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Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health

Cheng Peng, Heike Luttmann-Gibson, Antonella Zanobetti, Allison Cohen, Celine De Souza, Brent A Coull, Edward S Horton, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, Diane R Gold
OBJECTIVE: In a population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we examined associations of short-term air pollutant exposures with pulmonary inflammation, measured as fraction of exhaled pulmonary nitric oxide (FeNO). METHODS: Sixty-nine Boston Metropolitan residents with T2DM completed up to 5 bi-weekly visits with 321 offline FeNO measurements. We measured ambient concentrations of particle mass, number and components at our stationary central site. Ambient concentrations of gaseous air pollutants were obtained from state monitors...
April 2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Hannah S Kenagy, Chun Lin, Hao Wu, Mathew R Heal
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a ubiquitous air pollutant with high concentrations particularly close to main roads. The focus of this study was on possible differences in NO2 concentrations between adult and child heights as a function of different distances from heavily trafficked roads in urban areas. Passive diffusion tubes were used to measure NO2 concentrations at heights of 0.8 m (approximate inhalation height of children and closer to vehicle exhaust height) and 2.0 m (approximate inhalation height of adults) above the ground at a number of locations and over several weeks in the city of Edinburgh, UK...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska
Forty-nine components of ambient particulate matter (PM) in size-fractionated PM were investigated at an urban background site in Katowice (Silesian Agglomeration in Southern Poland) in the non-heating season of 2012. PM was analyzed for two groups of carbon compounds (organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon, Lab OC-EC Aerosol Analyzer), five major water-soluble ions (NH4 (+), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), and Na(+) contents in PM water extracts, ion chromatography), 26 elements (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, gas chromatography)...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Magdalena Reizer, Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
The main goal of this paper is to identify the drivers responsible for the high particulate matter concentrations observed in recent years in several urban areas in Poland. The problem was investigated using air quality and meteorological data from routine monitoring network, air mass back trajectories and multivariate statistical modelling. Air pollution in central and southern part of the country was analysed and compared with this in northern-eastern "The Green Lungs of Poland" region. The analysis showed that in all investigated locations, there is a clear annual cycle of observed concentrations, closely following temperature-heating cycles, with the highest concentrations noted in January...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
P Thunis, B Degraeuwe, K Cuvelier, M Guevara, L Tarrason, A Clappier
A methodology is proposed to support the evaluation and comparison of different types of emission inventories. The strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are presented and discussed based on an example. The approach results in a "diamond" diagram useful to flag out anomalous behaviors in the emission inventories and to get insight in possible explanations. In particular, the "diamond" diagram is shown to provide meaningful information in terms of: discrepancies between the total emissions reported by macro-sector and pollutant, contribution of each macro-sector to the total amount of emissions released by pollutant, and the identification and quantification of the different factors causing the discrepancies between total emissions...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Eric M Fujita, Barbara Zielinska, David E Campbell, John C Sagebiel, Will Ollison
Evaporative and exhaust mobile source air toxic (MSAT) emissions of total volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, butadiene, methyl tertiary butyl ether, and ethanol were measured in vehicle-related high-end microenvironments (ME) under worst-case conditions plausibly simulating the >99th percentile of inhalation exposure concentrations in Atlanta (baseline gasoline), Chicago (ethanol-oxygenated gasoline), and Houston (methyl tertiary butyl either-oxygenated gasoline) during winter and summer seasons...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Ke Zu, Ge Tao, Christopher Long, Julie Goodman, Peter Valberg
During July 2002, forest fires in Quebec, Canada, blanketed the US East Coast with a plume of wood smoke. This "natural experiment" exposed large populations in northeastern US cities to significantly elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), providing a unique opportunity to test the association between daily mortality and ambient PM2.5 levels that are uncorrelated with societal activity rhythms. We obtained PM2.5 measurement data and mortality data for a 4-week period in July 2002 for the Greater Boston metropolitan area (which has a population of over 1...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Julie Richman Fox, David P Cox, Bertram E Drury, Timothy R Gould, Terrance J Kavanagh, Michael H Paulsen, Lianne Sheppard, Christopher D Simpson, James A Stewart, Timothy V Larson, Joel D Kaufman
Epidemiologic studies have linked diesel exhaust (DE) to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, as well as lung cancer. DE composition is known to vary with many factors, although it is unclear how this influences toxicity. We generated eight DE atmospheres by applying a 2×2×2 factorial design and altering three parameters in a controlled exposure facility: (1) engine load (27 vs 82 %), (2) particle aging (residence time ~5 s vs ~5 min prior to particle collection), and (3) oxidation (with or without ozonation during dilution)...
October 1, 2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Iny Jhun, Brent A Coull, Antonella Zanobetti, Petros Koutrakis
Ozone (O3) has harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. In the USA, significant reductions of O3 precursors-nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)-have not yielded proportionate decreases in O3. NOx is a major precursor of O3 as well as a quencher of O3 through NOx titration, which is especially important during the night and wintertime. In this study, we investigated the potential dual impact of NOx concentration decreases on recent O3 trends by season and time of day. We analyzed hourly O3 and NOx measurement data between 1994 and 2010 in the continental USA...
