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Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665313/refinement-of-the-endogenous-epitope-tagging-eet-technology-allows-the-identification-of-a-novel-nras-binding-partner-in-melanoma
#1
Michal Alon, Rafi Emmanuel, Nouar Qutob, Anna Bakhman, Victoria Peshti, Alexandra Brodezki, David Bassan, Mickey Kosloff, Yardena Samuels
The NRAS oncoprotein is highly mutated in melanoma. However, to date, no comprehensive proteomic study has been reported for NRAS. Here we utilized the Endogenous Epitope Tagging (EET) approach for the identification of novel NRAS binding partners. Using EET, an epitope tag is added to the endogenously expressed protein, via modification of its genomic coding sequence. Existing EET systems are not robust, suffer from high background and are labor-intensive. To this end, we present a polyadenylation signal-trap construct for N'-tagging, that generates a polycistronic mRNA with the gene of interest...
April 17, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665239/fbxw7-regulates-a-mitochondrial-transcription-program-by-modulating-mitf
#2
Franco Abbate, Brateil Badal, Karen Mendelson, Iraz Toprak Aydin, Madhavika N Serasinghe, Ramiz Iqbal, Jarvier Mohammed, Alexander Solovyov, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Jerry E Chipuk, Julide Tok Celebi
FBXW7 is well characterized as a tumor suppressor in many human cancers including melanoma; however, the mechanisms of tumor suppressive function have not been fully elucidated. We leveraged two distinct RNA sequencing datasets: human melanoma cell lines (n=10) with control versus silenced FBXW7 and a cohort of human melanoma tumor samples (n=51) in order to define the transcriptomic fingerprint regulated by FBXW7. Here, we report that loss of FBXW7 enhances a mitochondrial gene transcriptional program that is dependent on MITF in human melanoma and confers poor patient outcomes...
April 17, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665231/estrogen-returns-to-the-stage-in-melanoma
#3
Jennifer L McQuade, Michael A Davies
It has long been recognized that female sex is associated with a lower risk of and improved survival in melanoma (Joosse et al., 2012). However, the mechanism underlying this disparity in outcomes is not understood. One potential explanation is behavioral- i.e. differences by sex in UV exposure, screening and detection, and healthcare utilization. Observed differences between men and women in prognostic factors in primary melanomas would support this. For example, men are more likely to have thicker, ulcerated tumors, which could reflect diagnostic delays...
April 17, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603877/concordance-of-somatic-mutational-profile-in-multiple-primary-melanomas
#4
Nikki R Adler, Catriona A McLean, Rory Wolfe, John W Kelly, Grant A McArthur, Andrew Haydon, Thien Tra, Nicholas Cummings, Victoria J Mar
This study aimed to determine the frequency and concordance of BRAF and NRAS mutation in tumours arising in patients with multiple primary melanoma (MPM). Patients with MPM managed at one of three tertiary referral centres in Melbourne, Australia from 2010-2015 were included. Incident and subsequent melanomas underwent mutation testing. Cohen's kappa (κ) coefficient assessed agreement between incident and subsequent primary melanomas for both BRAF and NRAS mutation status (mutant vs. wild-type). Mutation testing of at least two primary tumours from 64 patients was conducted...
March 30, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603875/toll-like-receptor-2-and-3-enhance-melanogenesis-and-melanosome-transport-in-human-melanocytes
#5
AutSaaya Koike, Kenshi Yamasaki, Takeshi Yamauchi, Mai Inoue, Ryoko Shimada-Ohmori, Kenichiro Tsuchiyama, Setsuya Aiba
Because little is known about how the innate immune response influences skin pigmentation, we examined whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists participate in melanogenesis and melanosome transportation. We observed that TLR2/2 agonist HKLM and TLR3 agonist Poly(I:C) increased the amount of extracellular melanin from primary human epidermal melanocytes. HKLM, but not Poly(I:C), increased the melanogenic genes such as tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase. Poly(I:C) increased the expression of Rab27A, a molecule that facilitates melanosome transport to perimembranous actin filament...
March 30, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582573/regulation-of-melanocyte-stem-cell-behavior-by-the-niche-microenvironment
#6
REVIEW
Huirong Li, Ling Hou
Somatic stem cells are regulated by their niches to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair throughout the lifetime of an organism. An excellent example to study stem cell/niche interactions is provided by the regeneration of melanocytes during the hair cycle and in response to various types of injury. These processes are regulated by neighboring stem cells and multiple signaling pathways, including WNT/β-catenin, KITL/KIT, EDNs/EDNRB, TGFβ/TGFβR, α-MSH/MC1R, and Notch signaling. In this review, we highlight recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the molecular crosstalk between melanocyte stem cells and their neighboring cells, which collectively form the niche microenvironment, and we focus on the question of how McSCs/niche interactions shape the responses to genotoxic damages and mechanical injury...
