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Saumya Dabral, Jose Hernández, Paul Kamer, Carsten Bolm
A one-pot two-step degradation of lignin β-O-4 model compounds initiated by preferred oxidation of the primary over the secondary hydroxyl groups with a TEMPO/DAIB system has been developed. The oxidised products are then cleaved by proline-catalysed retro-aldol reactions. This degradation methodology produces simple aromatics in good yields from lignin model compounds at room temperature with an extension to organosolv beechwood lignin L1 resulting in known cleavage products.
May 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
Deepak Dubal, Nilesh Chodankar, Ajayan Vinu, Do-Heyoung Kim, Pedro Gomez-Romero
Nanofabrication via "bottom-up" approach of hybrid electrode materials into well-defined architecture is essential for the next generation miniaturized energy storage devices. This paper describes the design and fabrication of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polyoxometalates (POMs) based hybrid electrode materials and their successful exploitation for asymmetric supercapacitor. Firstly, the redox active nanoclusters of POMs (phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) and phosphotungstic acid (PW12)) are uniformly decorated on the surface of rGO nanosheets to take full advantage of both charge-storing mechanisms (faradaic from POMs and electric double layer from rGO)...
May 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
Sophie Legeai, Maxime Balva, Nathalie Leclerc, Emmanuel Billy, Eric Meux
The platinum nanoparticles used as catalyst in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) could represent around 46 % of the total price of the cells1 for a large scale production which is one of the limitation of their commercialization. The recycling of this platinum catalyst can then be the best alternative to limit the production cost of PEMFCs. Usual recovery routes for spent catalysts containing platinum are pyro-hydrometallurgical processes in which a calcination step is followed by aqua regia treatment, generating fumes and NOx emission, respectively...
May 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
Xiaoyuan Liu, Xiaolu Zheng, Yulong Wang, Zhiliang Chen, Fang Yao, Qi Zhang, Guojia Fang, Zhi-Kuan Chen, Wei Huang, ZongXiang Xu
Solution-processed hole transporting materials (HTMs) that are dopant-free show promise for use in low-cost, high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The highest efficiency PSCs use organic HTMs, many of which have low mobilities and so require doping, which lowers the device stability. Additionally, these materials are not easily scaled because they often require complicated synthesis. Two novel HTMs (IDT-TPA and IDTT-TPA) were synthesized, which contained either an extended fused-ring indacenodithiophene (IDT) or indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT) core and strong electron donating methoxytriphenylamine (TPA) groups as the end-capping units...
May 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
Pei-Ting Tsai, Kuan-Chu Lin, Cheng-Yu Wu, Chung-Hung Liao, Man-Chun Lin, Ying Qian Wong, Hsin-Fei Meng, Chih-Yu Chang, Chien-Lung Wang, Yi-Fan Huang, Sheng-Fu Horng, Hsiao-Wen Zan, Yu-Chiang Chao
In this study, we report that long-term stable and efficient organic solar cells (OSCs) can be obtained via the following strategies: (1) combination of rapid-drying blade-coating deposition with an appropriate thermal annealing treatment to obtain an optimized morphology of the active layer; (2) insertion of interfacial layers to optimize the interfacial properties. The resulting devices based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl)] (PBDTTT-EFT):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blend as the active layer exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 9...
May 17, 2017: ChemSusChem
Yongan Yang, Xuemin Li, Yangzhi Zhao, Alice Brennan, Miranda McCeig, Colin A Wolden
Anhydrous alkali sulfide (M2S, M = Li and Na) nanocrystals (NCs) are important materials central to the development of next generation cathodes and solid state electrolytes for advanced batteries, but not commercially available at present. This work reports an innovative method to directly synthesize M2S-NCs through alcohol-mediated reactions between alkali metals and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In the first step, the alkali metal is complexed with alcohol in solution, forming metal alkoxide (ROM) and releasing hydrogen (H2)...
May 16, 2017: ChemSusChem
Shaochun Tang, Dongdong Li, Xiangkang Meng
In this reply to the Comment by Dr. Sascha Vongehr, the other authors of "Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hydrogels with Embedded Nickel Hydroxide Nanoplates" present a rebuttal and clarify their interpretations of the issues he raised, arguing that numerous surmises and misinterpretations were made in the previous Comment.
