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Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213020/air-pollution-influences-on-exhaled-nitric-oxide-among-people-with-type-ii-diabetes
#1
Cheng Peng, Heike Luttmann-Gibson, Antonella Zanobetti, Allison Cohen, Celine De Souza, Brent A Coull, Edward S Horton, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, Diane R Gold
OBJECTIVE: In a population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we examined associations of short-term air pollutant exposures with pulmonary inflammation, measured as fraction of exhaled pulmonary nitric oxide (FeNO). METHODS: Sixty-nine Boston Metropolitan residents with T2DM completed up to 5 bi-weekly visits with 321 offline FeNO measurements. We measured ambient concentrations of particle mass, number and components at our stationary central site. Ambient concentrations of gaseous air pollutants were obtained from state monitors...
April 2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867428/a-class-of-non-linear-exposure-response-models-suitable-for-health-impact-assessment-applicable-to-large-cohort-studies-of-ambient-air-pollution
#2
Masoud M Nasari, Mieczysław Szyszkowicz, Hong Chen, Daniel Crouse, Michelle C Turner, Michael Jerrett, C Arden Pope, Bryan Hubbell, Neal Fann, Aaron Cohen, Susan M Gapstur, W Ryan Diver, David Stieb, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Sun-Young Kim, Casey Olives, Daniel Krewski, Richard T Burnett
The effectiveness of regulatory actions designed to improve air quality is often assessed by predicting changes in public health resulting from their implementation. Risk of premature mortality from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is the single most important contributor to such assessments and is estimated from observational studies generally assuming a log-linear, no-threshold association between ambient concentrations and death. There has been only limited assessment of this assumption in part because of a lack of methods to estimate the shape of the exposure-response function in very large study populations...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867427/practicalities-of-mapping-pm10-and-pm2-5-concentrations-on-city-wide-scales-using-a-portable-particulate-monitor
#3
Michael E Deary, Samantha J Bainbridge, Amy Kerr, Adam McAllister, Thomas Shrimpton
Fine particulate matter is considered to be the most significant ambient air pollutant in terms of potential health impacts. Therefore, it is important that regulators are able to accurately assess the exposure of populations to PM10 and PM2.5 across municipal areas. We report on the practicalities of using a laser light scattering portable particulate monitor (Turnkey Instruments DustMate), in combination with a GPS, to map PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on city-wide scales in Newcastle upon Tyne/Gateshead (UK), during a series of walking surveys...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867426/fragranced-consumer-products-exposures-and-effects-from-emissions
#4
Anne Steinemann
Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, are a primary source of indoor air pollutants and personal exposure. Previous research indicates that fragranced products can trigger adverse health effects, with implications for workplaces and public places. This is the first study to examine the multiple dimensions of exposures related to fragranced products and effects in the US population. The study investigated the prevalence and types of fragranced product exposures, associated health effects, awareness of product emissions, and preferences for fragrance-free policies and environments...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785158/effect-of-agriculture-and-vegetation-on-carbonaceous-aerosol-concentrations-pm2-5-and-pm10-in-puszcza-borecka-national-nature-reserve-poland
#5
Agnieszka Witkowska, Anita U Lewandowska, Dominika Saniewska, Lucyna M Falkowska
Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were measured in PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected at Diabla Gora (Puszcza Borecka National Nature Reserve, Poland) between 1 January and 31 December 2009, to investigate the seasonal and daily concentration variations and source regions. Strict sampling and measurement procedure, together with analysis of air mass backward trajectories and pollutant markers, indicated that the most important sources of carbon in the aerosols over Diabla Gora were vegetation, agricultural activity, and biomass burning...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785157/multi-pollutant-surface-objective-analyses-and-mapping-of-air-quality-health-index-over-north-america
#6
Alain Robichaud, Richard Ménard, Yulia Zaïtseva, David Anselmo
Air quality, like weather, can affect everyone, but responses differ depending on the sensitivity and health condition of a given individual. To help protect exposed populations, many countries have put in place real-time air quality nowcasting and forecasting capabilities. We present in this paper an optimal combination of air quality measurements and model outputs and show that it leads to significant improvements in the spatial representativeness of air quality. The product is referred to as multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOAs)...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547272/greater-nitrogen-dioxide-concentrations-at-child-versus-adult-breathing-heights-close-to-urban-main-road-kerbside
#7
Hannah S Kenagy, Chun Lin, Hao Wu, Mathew R Heal
