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Analysis of Verbal Behavior

Benjamin N Witts, Icha Arief, Emily Hutter
Learning Skinner's (1957) verbal behavior taxonomy requires extensive study and practice. Thus, novel classroom exercises might serve this goal. The present manuscript describes a classroom exercise in which two students analyzed Lady Gaga's song Applause in terms of its metaphorical arrangements. Through the exercise, students identified various verbal operants and their subtypes, including those seldom researched by the behavioral community (see Sautter and LeBlanc 2006, The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 22, 35-48), which helped them conclude that Lady Gaga's Applause is comprised of two themes: the artist taking control, and the artist-as-art...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Thom Ratkos, Jessica E Frieder, Alan Poling
Research on joint control has focused on mediational responses, in which simultaneous stimulus control from two sources leads to the emission of a single response, such as choosing a comparison stimulus in delayed matching-to-sample. Most recent studies of joint control examined the role of verbal mediators (i.e., rehearsal) in evoking accurate performance. They suggest that mediation is a necessity for accurate delayed matching-to-sample responding. We designed an experiment to establish covert rehearsal responses in young children...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Sarah A Lechago, Lauren A Phillips
An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior in 2015, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Thomas S Critchfield, Derek D Reed
Participants first became familiar with an image showing moderate symptoms of the skin cancer melanoma. In a generalization test, they indicated whether images showing more and less pronounced symptoms were "like the original." Some groups (cancer context) were told that the images depicted melanoma and that the disease is deadly unless detected early. Control groups were not told what the images depicted. For control groups, generalization gradients were fairly typical of what is normally reported in the generalization literature, but for cancer context groups, gradients were shifted such that highly symptomatic moles were identified as "like the original" more than normal and subtly symptomatic ones were endorsed less than normal...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Mark R Dixon, Jordan Belisle, Caleb R Stanley, Jacob H Daar, Leigh Anne Williams
The present study evaluated the efficacy of equivalence-based instruction (EBI) as described in the PEAK-E curriculum (Dixon, 2015) for promoting the emergence of derived geometry skills in two children with high-functioning autism. The results suggested that direct training of shape name (A) to shape property (B) (i.e., A-B relations) was effective for both participants. Following A-B training, both participants demonstrated emergent relations that are consistent with symmetry (B-A), as well as emergent shape name (A) to shape picture (C) relations that are consistent with transitivity (A-C)...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Dean P Smith, Svein Eikeseth, Sarah E Fletcher, Lisa Montebelli, Holly R Smith, Jennifer C Taylor
The purpose of the present study was to assess whether intraverbal behavior, in the form of answers to questions, emerges as a result of listener training for five children diagnosed with autism. Listener responses were targeted and taught using prompting and differential reinforcement. Following successful acquisition of listener responses, the intraverbal form of the response was probed. Data were evaluated via a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design that included a control series. Results showed listener-to-intraverbal transfer for four of the five participants...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
M Alice Shillingsburg, Cassondra M Gayman, William Walton
Recent research on teaching mands for information to children with language deficits has focused on manipulating establishing operations (EOs). However, only a few of those studies have programmed both EO conditions (in which information is needed) and abolishing operation (AO) conditions (in which information has already been provided) to ensure functional use of the mand for information. Shillingsburg, Bowen, Valentino, and Pierce (Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 136-150, 2014) provided a successful demonstration of differential responding between EO and AO conditions demonstrating control of the response by the relevant EO...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Tyra P Sellers, Kristen Kelley, Thomas S Higbee, Katie Wolfe
Young children with autism may fail to mand using a range of frames (e.g., "I want," "May I have," "Please give me"). We examined the effects of simultaneous script training and script fading on acquisition and maintenance of varied mand frames with six preschool children with autism. For participants who did not demonstrate increased mand variability under fixed-ratio (FR) 1 conditions, we assessed the effects of post script-training extinction on response variability. Following training of up to four different mand frames, three of six participants emitted more varied mands under FR1 conditions relative to baseline...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
J O'Neill, A P Blowers, L Henson, R A Rehfeldt
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s40616-015-0031-5.].
