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Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299902/when-metastasis-spns-out-of-control-coverage-of-genome-wide-in-vivo-screen-identifies-novel-host-regulators-of-metastatic-colonization
#1
Marie R Webster, Curtis H Kugel, Ashani T Weeraratna
Metastasis is the major cause of death from cancer in patients. Invasive tumor cells that leave the primary tumor must undergo a strenuous journey including extravasation, survival in the blood, intravasation into the distal site, and proliferation in a new microenvironment to form metastatic colonies. The tumor cells that are successful in forming colonies have dodged multiple perils including evading immune defenses and oxidative stress in the circulatory system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
March 16, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271633/pheomelanogenesis-is-promoted-at-a-weakly-acidic-ph
#2
Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Ayano Nagao, Miu Watanabe, Kenta Nakao, Shosuke Ito
The diversity of pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes of humans has been largely attributed to the diversity of pH in melanosomes with an acidic pH being proposed to suppress melanin production, especially eumelanogenesis. We previously showed that an acidic pH greatly suppresses the late stage of eumelanogenesis after the dopachrome stage. The oxidation of tyrosine by tyrosinase in the presence of cysteine forms cysteinyldopa isomers, which are further oxidized to give rise to pheomelanin via benzothiazine intermediates...
March 8, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233937/pik3ca-mutated-melanoma-cells-rely-on-cooperative-signaling-through-mtorc1-2-for-sustained-proliferation
#3
Jillian M Silva, Marian M Deuker, Bruce C Baguley, Martin McMahon
Oncogenic transformation of BRAF or NRAS melanocytes is promoted by elevated PI3'-lipid signaling, which may be achieved by PTEN silencing or mutational activation of PIK3CA. Using human NRAS- or BRAF-mutated melanoma cells that co-express mutationally activated PIK3CA, we explored the contribution of PI3'-lipid signaling to cell proliferation. Despite mutational activation of PIK3CA, melanoma cells were more sensitive to the biochemical and anti-proliferative effects of broader spectrum PI3K inhibitors than to an α-selective PI3K inhibitor...
February 24, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222245/translation-rewiring-at-the-heart-of-phenotype-switching-in-melanoma
#4
Eleonora Leucci, Pierre Close, Jean-Christophe Marine
During tumor progression cancer cells are constantly challenged by intrinsic oncogene-induced and extrinsic micro-environmental stress signals such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, oxidative and genotoxic stress. Under these suboptimal growth conditions cancer cells activate an Integrative Stress Response (ISR), which results in a transient decrease in energy consumption followed by a cellular adaptation phase and possibly recovery, if the environmental conditions become more favorable. Translation is a very high energy-consuming process; it is therefore not surprising that to minimize energy consumption cancer cells turn down global protein synthesis rates while reprograming translation towards specific transcripts required for survival and adaptation...
February 21, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222242/obesity-and-melanoma-could-fat-be-fueling-malignancy
#5
REVIEW
Emily Clement, Ikrame Lazar, Catherine Muller, Laurence Nieto
Over the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that adipose tissue, and particularly adipocytes, contribute to tumor progression. Obesity, an ever-increasing worldwide phenomenon, exacerbates this effect. The influence of obesity on melanoma remains poorly studied, although recent data does underline an association between the two diseases in both humans and murine models. Herein, we review the impact of obesity on melanoma incidence and progression and discuss the underlying mechanisms known to be involved...
February 21, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192636/paracrine-regulation-of-melanocyte-genomic-stability-a-focus-on-nucleotide-excision-repair
#6
REVIEW
Stuart Gordon Jarrett, Katharine Marie Carter, John August D'Orazio
UV radiation is a major environmental risk factor for the development of melanoma by causing DNA damage and mutations. Resistance to UV damage is largely determined by the capacity of melanocytes to respond to UV injury by repairing mutagenic photolesions. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is the major mechanism by which cells correct UV photodamage. This multi-step process involves the basic steps of damage recognition, isolation, localized strand unwinding, assembly of a repair complex, excision of the damage-containing strand 3' and 5' to the photolesion, synthesis of a sequence-appropriate replacement strand and finally ligation to restore continuity of genomic DNA...
February 13, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192625/rapid-integumental-color-changes-due-to-novel-iridophores-in-the-chameleon-sand-tilefish-hoplolatilus-chlupatyi
#7
Makoto Goda
The chameleon sand tilefish Hoplolatilus chlupatyi displays rapid color changes in integument from blue to red. Our microscopic observations revealed that the rapid color changes were generated by motile activities of novel dermal iridophores. In the cytoplasm of the iridophores, we observed very thin reflecting platelets, resembling damselfish-type iridophores, but the platelets were arranged and distributed in a limited area near the cell membrane. Our pharmacological evaluation revealed that increasing K(+) ions in the perfusion medium led to a rapid color change of the iridophores from blue to red within 0...