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a ubiquitous air pollutant with high concentrations particularly close to main roads. The focus of this study was on possible differences in NO2 concentrations between adult and child heights as a function of different distances from heavily trafficked roads in urban areas. Passive diffusion tubes were used to measure NO2 concentrations at heights of 0.8 m (approximate inhalation height of children and closer to vehicle exhaust height) and 2.0 m (approximate inhalation height of adults) above the ground at a number of locations and over several weeks in the city of Edinburgh, UK...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375795/size-segregated-urban-particulate-matter-mass-closure-chemical-composition-and-primary-and-secondary-matter-content
#8
Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska
Forty-nine components of ambient particulate matter (PM) in size-fractionated PM were investigated at an urban background site in Katowice (Silesian Agglomeration in Southern Poland) in the non-heating season of 2012. PM was analyzed for two groups of carbon compounds (organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon, Lab OC-EC Aerosol Analyzer), five major water-soluble ions (NH4 (+), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), and Na(+) contents in PM water extracts, ion chromatography), 26 elements (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, gas chromatography)...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375794/explaining-the-high-pm10-concentrations-observed-in-polish-urban-areas
#9
Magdalena Reizer, Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
The main goal of this paper is to identify the drivers responsible for the high particulate matter concentrations observed in recent years in several urban areas in Poland. The problem was investigated using air quality and meteorological data from routine monitoring network, air mass back trajectories and multivariate statistical modelling. Air pollution in central and southern part of the country was analysed and compared with this in northern-eastern "The Green Lungs of Poland" region. The analysis showed that in all investigated locations, there is a clear annual cycle of observed concentrations, closely following temperature-heating cycles, with the highest concentrations noted in January...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239243/a-novel-approach-to-screen-and-compare-emission-inventories
#10
P Thunis, B Degraeuwe, K Cuvelier, M Guevara, L Tarrason, A Clappier
A methodology is proposed to support the evaluation and comparison of different types of emission inventories. The strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are presented and discussed based on an example. The approach results in a "diamond" diagram useful to flag out anomalous behaviors in the emission inventories and to get insight in possible explanations. In particular, the "diamond" diagram is shown to provide meaningful information in terms of: discrepancies between the total emissions reported by macro-sector and pollutant, contribution of each macro-sector to the total amount of emissions released by pollutant, and the identification and quantification of the different factors causing the discrepancies between total emissions...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158280/high-end-exposure-relationships-of-volatile-air-toxics-and-carbon-monoxide-to-community-scale-air-monitoring-stations-in-atlanta-chicago-and-houston
#11
Eric M Fujita, Barbara Zielinska, David E Campbell, John C Sagebiel, Will Ollison
Evaporative and exhaust mobile source air toxic (MSAT) emissions of total volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, butadiene, methyl tertiary butyl ether, and ethanol were measured in vehicle-related high-end microenvironments (ME) under worst-case conditions plausibly simulating the >99th percentile of inhalation exposure concentrations in Atlanta (baseline gasoline), Chicago (ethanol-oxygenated gasoline), and Houston (methyl tertiary butyl either-oxygenated gasoline) during winter and summer seasons...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158279/long-range-fine-particulate-matter-from-the-2002-quebec-forest-fires-and-daily-mortality-in-greater-boston-and-new-york-city
#12
Ke Zu, Ge Tao, Christopher Long, Julie Goodman, Peter Valberg
During July 2002, forest fires in Quebec, Canada, blanketed the US East Coast with a plume of wood smoke. This "natural experiment" exposed large populations in northeastern US cities to significantly elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), providing a unique opportunity to test the association between daily mortality and ambient PM2.5 levels that are uncorrelated with societal activity rhythms. We obtained PM2.5 measurement data and mortality data for a 4-week period in July 2002 for the Greater Boston metropolitan area (which has a population of over 1...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26539254/chemical-characterization-and-in-vitro-toxicity-of-diesel-exhaust-particulate-matter-generated-under-varying-conditions
#13
Julie Richman Fox, David P Cox, Bertram E Drury, Timothy R Gould, Terrance J Kavanagh, Michael H Paulsen, Lianne Sheppard, Christopher D Simpson, James A Stewart, Timothy V Larson, Joel D Kaufman
Epidemiologic studies have linked diesel exhaust (DE) to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, as well as lung cancer. DE composition is known to vary with many factors, although it is unclear how this influences toxicity. We generated eight DE atmospheres by applying a 2×2×2 factorial design and altering three parameters in a controlled exposure facility: (1) engine load (27 vs 82 %), (2) particle aging (residence time ~5 s vs ~5 min prior to particle collection), and (3) oxidation (with or without ozonation during dilution)...
