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Nalaka P Liyanage, Hammad Cheema, Alexandra R Baumann, Alexa R Zylstra, Jared Heath Delcamp
NIR absorbing organic dyes are critically needed in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine (TPz) based dyes can access the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region and show power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to 8.1% with sunlight being converted at wavelengths up to 800 nm for 17.6 mA/cm2 of photocurrent in a co-sensitized DSC device. Precisely controlling dye excited-state energies is critical for good performances in NIR DSCs. Strategies to control TPz dye energetics with stronger donor groups and TPz substituent choice are evaluated in this manuscript...
April 25, 2017: ChemSusChem
Mingtao Zheng, Xiao Zhao, Ming Li, Hanwu Dong, Yingliang Liu, Hang Hu, Yijin Cai, Yeru Liang, Yong Xiao
Interconnected 3D network of reduced graphene oxide decorated with carbon dots (rGO/CDs) nanosheets are successfully fabricated via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process. The as-prepared rGO/CDs present appropriate 3D interconnected structure and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups, which attribute to excellent electrochemical performance such as high specific capacitance, good rate capability, and great cycling stability. Employed as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitor, the as-resulted rGO/CDs exhibit excellent long-term cycling stability (ca...
April 24, 2017: ChemSusChem
Lei Wang, Nhat Truong Nguyen, Yajun Zhang, Yingpu Bi, Patrik Schmuki
In this work, single crystalline α-Fe2O3 nanoflakes (NFs) are formed in a highly dense array by Au seeding of a Fe substrate by a thermal oxidation technique. The NFs are conformally decorated with a thin FeOOH cocatalyst layer. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements show that this photoanode with the α-Fe2O3/FeOOH NFs rooted on the Au/Fe structure exhibits a significantly enhanced PEC water oxidation performance compared to the plain α-Fe2O3 nanostructure on the Fe substrate. The α-Fe2O3/FeOOH NFs on Au/Fe photoanode yields a photocurrent density of 3...
April 24, 2017: ChemSusChem
Christina Schneidermann, Nicolas Jaeckel, Steffen Oswald, Lars Giebeler, Volker Presser, Lars Borchardt
Nitrogen-doped nanoporous carbons have been synthesized by a solvent-free mechanochemically-induced one-pot synthesis. This facile approach involves the mechanochemical treatment and carbonization of three solid materials: potassium carbonate, urea, and lignin, which is a waste product from pulp industry. The resulting nitrogen-doped porous carbons offer a very high specific surface area up to 3000 m2 g-1 and large pore volume up to 2 cm3 g-1. The mechanochemical reaction and the impact of activation and functionalization are investigated by nitrogen- and water physisorption and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
April 24, 2017: ChemSusChem
Marc D Porosoff, Jeffrey W Baldwin, Xi Peng, Giannis Mpourmpakis, Heather D Willauer
The high concentration of CO2 bound in seawater represents a significant opportunity to extract and use this CO2 as a C1 feedstock for synthetic fuels. Through an existing process patented by the U.S. Navy, CO2 and H2 can be concurrently extracted from seawater, then catalytically reacted to produce synthetic fuel. Hydrogenating CO2 directly into liquid hydrocarbons is exceptionally difficult, but by first identifying a catalyst for selective CO production via reverse water-gas shift (RWGS), CO can then be hydrogenated to fuel through Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis...
April 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
Pepijn Prinsen, Anand Narani, Aloysius F Hartog, Ron Wever, Gadi Rothenberg
We introduce the concept of using site-specific sulfation of various lignins for increasing their aqueous solubility and thereby their processability. Using p-nitrophenylsulfate as a sulfate source and an aryl sulfotransferase enzyme as catalyst, lignins are easily sulfated at ambient conditions. We demonstrate the specific sulfation of phenolic hydroxyl groups on five different lignins: Indulin AT (Kraft softwood), Protobind 1000 (mixed wheat straw/Sarkanda grass soda) and three organosolv lignins. The reaction proceeds smoothly and the increase in solubility is visible to the naked eye...
