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Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research

Shosuke Ito, Ludger Kolbe
Most readers of Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research are familiar with the biological/clinical aspects of pigmentation and melanoma. On the other hand, other aspects of pigmentation research, such as the application of melanin nano-particles as novel biocompatible materials, mostly escape their attention. For example, "polydopamine (PDA)" has been attracting an upsurge in interest among material scientists (175 articles published in 2015 compared with 11 in 2010), but not so much among pigment scientists despite the fact that PDA closely mimics "dopamine-melanin" as it is produced by the spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine at a slightly alkaline pH...
October 5, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
J V Cohen, H Tawbi, K A Margolin, R Amravadi, M Bosenberg, P K Brastianos, V L Chiang, J de Groot, I C Glitza, M Herlyn, S L Holmen, L B Jilaveanu, A Lassman, S Moschos, M A Postow, R Thomas, A J Tsiouris, P Wen, R M White, T Turnham, M A Davies, H M Kluger
Melanoma central nervous system (CNS) metastases are increasing and the challenges presented by this patient population remain complex. In December 2015, the Melanoma Research Foundation and the Wistar Institute hosted the First Summit on Melanoma Central Nervous System (CNS) Metastases in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Here, we provide a review of the current status of the field of melanoma brain metastasis research; identify key challenges and opportunities for improving outcomes in patients with melanoma brain metastases; and set a framework to optimize future research in this critical area...
September 12, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Eleonora Leucci, Elizabeth A Coe, Jean-Christophe Marine, Keith W Vance
Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer, the incidence of which is rising rapidly. Although MAPK-targeting therapies and immune checkpoint blockade are emerging as attractive therapeutic approaches, their utility is limited to only a subset of patients who often acquire resistance. A better understanding of the aetiologies and genetic underpinnings of melanoma is therefore critical for the development of adjuvant or alternative therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing the proportion of responders and improving treatment efficacy...
September 8, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Aihua Wei, Yefeng Yuan, Dayong Bai, Jing Ma, Zhenhua Hao, Yingzi Zhang, Jiaying Yu, Zhiyong Zhou, Lin Yang, Xiumin Yang, Li Li, Wei Li
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare recessive disorder characterized by hypopigmentation, bleeding diathesis and other symptoms due to multiple defects in lysosome-related organelles. Ten HPS subtypes have been identified with mutations in HPS1 to HPS10. Only four HPS-1 patients have been reported in Chinese population. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), we have screened 100 hypopigmentation genes and identified four HPS-1, two HPS-3, one HPS-5, and three HPS-6 in Chinese HPS patients with typical ocular or oculocutaneous albinism and the absence of platelet dense granules together with other variable phenotypes...
September 4, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Gabriel E Bertolesi, Carrie L Hehr, Hayden Mumm, Sarah McFarlane
Two biological processes regulate light-induced skin colour change. A fast "physiological pigmentation change" (i.e. circadian variations or camouflage) involves alterations in the distribution of pigment containing granules in the cytoplasm of chromatophores, while a slower "morphological pigmentation change" (i.e. seasonal variations) entails changes in the number of pigment cells or pigment type. Although linked processes, the neuroendocrine coordination triggering each response remains largely obscure. By evaluating both events in Xenopus laevis embryos we show that morphological pigmentation initiates by inhibiting the activity of the classical retinal ganglion cells (RGC)...
August 24, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Michele Guida, Sabino Strippoli, Anna Ferretta, Nicola Bartolomeo, Letizia Porcelli, Immacolata Maida, Amalia Azzariti, Stefania Tommasi, Claudia Grieco, Stefania Guida, Anna Albano, Vito Lorusso, Gabriella Guida
Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) plays a key role in skin pigmentation and its polymorphisms are linked with a higher melanoma risk. The influence of MC1R variants on the outcomes of patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) treated with BRAF inhibitors is unknown. We studied the MC1R status in a cohort of 53 consecutive BRAF-mutated MM patients treated with BRAFi. We also evaluated the effect of vemurafenib in four (V600) BRAF melanoma cell lines with/without MC1R variants. We found a significant correlation between the presence of MC1R polymorphisms and a worse outcomes in terms of both ORR (59%vs95%, p...
August 19, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Grzegorz Szewczyk, Andrzej Zadlo, Michal Sarna, Shosuke Ito, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Tadeusz Sarna
In this work we examined photoreactivity of synthetic eumelanins, formed by autooxidation of DOPA, or enzymatic oxidation of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid and synthetic pheomelanins obtained by enzymatic oxidation of 5-S-cysteinyldopa or 1:1 mixture of DOPA and cysteine. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry and spin trapping were used to measure oxygen consumption and formation of superoxide anion induced by irradiation of melanin with blue light, and time resolved near-infrared luminescence was employed to determine the photoformation of singlet oxygen between 300-600 nm...
