raising concerns over biosecurity and vaccine failures, these cases once again raise the issue of whether turkeys have the potential to act as a bridge species to generate novel influenza A virus reassortants with public health implications...
December 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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