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
L L Mason, D Davis, A Andrews
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s40616-015-0032-4.].
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Joseph Vedora, Erin Conant
Several researchers have compared the effectiveness of tact or textual prompts to echoic prompts for teaching intraverbal behavior to young children with autism. We extended this line of research by comparing the effectiveness of visual (textual or tact) prompts to echoic prompts to teach intraverbal responses to three young adults with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used with 2 to 3 comparisons for each participant. The results were mixed and did not reveal a more effective prompting procedure across participants, suggesting that the effectiveness of a prompting tactic may be idiosyncratic...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
John O'Neill, Ruth Anne Rehfeldt, Chris Ninness, Bridget E Muñoz, James Mellor
The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of an online stimulus equivalence procedure to that of an assigned reading when learning Skinner's taxonomy of verbal behavior. Twenty-six graduate students participated via an online learning management system. One group was exposed to an online stimulus equivalence procedure (equivalence group) that was designed to teach relations among the names, antecedents, consequences, and examples of each elementary verbal operant. A comparison group (reading group) read a chapter from a popular textbook...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
James R Mellor, Clarissa S Barnes, Ruth Anne Rehfeldt
The current research investigated whether intraverbals would emerge following auditory tact instruction. Participants were first taught to tact auditory stimuli by providing the name of the item or animal that produces the sound (e.g., saying "eagle" when presented with the recording of an eagle cawing). Following test probes for simple intraverbals as well as intraverbal categorization participants were taught to tact what each auditory stimulus is (e.g., saying "caw" when presented with the recording of an eagle cawing)...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
M Alice Shillingsburg, Diane L Hollander, Rachel N Yosick, Crystal Bowen, Lori R Muskat
Stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) is a procedure used to increase vocalizations in children with significant language delays. However, results from studies that have examined the effectiveness of SSP have been discrepant. The following review of the literature summarizes the results from 13 experiments published between 1996 and 2014 that used this procedure with children with language delays. Studies were analyzed across various participant and procedural variables, and an effect size estimate (nonoverlap of all pairs) was calculated for a portion of the participants in the studies reviewed...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Audrey A Pauwels, William H Ahearn, Stacy J Cohen
Foss (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76, 450-459, 1968a; Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 341-344, 1968b) compared overlap and non-overlap instruction to promote recombinative response generalization using a matrix training procedure. In the present study, we used a similar set of procedures to teach tacting of kitchen items and prepositions (i.e., relational autoclitics) to three females ages 13-20, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. We taught some kitchen items/prepositions as tacts (e.g...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Regina A Carroll, Tiffany Kodak
We evaluated the effects of instructive feedback on the variability of intraverbal responses for two children with autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare participants' novel responses and response combinations during an intraverbal category program across conditions with and without instructive feedback. During instructive feedback, secondary targets were presented during the consequence event of the learning trial and consisted of a therapist's model of response variability...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Patricia M Santos, Monica L Ma, Caio F Miguel
The current study evaluated whether training intraverbal naming would be sufficient to establish visual-visual matching-to-sample (MTS) performances in college students. In the first experiment, we used a multiple-probe design across stimulus sets to assess whether six participants could match arbitrary visual stimuli (AB) after learning to tact their two experimentally defined classes (A' and B') and then intraverbally relate their names (i.e., "A' goes with B'"). All participants matched the stimuli accurately after training, as well as emitted the trained intraverbals...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Molli M Luke, James E Carr
We analyzed past volumes of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior (TAVB) to provide a comprehensive status update after 30 years of publication. Data on TAVB's content, frequent contributors, and scholarly impact suggest a healthy state of the journal.
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Kelly T Kohler, Richard W Malott
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s40616-014-0016-9.].
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
J O'Neill, R A Rehfeldt
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s40616-014-0013-z.].
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
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