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Forensic Science International. Genetics

Petra Müller, Antonio Alonso, Pedro A Barrio, Burkhard Berger, Martin Bodner, Pablo Martin, Walther Parson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
T Hessab, R S Aranha, R S Moura-Neto, D J Balding, C G Schrago
In forensic genetics, the likelihood ratio (LR), measuring the value of DNA profile evidence, is computed from a database of allele frequencies. Here, we address the choice of database and adjustments for population structure and sample size in the context of Brazil. The Brazilian population underwent a complex process of colonization, migration and mating, which created an admixed genetic composition that makes it difficult to obtain an appropriate database for a given case. National databases are now available, as well as databases for many Brazilian states...
June 28, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
G Kulstein, U Schacker, P Wiegand
The knowledge about the type of the body fluid/tissue that contributed to a trace can provide contextual insight into crime scene reconstruction and connect a suspect or a victim to a crime scene. Especially in sexual assault cases, it is important to verify the presence of spermatozoa. Victims often tend to clean their underwear/bedding after a sexual assault. If they later decide to report the crime to the police, in our experience, investigators usually do not send laundered items for DNA examination, since they believe that analysis after washing is no longer promising...
June 28, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Dmitry Zubakov, Joanna Chamier-Ciemińska, Iris Kokmeijer, Agnieszka Maciejewska, Pilar Martínez, Ryszard Pawłowski, Cordula Haas, Manfred Kayser
Establishing the cellular or tissue-type origin of human biological traces found at crimes scenes is forensically relevant, as it allows evaluating the crime relevance of such traces and enables reconstructing the sequence of crime events. Messenger RNA and micro RNA markers are useful for forensic tissue identification, but provide challenges for linking RNA-identified cell/tissue types with DNA-identified trace donors, especially in mixed traces. DNA methylation markers overcome this problem, but provide technical challenges due to the DNA treatment required by most analysis methods...
June 28, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Elaine Y Y Cheung, Michelle Elizabeth Gahan, Dennis McNevin
Estimation of ancestral affiliation for human genotypes is now possible for major geographic populations and has been employed for forensic casework. Prediction algorithms, such as the Snipper Bayesian classifier, have the ability to classify non-admixed BGA in African (AFR), European (EUR), East Asian (EAS), and most Amerindian (NAM) individuals, but are not always appropriate for admixed individuals. Artificial admixture was simulated for all possible admixture ratios (1:1, 3:1, 2:1:1, and 1:1:1:1) from four grandparents...
June 28, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Amy S Holmes, Madeline G Roman, Sheree Hughes-Stamm
Short tandem repeats (STR) are currently the gold standard in human identification for forensic casework purposes, and successful STR typing is dependent on sufficient quantity and quality DNA. In the aftermath of a mass disaster and some forensic cases, human remains are recovered for identification in various stages of decomposition, and ideally these remains are transported to a refrigerated facility in order to halt the decomposition process and preserve the integrity of DNA within the tissue. However, in situations where refrigeration is not available (e...
June 25, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
K Slooten
We present the results of a comparison of likelihood ratios obtained from DNA mixture data, obtained either by a peak height model (EuroForMix) and by a discrete model, using probabilities of dropout and integrating over them (MixKin). We use the mixture data that have been published in [1] and were made publicly available. We show that, for mixtures for which replicate analyses were available in this set, there is almost no difference in weight of evidence, suggesting that the additional information in the peak heights is limited...
June 22, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Jasmine Connell, Janet Chaseling, Mark Page, Kirsty Wright
Many deployable forensic capabilities, including those used by the Australian Defense Force (ADF), employ mobile battery-operated fridge/freezers for DNA sample preservation that are not suitable for rapid response application due to their size and weight. These fridge/freezers are expensive, require regular specialised maintenance, and have a set payload. A variety of transport media are successful preservatives for DNA samples, however, there is no research specifically targeted to their suitability for operational environments where temperatures exceed 50 °C...
June 20, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Ana Freire-Aradas, Christopher Phillips, Lorena Girón-Santamaría, Ana Mosquera-Miguel, Antonio Gómez-Tato, M Ángeles Casares de Cal, Jose Álvarez-Dios, Maria Victoria Lareu
DNA methylation is the most extensively studied epigenetic signature, with a large number of studies reporting age-correlated CpG sites in overlapping genes. However, most of these studies lack sample coverage of individuals under 18 years old and therefore little is known about the progression of DNA methylation patterns in children and adolescents. In the present study we aimed to select candidate age-correlated DNA methylation markers based on public datasets from Illumina BeadChip arrays and previous publications, then to explore the resulting markers in 209 blood samples from donors aged between 2 to 18 years old using the EpiTYPER® DNA methylation analysis system...
June 13, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Jazelyn M Salvador, Dame Loveliness T Apaga, Frederick C Delfin, Gayvelline C Calacal, Sheila Estacio Dennis, Maria Corazon A De Ungria
Demands for solving complex kinship scenarios where only distant relatives are available for testing have risen in the past years. In these instances, other genetic markers such as X-chromosome short tandem repeat (X-STR) markers are employed to supplement autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR DNA typing. However, prior to use, the degree of STR polymorphism in the population requires evaluation through generation of an allele or haplotype frequency population database. This population database is also used for statistical evaluation of DNA typing results...