May 12, 2017: ChemSusChem
Jong Wan Ko, Eun Jin Son, Chan Beum Park
Biomineralization is a biogenic process that produces elaborate inorganic and organic hybrid materials in nature. Inspired by the natural process, this study explores novel mineralization approach to create nanostructured CaCO3 films composed of amorphous CaCO3 hemispheres using catechol-rich polydopamine (PDA) as a biomimetic mediator. We successfully transformed thus-synthesized biomimetic CaCO3 to nanostructured films of metal oxide minerals, such as FeOOH, CoCO3, NiCO3, and MnOOH, via a simple procedure...
May 10, 2017: ChemSusChem
Ik Jae Park, Gyeongho Kang, Min Ah Park, Ju Seong Kim, Se Won Seo, Dong Hoe Kim, Kai Zhu, Taiho Park, Jin Young Kim
Given that the highest certified conversion efficiency of the organic-inorganic perovskite solar cell (PSC) is already over 22%, which is even higher than that of the polycrystalline silicon solar cell, the significance of new scalable processes that can be utilized for preparing large-area devices and their commercialization is rapidly increasing. From this perspective, the electrodeposition method is one of the mostly suitable processes for preparing large-area devices, because it is an already commercialized process with proven controllability and scalability...
May 10, 2017: ChemSusChem
Sascha Vongehr
It is argued that the main claims of "Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hydrogels with Embedded Nickel Hydroxide Nanoplates" are strongly exaggerated. By selecting first a subregion (ΔV) of the total voltage drop, the capacitance (CΔV ) is inflated by 30 %. Then, by selecting different regions for different properties and using different ΔV values in different terms of a single expression for the energy density (EΔV ), the value is doubled. A bending angle of only 45° is instead claimed to be 180°...
May 10, 2017: ChemSusChem
Shanhui Zhu, Jing Guo, Xun Wang, Jianguo Wang, Weibin Fan
In the catalytic conversion of lignocellulose to valuable products, the first entry point is to break down these biopolymers to sugar units or aromatic monomers, which is conventionally achieved by hydrolysis in water medium. Recent years have seen tremendous progress in alcoholysis process that possesses remarkable advantages such as the avoidance of treating waste water, suppression of humins or chars as well as increase of reaction rate and product yield. Here, the advances have been focused on the alcoholysis of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin to alkyl glucosides, xylosides and aromatic monomers, respectively...
May 9, 2017: ChemSusChem
Ziqiang Liu, Ningning Feng, Zihan Shen, Fujun Li, Ping He, Huigang Zhang, Haoshen Zhou
Rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have received substantial attentions because of their high theoretical energy density. However, traditional carbon and binder-containing cathodes suffer from scientific and technical challenges for practical applications, such as high polarization and poor cycle life. We present a carbon and binder-free monolithic O2 cathode with Ru nanoparticle-coated on an ultralight nickel foam. This ultralight and monolithic structure leads to an ~300 times higher capacity than conventional carbon-free metal O2 cathode...
May 8, 2017: ChemSusChem
Huimin Zhu, Mingao Pan, Malin B Johansson, Erik Johansson
In this report a lead-free silver-bismuth-iodide (AgI:BiI3) with a crystal structure with space group R3m is investigated for use in solar cells. Devices based on the silver-bismuth-iodide deposited from solution on top of TiO2, and the conducting polymer P3HT as a hole transport layer, are prepared and the photovoltaic performance is very promising with a power conversion efficiency over 2 %, which is higher than the performance of previously reported bismuth-halide materials for solar cells. Photocurrent generation is observed between 350 and 700 nm, and the maximum external quantum efficiency is around 45 %...
May 8, 2017: ChemSusChem
Marleen Ramakers, Georgi Trenchev, Stijn Heijkers, Weizong Wang, Annemie Bogaerts
Low temperature plasmas are gaining a lot of interest for environmental and energy applications. A large research field in these applications is the conversion of CO2 into chemicals and fuels. Since CO2 is a very stable molecule, a key performance indicator for the research on plasma-based CO2 conversion is the energy efficiency. Until now, the energy efficiency in atmospheric plasma reactors is quite low, and therefore we employ here a novel type of plasma reactor, the Gliding Arc Plasmatron (GAP). This paper provides a detailed experimental and computational study of the CO2 conversion, as well as the energy cost and efficiency in a GAP...