March 26, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570931/uveal-melanoma-driver-mutations-in-gnaq-11-yield-numerous-changes-in-melanocyte-biology
#7
Dahlia E Perez, Andrea M Henle, Adam Amsterdam, Hannah R Hagen, Jacqueline A Lees
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular cancer and has a high incidence of metastasis, which lacks any effective treatment. Here we present zebrafish models of UM, which are driven by melanocyte-specific expression of activating GNAQ or GNA11 alleles, GNAQ/11Q209L , the predominant initiating mutations for human UM. When combined with mutant tp53, GNAQ/11Q209L transgenics develop various melanocytic tumors, including UM, with near complete penetrance. These tumors display nuclear YAP localization, and thus phenocopy human UM...
March 23, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509997/classification-of-facial-vitiligo-a-cluster-analysis-of-473-patients
#8
Jung Min Bae, Yu Seok Jung, Han Mi Jung, Ji Hun Park, Seung-Kyung Hann
Vitiligo has a substantial negative impact on quality of life in affected patients, especially those with involvement of the face. However, the current system can barely distinguish between specific patterns of facial involvement except for the segmental type when focusing only on facial lesions. We classified facial vitiligo into three distinct subtypes using cluster analysis based on facial topography (n = 473): centrofacial vitiligo (72.9%), panfacial vitiligo (18.0%), and hairline vitiligo (9.1%). Centrofacial vitiligo was the most common type and is thought to comprise the typical facial involvement of generalized vitiligo...
March 6, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495114/microrna-622-is-a-novel-mediator-of-tumorigenicity-in-melanoma-by-targeting-kirsten-rat-sarcoma
#9
Peter Dietrich, Silke Kuphal, Thilo Spruss, Claus Hellerbrand, Anja Katrin Bosserhoff
The network of molecular players is similar when comparing neural crest-derived, actively migrating melanoblasts to melanoma cells. However, melanoblasts are sensitive to differentiation-initiating signals at their target site (epidermis), while melanoma cells maintain migratory and undifferentiated features. We aimed at identifying downregulated genes in melanoma that are particularly upregulated in melanoblasts. Loss of such genes could contribute to stabilization of a dedifferentiated, malignant phenotype in melanoma...
March 1, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488689/morphological-changes-of-hair-melanosomes-by-aging
#10
Takashi Itou
Various changes appear in hair by aging and graying is the most remarkable one. Changes in melanocytes have been well studied as the cause, however, little is known about the change of melanosomes which have a role of carrying melanin pigments into hair shafts. Using pigmented hairs of Japanese females from their age of 4 to 75, I isolated melanosomes and observed them. As a result, I found a significant change in the morphology of hair melanosomes with age. They were ellipsoidal on the whole and there was no age dependence in the major axis, while the minor axis significantly increased and its frequency distribution broadened with age...
February 28, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474003/the-potent-pro-oxidant-activity-of-rhododendrol-eumelanin-is-enhanced-by-ultraviolet-a-radiation
#11
Shosuke Ito, Misa Agata, Kotono Okochi, Kazumasa Wakamatsu
RS-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (rhododendrol, RD), a skin-whitening agent, is known to induce leukoderma in some consumers. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we previously showed that the oxidation of RD with mushroom or human tyrosinase produces cytotoxic quinone oxidation products and RD-eumelanin exerts a potent pro-oxidant activity. Cellular antioxidants were oxidized by RD-eumelanin with a concomitant production of H2 O2 . In this study, we examined whether this pro-oxidant activity of RD-eumelanin is enhanced by ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation because most RD-induced leukoderma lesions are found in sun-exposed areas...
February 23, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473999/melanoma-cases-demonstrate-increased-carrier-frequency-of-phenylketonuria-hyperphenylalanemia-mutations
#12
Joshua Arbesman, Sairekha Ravichandran, Pauline Funchain, Cheryl L Thompson
Identifying novel melanoma genetic risk factors informs screening and prevention efforts. Mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (the causative gene in phenylketonuria) lead to reduced pigmentation in untreated phenylketonuria patients, and reduced pigmentation is associated with greater melanoma risk. Therefore, we sought to characterize the relationship between phenylketonuria carrier status and melanoma risk. Using National Newborn Screening Reports, we determined the United States phenylketonuria/hyperphenylalanemia carrier frequency in Caucasians to be 1...
February 23, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453787/a-phase-ii-trial-of-riluzole-an-antagonist-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-grm1-signaling-in-patients-with-advanced-melanoma
#13
Janice M Mehnert, Ann W Silk, Yu Wen, J H Lee, Liesel Dudek, Byeong-Seon Jeong, Jiadong Li, Jason M Schenkel, Evita Sadimin, Michael Kane, Hongxia Lin, Weichung J Shih, Andrew Zloza, Suzie Chen, James S Goydos
Studies demonstrate that GRM, expressed by >60% of human melanomas, may be a therapeutic target. We performed a phase II trial of 100 mg po bid of riluzole, an inhibitor of GRM1 signaling, in patients with advanced melanoma with the primary endpoint of response rate. Thirteen patients with GRM1-positive tumors were enrolled. No objective responses were observed and accrual was stopped. Stable disease was noted in 6 (46%) patients, with 1 patient on study for 42 weeks. Riluzole was well-tolerated, with fatigue (62%) as the most common adverse event...
