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Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine

Alexander S McLawhorn, Ivan De Martino, Keith A Fehring, Peter K Sculco
Utilization of social media both in the private and professional arenas has grown rapidly in the last decade. The rise of social media use within health care can be viewed as the Internet-based corollary of the patient-centered care movement, in which patient perspectives and values are central to the delivery of quality care. For orthopedic surgeons and their practices, general-purpose online social networks, such as Facebook and Twitter, are convenient platforms for marketing, providing patient education and generating referrals...
October 20, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Amanda T Whitaker, Carley Vuillermin
The pediatric lower extremity has well known growth patterns. When deformities or growth disturbances occur, there are several methods to measure and predict the resulting discrepancy, including the Green-Anderson, Moseley, and Multiplier methods. Many techniques exist to correct leg length discrepancy and deformity such and temporary epiphysiodesis, permanent epiphysiodesis, external fixators, and internal lengthening devices. All of these methods have numerous complications and limitations; however, with careful planning and patient selection, length and alignment can be improved with high patient satisfaction...
October 5, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Devin C Peterson, Olufemi R Ayeni
Treatment of pediatric anterior cruciate injuries have become an area of controversy sparking much debate about best management strategies. Delaying surgery until skeletal maturity has often been shown to result in unfavorable outcomes due to concomitant meniscal and chondral injuries in this population. There have been numerous techniques used to reconstruct the ACL in the skeletally immature patient; however, most studies are limited by small patient numbers and other methodological concerns. With recent publications reporting failure rates as high as 15-25 % and growth disturbances being uncommon but now reported within almost every technical category, patient and caregiver education become of paramount importance...
October 5, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Ryan M O'Shea, Coleen S Sabatini
Idiopathic clubfoot has a tremendous worldwide prevalence. If left untreated, the deformity has severely disabling effects on mobility and quality of life. Given its prevalence and significance, numerous studies are published on this condition every year. In this article, we attempt to highlight important themes and findings of studies published on idiopathic clubfoot over the past 3 years.
September 30, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Megan E Gornet, Michael P Kelly
Fractures of the second cervical vertebra (C2, axis) are common in adult spine surgery. Those fractures occurring in younger adult patients are often associated with high-energy mechanism trauma, resulting in a "Hangman's Fracture." Management of these fractures is often successful with nonoperative means, though surgery may be needed in those fractures with greater displacement and injury to the C2-C3 disc. Older patients are more likely to sustain fractures of the odontoid process. The evidence supporting surgical management of these fractures is evolving, as there may be a mortality benefit to surgery...
September 29, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Kristin L Buterbaugh, Apurva S Shah
Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is an upper extremity paralysis that occurs due to traction injury of the brachial plexus during childbirth. Approximately 20 % of children with brachial plexus birth palsy will have residual neurologic deficits. These permanent and significant impacts on upper limb function continue to spur interest in optimizing the management of a problem with a highly variable natural history. BPBP is generally diagnosed on clinical examination and does not typically require cross-sectional imaging...
September 28, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Simon Lee, Asheesh Bedi
Acromioclavicular joint separations are a common cause of shoulder pain in the young athletic population. In high-grade injuries, acromioclavicular joint reconstruction procedures may be indicated for functional improvement. There is currently no gold standard for the surgical management of these injuries. Multiple reconstructive options exist, including coracoclavicular screws, hook plates, endobutton coracoclavicular fixations, and anatomic ligament reconstructions with tendon grafts. This article aims to review pertinent acromioclavicular joint anatomy and biomechanics, radiographic evaluation, classification system, as well as reconstruction options, outcomes, and complications...
September 19, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Robert F Murphy, James F Mooney
Complications following spine fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be characterized as either intra-operative or post-operative. The most serious and feared complication is neurologic injury, both in the intra- and post-operative period. Other intra-operative complications include dural tears and ophthalmologic or peripheral nerve deficits, which may be related to positioning. Among the most common post-operative complications are surgical site infection, venous thromboembolism, gastrointestinal complications, and implant-related complications...
September 17, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Moin Khan, Kayode O Oduwole, Parul Razdan, Mark Phillips, Seper Ekhtiari, Nolan S Horner, Kristian Samuelsson, Olufemi R Ayeni
: A systematic review was performed to explore the current trends over the last 5 years in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) literature and compare the quality and sources of publications in the literature to that published previously. We identified 1066 relevant studies including 186,572 patients. The number of publications increased during the reviewed time period with the most dramatic increase from 2011 to 2013. Seventy-three percent (N = 786) of all studies were of levels 4 and 5 quality evidence...
September 14, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Jan-Hendrik Naendrup, Jason P Zlotnicki, Tom Chao, Kanto Nagai, Volker Musahl
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction aims to restore the translational and rotational motion to the knee joint that is lost after injury. However, despite technical advancements, clinical outcomes are less than ideal, particularly in return to previous activity level. A major issue is the inability to standardize treatment protocols due to variations in materials and approaches used to accomplish ACL reconstruction. These include surgical techniques such as the transtibial and anteromedial portal methods that are currently under use and the wide availability of graft types that will be used to reconstruct the ACL...