May 8, 2017: ChemSusChem
Yachao Xu, Tongle Bu, Meijin Li, Tianshi Qin, Chengrong Yin, Nana Wang, Renzhi Li, Jie Zhong, Fuzhi Huang, Hai Li, Yong Peng, Jianpu Wang, Linghai Xie, Wei Huang
A novel non-conjugated polymer (PVCz-OMeDAD) with good solution processability was developed to serve as an efficient dopant-free hole transporting material (HTM) for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). PVCz-OMeDAD was simply prepared by the free-radical polymerization of vinyl monomer which was synthesized from low cost raw materials via three high-yield synthesis steps. The combination of flexible non-conjugated polyvinyl main chain and hole-transporting methoxydiphenylamine-substituted carbazole side chain endowed PVCz-OMeDAD with excellent film-forming ability, suitable energy level, high hole mobility and low interfacial charge recombination...
May 8, 2017: ChemSusChem
Young Eun Choi, Kern Ho Park, Dong Hyeon Kim, Dae Yang Oh, Hi Ram Kwak, Young-Gi Lee, Yoon Seok Jung
Bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASLBs) for large-scale energy storage applications have emerged as a promising alternative to conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their superior safety. However, the electrochemical performance of bulk-type ASLBs is critically limited by the low ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes (SEs) and poor ionic contact between the active materials and SEs. Herein, we report the highly conductive (0.14 mS cm-1) and dry-air-stable SEs, Li4SnS4, which are prepared using a scalable aqueous-solution process...
May 8, 2017: ChemSusChem
Nhung Duong, Bin Wang, Tawan Sooknoi, Steven P Crossley, Daniel E Resasco
Acylation is an effective C-C bond forming reaction to condense acetic acid and lignin-derived aromatic compounds into acetophenones, valuable precursors to fuels and chemicals. However, acetic acid is intrinsically an ineffective acylating agent. Here, we report that its acylation activity can be greatly enhanced by forming intermediate aromatic esters, directly derived from acetic acid and phenolics. Additionally, the acylation reaction was studied in the liquid phase over acid zeolites and was found to happen in two steps, (1) formation of an acylium ion and (2) C-C bond formation between acylium ion and the aromatic substrate...
May 7, 2017: ChemSusChem
Ahiud Morag, James Becker, Raz Jelinek
Microsupercapacitors are touted as one of the promising "next frontiers" in energy storage research and applications. Despite their potential, significant challenges still exist in term of physical properties and electrochemical performance, particularly attaining high energy density, stability, ease of synthesis, and feasibility of large-scale production. We present new freestanding microporous electrodes comprising self-assembled scaffold of gold and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanowires coated with MnO2...
May 5, 2017: ChemSusChem
Tuan Hoang, The Nam Long Doan, Julie Hyeonjoo Cho, Jane Ying Jun Su, Christine Lee, Changyu Lu, Pu Chen
The Zn anode in secondary aqueous batteries suffers from dendrite formation and corrosion. In this work, the dendrite is suppressed by using a simple but novel gel electrolyte containing fumed silica and an additive. The dendrite suppression is evidenced by chronoamprometry and ex-situ scanning electron microscopy examinations. Pyrazole as the additive in the electrolyte has been implemented. It is found that the presence of 0.2 wt% of pyrazole in the electrolyte helps minimize both corrosion and dendrite formation...
May 4, 2017: ChemSusChem
Shi-Yong Chen, Qingjiang Li, Xu-Ge Liu, Jia-Qiang Wu, Shang-Shi Zhang, Honggen Wang
Described herein is a Mn(I)/Ag(I) based relay catalysis for the one-pot synthesis of polycyclics via a formal [3+2] and [4+2] cyclization reaction. The manganese catalyzed the first example of directed C-H allylation with allenes, setting the stage for an in-situ Povarov cyclization catalyzed by Ag(I). High bond-forming efficiency (3 x C-C bonds), broad substrate scope, high regio- and stereoselectivity and 100% atom-economy were observed.
May 4, 2017: ChemSusChem
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