February 17, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443462/helping-hand-for-melanoma-invasion-transparent-zebrafish-can-catch-macrophages-in-the-act
#14
Nikolay Ogryzko, Yi Feng
Coverage on "Macrophage-Dependent Cytoplasmic Transfer during Melanoma Invasion In Vivo" Development Cell, Roh-Johnson et al., 2017, Developmental Cell 43, 549-562.Metastatic melanoma ranks amongst the deadliest types of cancer and metastasis itself is the primary killer in most solid tumours, yet gaps still exist in our understanding of this process. We know that innate immune cells, particularly tumour associated macrophage, play a significant role in promoting metastasis (Kitamura, Qian, & Pollard, 2015)...
February 14, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436173/development-and-validation-of-a-reproducible-model-for-studying-post-inflammatory-hyperpigmentation
#15
LETTER
Thierry Passeron, Stéphanie Nouveau, Christine Duval, Nathalie Cardot-Leccia, Virginie Piffaut, Emilie Bourreau, Catherine Queille-Roussel, Françoise Bernerd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419941/toward-the-full-spectrum-of-genes-for-human-skin-colour
#16
Richard A Sturm, David L Duffy
Humans across the globe shows a remarkable diversity in colouration of skin, hair and eyes (Jablonski & Chaplin, 2017) reflecting adaption of pigmentation genes within populations to their environment (Sturm & Duffy, 2012), as well as other evolutionary forces. Skin colour is highly correlated with incident levels of solar UV, and this has led to hypotheses that the need for vitamin D synthesis and protection from photolysis of folate are major balancing selective pressures modulating melanogenesis in the epidermis necessary for both healthy bones at high Northern latitudes experiencing low solar irradiance, but also shielding the skin from the high equatorial sun exposure...
February 8, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385656/t-type-calcium-channels-drive-migration-invasion-in-brafv600e-melanoma-cells-through-snail1
#17
O Maiques, C Barceló, A Panosa, J Pijuan, J L Orgaz, I Rodriguez-Hernandez, C Matas-Nadal, G Tell, R Vilella, A Fabra, Puig S, V Sanz-Moreno, X Matias-Guiu, C Canti, J Herreros, R M Marti, A Macià
Melanoma is a malignant tumor derived from melanocytes. Once disseminated, it is usually highly resistant to chemotherapy and is associated with poor prognosis. We have recently reported that T-type calcium channels (TTCCs) are overexpressed in melanoma cells and play an important role in melanoma progression. Importantly, TTCC pharmacological blockers reduce proliferation and deregulate autophagy leading to apoptosis. Here, we analyze the role of autophagy during migration/invasion of melanoma cells. TTCC Cav3...
January 31, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337423/the-next-generation-of-melanocyte-data-genetic-epigenetic-and-transcriptional-resource-datasets-and-analysis-tools
#18
Stacie K Loftus
The number of melanocyte- and melanoma-derived next generation sequence genome-scale datasets have rapidly expanded over the past several years. This resource guide provides a summary of publicly available sources of melanocyte cell derived whole genome, exome, mRNA and miRNA transcriptome, chromatin accessibility and epigenetic datasets. Also highlighted are bioinformatic resources and tools for visualization and data queries which allow researchers a genome-scale view of the melanocyte.
May 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316280/giant-congenital-melanocytic-nevus-with-vascular-malformation-and-epidermal-cysts-associated-with-a-somatic-activating-mutation-in-braf
#19
Heather C Etchevers, Christian Rose, Birgit Kahle, Helmuth Vorbringer, Frédéric Fina, Pauline Heux, Irina Berger, Benjamin Schwarz, Stéphane Zaffran, Nicolas Macagno, Sven Krengel
Giant congenital melanocytic nevi may be symptomatically isolated or syndromic. Associations with capillary malformations are exceptional, and development of epidermal cysts has not been described. A 71-year-old patient with a giant congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) of the lower back, buttocks, and thighs was asymptomatic except for unexpected hemorrhage during partial surgical excision years before. Blunt trauma at age 64 initiated recurrent, severe pain under the nevus; multiple large epidermal cysts then developed within it...
May 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156497/melanoma-in-patients-with-gata2-deficiency
#20
Jannett Nguyen, Tiffany Alexander, Hong Jiang, Natasha Hill, Zied Abdullaev, Svetlana D Pack, Amy P Hsu, Steven M Holland, Dennis D Hickstein, Eric A Engels, Isaac Brownell
GATA2 deficiency is a recently described genetic disorder affecting hematopoietic stem cells and is associated with immunodeficiency, hematologic malignancy, and various cutaneous pathologies including cutaneous tumors. To explore the incidence and clinical course of melanoma in patients with germline GATA2 deficiencies, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 71 such patients and identified two with invasive melanoma. One melanoma was diagnosed early because it was associated with pruritus due to a graft-versus-tumor effect following bone marrow transplantation...
March 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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