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Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215165/platelet-rich-plasma-and-the-knee-applications-in-orthopedic-surgery
#1
REVIEW
Alexander Wasserman, Graeme Matthewson, Peter MacDonald
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To consolidate and synthesize the most recent evidence on the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the knee with respect to osteoarthritis, meniscal injuries, ACL reconstruction, total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and high tibial osteotomy. RECENT FINDINGS: PRP has been shown to be more beneficial in the context of knee osteoarthritis compared to both placebo and hyaluronic acid. Direct comparison with corticosteroid injections has been sparsely studied...
September 13, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203334/platelet-rich-plasma-review-of-current-literature-on-its-use-for-tendon-and-ligament-pathology
#2
REVIEW
Cameron Kia, Joshua Baldino, Ryan Bell, Alim Ramji, Colin Uyeki, Augustus Mazzocca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains numerous growth factors and cytokines that potentially offer an alternative treatment modality to assist in the healing of multiple musculoskeletal issues. The purpose of this review was to examine the latest literature on the use of PRP for various ligament and tendon pathologies. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature has shown moderate- to high-quality evidence that PRP can have positive clinical effects in certain conditions such as lateral epicondylitis and rotator cuff tendinopathy...
September 10, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203333/platelet-rich-plasma-and-cartilage-repair
#3
REVIEW
Mitchell I Kennedy, Kaitlyn Whitney, Thos Evans, Robert F LaPrade
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the utilization and efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), for the treatment of articular cartilage injury, most commonly characterized by progressive pain and loss of joint function in the setting of osteoarthritis (OA). RECENT FINDINGS: PRP modulates the inflammatory and catabolic environment through a locally applied concentrate of platelets, leukocytes, and growth factors. Clinically, PRP has been shown to be possibly a viable treatment adjuvant for a variety of inflammatory and degenerative conditions...
September 10, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196386/management-of-midfoot-fractures-and-dislocations
#4
REVIEW
Atif Ahmed, Edward Westrick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To outline the classic and recent literature of midfoot fractures and dislocations. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been an evolution of implant technology to include mini-fragment fixation, suture fixation, and staples. Their efficacy is still being elucidated in the literature. Also, there has been a recent push for primary fusion, which we will discuss. Open reduction internal fixation of the midfoot remains to be the gold standard treatment, to which all other treatments are compared...
September 8, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196385/platelet-rich-plasma-and-the-shoulder-clinical-indications-and-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Andrew Schneider, Rebecca Burr, Nickolas Garbis, Dane Salazar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The orthopedic community has seen a rapid rise in the clinical use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the management of shoulder pathologies over the past decade. The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the indications and outcomes of PRP for the surgical and non-surgical management of common shoulder pathologies, including rotator cuff tears. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies have been published recently regarding the use of PRP for the operative and non-operative treatment of rotator cuff tears...
September 8, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116992/the-economics-and-regulation-of-prp-in-the-evolving-field-of-orthopedic-biologics
#6
REVIEW
Ian A Jones, Ryan C Togashi, C Thomas Vangsness
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update on the current status of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Topics covered include the current regulatory environment, economic outlook, and current clinical evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: The global PRP market is expected to grow to between 380 million and 4.5 billion (USD) over the next 5-10 years. The cost of a single treatment, which is not covered by most insurance, is roughly $500-$2500, with patients often returning for additional treatments...
August 16, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995196/limited-approaches-to-calcaneal-fractures
#7
REVIEW
Emily A Wagstrom, Jessica M Downes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review literature published in the last 3 years related to minimally invasive approaches to calcaneal fracture fixation. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous randomized control trials, cohort studies, and meta-analyses have been done in the last 3 years comparing surgical treatment of calcaneus fractures. These studies indicate minimally invasive procedures decrease wound complication rates and achieve similar radiographic and clinical outcomes to open reduction internal fixation...
July 11, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987531/clinical-and-radiologic-evaluation-of-the-posterior-cruciate-ligament-injured-knee
#8
REVIEW
Ahmad Badri, Guillem Gonzalez-Lomas, Laith Jazrawi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accurate isolated PCL diagnosis continues to present a challenge. This article reviews the current literature regarding clinical and radiographic evaluation of PCL injuries. RECENT FINDINGS: A thorough history to understand the mechanism of injury should begin any evaluation. Several clinical tests have been shown to effectively assess PCL laxity, with the posterior drawer test possessing the highest sensitivity and specificity. Any thorough exam should compare the contralateral, uninjured leg...
July 10, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987645/staphylococcus-aureus-evasion-of-host-immunity-in-the-setting-of-prosthetic-joint-infection-biofilm-and-beyond
#9
REVIEW
Benjamin F Ricciardi, Gowrishankar Muthukrishnan, Elysia Masters, Mark Ninomiya, Charles C Lee, Edward M Schwarz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of complications from prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is increasing, and treatment failure remains high. We review the current literature with a focus on Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and biofilm, as well as treatment challenges, and novel therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: S. aureus biofilm creates a favorable environment that increases antibiotic resistance, impairs host immunity, and increases tolerance to nutritional deprivation...
July 9, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987644/management-of-pediatric-ankle-fractures
#10
REVIEW
Z Deniz Olgun, Stephanie Maestre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize classic and recent information regarding the unique subset of ankle fractures in children with open growth plates and share the authors' decision-making and surgical techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research on pediatric ankle fractures has centered on the accurate prediction and prevention of growth arrest following fractures of the distal tibia. Another source of discussion is the necessity and benefit of CT scanning in classification and treatment approach...