February 13, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168807/hypoxia-induced-hif1%C3%AE-targets-in-melanocytes-reveal-a-molecular-profile-associated-with-poor-melanoma-prognosis
#8
Stacie K Loftus, Laura L Baxter, Julia C Cronin, Temesgen D Fufa, William J Pavan
Hypoxia and HIF1α signaling direct tissue-specific gene responses regulating tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. By integrating HIF1α knockdown and hypoxia-induced gene expression changes, this study identifies a melanocyte-specific, HIF1α-dependent / hypoxia-responsive gene expression signature. Integration of these gene expression changes with HIF1α ChIP-Seq analysis identifies 81 HIF1α direct target genes in melanocytes. The expression levels for ten of the HIF1α direct targets - GAPDH, PKM, PPAT, DARS, DTWD1, SEH1L, ZNF292, RLF, AGTRAP, and GPC6 - are significantly correlated with reduced time of Disease Free Status (DFS) in melanoma by logistic regression (P-value =0...
February 6, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140525/nanobodies-against-surface-biomarkers-enable-the-analysis-of-tumor-genetic-heterogeneity-in-uveal-melanoma-patient-derived-xenografts
#9
Ronan Crépin, David Gentien, Angeline Duché, Audrey Rapinat, Cecile Reyes, Fariba Némati, Gérald Massonnet, Didier Decaudin, Selma Djender, Sandrine Moutel, Klervi Desrumeaux, Nathalie Cassoux, Sophie Piperno-Neumann, Sebastian Amigorena, Franck Perez, Sergio Roman Roman, Ario de Marco
Monoclonal antibodies specific for biomarkers expressed on the surface of uveal melanoma (UM) cells would simplify the immune-capture and genomic characterization of heterogeneous tumor cells originated from patient derived xenografts (PDXs). Antibodies against four independent tumor antigens were isolated by panning a nanobody synthetic library. Such antibodies enabled flow-cytometry-based sorting of distinct cell sub-populations from UM PDXs and to analyze their genomic features. The complexity and specificity of the biochemical and genomic biomarker combinations mirrored the UM tumor polyclonality...
January 31, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140520/microrna-125a-promotes-resistance-to-braf-inhibitors-through-suppression-of-the-intrinsic-apoptotic-pathway
#10
Lisa Koetz-Ploch, Douglas Hanniford, Igor Dolgalev, Elena Sokolova, Judy Zhong, Marta Díaz-Martínez, Emily Bernstein, Farbod Darvishian, Keith T Flaherty, Paul B Chapman, Hussein Tawbi, Eva Hernando
Melanoma patients with BRAF(V)(600E) -mutant tumors display striking responses to BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi); however, almost all invariably relapse with drug-resistant disease. Here we report that microRNA-125a (miR-125a) expression is upregulated in human melanoma cells and patient tissues upon acquisition of BRAFi resistance. We show that miR-125a induction confers resistance to BRAF(V)(600E) melanoma cells to BRAFi by directly suppressing pro-apoptotic components of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, including BAK1 and MLK3...
January 31, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122176/metformin-monotherapy-in-melanoma-a-pilot-open-label-prospective-and-multicentric-study-indicates-no-benefit
#11
LETTER
Henri Montaudié, Michael Cerezo, Philippe Bahadoran, Coralie Roger, Thierry Passeron, Laurent Machet, Jean-Philippe Arnault, Laurence Verneuil, Eve Maubec, François Aubin, Florence Granel, Damien Giacchero, Véronique Hofman, Jean-Philippe Lacour, Allegra Maryline, Robert Balotti, Stéphane Rocchi
Targeted therapies and immunotherapies have significantly improved the prognosis of patients with advanced melanoma (Long et al., 2015; Robert et al., 2015a; Robert et al., 2015b; Ascierto et al., 2015). Unfortunately, treatment failure due to primary and secondary drug resistance are still observed and therefore there is an urgent need to identify new anti-melanoma agents. The oral anti-diabetic drug metformin belongs to the family of biguanides and it is the most widely used antidiabetic drug in the world...