October 1, 2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547271/the-impact-of-nitrogen-oxides-concentration-decreases-on-ozone-trends-in-the-usa
#14
Iny Jhun, Brent A Coull, Antonella Zanobetti, Petros Koutrakis
Ozone (O3) has harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. In the USA, significant reductions of O3 precursors-nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)-have not yielded proportionate decreases in O3. NOx is a major precursor of O3 as well as a quencher of O3 through NOx titration, which is especially important during the night and wintertime. In this study, we investigated the potential dual impact of NOx concentration decreases on recent O3 trends by season and time of day. We analyzed hourly O3 and NOx measurement data between 1994 and 2010 in the continental USA...
June 2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25972992/characterizing-the-burden-of-disease-of-particulate-matter-for-life-cycle-impact-assessment
#15
Carina J Gronlund, Sebastien Humbert, Shanna Shaked, Marie S O'Neill, Olivier Jolliet
Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is a major environmental contributor to human burden of disease and therefore an important component of life cycle impact assessments. An accurate PM2.5 characterization factor, i.e., the impact per kg of PM2.5 emitted, is critical to estimating "cradle-to-grave" human health impacts of products and processes. We developed and assessed new characterization factors (disability-adjusted life years (DALY)/kgPM2.5 emitted), or the products of dose-response factors (deaths/kgPM2...
February 1, 2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25755687/influence-of-local-meteorology-and-no2-conditions-on-ground-level-ozone-concentrations-in-the-eastern-part-of-texas-usa
#16
A K Gorai, F Tuluri, P B Tchounwou, S Ambinakudige
The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors...
February 2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26478755/roadside-increments-in-pm10-nox-and-no2-concentrations-observed-over-2%C3%A2-months-at-a-major-highway-in-new-zealand
#17
Ian Longley, Elizabeth Somervell, Sally Gray
Continuous and simultaneous observational particulate matter (measured as PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) data were captured at a kerbside site alongside a major highway in Auckland, New Zealand, and at a pair of setback sites within 250 m of the highway, day and night over 8 weeks. The three measurement sites were intended to allow emissions from the highway to be largely isolated from other sources. By filtering the data and subtracting upwind concentrations, the average roadside increment was calculated to be 1...
2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246863/the-effect-of-a-fireworks-event-on-the-amount-and-elemental-concentration-of-deposited-dust-collected-in-the-city-of-debrecen-hungary
#18
Edina Baranyai, Edina Simon, Mihály Braun, Béla Tóthmérész, József Posta, István Fábián
Many social celebrations in urban areas are followed by fireworks show. The organic and inorganic pollutants emitted during detonations are expected to affect the ambient air quality of these celebration sites. The environmental aspects of fireworks events are usually investigated by analyzing the concentration and composition of airborne particulate matter, while there is limited information regarding the effect of fireworks on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. In this study, foliage dust samples were collected in the city of Debrecen (Hungary) before and after the fireworks show, organized on the 20th of August for the celebration of a historical event...
2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246862/use-of-two-indicators-for-the-socio-environmental-risk-analysis-of-northern-mexico-under-three-climate-change-scenarios
#19
Armando López-Santos, Santos Martínez-Santiago
The aims of this study were to (1) find critical areas susceptible to the degradation of natural resources according to local erosion rates and aridity levels, which were used as environmental quality indicators, and (2) identify areas of risk associated with the presence of natural hazards according to three climate change scenarios defined for Mexico. The focus was the municipality of Lerdo, Durango (25.166° to 25.783° N and 103.333° to 103.983° W), which has dry temperate and very dry climates (BSohw and BWhw)...
2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26052369/association-of-weather-and-air-pollution-interactions-on-daily-mortality-in-12-canadian-cities
#20
J K Vanos, S Cakmak, L S Kalkstein, Abderrahmane Yagouti
It has been well established that both meteorological attributes and air pollution concentrations affect human health outcomes. We examined all cause nonaccident mortality relationships for 28 years (1981-2008) in relation to air pollution and synoptic weather type (encompassing air mass) data in 12 Canadian cities. This study first determines the likelihood of summertime extreme air pollution events within weather types using spatial synoptic classification. Second, it examines the modifying effect of weather types on the relative risk of mortality (RR) due to daily concentrations of air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter <2...
2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
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