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Forensic Science International. Genetics

Stephen C Y Ip, Sze-Wah Lin, Tze-Tsun Lam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Ning Qu, Xiaochun Zhang, Hao Liang, Xueling Ou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Peter de Knijff
In contrast to genetic diagnostic disciplines such as Oncogenetics and Cinical Genetics, where worldwide, since 2010, tens of thousands of DNA samples are routinely screened annually using either targeted genome sequencing or whole genome sequencing using massively parallel sequencing (MPS), the forensic use of MPS is still far from being a routine diagnostic tool. This perspectives focusses on issues that are essential in order to fully understand (i) why MPS of short tandem repeats (STRs) is very different from the capillary electrophoresis (CE) based genotyping of STRs, (ii) what we, DNA experts, should know before explaining MPS-based evidence in court, and (iii) what information should be present in a forensic investigation report that is MPS-based...
November 3, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Eugenia D'Atanasio, Giuseppe Iacovacci, Rossella Pistillo, Maria Bonito, Jean-Michel Dugoujon, Pedro Moral, Farha El-Chennawi, Mohammed Melhaoui, Abdellatif Baali, Mohamed Cherkaoui, Daniele Sellitto, Beniamino Trombetta, Andrea Berti, Fulvio Cruciani
The male-specific northern African genetic pool is characterised by a high frequency of the E-M81 haplogroup, which expanded in very recent times (2-3 kiloyears ago). As a consequence of their recent coalescence, E-M81 chromosomes often cannot be completely distinguished on the basis of their Y-STR profiles, unless rapidly-mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs) are analysed. In this study, we used the Yfiler® Plus kit, which includes 7 RM Y-STRs and 20 standard Y-STR, to analyse 477 unrelated males coming from 11 northern African populations sampled from Morocco, Algeria, Libya and Egypt...
November 2, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Duncan Taylor, Michael Kitselaar, David Powers
Previous work has shown that artificial neural networks can be used to classify signal in an electropherogram into categories that have interpretational meaning (such as allele, baseline, pull-up or stutter). The previous work trained the neural networks on a single data type, produced under a single laboratory condition and applied it to data that was matched in these factors. In this work we investigate the ability of neural networks to be trained on data of different types (i.e. single sourced profiles or mixed DNA profiles) and from different laboratory conditions (specifically the model of electrophoresis instrument) to determine whether a set of neural networks is required for each different type of data produced or whether a single neural network can be used for a broad range of data and still achieve the same level of performance...
November 2, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Mariya Goray, Erin Pirie, Roland A H van Oorschot
As loss and/or contamination of DNA evidence can have major negative implications, it is incumbent on forensic practitioners to minimise this risk. DNA transfer during examination of items, even when wearing gloves, is a potential risk. Here we observe a number of laboratory based biological evidence recovery personnel performing a range of examinations to help evaluate the risks. Assessments are made of; what is touched by each glove and in which sequence; the number, duration and types of contacts made by each glove with the item under examination, tools used and any other surfaces; when the gloves are replaced; as well as DNA profiles of samples taken of the worn gloves at time of replacement against those relating to the item under examination, the examiner and other staff members...
November 2, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Eugenia D'Atanasio, Maria Bonito, Giuseppe Iacovacci, Andrea Berti, Beniamino Trombetta, Fulvio Cruciani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Nicole M M Novroski, Frank R Wendt, August E Woerner, Magdalena M Bus, Michael Coble, Bruce Budowle
Current approaches to mixture deconvolution of complex biological samples at times do not have the capability to resolve component contributors in DNA evidence. Additional short tandem repeat (STR) loci were sought that may improve the forensic genetic analysis of mixtures. This study presents exploratory data of a multiplex comprised of 73 highly polymorphic STRs (referred herein as the 73Plex) that were selected because of their high diversity due to sequence variation. These STRs (or a subset of them) may be considered as candidates that may augment current core markers capabilities for DNA mixture deconvolution...
October 29, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
I Hefetz, N Einot, M Faerman, M Horowitz, J Almog
Latent fingermarks (FMs) present unique, and sometimes the only, evidence found at a crime scene. Several factors affect their quality, including deposition pressure (DP). Its effect on FM size and quality, and on STR amplification success rate, is an emerging area of interest in forensic science. This study examined 540 FM samples, each consisting of index, middle and ring fingers, deposited by 30 donors on glass, polythene (PE) and paper under a range of weights from 0.1 to 10 kg. Both length and width of FMs increased with the increasing DP...
October 29, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Roland A H van Oorschot, Bianca Szkuta, Georgina E Meakin, Bas Kokshoorn, Mariya Goray
Understanding the variables impacting DNA transfer, persistence, prevalence and recovery (DNA-TPPR) has become increasingly relevant in investigations of criminal activities to provide opinion on how the DNA of a person of interest became present within the sample collected. This review considers our current knowledge regarding DNA-TPPR to assist casework investigations of criminal activities. There is a growing amount of information available on DNA-TPPR to inform the relative probabilities of the evidence given alternative scenarios relating to the presence or absence of DNA from a specific person in a collected sample of interest...
