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Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805346/melanin-quantification-by-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analysis-of-near-infrared-fluorescence
#1
Sunil Kalia, Jianhua Zhao, Haishan Zeng, David McLean, Nikiforos Kollias, Harvey Lui
Objective measurements of melanin can provide important information for differentiating melanoma from benign pigmented lesions and in assessing pigmentary diseases. Herein, we evaluate near infrared fluorescence as a possible tool to quantify melanin. Various concentrations of in vitro Sepia melanin in tissue phantoms were measured with near-infrared fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Similar optic measurements were conducted in vivo on 161 normal human skin sites. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was used to quantify the melanin content via Stamatas-Kollias algorithm...
August 14, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786531/feasibility-of-monitoring-advanced-melanoma-patients-using-cell-free-dna-from-plasma
#2
Tara C Gangadhar, Samantha L Savitch, Stephanie S Yee, Wei Xu, Alexander C Huang, Shannon Harmon, David B Lieberman, Devon Soucier, Ryan Fan, Taylor A Black, Jennifer J D Morrissette, Neeraj Salathia, Jill Waters, Shile Zhang, Jonathan Toung, Paul van Hummelen, Jian-Bing Fan, Xiaowei Xu, Ravi K Amaravadi, Lynn M Schuchter, Giorgos C Karakousis, Wei-Ting Hwang, Erica L Carpenter
To determine the feasibility of liquid biopsy for monitoring of advanced melanoma patients, cell-free DNA was extracted from plasma for 25 Stage III/IV patients, most (84.0%) having received previous therapy. DNA concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 390.0 ng/mL (median=7.8 ng/mL), and were positively correlated with tumor burden as measured by imaging (Spearman rho=0.5435, p=0.0363). Using ultra-deep sequencing for a 61-gene panel, one or more mutations were detected in 12 of 25 samples (48.0%), and this proportion did not vary significantly for patients on or off therapy at time of blood draw (52...
August 8, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756632/lymphangiogenesis-from-passive-disseminator-to-dynamic-metastatic-enabler
#3
Eva Perez Guijarro, Glenn Merlino
The lymphatic vasculature drains fluid and cells from tissues and channels them to the lymph nodes, where they encounter immune cells, constituting a critical component of immune function and tissue fluid homeostasis. It has been hypothesized that the formation of new lymphatics (lymphangiogenesis) in tumors can facilitate cancer cell transport to the lymph node, whose permissive microenvironment would favor their survival before disseminating to other organs. However, lymphatic vessels found inside tumors are generally not functional and surgical resection of sentinel lymph nodes does not improve melanoma patient's outcome (Morton et al...
July 30, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755520/genetic-variation-in-irf4-expression-modulates-growth-characteristics-tyrosinase-expression-and-interferon-gamma-response-in-melanocytic-cells
#4
Yash Chhabra, Hilary X L Yong, Mitchell E Fane, Arish Soogrim, Wen Lim, Dayana Nur Mahiuddin, Reuben S Q Kim, Melinda Ashcroft, Scott A Beatson, Stephen A Ainger, Darren J Smit, Kasturee Jagirdar, Graeme J Walker, Richard A Sturm, Aaron G Smith
A SNP within intron4 of the Interferon Regulatory Factor4 (IRF4) gene, rs12203592*C/T has been independently associated with pigmentation and age-specific effects on nevus count in European-derived populations. We have characterised the cis-regulatory activity of this intronic region and using human foreskin-derived melanoblast strains we have explored the correlation between IRF4 rs12203592 homozygous C/C and T/T genotypes with TYR enzyme activity, supporting its association with pigmentation traits. Further, higher IRF4 protein levels directed by the rs12203592*C allele were associated with increased basal proliferation but decreased cell viability following UVR, an etiological factor in melanoma development...
July 29, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741900/the-avidity-of-tumor-specific-t-cells-amplified-by-a-pdc-based-assay-can-predict-the-clinical-evolution-of-melanoma-patients
#5
Julie Charles, Laurence Chaperot, Bruno Revol, Marine Baudin, Stephane Mouret, Agnes Hamon, Marie-Therese Leccia, Joel Plumas, Caroline Aspord
The advent of immune-checkpoint blockers and targeted therapies has changed the outcome of melanoma. However, many patients experience relapses, emphasizing the need for predictive and prognostic biomarkers. We developed a strategy based on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) loaded with melanoma-tumor antigens that allows eliciting highly efficient antitumor T-cell responses. We used it to investigate antitumor T-cell functionality in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from melanoma patients...