June 8, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Duncan Taylor, Bas Kokshoorn, Alex Biedermann
The evaluation of results of forensic genetic analyses given activity level propositions is an emerging discipline in forensic genetics. Although it is a topic with a long history, it has never been considered to be such a critically important topic for the field, as today. With the increasing sensitivity of analysis techniques, and advances in data interpretation using probabilistic models ('probabilistic genotyping'), there is an increasing demand on forensic biologists to share specialised knowledge to help recipients of expert information address mode and timing of transfer and persistence of traces in court...
June 7, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Angel A Criollo-Rayo, Mabel Bohórquez, Rodrigo Prieto, Kimberley Howarth, Cesar Culma, Angel Carracedo, Ian Tomlinson, Maria M Echeverry de Polnaco, Luis G Carvajal Carmona
Andean populations have variable degrees of Native American and European ancestry, representing an opportunity to study admixture dynamics in the populations from Latin America (also known as Hispanics). We characterized the genetic structure of two indigenous (Nasa and Pijao) and three admixed (Ibagué, Ortega and Planadas) groups from Tolima, in the Colombian Andes. DNA samples from 348 individuals were genotyped for six mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), seven non-recombining Y-chromosome (NRY) region and 100 autosomal ancestry informative markers...
June 7, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Jonathan L King, Jennifer D Churchill, Nicole M M Novroski, Xiangpei Zeng, David H Warshauer, Lay-Hong Seah, Bruce Budowle
The use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in forensic genetics has been limited to challenged samples with low template and/or degraded DNA. The recent introduction of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies has expanded the potential applications of these markers and increased the discrimination power of well-established loci by considering variation in the flanking regions of target loci. The ForenSeq Signature Preparation Kit contains 165 SNP amplicons for ancestry- (aiSNPs), identity- (iiSNPs), and phenotype-inference (piSNPs)...
June 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Magdalena Kukla-Bartoszek, Ewelina Pośpiech, Magdalena Spólnicka, Joanna Karłowska-Pik, Dominik Strapagiel, Elżbieta Żądzińska, Iwona Rosset, Marta Sobalska-Kwapis, Marcin Słomka, Susan Walsh, Manfred Kayser, Aneta Sitek, Wojciech Branicki
Predictive DNA analysis of externally visible characteristics exerts an increasing influence on contemporary forensic and anthropological investigations, with pigmentation traits currently being the most advanced for predictive modelling. Since pigmentation prediction error in some cases may be due to the result of age-related hair colour darkening, and sex influence in eye colour, this study aims to investigate these less explored phenomena on a group of juvenile individuals. Pigmentation phenotypes of children between the age of 6-13 years old were evaluated, in addition to data about their hair colour during early childhood from a select number of these individuals...
June 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Piyamas Kanokwongnuwut, Belinda Martin, K Paul Kirkbride, Adrian Linacre
All previous examinations of the shedder status of individuals have been based on conclusions inferred from the amount of DNA deposited by donors after they have held an object for a fixed period of time. In all interpretations of shedder status experiments have involved a range uncertainties, especially in regards to results arising from studies carried out in different laboratories. These apply to the efficiency of the swab collecting DNA from the item touched, the amount of DNA left on the swab after attempts to recover it, and the percentage loss of DNA during the lysis and extraction processes...
June 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Manfred Kayser, Arwin Ralf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 4, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Belinda Martin, Renee Blackie, Duncan Taylor, Adrian Linacre
Direct PCR from touch DNA has a range of potential applications in the field of forensic investigation for exhibit examination that, under standard extraction methods, rarely produce informative DNA profiles. Previous studies from 'touch DNA' have focussed on fingermarks created under laboratory conditions. Here we report on successful STR DNA profiling from a range of touched items. Direct PCR, with no increase in cycle number, was performed after eight different sample types, typical of those submitted for forensic investigation, were handled by volunteers for a maximum of 15 s to deposit trace amounts of their DNA...
June 2, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Chiara Santos, Filipe Pereira
The correct identification of species in the highly divergent group of plants is crucial for several forensic investigations. Previous works had difficulties in the establishment of a rapid and robust method for the identification of plants. For instance, DNA barcoding requires the analysis of two or three different genomic regions to attain reasonable levels of discrimination. Therefore, new methods for the molecular identification of plants are clearly needed. Here we tested the utility of variable-length sequences in the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) as a way to identify plant species...
May 29, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Steffi Köcher, Petra Müller, Burkhard Berger, Martin Bodner, Walther Parson, Lutz Roewer, Sascha Willuweit
The implementation of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) in forensic science revealed the advantages of the new method compared to the forensic benchmark in DNA-STR analysis, the capillary-electrophoresis (CE): Sequence information and the possibility to multiplex hundreds of markers in one multiplex PCR increase the discrimination power of a forensic (STR-) profile. The EU funded project DNASeqEx (DNA-STR Massive Sequencing & International Information Exchange) aims to evaluate MPS-based materials in their respective developmental stages using the two established platforms MiSeq FGx (Illumina) and Ion S5™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific)...
May 17, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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