October 26, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Hui Sun, Kaiyuan Su, Chenyun Fan, Fei Long, Yanjun Liu, Jing Sun, Xiaoting Mo, Yunying Ge, Lijuan Zhang, Liye Zhai, Wanshui Li, Caiyong Yin, Shilin Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Irán Cortés-Trujillo, Fernando Zuñiga-Chiquette, Benito Ramos-González, Maria de Loures Chávez-Briones, Karely Liliana Islas-González, David Adrián Betancourt-Guerra, Rocío Peralta-Coria, Gabriela Martínez-Cortés, Héctor Rangel-Villalobos
The use of X-chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STRs) to solve complex kinship cases has been facilitated by commercial human identification kits, such as the Argus X-12 kit (Qiagen), and the free-access software FamlinkX. For this purpose, allele and haplotype frequencies are required in the populations to be employed. Therefore, we obtained Argus X-12 haplotypes in 933 unrelated males from seven different geographic regions from Mexico. Forensic parameters for individual X-STRs and for three-loci linkage groups are reported...
October 23, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Cedric Bradbury, Anna Köttgen, Fabian Staubach
With recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies it has become feasible and cost effective to genotype larger marker sets for forensic purposes. Two technologies that make use of the larger marker sets have come into focus in forensic research and applications; inference of biogeographic ancestry (BGA) and forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP). These methods hold the promise to reveal information about a yet unknown perpetrator from a DNA sample. In contrast, DNA-profiling, that is a standard practice in case work, relies on matching DNA-profiles between crime scene material and suspects on a database of DNA-profiles...
October 15, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Ryohei Yano, Osamu Shimoda, Takaaki Okitsu, Makoto Sakurada, Yasuhiro Ueno
We developed an acid-free p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) solution containing silicone oil that was suitable for spraying on clothing for analysis of biological samples such as touch DNA. We investigated the effect of this solution and irradiation with blue light emitting diode (LED) light on short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. To examine the effect of adding acid to the DMAC solution on visualizing biological samples, saliva sample was deposited on T-shirt. The T-shirt was sprayed with acid-added DMAC or acid-free DMAC solution and left for 2 h before irradiation with the blue LED light...
October 12, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Xiao-Ting Mo, Jian Zhang, Wen-Hua Ma, Xue Bai, Wan-Shui Li, Xing-Chun Zhao, Jian Ye
The DNATyper™ Y26 PCR Amplification kit, which including 26 low-medium mutating Y-STRs, is designed for Y-STR familial searching casework. The kit combines nine new Y-STR loci in addition to the 17 Y-STR loci from the commercially available AmpFlSTR®Yfiler® kit. The validation of the DNATyper™ Y26 kit was performed in terms of technical index, including accuracy, stability, species specificity, sensitivity, adaptability for various samples, and mixture. Further, mutations of the 26 Y-STRs were analyzed by 1167 DNA-confirmed father-son pairs, and the results indicated that these loci had low or medium mutation rates...
October 11, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Mengge Wang, Zheng Wang, Guanglin He, Jing Liu, Shouyu Wang, Xiaoqing Qian, Min Lang, Jienan Li, Mingkun Xie, Chengtao Li, Yiping Hou
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology has the capability to genotype hundreds to thousands of SNPs from multiple samples, with high coverage in a single experimental run. MPS, which enables high-resolution Y haplogrouping from limited DNA resources, has attracted much interest in Y-chromosomal applications, particularly human forensics and anthropological studies. Previously, we selected and designed a 72 Y-SNPs MPS panel aiming at the Chinese population for providing the basic structure of the haplogroup tree, and then additional Y-SNPs were screened out for further subdivision into different populations by using pyrosequencing technology...
October 11, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Ran Li, Haixia Li, Dan Peng, Bo Hao, Zhiyuan Wang, Erwen Huang, Riga Wu, Hongyu Sun
In the present study, 67 individuals from two families were analyzed to explore the efficacy of the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit for pairwise kinship analysis. Six types of pairwise relationships including 81 parent-offspring, 60 full siblings, 48 grandparent-grandchildren, 147 uncle/aunt-nephew/nieces, 97 first cousins and 190 non-relatives were generated from these two families and the corresponding likelihood ratio (LR) was calculated using either sequence-based or length-based STR genotype data (i...
October 10, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Mikkel M Andersen, David J Balding
We recently introduced a new approach to the evaluation of weight of evidence (WoE) for Y-chromosome profiles. Rather than attempting to calculate match probabilities, which is particularly problematic for modern Y-profiles with high mutation rates, we proposed using simulation to describe the distribution of the number of males in the population with a matching Y-profile, both the unconditional distribution and conditional on a database frequency of the profile. Here we further validate the new approach by showing that our results are robust to assumptions about the allelic ladder and the founder haplotypes, and we extend the approach in two important directions...
October 10, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Sae Rom Hong, Kyoung-Jin Shin, Sang-Eun Jung, Eun Hee Lee, Hwan Young Lee
Age prediction has been in the spotlight recently because it can provide an important information about the contributors of biological evidence left at crime scenes. Specifically, many researchers have actively suggested age-prediction models using DNA methylation at several CpG sites and tested the candidates using platforms such as the HumanMethylation 450 array and pyrosequencing. With DNA methylation data obtained from each platform, age prediction models were constructed using diverse statistical methods typically with multivariate linear regression...
October 9, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
August E Woerner, Nicole M M Novroski, Frank R Wendt, Angie Ambers, Rachel Wiley, Sarah E Schmedes, Bruce Budowle
From the perspective of forensics genetics, the human microbiome is a rich, relatively untapped resource for human identity testing. Since it varies within and among people, and perhaps temporally, the potential forensic applications of the use of the microbiome can exceed that of human identification. However, the same inherent variability in microbial distributions may pose a substantial barrier to forming predictions on an individual as the source of the microbial sample unless stable signatures of the microbiome are identified and targeted...
October 5, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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