April 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
Xinwei Dou, Ivana Hasa, Maral Hekmatfar, Thomas Diemant, R Juergen Behm, Daniel Buchholz, Stefano Passerini
Hard carbons are currently the most widely used negative electrode materials in Na-ion batteries. This is due to their promising electrochemical performance with capacities of 200-300 mAh g-1 and stable long-term cycling. However, an abundant and cheap carbon source is necessary in order to comply with the low-cost philosophy of the Na-ion technology. As a matter of fact, many biologic or waste materials have been used to synthesize hard carbons but the impact of the precursors on the final properties of the anode material is not fully understood...
April 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
Xing Tang, Miao Zuo, Zheng Li, Huai Liu, Caixia Xiong, Xianhai Zeng, Yong Sun, Lei Hu, Tingzhou Lei, Shijie Liu, Lu Lin
The scientific community has been seeking cost-competitive and green solvents with good dissolving capacity for the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass. At this point, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are currently emerging as a new class of promising solvents, which are generally liquid eutectic mixtures formed by self-association (or hydrogen-bonding interaction) of two or three components. DESs are attractive solvents for the fractionation (or pretreatment) of lignocellulose and the valorization of lignin, owing to the high solubility of lignin in DESs...
April 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
Bhaskar Paul, Sujan Shee, Kaushik Chakrabarti, Sabuj Kundu
A simple air and moisture stable, highly efficient NNN ruthenium catalyst is reported for the first time to catalyse the tandem transformation of various aromatic and aliphatic nitro compounds to the corresponding N-methylated amines up to 98% yields using methanol as a green and sustainable methylating agent. Gram scale reactions using challenging nitro substrates demonstrated the practical application aspects of this catalytic system. Importantly, N-methylamine group was smoothly introduced to various complex molecular setting without using any expensive Pd/phosphine/amine based cross coupling reaction...
April 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
Feng Xu, Taiyang Zhang, Ge Li, Yixin Zhao
The chloride doped CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite had attracted great attention due to obvious performance enhancement with using of Cl additive and the controversial arguments on Cl function and mechanism behind it. Herein, we fabricated a series of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskites with various Cl content via a gas/solid reaction between CH3NH2 gas with HPbI3-xClx (x=0-1). It is found that once the Cl content x>0.1, there is CH3NH3PbCl3 formed coexisted with CH3NH3PbI3-xClx(x=0.05-01). The small amount of Cl doping in CH3NH3PbI3-xClx(x=0...
April 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
Yingzhuang Ma, Parth Vashishtha, Kai Chen, Elijah Peach, David Ohayon, Justin Hodgkiss, Jonathan Halpert
It is commonly believed that excess PbI2 has beneficial effects for perovskite solar cells due to the modification of charge transport behavior at interfaces, by surface passivation and by blocking electron-hole recombination. Here, we introduce a dynamically dispensed spin coating technique in a two-step deposition to form a perovskite layer with controllable quantities of crystalline PbI2. Using this technique, the concentration of CH3NH3I solution is kept constant at the reaction interface, ensuring smooth growth of films...
April 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
Gill Sang Han, Hyun Woo Shim, Seongha Lee, Matthew Duff, Jung-Kun Lee
An electron transport layer (ETL) which selectively collects photogenerated electrons is an important constituent of halide perovskite (PSCs). While TiO2 film is widely used as an ETL of PSCs, the processing of TiO2 film with high electron mobility requires high temperature annealing and TiO2 dissociates the perovskite layer through a photocatalytic reaction. In the present study, we report an effective surface modification method of a room-temperature processed ZnO nanoparticle (NPs) layer as an alternative to TiO2 ETL...
April 17, 2017: ChemSusChem
Yapei Wang, Dingguan Wang, Shenglong Liao, Shiming Zhang
Materials for CO2 capture have been extensively exploited for climate governance and gaseous separation. However, their regeneration is facing the problems of high energy cost and secondary CO2 contamination. Herein, a reversed photosynthesis-like process is proposed, which absorbs CO2 in darkness while releases CO2 under light illumination. The process is likely supplementary to natural photosynthesis of plants which on the contrary release CO2 in nights. Remarkably, the material used in this work is able to capture 9...
April 16, 2017: ChemSusChem
Farzaneh Arabpour Roghabadi, Vahid Ahmadi, Bahram Abdollahi Nejand, Karim Oniy Aghmiuni
By introducing an in situ-synthesized low-crystalline ZnO (LC-ZnO) (amorphous) layer between the cathode and the active layer of PCPDTBT: CdSe solar cell, the device keeps more than 80% and 40% of its initial lifetime after 180 days and 360 days without any encapsulation, respectively. In this regard, 180 days is the highest lifetime achieved for polymer-based solar cells with direct configuration. In addition, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is improved up to 70% in the presence of the LC-ZnO interfacial layer...