August 9, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Benjamin Izar, Cailin Joyce, Stephanie Goff, Nancy L Cho, Parin M Shah, Gaurav Sharma, Jingjing Li, Nageatte Ibrahim, Jason Gold, F Stephen Hodi, Levi A Garraway, Carl D Novina, Monica M Bertagnolli, Charles H Yoon
Tumor-stroma interactions are critical for epithelial-derived tumors, and among the stromal cell types, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) exhibit multiple functions that fuel growth, dissemination, and drug resistance. However, these interactions remain insufficiently characterized in non-epithelial tumors such as malignant melanoma. We generated monocultures of melanoma cells and matching CAFs from patients' metastatic lesions, distinguished by oncogenic drivers and immunoblotting of characteristic markers...
August 2, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Bih-Rong Wei, Helen T Michael, Charles H C Halsey, Cody J Peer, Amit Adhikari, Jennifer E Dwyer, Shelley B Hoover, Rajaa El Meskini, Serguei Kozlov, Zoe Weaver Ohler, William D Figg, Glenn Merlino, R Mark Simpson
Human mucosal melanoma (MM), an uncommon, aggressive and diverse subtype, shares characteristics with spontaneous MM in dogs. Although BRAF and N-RAS mutations are uncommon in MM in both species, the majority of human and canine MM evaluated exhibited RAS/ERK and/or PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway activation. Canine MM cell lines with varying ERK and AKT/mTOR activation levels reflective of naturally occurring differences in dogs, were sensitive to the MEK inhibitor GSK1120212 and dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235...
July 27, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Damilola Fajuyigbe, Antony R Young
Terrestrial solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exerts both beneficial and adverse effects on human skin. Epidemiological studies show a lower incidence of skin cancer in people with pigmented skins compared to fair skins. This is attributed to photoprotection by epidermal melanin, as is the poorer vitamin D status of those with darker skins. We summarize a wide range of photobiological responses across different skin colours including DNA damage and immunosuppression. Some studies show the generally modest photoprotective properties of melanin, but others show little or no effect...
July 25, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Heinz Arnheiter, Georgina Long, Andrew Aplin, John Harris, Robert Kelsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Anand Patwardhan, Cédric Delevoye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Andrew Badrock, Adam Hurlstone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Hsin-Yi Chen, Donita C Brady, Jessie Villanueva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Aysegül Tura, Hartmut Merz, Mihaela Reinsberg, Matthias Lüke, Martine J Jager, Salvatore Grisanti, Julia Lüke
Monosomy-3 in primary uveal melanoma (UM) is associated with a high risk of metastasis and mortality. Although circulating melanoma cells (CMC) can be found in most UM patients, only approximately 50% of the patients develop metastases. We utilized a novel immuno-FISH assay to detect chromosome-3 in intact CMC isolated by dual immunomagnetic enrichment. Circulating melanoma cells were detected in 91% of the patients (n = 44) with primary non-metastatic UM, of which 58% were positive for monosomy-3. The monosomy-3 status of CMC corresponded to the monosomy-3 status of the primary tumor in 10 of the 11 patients where this could be tested...
September 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Benjamin J Tyrrell, Emma F Woodham, Heather J Spence, Douglas Strathdee, Robert H Insall, Laura M Machesky
The five-subunit WASH complex generates actin networks that participate in endocytic trafficking, migration and invasion in various cell types. Loss of one of the two subunits WASH or strumpellin in mice is lethal, but little is known about their role in mammals in vivo. We explored the role of strumpellin, which has previously been linked to hereditary spastic paraplegia, in the mouse melanocytic lineage. Strumpellin knockout in melanocytes revealed abnormal endocytic vesicle morphology but no impairment of migration in vitro or in vivo and no change in coat colour...
September 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Gerd P Pfeifer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Yumi Itoh, Yasuo Nagaoka, Yoshio Katakura, Hidehisa Kawahara, Hiroshi Takemori
Pigmentation in mammals is important for protection of skin and eyes from ultraviolet radiation. Dysregulation of pigmentation is often associated with other conditions that are not directly linked to pigmentation. Here, we isolated spontaneously occurring hypopigmented mice that occasionally experienced severe diarrhea during lactation. Treatment of these mice with dextran sulfate sodium salt, a conventional method to induce acute colitis, caused chronic diarrhea with granulomatous colitis. Gene mapping and sequencing revealed that the mice had a nonsense mutation in the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (Hps)5 gene...
September 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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