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Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142613/surface-data-assimilation-of-chemical-compounds-over-north-america-and-its-impact-on-air-quality-and-air-quality-health-index-aqhi-forecasts
#1
Alain Robichaud
The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of initializing GEM-MACH, Environment and Climate Change Canada's air quality (AQ) forecast model, with multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOA). A series of 48-h air quality forecasts were launched for July 2012 (summer case) and January 2014 (winter case) for ozone, NO2, and PM2.5. In this setup, the GEM-MACH model (version 1.3.8.2) was initialized with surface analysis increments (from MPSOA) which were projected in the vertical by applying an appropriate fractional weighting in order to obtain 3D analyses in the lower troposphere...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142612/trends-and-patterns-of-air-quality-in-santa-cruz-de-tenerife-canary-islands-in-the-period-2011-2015
#2
Jose M Baldasano, Jordi Massagué
Air quality trends and patterns in the coastal city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) for the period 2011-2015 were analyzed. The orographic and meteorological characteristics, the proximity to the African continent, and the influence of the Azores anticyclone in combination with the anthropogenic (oil refinery, road/maritime traffic) and natural emissions create specific dispersion conditions. SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 pollutants were assessed. The refinery was the primary source of SO2; EU hourly and daily average limit values were exceeded during 2011 and alert thresholds were reached in 2011 and 2012...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046736/factors-determining-dry-deposition-of-total-mercury-and-organic-carbon-in-house-dust-of-residents-of-the-tri-city-and-the-surrounding-area-baltic-sea-coast
#3
Kinga Wiśniewska, Anita Urszula Lewandowska, Agnieszka Witkowska
The purpose of this study was to find out what factors determine the deposition levels of mercury and organic carbon in household dust in the Tri-city region (southern Baltic Sea coast). Analyses were performed on samples collected over the period of 2 years, from 2013 to 2015, always in the heating season. The deposition of organic carbon was between 4and 210 mg m(-2) month(-1), while mercury deposition ranged from 4 to 1336 ng m(-2) month(-1). Deposition of mercury in household dust during the heating season was three times lower and deposition of organic carbon one and a half times lower than outdoor deposition obtained in the Baltic Sea region by other researchers...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936271/comparison-of-the-volatile-organic-compound-recovery-rates-of-commercial-active-samplers-for-evaluation-of-indoor-air-quality-in-work-environments
#4
Yuichi Miyake, Masahiro Tokumura, Qi Wang, Zhiwei Wang, Takashi Amagai
The Industrial Safety and Health Law in Japan established administrative levels for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. In the present study, these 49 VOCs were extracted from the absorbents of commercial active samplers from Sibata Scientific Technology (carbon-bead active sampler), SKC Inc. (Anasorb CSC sorbent tube), and Gastec (bead-shaped activated carbon tube) using carbon disulfide, and the recovery rates were compared. The VOCs were added to the adsorbents at three concentration levels relative to the administrative levels (×0...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936270/characterization-of-five-year-observation-data-of-fine-particulate-matter-in-the-metropolitan-area-of-lahore
#5
Fatima Khanum, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Prashant Kumar
This study aims to assess the long-term trend of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤2.5 μm) at two urban sites of Lahore during 2007-2011. These sites represent two distinct areas: commercial (Townhall) and residential cum industrial (Township). The highest daily mean concentrations of PM2.5 were noted as 389 and 354 μg m(-3) at the Townhall and Township sites, respectively. As expected, the annual seasonal mean of PM2.5 was about 53 and 101% higher during winter compared with the summer and monsoon/post-monsoon seasons, respectively...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356998/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-bound-to-outdoor-and-indoor-airborne-particles-pm2-5-and-their-mutagenicity-and-carcinogenicity-in-silesian-kindergartens-poland
#6
Ewa Błaszczyk, Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska, Krzysztof Klejnowski, Izabela Fulara, Danuta Mielżyńska-Švach
Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important due to the widespread presence of PAHs in the environment and their toxicological relevance, especially to susceptible populations such as children and their health. The aim of this study is to compare indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) and 15 individual PAHs, as well as contribution of the analyzed PAHs to mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. Samples were collected during spring season in two sites in southern Poland (Silesia) representing urban and rural areas...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356997/variations-in-the-structure-of-airborne-bacterial-communities-in-tsogt-ovoo-of-gobi-desert-area-during-dust-events
#7
Teruya Maki, Yasunori Kurosaki, Kazunari Onishi, Kevin C Lee, Stephen B Pointing, Dulam Jugder, Norikazu Yamanaka, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Masato Shinoda
