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Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544727/ultraviolet-radiation-accelerates-nras-mutant-melanomagenesis-a-cooperative-effect-blocked-by-sunscreen
#1
Rebecca C Hennessey, Andrea M Holderbaum, Anamaria Bonilla, Conor Delaney, James E Gillahan, Kathleen L Tober, Tatiana M Oberyszyn, Jonathan H Zippin, Christin E Burd
To mitigate melanoma risk, sunscreen use is widely advocated; yet, the ability of sunscreens to prevent melanoma remains controversial. Here, we test the tenet that sunscreens limit melanoma risk by blocking ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage using murine models that recapitulate the genetics and spontaneous evolution of human melanoma. We find that a single, non-erythematous dose of UV dramatically accelerates melanoma onset and increases tumor multiplicity in mice carrying an endogenous, melanocyte-specific NRas(61R) allele...
May 24, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544808/the-first-transepidermal-transplantation-of-non-cultured-epidermal-suspension-using-a-dermarolling-system-in-vitiligo-a-sequential-histological-and-clinical-study
#2
L Benzekri, Y Gauthier
The current methods for melanocyte delivery to depigmented skin are invasive and often require sophisticated approaches. Here we describe a promising simple and minimally invasive technique based on the dermarolling system. The technique involves preparation of a keratinocyte/melanocyte suspension prepared by trypsinization from a non-lesioned part of a patient's scalp skin and transepidermal delivery using a dermaroller equipped with 0.2 mm needles. Dermarolling leads to epidermal microinjuries without, however, causing pain or inflammation...
May 19, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513992/immunoregulatory-protein-b7-h3-promotes-growth-and-decreases-sensitivity-to-therapy-in-metastatic-melanoma-cells
#3
Karine Flem-Karlsen, Christina Tekle, Yvonne Andersson, Kjersti Flatmark, Øystein Fodstad, Caroline E Nunes-Xavier
B7-H3 (CD276) belongs to the B7-family of immunoregulatory proteins, and has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis. In this study, we found that metastatic melanoma cells with knockdown expression of B7-H3 showed modest decrease in proliferation and glycolytic capacity, and were more sensitive to dacarbazine (DTIC) chemotherapy and small-molecule inhibitors targeting MAP kinase (MAPK)- and AKT/mTOR-pathways: vemurafenib (PLX4032; BRAF inhibitor), binimetinib (MEK-162; MEK inhibitor), everolimus (RAD001; mTOR inhibitor) and triciribidine (API-2; AKT inhibitor)...
May 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504868/recognizing-latinos-range-of-skin-pigment-and-phototypes-to-enhance-skin-cancer-prevention
#4
June K Robinson, Frank J Penedo, Jennifer L Hay, Nina G Jablonski
Latinos in the United States may have the mistaken assumption that their natural pigmentation protects them from developing skin cancer that, effectively, serves as a barrier to Latinos receiving education in primary and secondary prevention of skin cancer. Latino adults of Mexican or Puerto Rican heritage attending community health fairs in the greater Chicago area responded to a culturally informed and sensitive measure for sunburn and tan, which was previously adapted to capture skin irritation with tenderness from the sun occurring in darker skin types (n=350)...
May 15, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504826/pigmented-macules-in-waardenburg-syndrome-type-2-due-to-kitlg-mutation
#5
LETTER
Yasushi Ogawa, Michihiro Kono, Masashi Akiyama
We report a patient with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 2 who had the unusual complication of large pigmented macules. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a previously unreported homozygous KITLG mutation to be the causative gene. KITLG defect is a rare cause of WS, with only one case having been reported previously. Interestingly, both the previously reported case and the present case had large pigmented macules (café-au-lait spots). Importantly, KITLG mutations are causative of another pigmentation disorder, namely familial progressive hyper- and hypopigmentation (FPHH), which may also be accompanied by pigmented macules...
May 15, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481450/novel-regulation-of-melanogenesis-by-adiponectin-via-the-ampk-crtc-pathway
#6
Seunghyun Bang, Kwang Hee Won, Hye-Rim Moon, Hanju Yoo, Areum Hong, Youngsup Song, Sung Eun Chang
Several studies observed that adiponectin, an important adipokine that improves glucose metabolism by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, is dermatologically beneficial. In our recent microarray data, we found that adiponectin expression was lower in lesional skin than in non-lesional skin of melasma patients. Given that AMPK is a key adiponectin signaling mediator, we investigated the role of adiponectin and AICAR, a cell-permeable AMPK activator, in melanogenesis. We herein showed that adiponectin and AICAR downregulated MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1, and DCT expression and reduced melanin content in normal human and mouse melanocytes...