July 25, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707763/in-vivo-knockdown-of-antisense-noncoding-mitochondrial-rnas-by-a-lentiviral-encoded-shrna-inhibits-melanoma-tumor-growth-and-lung-colonization
#6
Manuel Varas-Godoy, Alvaro Lladser, Nicole Farfan, Claudio Villota, Jaime Villegas, Julio C Tapia, Luis O Burzio, Veronica A Burzio, Pablo D T Valenzuela
The family of non-coding mitochondrial RNAs (ncmtRNA) are differentially expressed according to proliferative status. Normal proliferating cells express sense (SncmtRNA) and antisense ncmtRNAs (ASncmtRNAs), whereas tumor cells express SncmtRNA and downregulate ASncmtRNAs. Knockdown of ASncmtRNAs with oligonucleotides induces apoptotic cell death of tumor cells, leaving normal cells unaffected, suggesting a potential application for developing a novel cancer therapy. In this study, we knocked down the ASncmtRNAs in melanoma cell lines with a lentiviral-encoded shRNA approach...
July 14, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685959/targeting-cholesterol-transport-in-circulating-melanoma-cells-to-inhibit-metastasis
#7
Yu-Chi Chen, Raghavendra Gowda, Raymond K Newswanger, Patrick Leibich, Barry Fell, Gerson Rosenberg, Gavin P Robertson
Despite recent break throughs in targeted- and immune-based therapies, rapid development of drug resistance remains a hurdle for the long-term treatment of melanoma patients. Targeting metastatically spreading circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may provide an additional approach to manage melanoma. This study investigates whether targeting cholesterol transport in melanoma CTCs can retard metastasis development. Nanolipolee-007, the liposomal form of leelamine, reduced melanoma metastasis in both a novel in vitro flow system mimicking the circulating system and in experimental as well as spontaneous animal metastasis models, irrespective of the BRAF mutational status of the CTCs...
July 7, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677151/getting-a-tan-without-getting-sik
#8
John D'Orazio
It has been more than a decade since the Fisher lab reported that epidermal eumelanin could be robustly up-regulated by topical application of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator that bypassed a defective melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) to promote melanin synthesis. Eumelanin induction protected fair-skinned mice from UV damage using an animal model that recapitulates many of the features of pigmented human epidermis. Through constitutive production of stem cell factor (Kit ligand) in the basal epidermis, the K14-Scf transgenic mouse retains interfollicular melanocytes in the skin and therefore accumulates melanin pigments in the epidermis...
July 5, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656717/filling-the-gaps-in-the-genomic-catalogue-of-melanoma-subtypes
#9
A Hunter Shain, Boris C Bastian
Melanoma is a neoplastic disorder that frequently arises on the sun-exposed skin of light-skinned individuals. Melanomas can also occur on anatomic sites that are partially or completely shielded from sunlight, and these subtypes affect world populations at similar incidences, independent of skin color. These sun-shielded melanomas also differ in their clinical and histologic presentations as well as in their patterns of driver mutations and mutational mechanisms. These notable differences have led to classifications distinguishing melanoma subtypes, originally based on clinical and histopathological features(1) , and later integrating these features with genetic alterations(2) ...
June 28, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649789/beyond-mitf-multiple-transcription-factors-directly-regulate-the-cellular-phenotype-in-melanocytes-and-melanoma
#10
REVIEW
Hannah E Seberg, Eric Van Otterloo, Robert A Cornell
MITF governs multiple steps in the development of melanocytes, including specification from neural crest, growth, survival, and terminal differentiation. In addition, the level of MITF activity determines the phenotype adopted by melanoma cells, whether invasive, proliferative, or differentiated. However, MITF does not act alone. Here we review literature on the transcription factors that co-regulate MITF-dependent genes. ChIP-seq studies have indicated that the transcription factors SOX10, YY1, and TFAP2A co-occupy subsets of regulatory elements bound by MITF in melanocytes...
June 26, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646617/melanoma-associated-grm3-variants-dysregulate-melanosome-trafficking-and-camp-signaling
#11
Ana Neto, Craig J Ceol
Large-scale sequencing studies have revealed several genes that are recurrently mutated in melanomas. To annotate the melanoma genome we have expressed tumor-associated variants of these genes in zebrafish and characterized their effects on melanocyte development and function. Here, we describe expression of tumor-associated variants of the recurrently-mutated metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) gene. Unlike wild-type GRM3, tumor-associated GRM3 variants disrupted trafficking of melanosomes, causing their aggregation in the cell body...
June 24, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640957/restoration-of-cutaneous-pigmentation-by-transplantation-to-mice-of-isogeneic-human-melanocytes-in-dermal-epidermal-engineered-skin-substitutes
#12
Steven T Boyce, Christopher M Lloyd, Mark C Kleiner, Viki B Swope, Zalfa Abdel-Malek, Dorothy M Supp
Autologous engineered skin substitutes (ESS) containing melanocytes (hM) may restore pigmentation, and photoprotection after grafting to full-thickness skin wounds. In the current study, normal hM were isolated from discard skin, propagated with or without tyrosinase inhibitors, cryopreserved, recovered into culture, and added to ESS (ESS-P) before transplantation. ESS-P were incubated in either UCMC160/161 or UCDM1 medium, scored for hM densities, and grafted to mice. The results showed that: sufficient hM can be propagated to expand donor tissue by 100-fold; incubation of hM in tyrosinase inhibitors reduced pigment levels but did not change hM recovery after cryopreservation; hM densities in ESS-P were greater after incubation in UCDM1 than UCMC160 medium; hM were localized to the dermal-epidermal junction of ESS-P; and UCDM1 medium promoted earlier pigment distribution and density...
