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Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health

Ewa Błaszczyk, Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska, Krzysztof Klejnowski, Izabela Fulara, Danuta Mielżyńska-Švach
Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important due to the widespread presence of PAHs in the environment and their toxicological relevance, especially to susceptible populations such as children and their health. The aim of this study is to compare indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) and 15 individual PAHs, as well as contribution of the analyzed PAHs to mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. Samples were collected during spring season in two sites in southern Poland (Silesia) representing urban and rural areas...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Teruya Maki, Yasunori Kurosaki, Kazunari Onishi, Kevin C Lee, Stephen B Pointing, Dulam Jugder, Norikazu Yamanaka, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Masato Shinoda
Asian dust events transport the airborne bacteria in Chinese desert regions as well as mineral particles and influence downwind area varying biological ecosystems and climate changes. However, the airborne bacterial dynamics were rarely investigated in the Gobi desert area, where dust events are highly frequent. In this study, air samplings were sequentially performed at a 2-m high above the ground at the sampling site located in desert area (Tsogt-Ovoo of Gobi desert; Mongolia 44.2304°N, 105.1700°E). During the dust event days, the bacterial cells and mineral particles increased to more than tenfold of concentrations...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
P Thunis, B Degraeuwe, E Pisoni, F Meleux, A Clappier
Regional and local authorities have the obligation to design air quality plans and assess their impacts when concentration levels exceed the limit values. Because these limit values cover both short- (day) and long-term (year) effects, air quality plans also follow these two formats. In this work, we propose a methodology to analyze modeled air quality forecast results, looking at emission reduction for different sectors (residential, transport, agriculture, etc.) with the aim of supporting policy makers in assessing the impact of short-term action plans...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Beata Górka-Kostrubiec, Iga Szczepaniak-Wnuk
Magnetite in mixture with metallic iron in indoor dust samples was examined using several magnetic analyses, thermomagnetic curves of the magnetic susceptibility and the induced magnetization vs. temperature, hysteresis loops, and first-order reversal curves. The study of the magnetic properties was supplemented by the analysis of chemical elements and electron microscopic observation. The metallic iron in the mixture affects the values of hysteresis parameters, decreasing coercivity (Bc) and increasing saturation magnetization (Ms), and it is responsible for the magnetic enhancement of magnetic susceptibility...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Lucyna Samek, Zdzislaw Stegowski, Leszek Furman, Joanna Fiedor
The monitored level of pollution remains high in Krakow, Poland. Alerts regarding increased levels of pollution, which advise asthmatics, the elderly, and children to limit their exposure to open air, continue to be issued on numerous days. In this work, seasonal variations in PM2.5 (particulate matter containing particles with aerodynamic diameter no higher than 2.5 μm) concentrations are shown. An increasing trend is reported, which is enhanced during the colder seasons. The mean PM2.5 concentrations in Krakow exceeded the target value of 25 μg/m(3) specified for 2015 in the spring, autumn, and winter seasons...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Tuan V Vu, Jakub Ondracek, Vladimir Zdímal, Jaroslav Schwarz, Juana Maria Delgado-Saborit, Roy M Harrison
The physical properties of indoor particles were measured with an Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) system (14.6-850 nm), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS, 0.54-18 μm) and an Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) in an apartment located in an urban background site in Prague (Czech Republic) from 15 August to 8 September, 2014. The total particle maximum number concentration was 9.38 × 10(4), 1.46 × 10(5), 2.89 × 10(4), 2.25 × 10(5) and 1.57 × 10(6) particles cm(-3) for particles released from vacuum cleaning, soap/W5 cleaning spray, smoking, incense burning and cooking (frying) activities, respectively...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Elizabeth M Noth, Fred Lurmann, Amanda Northcross, Charles Perrino, David Vaughn, S Katharine Hammond
Despite increasing evidence that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures contribute to adverse health outcomes for sensitive populations, limited data are available on short-term intraurban spatial distributions for use in epidemiologic research. Exposure assessments for airborne PAHs are uncommon because air sampling for PAHs is a labor-, equipment-, and time-intensive task. To address this gap we measured wintertime PAH concentrations during 2010-2011 in Bakersfield, California, USA, a major city in the Southern San Joaquin Valley...
December 2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Cheng Peng, Heike Luttmann-Gibson, Antonella Zanobetti, Allison Cohen, Celine De Souza, Brent A Coull, Edward S Horton, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, Diane R Gold
OBJECTIVE: In a population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we examined associations of short-term air pollutant exposures with pulmonary inflammation, measured as fraction of exhaled pulmonary nitric oxide (FeNO). METHODS: Sixty-nine Boston Metropolitan residents with T2DM completed up to 5 bi-weekly visits with 321 offline FeNO measurements. We measured ambient concentrations of particle mass, number and components at our stationary central site. Ambient concentrations of gaseous air pollutants were obtained from state monitors...