May 8, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397350/no-association-between-pre-diagnosis-exercise-and-survival-in-patients-with-high-risk-primary-melanoma-a-population-based-study
#7
LETTER
Emily Schwitzer, Irene Orlow, Emily C Zabor, Colin B Begg, Marianne Berwick, Nancy E Thomas, Peter A Kanetsky, Lee W Jones
An emerging literature base is examining the association between exercise and prognosis after a diagnosis of early-stage breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer.(Friedenreich et al., 2016) Pooling of data across available studies suggests that higher levels of exercise / physical activity are associated with significant reductions in risk of recurrence or cancer-specific mortality, however findings of individual studies are inconsistent.(Friedenreich et al., 2016; Jones, 2015) In vivo models of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis and syngeneic models of melanoma consistently demonstrate, however, that exercise inhibits primary tumor growth...
April 11, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379638/meeting-report-vitiligo-global-issues-consensus-conference-vgicc-workshop-outcome-measurement-instruments-and-vitiligo-international-symposium-rome-nov-30-dec-3-rd
#8
Nanja van Geel, Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal, Clément Jacquemin, Reinhart Speeckaert, Albert Wolkerstorfer, Marcel Bekkenk, Janny E Lommerts, Iltefat Hamzavi, Amit Pandya, Viktoria Eleftheriadou, Khaled Ezzedine, Diana Giannarelli, Maria Gnarra, Isabella Sperduti, Cecilia Prinsen, John Harris, Alain Taieb, Mauro Picardo
The international vitiligo community had last December its first "vitiligo only" research meeting in the Eternal City. Vitiligo is a well-recognized but poorly addressed public health concern worldwide. The Vitiligo International Symposium (VIS) is a strong signal for the medical world of the coming of age of vitiligo as a major research field. Because of the gathering of the majority of world experts, the meeting was preceded by a clinical research methodology workshop held at the San Gallicano Institute. This report gives a combined account of the two parts...
April 5, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379630/uv-induced-somatic-mutations-elicit-a-functional-t-cell-response-in-the-yummer1-7-mouse-melanoma-model
#9
Jake Wang, Curtis Jamison Perry, Katrina Meeth, Durga Thakral, William Damsky, Goran Micevic, Susan Kaech, Kim Blenman, Marcus Bosenberg
Human melanomas exhibit relatively high somatic mutation burden compared to other malignancies. These somatic mutations may produce neoantigens that are recognized by the immune system, leading to an anti-tumor response. By irradiating a parental mouse melanoma cell line carrying three driver mutations with UVB and expanding a single cell clone, we generated a mutagenized model that exhibits high somatic mutation burden. When inoculated at low cell numbers in immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice, YUMMER1.7 (YUMM Exposed to Radiation) regresses after a brief period of growth...
April 5, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379616/from-fish-bowl-to-bedside-the-power-of-zebrafish-to-unravel-melanoma-pathogenesis-and-discover-new-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Ellen van Rooijen, Maurizio Fazio, Leonard I Zon
Melanoma is the most aggressive and deadliest form of skin cancer. A detailed knowledge of the cellular, molecular and genetic events underlying melanoma progression is highly relevant to diagnosis, prognosis and risk stratification, and the development of new therapies. In the last decade, zebrafish have emerged as a valuable model system for the study of melanoma. Pathway conservation, coupled with the availability of robust genetic, transgenic and chemical tools, has made the zebrafish a powerful model for identifying novel disease genes, visualizing cancer initiation, interrogating tumor-microenvironment interactions and discovering new therapeutics that regulate melanocyte and melanoma development...
April 5, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378380/re-evaluation-of-insect-melanogenesis-research-views-from-the-dark-side
#11
REVIEW
Miranda M A Whitten, Christopher J Coates
Melanins (eumelanin and pheomelanin) are synthesised in insects for several purposes including cuticle sclerotisation and color patterning, clot formation, organogenesis and innate immunity. Traditional views of insect immunity detail the storage of pro-phenoloxidases inside specialized blood cells (hemocytes) and their release upon recognition of foreign bodies. Activated phenoloxidases convert monophenols into reactive quinones in a two-step enzymatic reaction, and until recently, the mechanism of tyrosine hydroxylation remained a mystery...
April 4, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371026/interaction-and-developmental-activation-of-two-neuroendocrine-systems-that-regulate-light-mediated-skin-pigmentation
#12
Gabriel E Bertolesi, Yi Nong Song, Karen Atkinson-Leadbeater, Jung-Lynn Jonathan Yang, Sarah McFarlane
Lower vertebrates use rapid light-regulated changes in skin colour for camouflage (background adaptation) or during circadian variation in irradiance levels. Two neuroendocrine systems, the eye/alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the pineal complex/melatonin circuits, regulate the process through their respective dispersion and aggregation of pigment granules (melanosomes) in skin melanophores. During development, Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised on a black background or in the dark perceive less light sensed by the eye and darken in response to increased α-MSH secretion...