July 9, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987643/the-role-of-one-stage-exchange-for-prosthetic-joint-infection
#11
REVIEW
Fiachra E Rowan, Matthew J Donaldson, Jurek R Pietrzak, Fares S Haddad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In an era of increasing numbers of hip and knee replacements, strategies to manage prosthetic joint infection (PJI) that are effective at infection control with good patient-reported outcomes and cost containment for health systems are needed. Interest in single-stage exchange for PJI is rising and we assess evidence from the last 5 years related to this treatment strategy. RECENT FINDINGS: Only five series for total knee replacement and ten series for total hip replacement have been reported in the last five years...
July 9, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936680/intraoperative-considerations-for-treatment-prevention-of-prosthetic-joint-infection
#12
REVIEW
Linda I Suleiman, Daniel R Mesko, Denis Nam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Innovative measures have recently been proposed to prevent periprosthetic joint infection following total hip and knee arthroplasty. We sought to review these recent innovations to determine the reported reduction in periprosthetic joint infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent literature demonstrates promising results in regard to hydrofiber dressings as an independent risk factor for primary prosthetic joint infection reduction, which in turn is also linked with cost savings...
June 23, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062484/current-recommendations-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-and-chronic-pji-for-hip-and-knee-cell-counts-alpha-defensin-leukocyte-esterase-next-generation-sequencing
#13
REVIEW
Karan Goswami, Javad Parvizi, P Maxwell Courtney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite significant progress in recent years, the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a challenge and no gold standard test exists. A combination of serological, synovial, microbiological, histological, and radiological investigations is performed that are expensive, often invasive, and imperfect. Novel biomarkers and molecular methods have shown promise in recent years. The purpose of this review is to provide an update about the diagnostic recommendations for PJI and cover a selection of emerging diagnostic tools...
September 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054808/the-role-of-biologic-in-foot-and-ankle-trauma-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Emily Zhao, Dwayne Carney, Monique Chambers, Samuel Ewalefo, MaCalus Hogan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of biologics in orthopedics is becoming increasingly popular as an adjuvant in healing musculoskeletal injuries. Though many biologics involved in the management of foot and ankle injuries are used based on physician preference, reports of improved outcomes when combined with standard operative treatment has led to further clinical interest especially in foot and ankle trauma. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent studies have shown benefits for biologic use in patients predisposed to poor bone and soft tissue healing...
September 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047003/retrograde-hindfoot-nailing-for-acute-trauma
#15
REVIEW
Ivan S Tarkin, Mitchell S Fourman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of retrograde hindfoot nailing in the treatment of acute orthopedic trauma is explored. RECENT FINDINGS: Tibio-talar calcaneal (TTC) nailing is an acceptable treatment alternative for the low-demand geriatric patient with peri-articular ankle trauma permitting immediate weight-bearing with low rates of complication and return to functionality. Hindfoot nailing can be used for limb salvage in the younger active patient; yet, joint-preserving reconstruction is preferred when feasible...
September 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974403/special-considerations-in-the-management-of-diabetic-ankle-fractures
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Manway, Cody D Blazek, Patrick R Burns
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ankle fractures and diabetes mellitus are both increasing in prevalence. Patients with both diabetes and an ankle fracture have been shown to have an increased rate of complications which can be catastrophic. The purposes of this review are to identify factors placing patients at an increased risk and offer guidance on the management of these injuries, in order to reduce potential complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-operative management of unstable ankle fractures in patients with diabetes results in an unacceptably high rate of complications...
September 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974334/current-concepts-in-talar-neck-fracture-management
#17
REVIEW
Colin Whitaker, Blake Turvey, Emmanuel M Illical
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Talar neck fractures are a rare but potentially devastating injury, which require a comprehensive understanding of the unique osteology, vasculature, and surrounding anatomy to recognize pathology and treat correctly. The purpose of this article is to describe both classic and current literature to better understand the evolution of talar neck fracture management. RECENT FINDINGS: Urgent reduction of displaced fractures and dislocations remains the standard of care to protect the soft tissue envelope and neurovascular structures...
September 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971613/the-use-of-antibiograms-in-orthopedic-surgery
#18
REVIEW
Scott R Nodzo, Nicholas B Frisch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Organism identification and antibiotic selection remain a critical component of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) treatment. Prior to organism identification and/or the availability of antibiotic sensitivities, empiric antibiotics are routinely started. A basic understanding of a region or institutions antibiogram is paramount for selection of an empiric treatment regimen. Evolving antibiogram results and regional antibiotic resistance are important to follow as this may change antibiotic selection in some patient populations...
September 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961193/low-virulence-organisms-and-periprosthetic-joint-infection-biofilm-considerations-of-these-organisms
#19
REVIEW
K Keely Boyle, Stuart Wood, T David Tarity
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a critical review of peer-reviewed literature over the last 5 years related to low virulent organisms associated with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). We evaluated the most common organisms, the diagnostic challenges, and the novel tools available in the perioperative workup of PJI as well as the current understanding of how biofilm potentiates the indolent clinical presentation and explore a possible shift in the surgical management of these patients...
September 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948954/two-stage-revision-arthroplasty-for-the-treatment-of-prosthetic-joint-infection
#20
REVIEW
Ryan S Charette, Christopher M Melnic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the diagnosis and treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) with a focus on two-stage revision arthroplasty. The text will discuss different spacer constructs in total knee and total hip arthroplasty and will present clinical outcome data for these various options. RECENT FINDINGS: There is no appreciable difference in infection eradication between mobile and static antibiotic spacers. Mobile spacers have shown improved knee range of motion after second-stage re-implantation...
September 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
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