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Forensic Science International. Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734663/mtdna-sequence-diversity-of-hazara-ethnic-group-from-pakistan
#1
Allah Rakha, Fatima, Min-Sheng Peng, Atif Adan, Rui Bi, Memona Yasmin, Yong-Gang Yao
The present study was undertaken to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of Hazaras from Pakistan, so as to generate mtDNA reference database for forensic casework in Pakistan and to analyze phylogenetic relationship of this particular ethnic group with geographically proximal populations. Complete mtDNA control region (nt 16024-576) sequences were generated through Sanger Sequencing for 319 Hazara individuals from Quetta, Baluchistan. The population sample set showed a total of 189 distinct haplotypes, belonging mainly to West Eurasian (51...
July 10, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728055/investigation-of-length-heteroplasmy-in-mitochondrial-dna-control-region-by-massively-parallel-sequencing
#2
Chun-Yen Lin, Li-Chin Tsai, Hsing-Mei Hsieh, Chia-Hung Huang, Yu-Jen Yu, Bill Tseng, Adrian Linacre, James Chun-I Lee
Accurate sequencing of the control region of the mitochondrial genome is notoriously difficult due to the presence of polycytosine bases, termed C-tracts. The precise number of bases that constitute a C-tract and the bases beyond the poly cytosines may not be accurately defined when analyzing Sanger sequencing data separated by capillary electrophoresis. Massively parallel sequencing has the potential to resolve such poor definition and provides the opportunity to discover variants due to length heteroplasmy...
July 10, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728056/sequence-based-diversity-of-23-autosomal-str-loci-in-koreans-investigated-using-an-in-house-massively-parallel-sequencing-panel
#3
Eun Hye Kim, Hwan Young Lee, So Yeun Kwon, Eun Young Lee, Woo Ick Yang, Kyoung-Jin Shin
As DNA databases continue to grow and international cooperation increases, forensic STR loci have expanded to increase the discriminatory power and inter-database compatibility. Current capillary electrophoresis (CE) and/or massively parallel sequencing (MPS)-based commercial STR analysis systems reflect such changing trends of expanding STR loci. Due to the general gains of larger multiplexing and the detection of sequence variation, the application of MPS technology to STR analysis has further improved discrimination and is expected to aid in mixture interpretation by increasing the effective number of alleles...
July 9, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728054/an-artificial-neural-network-system-to-identify-alleles-in-reference-electropherograms
#4
Duncan Taylor, Ash Harrison, David Powers
Electropherograms are produced in great numbers in forensic DNA laboratories as part of everyday criminal casework. Before the results of these electropherograms can be used they must be scrutinised by analysts to determine what the identified data tells them about the underlying DNA sequences and what is purely an artefact of the DNA profiling process. This process of interpreting the electropherograms can be time consuming and is prone to subjective differences between analysts. Recently it was demonstrated that artificial neural networks could be used to classify information within an electropherogram as allelic (i...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700963/application-of-dip-strs-to-sexual-physical-assault-investigations-eight-case-reports
#5
Fabio Oldoni, Vincent Castella, Diana Hall
DIP-STRs are compound markers formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism linked to a microsatellite. They enable the deconvolution of unbalanced DNA mixtures from two individuals, up to 1000 fold excess of one contributor. In practice, this novel tool allows to test for the presence of a DNA of interest in traces appearing not useful because of the masking effect of the major DNA contributor. Thus far two sets of DIP-STRs have been published: the first set was described as proof-of-principle, while the second set was specifically developed for forensic applications...
July 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728057/integrating-the-microbiome-as-a-resource-in-the-forensics-toolkit
#6
Thomas H Clarke, Andres Gomez, Harinder Singh, Karen E Nelson, Lauren M Brinkac
The introduction of DNA fingerprinting to forensic science rapidly expanded the available evidence that could be garnered from a crime scene and used in court cases. Next generation sequencing technologies increased available genetic data that could be used as evidence by orders of magnitude, and as such, significant additional genetic information is now available for use in forensic science. This includes DNA from the bacteria that live in and on humans, known as the human microbiome. Next generation sequencing of the human microbiome demonstrates that its bacterial DNA can be used to uniquely identify an individual, provide information about their life and behavioral patterns, determine the body site where a sample came from, and estimate postmortem intervals...