January 25, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116824/an-eye-on-microphthalmia
#12
Valerie Fock, Eiríkur Steingrímsson
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is pivotal for the development of different cell lineages such as melanocytes, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and osteoclasts. Most of the information on the role of MITF has come from studying the many different mutations at the mouse microphthalmia (mi) locus. Mice that are heterozygous for the original Mitf(mi) allele exhibit a white belly spot, whereas homozygotes are completely white, microphthalmic, deaf and osteopetrotic (Steingrimsson et al...
January 24, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097802/genomic-analysis-and-clinical-management-of-adolescent-cutaneous-melanoma
#13
Roy Rabbie, Mamun Rashid, Ana M Arance, Marcelo Sánchez, Gemma Tell-Marti, Miriam Potrony, Carles Conill, Remco van Doorn, Stefan Dentro, Nellele A Gruis, Pippa Corrie, Vivek Iyer, Carla Daniela Robles-Espinoza, Joan A Puig-Butille, Susana Puig, David J Adams
Melanoma in young children is rare, however its incidence in adolescents and young adults is rising. We describe the clinical course of a 15-year-old female diagnosed with AJCC stage IB non-ulcerated primary melanoma, who died from metastatic disease four years after diagnosis despite three lines of modern systemic therapy. We also present the complete genomic profile of her tumour and compare this to a further series of 13 adolescent melanomas, and 275 adult cutaneous melanomas. A somatic BRAF(V)(600E) mutation and a high mutational load equivalent to that found in adult melanoma, and composed primarily of C>T mutations was observed...
January 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324639/from-the-reproducibility-of-science-to-the-science-of-reproducibility
#14
EDITORIAL
Heinz Arnheiter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324638/corrigendum
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182333/gnawing-at-striping-how-rodents-evolve-striped-patterns
#16
Robert N Kelsh, Kleio Petratou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097822/synthetic-lethality-emerging-targets-and-opportunities-in-melanoma
#17
REVIEW
Nicola Thompson, David J Adams, Marco Ranzani
Great progress has been made in the treatment of melanoma through use of targeted therapies and immunotherapy. One approach that has not been fully explored is synthetic lethality, which exploits somatically acquired changes, usually driver mutations, to specifically kill tumour cells. We outline the various approaches that may be applied to identify synthetic lethal interactions and define how these interactions may drive drug discovery efforts.
March 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024115/mutation-load-in-melanoma-is-affected-by-mc1r-genotype
#18
Peter A Johansson, Antonia L Pritchard, Ann-Marie Patch, James S Wilmott, John V Pearson, Nicola Waddell, Richard A Scolyer, Graham J Mann, Nicholas K Hayward
Whole-genome sequencing of matched germline and tumour pairs in a well-characterized cohort of melanoma patients allowed investigation of associations between melanoma body site, age at melanoma onset and MC1R variant status with overall mutation burden and specific base pair changes observed in the corresponding melanoma. We observed statistically significant associations between mutation burden in melanoma and body site, age at onset and MC1R genotype, for both ultraviolet radiation (UVR) signature changes (C>T and CC>TT) and non-UVR base pair substitutions, as well as with overall variant load...
March 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024114/evaluation-of-tubulin-%C3%AE-3-as-a-novel-senescence-associated-gene-in-melanocytic-malignant-transformation
#19
Kyriakos Orfanidis, Petra Wäster, Katarzyna Lundmark, Inger Rosdahl, Karin Öllinger
Malignant melanoma might develop from melanocytic nevi in which the growth-arrested state has been broken. We analyzed the gene expression of young and senescent human melanocytes in culture and compared the gene expression data with a dataset from nevi and melanomas. A concordant altered gene expression was identified in 84 genes when comparing the growth-arrested samples with proliferating samples. TUBB3, which encodes the microtubule protein tubulin β-3, showed a decreased expression in senescent melanocytes and nevi and was selected for further studies...
March 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002643/clinical-and-therapeutic-implications-of-braf-mutation-heterogeneity-in-metastatic-melanoma
#20
Nima Mesbah Ardakani, Connull Leslie, Fabienne Grieu-Iacopetta, Wei-Sen Lam, Charley Budgeon, Michael Millward, Benhur Amanuel
Heterogeneity of BRAF mutation in melanoma has been a controversial subject. Quantitative data on BRAF allele frequency (AF) are sparse, and the potential relationship with response to BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) in patients with metastatic melanoma is unknown. We quantitatively measured BRAF AF in a cohort of treatment naïve metastatic melanoma samples by pyrosequencing and correlated with survival data in patients treated with BRAFi as part of their clinical care. Fifty-two samples from 50 patients were analysed...
March 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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