Asian dust events transport the airborne bacteria in Chinese desert regions as well as mineral particles and influence downwind area varying biological ecosystems and climate changes. However, the airborne bacterial dynamics were rarely investigated in the Gobi desert area, where dust events are highly frequent. In this study, air samplings were sequentially performed at a 2-m high above the ground at the sampling site located in desert area (Tsogt-Ovoo of Gobi desert; Mongolia 44.2304°N, 105.1700°E). During the dust event days, the bacterial cells and mineral particles increased to more than tenfold of concentrations...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250866/analyzing-the-efficiency-of-short-term-air-quality-plans-in-european-cities-using-the-chimere-air-quality-model
#8
P Thunis, B Degraeuwe, E Pisoni, F Meleux, A Clappier
Regional and local authorities have the obligation to design air quality plans and assess their impacts when concentration levels exceed the limit values. Because these limit values cover both short- (day) and long-term (year) effects, air quality plans also follow these two formats. In this work, we propose a methodology to analyze modeled air quality forecast results, looking at emission reduction for different sectors (residential, transport, agriculture, etc.) with the aim of supporting policy makers in assessing the impact of short-term action plans...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111597/magnetic-study-of-a-mixture-of-magnetite-and-metallic-iron-in-indoor-dust-samples
#9
Beata Górka-Kostrubiec, Iga Szczepaniak-Wnuk
Magnetite in mixture with metallic iron in indoor dust samples was examined using several magnetic analyses, thermomagnetic curves of the magnetic susceptibility and the induced magnetization vs. temperature, hysteresis loops, and first-order reversal curves. The study of the magnetic properties was supplemented by the analysis of chemical elements and electron microscopic observation. The metallic iron in the mixture affects the values of hysteresis parameters, decreasing coercivity (Bc) and increasing saturation magnetization (Ms), and it is responsible for the magnetic enhancement of magnetic susceptibility...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111596/chemical-content-and-estimated-sources-of-fine-fraction-of-particulate-matter-collected-in-krakow
#10
Lucyna Samek, Zdzislaw Stegowski, Leszek Furman, Joanna Fiedor
The monitored level of pollution remains high in Krakow, Poland. Alerts regarding increased levels of pollution, which advise asthmatics, the elderly, and children to limit their exposure to open air, continue to be issued on numerous days. In this work, seasonal variations in PM2.5 (particulate matter containing particles with aerodynamic diameter no higher than 2.5 μm) concentrations are shown. An increasing trend is reported, which is enhanced during the colder seasons. The mean PM2.5 concentrations in Krakow exceeded the target value of 25 μg/m(3) specified for 2015 in the spring, autumn, and winter seasons...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111595/physical-properties-and-lung-deposition-of-particles-emitted-from-five-major-indoor-sources
#11
Tuan V Vu, Jakub Ondracek, Vladimir Zdímal, Jaroslav Schwarz, Juana Maria Delgado-Saborit, Roy M Harrison
The physical properties of indoor particles were measured with an Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) system (14.6-850 nm), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS, 0.54-18 μm) and an Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) in an apartment located in an urban background site in Prague (Czech Republic) from 15 August to 8 September, 2014. The total particle maximum number concentration was 9.38 × 10(4), 1.46 × 10(5), 2.89 × 10(4), 2.25 × 10(5) and 1.57 × 10(6) particles cm(-3) for particles released from vacuum cleaning, soap/W5 cleaning spray, smoking, incense burning and cooking (frying) activities, respectively...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083077/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-elemental-carbon-in-bakersfield-california
#12
Elizabeth M Noth, Fred Lurmann, Amanda Northcross, Charles Perrino, David Vaughn, S Katharine Hammond
Despite increasing evidence that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures contribute to adverse health outcomes for sensitive populations, limited data are available on short-term intraurban spatial distributions for use in epidemiologic research. Exposure assessments for airborne PAHs are uncommon because air sampling for PAHs is a labor-, equipment-, and time-intensive task. To address this gap we measured wintertime PAH concentrations during 2010-2011 in Bakersfield, California, USA, a major city in the Southern San Joaquin Valley...
December 2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213020/air-pollution-influences-on-exhaled-nitric-oxide-among-people-with-type-ii-diabetes
#13
Cheng Peng, Heike Luttmann-Gibson, Antonella Zanobetti, Allison Cohen, Celine De Souza, Brent A Coull, Edward S Horton, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, Diane R Gold
OBJECTIVE: In a population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we examined associations of short-term air pollutant exposures with pulmonary inflammation, measured as fraction of exhaled pulmonary nitric oxide (FeNO). METHODS: Sixty-nine Boston Metropolitan residents with T2DM completed up to 5 bi-weekly visits with 321 offline FeNO measurements. We measured ambient concentrations of particle mass, number and components at our stationary central site. Ambient concentrations of gaseous air pollutants were obtained from state monitors...