April 2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Masoud M Nasari, Mieczysław Szyszkowicz, Hong Chen, Daniel Crouse, Michelle C Turner, Michael Jerrett, C Arden Pope, Bryan Hubbell, Neal Fann, Aaron Cohen, Susan M Gapstur, W Ryan Diver, David Stieb, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Sun-Young Kim, Casey Olives, Daniel Krewski, Richard T Burnett
The effectiveness of regulatory actions designed to improve air quality is often assessed by predicting changes in public health resulting from their implementation. Risk of premature mortality from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is the single most important contributor to such assessments and is estimated from observational studies generally assuming a log-linear, no-threshold association between ambient concentrations and death. There has been only limited assessment of this assumption in part because of a lack of methods to estimate the shape of the exposure-response function in very large study populations...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Michael E Deary, Samantha J Bainbridge, Amy Kerr, Adam McAllister, Thomas Shrimpton
Fine particulate matter is considered to be the most significant ambient air pollutant in terms of potential health impacts. Therefore, it is important that regulators are able to accurately assess the exposure of populations to PM10 and PM2.5 across municipal areas. We report on the practicalities of using a laser light scattering portable particulate monitor (Turnkey Instruments DustMate), in combination with a GPS, to map PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on city-wide scales in Newcastle upon Tyne/Gateshead (UK), during a series of walking surveys...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Anne Steinemann
Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, are a primary source of indoor air pollutants and personal exposure. Previous research indicates that fragranced products can trigger adverse health effects, with implications for workplaces and public places. This is the first study to examine the multiple dimensions of exposures related to fragranced products and effects in the US population. The study investigated the prevalence and types of fragranced product exposures, associated health effects, awareness of product emissions, and preferences for fragrance-free policies and environments...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Agnieszka Witkowska, Anita U Lewandowska, Dominika Saniewska, Lucyna M Falkowska
Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were measured in PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected at Diabla Gora (Puszcza Borecka National Nature Reserve, Poland) between 1 January and 31 December 2009, to investigate the seasonal and daily concentration variations and source regions. Strict sampling and measurement procedure, together with analysis of air mass backward trajectories and pollutant markers, indicated that the most important sources of carbon in the aerosols over Diabla Gora were vegetation, agricultural activity, and biomass burning...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Alain Robichaud, Richard Ménard, Yulia Zaïtseva, David Anselmo
Air quality, like weather, can affect everyone, but responses differ depending on the sensitivity and health condition of a given individual. To help protect exposed populations, many countries have put in place real-time air quality nowcasting and forecasting capabilities. We present in this paper an optimal combination of air quality measurements and model outputs and show that it leads to significant improvements in the spatial representativeness of air quality. The product is referred to as multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOAs)...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Hannah S Kenagy, Chun Lin, Hao Wu, Mathew R Heal
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a ubiquitous air pollutant with high concentrations particularly close to main roads. The focus of this study was on possible differences in NO2 concentrations between adult and child heights as a function of different distances from heavily trafficked roads in urban areas. Passive diffusion tubes were used to measure NO2 concentrations at heights of 0.8 m (approximate inhalation height of children and closer to vehicle exhaust height) and 2.0 m (approximate inhalation height of adults) above the ground at a number of locations and over several weeks in the city of Edinburgh, UK...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska
Forty-nine components of ambient particulate matter (PM) in size-fractionated PM were investigated at an urban background site in Katowice (Silesian Agglomeration in Southern Poland) in the non-heating season of 2012. PM was analyzed for two groups of carbon compounds (organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon, Lab OC-EC Aerosol Analyzer), five major water-soluble ions (NH4 (+), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), and Na(+) contents in PM water extracts, ion chromatography), 26 elements (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, gas chromatography)...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Magdalena Reizer, Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
The main goal of this paper is to identify the drivers responsible for the high particulate matter concentrations observed in recent years in several urban areas in Poland. The problem was investigated using air quality and meteorological data from routine monitoring network, air mass back trajectories and multivariate statistical modelling. Air pollution in central and southern part of the country was analysed and compared with this in northern-eastern "The Green Lungs of Poland" region. The analysis showed that in all investigated locations, there is a clear annual cycle of observed concentrations, closely following temperature-heating cycles, with the highest concentrations noted in January...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
P Thunis, B Degraeuwe, K Cuvelier, M Guevara, L Tarrason, A Clappier
A methodology is proposed to support the evaluation and comparison of different types of emission inventories. The strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are presented and discussed based on an example. The approach results in a "diamond" diagram useful to flag out anomalous behaviors in the emission inventories and to get insight in possible explanations. In particular, the "diamond" diagram is shown to provide meaningful information in terms of: discrepancies between the total emissions reported by macro-sector and pollutant, contribution of each macro-sector to the total amount of emissions released by pollutant, and the identification and quantification of the different factors causing the discrepancies between total emissions...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Eric M Fujita, Barbara Zielinska, David E Campbell, John C Sagebiel, Will Ollison
Evaporative and exhaust mobile source air toxic (MSAT) emissions of total volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, butadiene, methyl tertiary butyl ether, and ethanol were measured in vehicle-related high-end microenvironments (ME) under worst-case conditions plausibly simulating the >99th percentile of inhalation exposure concentrations in Atlanta (baseline gasoline), Chicago (ethanol-oxygenated gasoline), and Houston (methyl tertiary butyl either-oxygenated gasoline) during winter and summer seasons...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Ke Zu, Ge Tao, Christopher Long, Julie Goodman, Peter Valberg
During July 2002, forest fires in Quebec, Canada, blanketed the US East Coast with a plume of wood smoke. This "natural experiment" exposed large populations in northeastern US cities to significantly elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), providing a unique opportunity to test the association between daily mortality and ambient PM2.5 levels that are uncorrelated with societal activity rhythms. We obtained PM2.5 measurement data and mortality data for a 4-week period in July 2002 for the Greater Boston metropolitan area (which has a population of over 1...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Julie Richman Fox, David P Cox, Bertram E Drury, Timothy R Gould, Terrance J Kavanagh, Michael H Paulsen, Lianne Sheppard, Christopher D Simpson, James A Stewart, Timothy V Larson, Joel D Kaufman
Epidemiologic studies have linked diesel exhaust (DE) to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, as well as lung cancer. DE composition is known to vary with many factors, although it is unclear how this influences toxicity. We generated eight DE atmospheres by applying a 2×2×2 factorial design and altering three parameters in a controlled exposure facility: (1) engine load (27 vs 82 %), (2) particle aging (residence time ~5 s vs ~5 min prior to particle collection), and (3) oxidation (with or without ozonation during dilution)...
October 1, 2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
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