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Stem Cell Research

Srikanth Ravichandran, Satoshi Okawa, Susana Martínez Arbas, Antonio Del Sol
Recent reports indicate a dominant role for cellular microenvironment or niche for stably maintaining cellular phenotypic states. Identification of key niche mediated signaling that maintains stem cells in specific phenotypic states remains a challenge, mainly due to the complex and dynamic nature of stem cell-niche interactions. In order to overcome this, we consider that stem cells maintain their phenotypic state by experiencing a constant effect created by the niche by integrating its signals via signaling pathways...
September 15, 2016: Stem Cell Research
David Reichman, Limor Man, Laura Park, Raphael Lis, Jeannine Gerhardt, Zev Rosenwaks, Daylon James
During development, endothelial cells (EC) display tissue-specific attributes that are unique to each vascular bed, as well as generic signaling mechanisms that are broadly applied to create a patent circulatory system. We have previously utilized human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to generate tissue-specific EC sub-types (Rafii et al., 2013) and identify pathways that govern growth and trans-differentiation potential of hESC-derived ECs (James et al., 2010). Here, we elucidate a novel Notch-dependent mechanism that induces endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in confluent monolayer cultures of hESC-derived ECs...
September 13, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Bella Rossbach, Laura Hildebrand, Linda El-Ahmad, Harald Stachelscheid, Petra Reinke, Andreas Kurtz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Daiana Leila Drehmer, Alessandra Melo de Aguiar, Anna Paula Brandt, Lyvia Petiz, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia Cadena, Carmen K Rebelatto, Paulo R S Brofman, Francisco Filipak Neto, Bruno Dallagiovanna, Ana Paula Ressetti Abud
The understanding of metabolism during cell proliferation and commitment provides a greater insight into the basic biology of cells, allowing future applications. Here we evaluated the energy and oxidative changes during the early adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (hASCs). hASCs were maintained under differentiation conditions during 3 and 7days. Oxygen consumption, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, non-protein thiols (NPT) concentration and lipid peroxidation were analyzed...
September 7, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Saishu Yoshida, Naoto Nishimura, Hiroki Ueharu, Naoko Kanno, Masashi Higuchi, Kotaro Horiguchi, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
Recent studies have demonstrated that Sox2-expressing stem/progenitor cells play roles in the pituitary cell turnover. Two types of niches have been proposed for stem/progenitor cells, the marginal cell layer (MCL) and the dense cell clusters in the parenchyma. Among them, the appearance of the parenchymal-niche only after birth indicates that this niche is involved in the cell turnover required for the postnatal pituitary. However, little is known about the roles of the parenchymal-niche and its regulation...
August 30, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Lourdes Lopez-Onieva, Rosa Montes, Mar Lamolda, Tamara Romero, Verónica Ayllon, Maria Luisa Lozano, Vicente Vicente, José Rivera, Verónica Ramos-Mejía, Pedro J Real
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Marta Grabiec, Hana Hříbková, Miroslav Vařecha, Dana Střítecká, Aleš Hampl, Petr Dvořák, Yuh-Man Sun
This study elucidated the stage-specific roles of FGF2 signaling during neural development using in-vitro human embryonic stem cell-based developmental modeling. We found that the dysregulation of FGF2 signaling prior to the onset of neural induction resulted in the malformation of neural rosettes (a neural tube-like structure), despite cells having undergone neural induction. The aberrant neural rosette formation may be attributed to the misplacement of ZO-1, which is a polarized tight junction protein and shown co-localized with FGF2/FGFR1 in the apical region of neural rosettes, subsequently led to abnormal neurogenesis...
August 27, 2016: Stem Cell Research
P A De Sousa, J M Downie, B J Tye, K Bruce, P Dand, S Dhanjal, P Serhal, J Harper, M Turner, M Bateman
From 2006 to 2011, Roslin Cells Ltd derived 17 human embryonic stem cells (hESC) while developing (RCM1, RC-2 to -8, -10) and implementing (RC-9, -11 to -17) quality assured standards of operation in a facility operating in compliance with European Union (EU) directives and United Kingdom (UK) licensure for procurement, processing and storage of human cells as source material for clinical application, and targeted to comply with an EU Good Manufacturing Practice specification. Here we describe the evolution and specification of the facility, its operation and outputs, complementing hESC resource details communicated in Stem Cell Research Lab Resources...