April 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
Fabrice Odobel, Yoann Farre, Mahfoudh Raissi, Arnaud Fihey, Yann Pellegrin, Errol Blart, Denis Jacquemin
We have prepared a series of four new diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPPs) based sensitizers that exhibit high molar extinction coefficients, extended absorption into the long wavelengths and well suited photoredox properties to act as sensitizers in p-DSSCs. These new DPP dyes, composed of a thienyl DPP core, are substituted on one end either by a thiophene carboxylic (Th) or a 4,4'-((phenyl)aza)dibenzoic acid as anchoring group and, on the other extremity, either by a proton or a naphthalene diimide (NDI) moiety...
April 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
Kyungmin Min, Woosung Choi, Minkee Choi
Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI)/silica has been widely studied as a solid adsorbent for post-combustion CO2 capture. In this work, a highly macroporous silica (MacS) synthesized by secondary sintering of fumed silica is compared with various mesoporous silicas having different pore structures as a support for PEI. Silicas with large pore diameter and volume enabled high CO2 adsorption kinetics and capacity because pore occlusion by the supported PEI was minimized. The steam stability of the silica structures increased with the silica framework thickness owing to suppressed framework ripening...
April 13, 2017: ChemSusChem
Yaju Chen, Rongchang Luo, Qihang Xu, Jun Jiang, Xiantai Zhou, Hongbing Ji
A facile and one-pot synthesis of metalloporphyrin-based ionic porous organic polymers (M-iPOPs) was presented through the typical Yamamoto-Ullmann couplings reaction for the first time. Various characterization techniques demonstrated these strong polar aluminum-based materials (Al-iPOP) possessed relatively uniform microporosity, good swellable feature and improved CO2 capture capacity. Considering the special physicochemical properties, heterogeneous Al-iPOP bearing both metal active center and halogen anion acted as a bifunctional catalyst for the solvent- and additive-free synthesis of cyclic carbonates from various epoxides and CO2 with excellent activity and good recyclability under mild conditions...
April 13, 2017: ChemSusChem
Sunitha Sadula, Abhay Athaley, Weiqing Zheng, Marianthi Ierapetritou, Basudeb Saha
Utilization of renewable carbon source, especially non-food biomass is critical to address the climate change and future energy challenge. Current chemical and enzymatic processes for producing cellulosic sugars are multistep, and energy- and water-intensive. Techno-economic analysis (TEA) suggests that upstream lignocellulose processing is a major hurdle to the economic viability of the cellulosic biorefineries. Process intensification, which integrates processes and uses less water and energy, has the potential to overcome the aforementioned challenges...
April 13, 2017: ChemSusChem
Maria Assunta Navarra, Kanae Fujimura, Mirko Sgambetterra, Akiko Tsurumaki, Stefania Panero, Nobufumi Nakamura, Hiroyuki Ohno, Bruno Scrosati
In the present work, two ionic liquids, N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (M1,2O2TFSI) and N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide (P1,2O2TFSI) have been synthesized and compared. Fundamental relevant properties, such as thermal and electrochemical stability, density and ionic conductivity were analyzed to evaluate the effects caused by the presence of the ether bond in the side chain and/or in the organic cation ring. Upon lithium salt addition, two electrolytes suitable for lithium batteries applications were found...
April 13, 2017: ChemSusChem
Alexis T Bell, Deepak Jadhav, Adam A Grippo, Sankaranaryanapillai Shyles, Amit A Gokhale, John Redshaw
Growing concern with the effects of CO2 emissions due to the combustion of petroleum-based transportation fuels has motivated the search for means to increase engine efficiency. The discovery of ethers with low viscosity presents an important opportunity to improve engine efficiency and fuel economy. We show here a strategy for the catalytic synthesis of such ethers via reductive etherification/O-alkylation of alcohols using building blocks that can be sourced from biomass. We find that long chain branched ethers have several properties that make them superior lubricants to the mineral oil and synthetic base oils used today...
April 12, 2017: ChemSusChem
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