March 30, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299902/when-metastasis-spns-out-of-control-coverage-of-genome-wide-in-vivo-screen-identifies-novel-host-regulators-of-metastatic-colonization
#13
Marie R Webster, Curtis H Kugel, Ashani T Weeraratna
Metastasis is the major cause of death from cancer in patients. Invasive tumor cells that leave the primary tumor must undergo a strenuous journey including extravasation, survival in the blood, intravasation into the distal site, and proliferation in a new microenvironment to form metastatic colonies. The tumor cells that are successful in forming colonies have dodged multiple perils including evading immune defenses and oxidative stress in the circulatory system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
March 16, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460418/what-s-in-a-name
#14
EDITORIAL
Heinz Arnheiter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271633/pheomelanogenesis-is-promoted-at-a-weakly-acidic-ph
#15
Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Ayano Nagao, Miu Watanabe, Kenta Nakao, Shosuke Ito
The diversity of pigmentation in the skin, hair, and eyes of humans has been largely attributed to the diversity of pH in melanosomes with an acidic pH being proposed to suppress melanin production, especially eumelanogenesis. We previously showed that an acidic pH greatly suppresses the late stage of eumelanogenesis after the dopachrome stage. The oxidation of tyrosine by tyrosinase in the presence of cysteine forms cysteinyldopa isomers, which are further oxidized to give rise to pheomelanin via benzothiazine intermediates...
May 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233937/pik3ca-mutated-melanoma-cells-rely-on-cooperative-signaling-through-mtorc1-2-for-sustained-proliferation
#16
Jillian M Silva, Marian M Deuker, Bruce C Baguley, Martin McMahon
Malignant conversion of BRAF- or NRAS-mutated melanocytes into melanoma cells can be promoted by PI3'-lipid signaling. However, the mechanism by which PI3'-lipid signaling cooperates with mutationally activated BRAF or NRAS has not been adequately explored. Using human NRAS- or BRAF-mutated melanoma cells that co-express mutationally activated PIK3CA, we explored the contribution of PI3'-lipid signaling to cell proliferation. Despite mutational activation of PIK3CA, melanoma cells were more sensitive to the biochemical and antiproliferative effects of broader spectrum PI3K inhibitors than to an α-selective PI3K inhibitor...
May 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222245/translation-rewiring-at-the-heart-of-phenotype-switching-in-melanoma
#17
Eleonora Leucci, Pierre Close, Jean-Christophe Marine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222242/obesity-and-melanoma-could-fat-be-fueling-malignancy
#18
REVIEW
Emily Clement, Ikrame Lazar, Catherine Muller, Laurence Nieto
Over the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that adipose tissue, and particularly adipocytes, contributes to tumor progression. Obesity, an ever-increasing worldwide phenomenon, exacerbates this effect. The influence of obesity on melanoma remains poorly studied, although recent data do underline an association between the two diseases in both humans and murine models. Herein, we review the impact of obesity on melanoma incidence and progression and discuss the underlying mechanisms known to be involved...
May 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192636/paracrine-regulation-of-melanocyte-genomic-stability-a%C3%A2-focus-on-nucleotide-excision-repair
#19
REVIEW
Stuart Gordon Jarrett, Katharine Marie Carter, John August D'Orazio
UV radiation is a major environmental risk factor for the development of melanoma by causing DNA damage and mutations. Resistance to UV damage is largely determined by the capacity of melanocytes to respond to UV injury by repairing mutagenic photolesions. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is the major mechanism by which cells correct UV photodamage. This multistep process involves the basic steps of damage recognition, isolation, localized strand unwinding, assembly of a repair complex, excision of the damage-containing strand 3' and 5' to the photolesion, synthesis of a sequence-appropriate replacement strand, and finally ligation to restore continuity of genomic DNA...
May 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192625/rapid-integumental-color-changes-due-to-novel-iridophores-in-the-chameleon-sand-tilefish-hoplolatilus-chlupatyi
#20
Makoto Goda
The wavelength of the light reflected from iridophores depends on the thickness and the spacing of intracellular reflecting platelets. Here, we show that the rapid color change from blue to red of the chameleon sand tilefish Hoplolatilus chlupatyi is mediated by adrenergic stimulation of a novel type of iridophore in which reflecting platelets are concentrated selectively in the periphery of the cell, near the plasma membrane. The color changes are not only observed in vivo but also in pigment cells of isolated scales which respond to increases in K(+) ion concentrations in 0...
May 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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