August 26, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Douglas A Grow, John R McCarrey, Christopher S Navara
The derivation of dopaminergic neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells brings new hope for a patient-specific, stem cell-based replacement therapy to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) and related neurodegenerative diseases; and this novel cell-based approach has already proven effective in animal models. However, there are several aspects of this procedure that have yet to be optimized to the extent required for translation to an optimal cell-based transplantation protocol in humans. These challenges include pinpointing the optimal graft location, appropriately scaling up the graft volume, and minimizing the risk of chronic immune rejection, among others...
August 26, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Renáta Bencsik, Pal Boto, Renáta Nóra Szabó, Bianka Monika Toth, Emilia Simo, Bálint László Bálint, Istvan Szatmari
Transgene-mediated programming is a preeminent strategy to direct cellular identity. To facilitate cell fate switching, lineage regulating genes must be efficiently and uniformly induced. However, gene expression is often heterogeneous in transgenic systems. Consistent with this notion, a non-uniform reporter gene expression was detected in our doxycycline (DOX)-regulated, murine embryonic stem (ES) cell clones. Interestingly, a significant fraction of cells within each clone failed to produce any reporter signals upon DOX treatment...
August 24, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Kiran Kumar Bokara, Jae Hwan Kim, Jae Young Kim, Jong Eun Lee
Growing evidence suggests that the clinical use of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is hampered by heterogeneity, poor neuronal yield and low survival rate. Recently, we reported that retrovirus-delivered human arginine decarboxylase (hADC) genes improve cell survival against oxidative insult in murine NPCs in vitro. This study investigates whether the induced expression of hADC gene in mNPCs induces any significant change in the cell fate commitment. The evaluation of induced hADC gene function was assessed by knockdown of hADC gene using specific siRNA...
August 17, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Susanne K Hansen, Tina C Stummann, Helena Borland, Lis F Hasholt, Zeynep Tümer, Jørgen E Nielsen, Mikkel A Rasmussen, Troels T Nielsen, Justus C A Daechsel, Karina Fog, Poul Hyttel
The neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene. In this study, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines were established from two SCA3 patients. Dermal fibroblasts were reprogrammed using an integration-free method and the resulting SCA3 iPSCs were differentiated into neurons. These neuronal lines harbored the disease causing mutation, expressed comparable levels of several neuronal markers and responded to the neurotransmitters, glutamate/glycine, GABA and acetylcholine...
August 16, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Niraj Bhatt, Rajib Ghosh, Sanchita Roy, Yongxing Gao, Mary Armanios, Linzhao Cheng, Sonia Franco
Biallelic mutations in ATM result in the neurodegenerative syndrome Ataxia-Telangiectasia, while ATM haploinsufficiency increases the risk of cancer and other diseases. Previous studies revealed low reprogramming efficiency from A-T and carrier fibroblasts, a barrier to iPS cell-based modeling and regeneration. Here, we tested the feasibility of employing circulating erythroid cells, a compartment no or minimally affected in A-T, for the generation of A-T and carrier iPS cells. Our results indicate that episomal expression of Yamanaka factors plus BCL-xL in erythroid cells results in highly efficient iPS cell production in feeder-free, xeno-free conditions...
August 12, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Lukas Perkhofer, Karolin Walter, Ivan G Costa, Maria C Romero Carrasco, Tim Eiseler, Susanne Hafner, Felicitas Genze, Martin Zenke, Wendy Bergmann, Anett Illing, Meike Hohwieler, Ralf Köhntop, Qiong Lin, Karl-Heinz Holzmann, Thomas Seufferlein, Martin Wagner, Stefan Liebau, Patrick C Hermann, Alexander Kleger, Martin Müller
Cell fate decisions and pluripotency, but also malignancy depend on networks of key transcriptional regulators. The T-box transcription factor TBX3 has been implicated in the regulation of embryonic stem cell self-renewal and cardiogenesis. We have recently discovered that forced TBX3 expression in embryonic stem cells promotes mesendoderm specification directly by activating key lineage specification factors and indirectly by enhancing paracrine NODAL signalling. Interestingly, aberrant TBX3 expression is associated with breast cancer and melanoma formation...