June 2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Carina J Gronlund, Sebastien Humbert, Shanna Shaked, Marie S O'Neill, Olivier Jolliet
Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is a major environmental contributor to human burden of disease and therefore an important component of life cycle impact assessments. An accurate PM2.5 characterization factor, i.e., the impact per kg of PM2.5 emitted, is critical to estimating "cradle-to-grave" human health impacts of products and processes. We developed and assessed new characterization factors (disability-adjusted life years (DALY)/kgPM2.5 emitted), or the products of dose-response factors (deaths/kgPM2...
February 1, 2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
A K Gorai, F Tuluri, P B Tchounwou, S Ambinakudige
The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors...
February 2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Ian Longley, Elizabeth Somervell, Sally Gray
Continuous and simultaneous observational particulate matter (measured as PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) data were captured at a kerbside site alongside a major highway in Auckland, New Zealand, and at a pair of setback sites within 250 m of the highway, day and night over 8 weeks. The three measurement sites were intended to allow emissions from the highway to be largely isolated from other sources. By filtering the data and subtracting upwind concentrations, the average roadside increment was calculated to be 1...
2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Edina Baranyai, Edina Simon, Mihály Braun, Béla Tóthmérész, József Posta, István Fábián
Many social celebrations in urban areas are followed by fireworks show. The organic and inorganic pollutants emitted during detonations are expected to affect the ambient air quality of these celebration sites. The environmental aspects of fireworks events are usually investigated by analyzing the concentration and composition of airborne particulate matter, while there is limited information regarding the effect of fireworks on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. In this study, foliage dust samples were collected in the city of Debrecen (Hungary) before and after the fireworks show, organized on the 20th of August for the celebration of a historical event...
2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Armando López-Santos, Santos Martínez-Santiago
The aims of this study were to (1) find critical areas susceptible to the degradation of natural resources according to local erosion rates and aridity levels, which were used as environmental quality indicators, and (2) identify areas of risk associated with the presence of natural hazards according to three climate change scenarios defined for Mexico. The focus was the municipality of Lerdo, Durango (25.166° to 25.783° N and 103.333° to 103.983° W), which has dry temperate and very dry climates (BSohw and BWhw)...
2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
J K Vanos, S Cakmak, L S Kalkstein, Abderrahmane Yagouti
It has been well established that both meteorological attributes and air pollution concentrations affect human health outcomes. We examined all cause nonaccident mortality relationships for 28 years (1981-2008) in relation to air pollution and synoptic weather type (encompassing air mass) data in 12 Canadian cities. This study first determines the likelihood of summertime extreme air pollution events within weather types using spatial synoptic classification. Second, it examines the modifying effect of weather types on the relative risk of mortality (RR) due to daily concentrations of air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter <2...
2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
H Gawrońska, B Bakera
Higher plants, including spider plants, are able to take up and degrade/detoxify various pollutants in the air. Although nearly 120 plant species have been tested for indoor air phytoremediation, to the best of the authors' knowledge, data on particulate matter (PM) phytoremediation from indoor air are not yet available in literature. This work determined the ability of spider plants to take up PM, one of the most harmful pollutants to man, in the indoor air of five rooms housing different activities (a dental clinic, a perfume-bottling room, a suburban house, an apartment and an office)...
2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Judith C Chow, Douglas H Lowenthal, L-W Antony Chen, Xiaoliang Wang, John G Watson
Major components of suspended particulate matter (PM) are inorganic ions, organic matter (OM), elemental carbon (EC), geological minerals, salt, non-mineral elements, and water. Since oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) are not directly measured in chemical speciation networks, more than ten weighting equations have been applied to account for their presence, thereby approximating gravimetric mass. Assumptions for these weights are not the same under all circumstances. OM is estimated from an organic carbon (OC) multiplier (f) that ranges from 1...
2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Sashikanth Gurram, Amy Lynette Stuart, Abdul Rawoof Pinjari
Daily exposures to ambient oxides of nitrogen were estimated here for residents of Hillsborough County, FL. The 2009 National Household Travel Survey provided geocoded data on fixed activity locations during each person-day sampled. Routes between activity locations were calculated from transportation network data, assuming the quickest travel path. To estimate daily exposure concentrations for each person-day, the exposure locations were matched with diurnally and spatially varying ambient pollutant concentrations derived from CALPUFF dispersion model results...
2015: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Erin B Wasserman, Wojciech Zareba, Mark J Utell, David Oakes, Philip K Hopke, Mark Frampton, David Chalupa, William Beckett, David Q Rich
BACKGROUND: Both increases and decreases in ambient temperature have been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between biomarkers of pathways thought to, in part, explain these associations and changes in ambient temperature in a panel of predominantly post-myocardial infarction or post-stent patients. METHODS: We studied 76 subjects who had a recent coronary event and were participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program...
September 1, 2014: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Graziella Favarato, H Ross Anderson, Richard Atkinson, Gary Fuller, Inga Mills, Heather Walton
Ambient nitrogen dioxide is a widely available measure of traffic-related air pollution and is inconsistently associated with the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children. The use of this relationship to evaluate the health impact of policies affecting traffic management and traffic emissions is limited by the lack of a concentration-response function based on systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies. Using systematic methods, we identified papers containing quantitative estimates for nitrogen dioxide and the 12 month period prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in which the exposure contrast was within-community and dominated by traffic pollution...
2014: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
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