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Forensic Science International. Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305242/allelic-and-haplotype-diversity-of-12-x-strs-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#1
Mohamed A Almarri, Reem A Lootah
X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) are used to complement autosomal and Y-STRs in complex kinship testing, and can be of potential value when determining trace female DNA in male background. We analyzed extracted and directly-amplified samples of 501 males from the United Arab Emirates and report the forensic statistical parameters of 12 X-STRs and haplotypes of the four previously defined linkage groups using the Investigator Argus X-12 QS kit. Combined PDM, PDF, MEC Desmarais Trio and MEC Desmarais Duo based on allele (and haplotype) frequencies were 0...
December 29, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289820/simple-and-rapid-identification-of-saliva-by-detection-of-oral-streptococci-using-direct-polymerase-chain-reaction-combined-with-an-immunochromatographic-strip
#2
Jee Won Lee, Ju Yeon Jung, Si-Keun Lim
In this paper, we describe the development of a novel method to detect oral bacteria by combining direct polymerase chain reaction (direct PCR) with an immunochromatographic strip (ICS), enabling the identification of saliva in forensic samples. Direct PCR was first used to directly amplify specific oral bacterial sequences (from Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus salivarius) from swab samples, circumventing the need for tedious sample preparation steps such as cell lysis and DNA extraction and purification...
December 21, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276015/genetic-analysis-of-27-y-str-loci-in-han-population-from-hainan-province-southernmost-china
#3
LETTER
Haoliang Fan, Xiaojia Zhang, Xiao Wang, Zheng Ren, Wenhui Li, Ren Long, Anwen Liang, Jianhua Chen, Tao Song, Yihong Qu, Jianqiang Deng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304462/semen-specific-mirnas-suitable-for-the-distinction-of-infertile-semen-in-the-body-fluid-identification
#4
Huan Tian, Meili Lv, Zhilong Li, Duo Peng, Yu Tan, Hui Wang, Qingqing Li, Fuping Li, Weibo Liang
Non-protein coding RNA, miRNAs (microRNAs), are a class of promising molecular biomarkers for forensic body fluid identification (BFI) as their small size and tissue-specific expression manners. A number of studies have shown that semen can be distinguished from forensic-related body fluids (such as menstrual blood, venous blood, vaginal fluid, saliva, etc.) using semen-specific miRNAs through microassay screening and RT-qRCR. Infertility is becoming a global health problem, affecting 10%-15% of couples worldwide, and half of the cases are the result of male factors (Lian et al...
December 19, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275090/lessons-from-a-study-of-dna-contaminations-from-police-services-and-forensic-laboratories-in-switzerland
#5
Patrick Basset, Vincent Castella
In Switzerland, the DNA profiles of police officers collecting crime scene traces as well as forensic genetic laboratories employees are stored in the staff index of the national DNA database to detect potential contaminations. Our study aimed at making a national inventory of contaminations to better understand their origin and to make recommendations in order to decrease their occurrence. For this purpose, a retrospective questionnaire was sent to both police services and forensic genetic laboratories for each case where there was a contamination...
December 19, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273514/erratum-to-population-and-performance-analyses-of-four-major-populations-with-illumina-s-fgx-forensic-genomics-system-forensic-sci-int-genet-30-2017-81-92
#6
Jennifer D Churchill, Nicole M M Novroski, Jonathan L King, Lay Hong Seah, Bruce Budowle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275088/genetic-analysis-of-southern-brazil-subjects-using-the-powerseq%C3%A2-auto-y-system-for-short-tandem-repeat-sequencing
#7
Deborah S B S Silva, Fernanda R Sawitzki, Melissa K R Scheible, Sarah F Bailey, Clarice S Alho, Seth A Faith
With the advent of Next-Generation Sequencing technology, sequencing of short tandem repeats (STRs) allows for a more detailed analysis when compared to size-based fragment methods (capillary electrophoresis-CE). The implementation of high-throughput sequencing can help uncover deeper genetic diversities of different populations. Subjects from the South region of Brazil present a particular and more homogeneous ancestry background when compared to other regions of the country. Both autosomal and Y- STRs have been analyzed in these individuals; however, all analyses published to date encompass data from CE-based fragment analysis...
December 16, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275089/a-template-for-constructing-bayesian-networks-in-forensic-biology-cases-when-considering-activity-level-propositions
#8
Duncan Taylor, Alex Biedermann, Tacha Hicks, Christophe Champod
The hierarchy of propositions has been accepted amongst the forensic science community for some time. It is also accepted that the higher up the hierarchy the propositions are, against which the scientist are competent to evaluate their results, the more directly useful the testimony will be to the court. Because each case represents a unique set of circumstances and findings, it is difficult to come up with a standard structure for evaluation. One common tool that assists in this task is Bayesian networks (BNs)...