April 2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659994/the-influence-of-air-quality-model-resolution-on-health-impact-assessment-for-fine-particulate-matter-and-its-components
#14
Ying Li, Daven K Henze, Darby Jack, Patrick L Kinney
Health impact assessments for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often rely on simulated concentrations generated from air quality models. However, at the global level, these models often run at coarse resolutions, resulting in underestimates of peak concentrations in populated areas. This study aims to quantitatively examine the influence of model resolution on the estimates of mortality attributable to PM2.5 and its species in the USA. We use GEOS-Chem, a global 3-D model of atmospheric composition, to simulate the 2008 annual average concentrations of PM2...
February 2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867428/a-class-of-non-linear-exposure-response-models-suitable-for-health-impact-assessment-applicable-to-large-cohort-studies-of-ambient-air-pollution
#15
Masoud M Nasari, Mieczysław Szyszkowicz, Hong Chen, Daniel Crouse, Michelle C Turner, Michael Jerrett, C Arden Pope, Bryan Hubbell, Neal Fann, Aaron Cohen, Susan M Gapstur, W Ryan Diver, David Stieb, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Sun-Young Kim, Casey Olives, Daniel Krewski, Richard T Burnett
The effectiveness of regulatory actions designed to improve air quality is often assessed by predicting changes in public health resulting from their implementation. Risk of premature mortality from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is the single most important contributor to such assessments and is estimated from observational studies generally assuming a log-linear, no-threshold association between ambient concentrations and death. There has been only limited assessment of this assumption in part because of a lack of methods to estimate the shape of the exposure-response function in very large study populations...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867427/practicalities-of-mapping-pm10-and-pm2-5-concentrations-on-city-wide-scales-using-a-portable-particulate-monitor
#16
Michael E Deary, Samantha J Bainbridge, Amy Kerr, Adam McAllister, Thomas Shrimpton
Fine particulate matter is considered to be the most significant ambient air pollutant in terms of potential health impacts. Therefore, it is important that regulators are able to accurately assess the exposure of populations to PM10 and PM2.5 across municipal areas. We report on the practicalities of using a laser light scattering portable particulate monitor (Turnkey Instruments DustMate), in combination with a GPS, to map PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on city-wide scales in Newcastle upon Tyne/Gateshead (UK), during a series of walking surveys...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867426/fragranced-consumer-products-exposures-and-effects-from-emissions
#17
Anne Steinemann
Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, are a primary source of indoor air pollutants and personal exposure. Previous research indicates that fragranced products can trigger adverse health effects, with implications for workplaces and public places. This is the first study to examine the multiple dimensions of exposures related to fragranced products and effects in the US population. The study investigated the prevalence and types of fragranced product exposures, associated health effects, awareness of product emissions, and preferences for fragrance-free policies and environments...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785158/effect-of-agriculture-and-vegetation-on-carbonaceous-aerosol-concentrations-pm2-5-and-pm10-in-puszcza-borecka-national-nature-reserve-poland
#18
Agnieszka Witkowska, Anita U Lewandowska, Dominika Saniewska, Lucyna M Falkowska
Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were measured in PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected at Diabla Gora (Puszcza Borecka National Nature Reserve, Poland) between 1 January and 31 December 2009, to investigate the seasonal and daily concentration variations and source regions. Strict sampling and measurement procedure, together with analysis of air mass backward trajectories and pollutant markers, indicated that the most important sources of carbon in the aerosols over Diabla Gora were vegetation, agricultural activity, and biomass burning...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785157/multi-pollutant-surface-objective-analyses-and-mapping-of-air-quality-health-index-over-north-america
#19
Alain Robichaud, Richard Ménard, Yulia Zaïtseva, David Anselmo
Air quality, like weather, can affect everyone, but responses differ depending on the sensitivity and health condition of a given individual. To help protect exposed populations, many countries have put in place real-time air quality nowcasting and forecasting capabilities. We present in this paper an optimal combination of air quality measurements and model outputs and show that it leads to significant improvements in the spatial representativeness of air quality. The product is referred to as multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOAs)...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547272/greater-nitrogen-dioxide-concentrations-at-child-versus-adult-breathing-heights-close-to-urban-main-road-kerbside
#20
Hannah S Kenagy, Chun Lin, Hao Wu, Mathew R Heal
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a ubiquitous air pollutant with high concentrations particularly close to main roads. The focus of this study was on possible differences in NO2 concentrations between adult and child heights as a function of different distances from heavily trafficked roads in urban areas. Passive diffusion tubes were used to measure NO2 concentrations at heights of 0.8 m (approximate inhalation height of children and closer to vehicle exhaust height) and 2.0 m (approximate inhalation height of adults) above the ground at a number of locations and over several weeks in the city of Edinburgh, UK...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
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