June 27, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698015/genetic-polymorphism-in-three-ethnic-groups-in-the-chongqing-region-of-china
#7
LETTER
Wang Yequan, Dang Zhen, Wen Cui, Hu Li, Caiyong Yin, Feng Chen, Qingshan Wang, Jimin Xu, Jiangwei Yan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673498/revised-guidelines-for-the-publication-of-genetic-population-data
#8
EDITORIAL
Leonor Gusmão, John M Butler, Adrian Linacre, Walther Parson, Lutz Roewer, Peter M Schneider, Angel Carracedo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687172/genetic-variation-of-20-autosomal-str-loci-in-three-ethnic-groups-zhuang-dai-and-hani-in-the-yunnan-province-of-southwestern-china
#9
LETTER
Xiufeng Zhang, Lei Du, Zhilan Huang, Tao Gu, Liping Hu, Shengjie Nie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651097/population-and-performance-analyses-of-four-major-populations-with-illumina-s-fgx-forensic-genomics-system
#10
Jennifer D Churchill, Nicole M M Novroski, Jonathan L King, Lay Hong Seah, Bruce Budowle
The MiSeq FGx Forensic Genomics System (Illumina) enables amplification and massively parallel sequencing of 59 STRs, 94 identity informative SNPs, 54 ancestry informative SNPs, and 24 phenotypic informative SNPs. Allele frequency and population statistics data were generated for the 172 SNP loci included in this panel on four major population groups (Chinese, African Americans, US Caucasians, and Southwest Hispanics). Single-locus and combined random match probability values were generated for the identity informative SNPs...
June 17, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633070/length-and-repeat-sequence-variation-in-58-strs-and-94-snps-in-two-spanish-populations
#11
Ferran Casals, Roger Anglada, Núria Bonet, Raquel Rasal, Kristiaan J van der Gaag, Jerry Hoogenboom, Neus Solé-Morata, David Comas, Francesc Calafell
We have genotyped the 58 STRs (27 autosomal, 24 Y-STRs and 7 X-STRs) and 94 autosomal SNPs in Illumina ForenSeq™ Primer Mix A in 88 Spanish Roma (Gypsy) samples and 143 Catalans. Since this platform is based in massive parallel sequencing, we have used simple R scripts to uncover the sequence variation in the repeat region. Thus, we have found, across 58 STRs, 541 length-based alleles, which, after considering repeat-sequence variation, became 804 different alleles. All loci in both populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium...
June 16, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633069/mitogenomic-diversity-in-russians-and-poles
#12
Boris Malyarchuk, Andrey Litvinov, Miroslava Derenko, Katarzyna Skonieczna, Tomasz Grzybowski, Aleksandra Grosheva, Yuri Shneider, Sergei Rychkov, Olga Zhukova
Complete mtDNA genome sequencing improves molecular resolution for distinguishing variation between individuals and populations, but there is still deficiency of mitogenomic population data. To overcome this limitation, we used Sanger-based protocol to generate complete mtDNA sequences of 376 Russian individuals from six populations of European part of Russia and 100 Polish individuals from northern Poland. Nearly complete resolution of mtDNA haplotypes was achieved - about 97% of haplotypes were unique both in Russians and Poles, and no haplotypes overlapped between them when indels were considered...
June 15, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628900/evaluation-of-the-innotyper-%C3%A2-21-genotyping-kit-in-multi-ethnic-populations
#13
Peter Gustav Ristow, Nicole Barnes, Gina Pineda Murphy, Hiromi Brown, Kevin Wesley Cloete, Maria Eugenia D'Amato
We report the findings of the evaluation of the InnoTyper(®) 21 genotyping kit for the use of human identification (HID) and paternity testing in South Africa. This novel forensic kit evaluates 20 retrotransposable elements (AC4027, MLS26, ALU79712, NBC216, NBC106, RG148, NBC13, AC2265, MLS09, AC1141, TARBP, AC2305, HS4.69, NBC51, ACA1766, NBC120, NBC10, NBC102, SB19.12 and NBC148) and the Amelogenin locus for sex determination. The evaluation of the genotyping performance showed no significant spectral pull-up for peak heights between 100 and 30,000 RFUs...
June 7, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605649/direct-str-typing-from-presumptively-tested-and-untreated-body-fluids
#14
Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai, Krittika Raham, Jintana Pradutkanchana, Sujettana Sotthibandhu, Thitika Kitpipit
Body fluids provide key pieces of information for a forensic investigation. However, sometimes only a small amount of body fluids is found and/or DNA are also degraded by environmental factors at the crime scene. In extreme cases, a forensic analyst may have to decide whether to perform a presumptive test on the stains or proceed straightaway to DNA profiling, which could be wasteful for non-biological stains. Additionally, due to the inefficient DNA extraction process, the amount of DNA may not be enough for STR typing, especially if parts of the evidence had been subjected to presumptive testing...