December 15, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247928/a-review-of-bioinformatic-methods-for-forensic-dna-analyses
#9
REVIEW
Yao-Yuan Liu, SallyAnn Harbison
Short tandem repeats, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and whole mitochondrial analyses are three classes of markers which will play an important role in the future of forensic DNA typing. The arrival of massively parallel sequencing platforms in forensic science reveals new information such as insights into the complexity and variability of the markers that were previously unseen, along with amounts of data too immense for analyses by manual means. Along with the sequencing chemistries employed, bioinformatic methods are required to process and interpret this new and extensive data...
December 12, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245063/background-levels-of-male-dna-in-the-vaginal-cavity
#10
Patricia P Albani, Jayshree Patel, Rachel I Fleming
In alleged sexual assault investigations, the detection of male DNA on female intimate swabs can be established through Y-STR profiling. However, in cases where the defendant lives in the same dwelling as the complainant, the defendant may argue that his DNA was transferred through normal social contact, and dispute that intimate contact occurred. This study aimed to determine whether or not male DNA could be detected in samples collected from the vaginal cavity after everyday activities. A total of 300 samples from eight individuals were subjected to DNA quantification and Y-STR amplification...
December 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223883/analysis-of-mainland-japanese-and-okinawan-japanese-populations-using-the-precision-id-ancestry-panel
#11
Hiroaki Nakanishi, Vania Pereira, Claus Børsting, Toshimichi Yamamoto, Torben Tvedebrink, Masaaki Hara, Aya Takada, Kazuyuki Saito, Niels Morling
We typed 165 AIMs in 49 mainland Japanese and 47 Okinawa Japanese using the Precision ID Ancestry Panel (Thermo Fisher Scientific). None of the 165 SNPs showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the mainland Japanese. One SNP (rs3943253) showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in Okinawa Japanese. Fisher's exact tests showed that the genotype frequencies of 14 loci were significantly different (p<0.05) between the two populations before correction for multiple testing...
December 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246802/population-genetic-data-of-22-autosomal-strs-in-guizhou-bouyei-population-southwestern-china
#12
LETTER
Zheng Ren, Hongling Zhang, Yubo Liu, Qiyan Wang, Jie Wang, Jiang Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221994/allele-and-haplotype-diversity-of-12-x-strs-in-sardinia
#13
C Robino, D Lacerenza, S Aneli, C Di Gaetano, G Matullo, R Robledo, C Calò
The analysis of clusters of tightly linked X-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) markers can assist the interpretation of complex kinship cases. However, when linkage disequilibrium (LD) is present in the population of origin of tested individuals, haplotype rather than allele frequencies should be used in likelihood calculations. The diversity of twelve X-STRs arranged in four linkage groups (I: DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378; II: DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074; III: DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101; IV: DXS10146-DXS10134-DXS7423) was tested in a Sardinian population sample (n=516) including three open populations from the Northern, Central and Southern part of the island, and three isolates (Benetutti, Desulo, Carloforte)...
December 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220824/extensive-geographical-and-social-structure-in-the-paternal-lineages-of-saudi-arabia-revealed-by-analysis-of-27-y-strs
#14
Yahya M Khubrani, Jon H Wetton, Mark A Jobling
Saudi Arabia's indigenous population is organized into patrilineal descent groups, but to date, little has been done to characterize its population structure, in particular with respect to the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. We have used the 27-STR Yfiler® Plus kit to generate haplotypes in 597 unrelated Saudi males, classified into five geographical regions (North, South, Central, East and West). Overall, Yfiler® Plus provides a good discrimination capacity of 95.3%, but this is greatly reduced (74...
December 2, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202296/a-performance-study-on-three-qpcr-quantification-kits-and-their-compatibilities-with-the-6-dye-dna-profiling-systems
#15
Sze-Wah Lin, Christina Li, Stephen C Y Ip
DNA quantification plays an integral role in forensic DNA profiling. Not only does it estimate the total amount of amplifiable human autosomal and male DNA to ensure optimal amplification of target DNA for subsequent analysis, but also assesses the extraction efficiency and purity of the DNA extract. Latest DNA quantification systems even offer an estimate for the degree of DNA degradation in a sample. Here, we report the performance of three new generation qPCR kits, namely Investigator® Quantiplex HYres Kit from QIAGEN, Quantifiler® Trio DNA Quantification Kit from Applied Biosystems™, and PowerQuant® System from Promega, and their compatibilities with three 6-dye DNA profiling systems...