September 13, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Stephen Preston, Massimo Petrera, Christopher Kim, Michael G Zywiel, Rajiv Gandhi
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains the treatment of choice for end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. With an aging population, the demand for TKA continues to increase, placing a significant burden on a health care system that must function with limited resources. Although generally accepted as a successful procedure, 15-30 % of patients report persistent pain following TKA. Classically, pain generators have been divided into intra-articular and extra-articular causes. However, there remains a significant subset of patients for whom pain remains unexplained...
September 9, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Stephanie Pun
Hip dysplasia is a treatable developmental disorder that presents early in life but if neglected can lead to chronic disability due to pain, decreased function, and early osteoarthritis. The main causes of hip dysplasia in the young adult are residual childhood developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and adolescent-onset acetabular dysplasia. These two distinct disease processes affect the growing hip during different times of development but result in a similar deformity and pathomechanism of hip degeneration...
September 9, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Rhianna M Little, Matthew D Milewski
While some fractures may be managed similarly in adults and children, physeal fractures are uniquely limited to the pediatric population and require special consideration. Although physeal fractures about the knee are relatively rare, they are occurring more frequently due to increasing youth participation in sports and high-energy recreational activities. The evaluation and management of distal femoral and proximal tibial physeal fractures are similar to one another, but fractures of the tibial spine and tibial tubercle are approached somewhat differently...
September 7, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Saad M AlQahtani, Ryan T Bicknell
Lesions of the proximal long head of the biceps tendon (LHB) have been considered as a major cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction. The role of the LHB in causing pain has been a source of controversy for many years, and extensive literature is available discussing anatomy, function, pathology, and most importantly appropriate treatment. Despite this, there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding the management of biceps-related pathology. Biceps tenotomy and tenodesis are common surgical treatment options when dealing with LHB-related pathology...
September 6, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Andrew Pennock, Michael M Murphy, Mark Wu
The management of pediatric patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear can be a challenging endeavor for physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and parents alike. In particular, the significant longitudinal growth that arises from the physes about the knee creates a unique set of circumstances that must be considered in this patient population. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the most recent current literature for the management of skeletally immature patients with an ACL tear...
September 1, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
R Kyle Martin, Ivan Dzaja, Jeffrey Kay, Muzammil Memon, Andrew Duong, Nicole Simunovic, Olufemi R Ayeni
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a common cause of hip pain, and open surgical approaches remain an important treatment option for FAI. This systematic review of the literature sought to determine what post-operative radiographic outcomes have been reported following open surgical correction of FAI. After screening and full-text review, 18 studies involving 1192 hips in 1084 patients were included for analysis. In total, 24 radiological outcomes were reported. CAM-type FAI was most frequently assessed using the alpha angle (61...
August 31, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Joshua D Harris
The importance of the acetabular labrum has been increasingly recognized, playing a critical role in both normal anatomy and abnormal pathology of the hip joint. The labrum increases acetabular surface area and volume, providing a stable and durable articulation. The fibrocartilaginous composition affords a tissue capable of a lifetime of normal function in the absence of significant osseous pathology. In the setting of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or dysplasia, bony biomechanics may cause labral injury, which may translate to patient symptoms...
August 31, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Ivan Dzaja, Kyle Martin, Jeffrey Kay, Muzammil Memon, Andrew Duong, Nicole Simunovic, Olufemi R Ayeni
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition increasingly being recognized as a cause of hip pain and disability. Hip arthroscopy is a common method used to treat this condition. The purpose of this review was to identify reported radiographic outcomes after arthroscopic surgery for FAI. Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Medline) were screened for studies involving arthroscopic management of FAI. Full-text reviews of eligible studies were conducted. We identified 23 eligible studies involving 1348 patients from an initial screen of 1304 studies involved...
August 30, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Peter A Christiansen, Michael LaBagnara, Durga R Sure, Christopher I Shaffrey, Justin S Smith
If nonoperative measures are unsuccessful in managing the pain and disability of adult spinal deformities, surgical correction may provide the potential for significant improvement in a patient's quality of life. However, these procedures have a relatively high risk of complications. Identifying patients that may benefit from surgical intervention requires a thorough understanding of potential complications and managing the risks of any individual patient. Complications do not necessarily result in poor outcomes, and good outcomes are not always complication free...
September 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Chun-Po Yen, Yusef I Mosley, Juan S Uribe
With the aging population, there is a rising prevalence of degenerative spinal deformity and need of surgical care for these patients. Surgical treatment for adult spinal deformity (ASD) is often fraught with a high rate of complications. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has for the past decade been adopted by spine surgeons to treat ASD in the hopes of reducing access-related morbidity and perioperative complications. The benefits of MIS approach in general and recent development of MIS techniques to avoid long-term complications such as pseudoarthrosis or proximal junctional kyphosis are reviewed...
September 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
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