June 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645082/local-populations-and-inaccuracies-determining-the-relevant-mitochondrial-haplotype-distributions-for-north-west-european-cats
#15
Monique Wesselink, Stijn Desmyter, Irene Kuiper
Typing of different portions of the feline mitochondrial control region has illustrated pronounced differences in haplotype distributions between cats from the Netherlands and other parts of the world. To gain a better understanding of the haplotype distribution of North West Continental Europe, 605bp of mitochondrial DNA was typed from randomly selected cats from the Netherlands (N=146), Belgium (N=64) and South West Germany (N=128). The genetic differences between these randomly sampled European populations correlate to the geographical distances, with the Dutch and the South West German populations furthest apart and the Belgian population as an intermediate (Fst values 0...
June 4, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609758/a-selection-guide-for-the-new-generation-6-dye-dna-profiling-systems
#16
Sze-Wah Lin, Christina Li, Stephen C Y Ip
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has recently expanded the CODIS core loci from the existing 13 to 20 as a new guideline, and laboratories from the US are required to comply with the new regulation before uploading or conducting identity search in the national database. The expanded CODIS format, which shares all the core loci commonly used in the European countries and the US, not only increases international compatibility, but also reduces the number of adventitious matches, and hence facilitates international law enforcement and counterterrorism endeavours...
June 3, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605652/screening-and-confirmation-of-microrna-markers-for-distinguishing-between-menstrual-and-peripheral-blood
#17
Zhilong Li, Peng Bai, Duo Peng, Hui Wang, Yadong Guo, Youjing Jiang, Wang He, Huan Tian, Yu Yang, Yuan Huang, Bing Long, Weibo Liang, Lin Zhang
The identification of menstrual blood (MB) and peripheral blood (PB) left at a crime scene is crucial for crime reconstruction, especially in sexual assaults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-protein coding molecules, have been demonstrated to be a viable tool for body fluid identification in forensic casework. Several groups have searched for miRNAs that are specific to different body fluids. Blood has been studied the most extensively. However, menstrual blood was only involved in five studies, and the results confirming the presence of specific miRNAs could not be reproduced in other studies...
June 3, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605651/fast-str-allele-identification-with-strait-razor-3-0
#18
August E Woerner, Jonathan L King, Bruce Budowle
The short tandem repeat allele identification tool (STRait Razor), a program used to characterize the haplotypes of short tandem repeats (STRs) in massively parallel sequencing (MPS) data, was redesigned. STRait Razor v3.0 performs ∼660× faster allele identification than its previous version (v2s), a speedup that is largely due to a novel indexing strategy used to perform "fuzzy" (approximate) string matching of anchor sequences. Written in a portable compiled language, C++, STRait Razor v3.0 functions on all major operating systems including Microsoft Windows, and it has cross-platform multithreading support...
June 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605650/body-fluid-prediction-from-microbial-patterns-for-forensic-application
#19
Eirik Nataas Hanssen, Ekaterina Avershina, Knut Rudi, Peter Gill, Lars Snipen
The association of a DNA profile with a certain body fluid can be of essential importance in the evaluation of biological evidence. Several alternative methods for body fluid prediction have been proposed to improve the currently used presumptive tests. Most of them measure gene expression. Here we present a novel approach based on microbial taxonomic profiles obtained by standard 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We used saliva deposited on skin as a forensically relevant study model, but the same principle can be applied for predicting other bacteria rich body fluids...
June 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667863/a-phylogenetic-approach-for-haplotype-analysis-of-sequence-data-from-complex-mitochondrial-mixtures
#20
Samuel H Vohr, Rachel Gordon, Jordan M Eizenga, Henry A Erlich, Cassandra D Calloway, Richard E Green
Massively parallel (next-generation) sequencing provides a powerful method to analyze DNA from many different sources, including degraded and trace samples. A common challenge, however, is that many forensic samples are often known or suspected mixtures of DNA from multiple individuals. Haploid lineage markers, such as mitochondrial (mt) DNA, are useful for analysis of mixtures because, unlike nuclear genetic markers, each individual contributes a single sequence to the mixture. Deconvolution of these mixtures into the constituent mitochondrial haplotypes is challenging as typical sequence read lengths are too short to reconstruct the distinct haplotypes completely...
May 29, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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