December 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216581/transfer-and-persistence-of-non-self-dna-on-hands-over-time-using-empirical-data-to-evaluate-dna-evidence-given-activity-level-propositions
#16
Bianca Szkuta, Kaye N Ballantyne, Bas Kokshoorn, Roland A H van Oorschot
Questions relating to how DNA from an individual got to where it was recovered from and the activities associated with its pickup, retention and deposition are increasingly relevant to criminal investigations and judicial considerations. To address activity level propositions, investigators are typically required to assess the likelihood that DNA was transferred indirectly and not deposited through direct contact with an item or surface. By constructing a series of Bayesian networks, we demonstrate their use in assessing activity level propositions derived from a recent legal case involving the alleged secondary transfer of DNA to a surface following a handshaking event...
November 28, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190510/predicted-activity-of-ugt2b7-abcb1-oprm1-and-comt-using-full-gene-haplotypes-and-their-association-with-the-cyp2d6-inferred-metabolizer-phenotype
#17
Frank R Wendt, Antti Sajantila, Bruce Budowle
The pharmacogene, CYP2D6, is commonly used to infer metabolizer phenotype of many marketed drugs and endogenous toxins in ante- and post-mortem patients but only represents the efficiency of phase 1 metabolism. Downstream metabolic enzymes encoded by UGT2B7, ABCB1, OPRM1, and COMT also have been implicated in variable individual response to drugs due to their activity at different stages of the tramadol ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) process. While commonly studied as single genes using targeted genotyping approaches, a more comprehensive tramadol metabolism profile has not been evaluated...
November 26, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197717/inferring-chinese-surnames-with-y-str-profiles
#18
Cheng-Min Shi, Changzhen Li, Liang Ma, Lianjiang Chi, Jing Zhao, Wuzhou Yuan, Zhendiao Zhou, Jiang-Wei Yan, Hua Chen
Co-ancestry of human surnames and Y-chromosomes in most human populations and social groups suggests the possibility of inferring one from the other. However, such an intuitive perspective remains to be formally explored. In the present study, we develop two computational methods, based on cosine distance (dcos) and coalescence distance (dcoal) respectively, to infer surnames from Y-STR profiles. We also survey Y-STR variations at 15 loci for 19,009 individuals of Shandong Province in China. For a total of 266 surnames included in the data set, our methods can pinpoint to a single surname with an average accuracy of 65%, and with an average accuracy higher than 80% when providing >4 candidate surnames...
November 24, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190509/genetic-determinants-of-freckle-occurrence-in-the-spanish-population-towards-ephelides-prediction-from-human-dna-samples
#19
Barbara Hernando, Maria Victoria Ibañez, Julio Alberto Deserio-Cuesta, Raquel Soria-Navarro, Inca Vilar-Sastre, Conrado Martinez-Cadenas
Prediction of human pigmentation traits, one of the most differentiable externally visible characteristics among individuals, from biological samples represents a useful tool in the field of forensic DNA phenotyping. In spite of freckling being a relatively common pigmentation characteristic in Europeans, little is known about the genetic basis of this largely genetically determined phenotype in southern European populations. In this work, we explored the predictive capacity of eight freckle and sunlight sensitivity-related genes in 458 individuals (266 non-freckled controls and 192 freckled cases) from Spain...
November 23, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197245/the-geographic-mosaic-of-ecuadorian-y-chromosome-ancestry
#20
U Toscanini, A Gaviria, J Pardo-Seco, A Gómez-Carballa, F Moscoso, M Vela, S Cobos, A Lupero, A K Zambrano, F Martinón-Torres, A Carabajo-Marcillo, R Yunga-León, N Ugalde-Noritz, A Ordoñez-Ugalde, A Salas
Ecuadorians originated from a complex mixture of Native American indigenous people with Europeans and Africans. We analyzed Y-chromosome STRs (Y-STRs) in a sample of 415 Ecuadorians (145 using the AmpFlSTR® Yfiler™ system [Life Technologies, USA] and 270 using the PowerPlex®Y23 system [Promega Corp., USA]; hereafter Yfiler and PPY23, respectively) representing three main ecological continental regions of the country, namely Amazon rainforest, Andes, and Pacific coast. Diversity values are high in the three regions, and the PPY23 exhibits higher discrimination power than the Yfiler set...
November 22, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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