June 22, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640947/clinico-molecular-analysis-of-eleven-patients-with-hermansky-pudlak-type-5-syndrome-a-mild-form-of-hps
#13
Vincent Michaud, Eulalie Lasseaux, Claudio Plaisant, Alain Verloes, Yaumara Perdomo-Trujillo, Christian Hamel, Nursel H Elcioglu, Bart Leroy, Josseline Kaplan, Pierre-Simon Jouk, Didier Lacombe, Patricia Fergelot, Fanny Morice-Picard, Benoit Arveiler
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), first described in 1959, is a rare form of syndromic oculocutaneous albinism associated with bleeding diathesis and in some cases pulmonary fibrosis and granulomatous colitis. All 10 HPS types are caused by defects in vesicle trafficking of lysosomes-related organelles (LRO) proteins. The HPS5 protein associates with HPS3 and HPS6 to form the Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complex-2 (BLOC-2). Here we report the clinical and genetic data of 11 HPS-5 patients analyzed in our laboratory...
June 22, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640512/a-major-responder-to-ipilimumab-and-nivolumab-in-metastatic-uveal-melanoma-with-concomitant-autoimmunity
#14
Pui Ying Chan, Peter Hall, Gordon Hay, Victoria M L Cohen, Peter W Szlosarek
The use of immune checkpoint inhibition has led to major improvements in outcome for patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. The combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab has demonstrated greater activity over single-agent immunotherapy in phase III trials. Clinical trials of combination CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibition are underway in uveal melanoma, for which there are currently no data. Here, we present the case of a 74-year-old male patient with metastatic uveal melanoma, who was treated with a combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab...
June 22, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627081/arginase-2-a-mir-1299-target-enhances-pigmentation-in-melasma-by-reducing-melanosome-degradation-via-senescence-induced-autophagy-inhibition
#15
Nan-Hyung Kim, Soo-Hyun Choi, Nayoung Yi, Tae Ryong Lee, Ai-Young Lee
Expression profiles revealed miR-1299 downregulation concomitant with arginase-2 (ARG2) upregulation in hyperpigmented skin of melasma patients. Opposite regulation of tyrosinase and PMEL17 by miR-1299 and inverse relationship between miR-1299 and ARG2 expression denoted a role of miR-1299 in pigmentation with ARG2 as a miR-1299 target. ARG2 overexpression or knock-down in keratinocytes, the main source of ARG2 in epidermis, positively regulated tyrosinase and PMEL17 protein levels, but not mRNA levels or melanosome transfer...
June 19, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627072/reply-to-clinical-and-therapeutic-implications-of-braf-mutation-heterogeneity-in-metastatic-melanoma-by-mesbah-ardakani-et%C3%A2-al
#16
Amélie Boespflug, Elisa Funck-Brentano, Zofia Hélias-Rodzewicz, Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Alain Beauchet, Pierre-Paul Bringuier, Charles Dumontet, Jean-François Emile, Philippe Saiag, Stéphane Dalle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581208/pigmentation-more-than-one-master
#17
Erna Magnúsdóttir
Vertebrate pigmentation is a process directed by various transcriptional regulators, that drive the specification of melanoblasts from neural crest cells, their proliferation and migration, and terminal differentiation into melanocytes, culminating in the generation of pigment and it's distribution to surrounding keratinocytes. The transcription factor MITF has been coined the "master regulator" of melanocyte development (reviewed in (Steingrímsson, Copeland and Jenkins, 2004)), as it drives both the specification and differentiation of melanocytes...
June 5, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581198/fbxw7-inactivation-in-a-braf-v600e-driven-mouse-model-leads-to-melanoma-development
#18
LETTER
Iraz T Aydin, Franco Abbate, Geena Susan Rajan, Brateil Badal, Iannis Aifantis, Garrett Desman, Julide Tok Celebi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636210/graphical-displays
#19
EDITORIAL
Heinz Arnheiter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397350/no-association-between-prediagnosis-exercise-and-survival-in-patients-with-high-risk-primary-melanoma-a-population-based-study
#20
LETTER
Emily Schwitzer, Irene Orlow, Emily C Zabor, Colin B Begg, Marianne Berwick, Nancy E Thomas, Peter A Kanetsky, Lee W Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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