August 10, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Maricela Maldonado, Rebeccah J Luu, Michael E P Ramos, Jin Nam
Robust control of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC) differentiation is essential to realize its patient-tailored therapeutic potential. Here, we demonstrate a novel application of Y-27632, a small molecule Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, to significantly influence the differentiation of hIPSCs in a lineage-specific manner. The application of Y-27632 to hIPSCs resulted in a decrease in actin bundling and disruption of colony formation in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Such changes in cell and colony morphology were associated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, a cell-cell junctional protein, proportional to the increased exposure to Y-27632...
August 4, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Min Jin, Yutao Wu, Yanwei Wang, Danqing Yu, Mei Yang, Feng Yang, Chun Feng, Ting Chen
MicroRNA-29a (miR-29a) has been extensively studied in tumor biology and fibrotic diseases, but little is known about its functional roles in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Using well-established VSMC differentiation models, we have observed that miR-29a induces VSMC differentiation from mouse ESCs by negatively regulating YY1, a transcription factor that inhibits muscle cell differentiation and muscle-specific gene expression. Moreover, gene expression levels of three VSMC specific transcriptional factors were up-regulated by miR-29a over-expression, but down-regulated by miR-29a inhibition or YY1 over-expression...
August 2, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Camilla Siciliano, Antonella Bordin, Mohsen Ibrahim, Isotta Chimenti, Francesco Cassiano, Ilenia Gatto, Giorgio Mangino, Andrea Coccia, Selenia Miglietta, Daniela Bastianelli, Vincenzo Petrozza, Antonella Calogero, Giacomo Frati, Elena De Falco
Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment) by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL) and FBS...
July 30, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Ilenia De Luca, Anna Di Salle, Nicola Alessio, Sabrina Margarucci, Michele Simeone, Umberto Galderisi, Anna Calarco, Gianfranco Peluso
Understanding the mechanisms by which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) interact with the physical properties (e.g. topography, charge, ζ-potential, and contact angle) of polymeric surfaces is essential to design new biomaterials capable of regulating stem cell behavior. The present study investigated the ability of two polymers (pHM1 and pHM3) with different positive surface charge densities to modulate the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblast-like phenotype via cell-cell ephrinB2/EphB4 signaling. Although pHM1 promoted the phosphorylation of EphB4, leading to cell differentiation, pHM3, characterized by a high positive surface charge density, had no significant effect on EphB4 activation or MSCs differentiation...
July 20, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Jingjun Li, Jing Ma, Guofeng Meng, Hong Lin, Sharon Wu, Jamie Wang, Jie Luo, Xiaohong Xu, David Tough, Matthew Lindon, Inma Rioja Pastor, Jing Zhao, Hongkang Mei, Rab Prinjha, Zhong Zhong
Neural stem cells and progenitor cells (NPCs) are increasingly appreciated to hold great promise for regenerative medicine to treat CNS injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. However, evidence for effective stimulation of neuronal production from endogenous or transplanted NPCs for neuron replacement with small molecules remains limited. To identify novel chemical entities/targets for neurogenesis, we had established a NPC phenotypic screen assay and validated it using known small-molecule neurogenesis inducers...
July 20, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Yao-Chang Tsan, Maria H Morell, K Sue O'Shea
Over-expression of the early neural inducer, Noggin, in nestin positive subventricular zone (SVZ), neural stem cells (NSC) promotes proliferation and neuronal differentiation of neural progenitors and inhibits the expression of a CNS-enriched microRNA-410 (miR-410) (Morell et al., 2015). When expressed in neurospheres derived from the adult SVZ, miR-410 inhibits neuronal and oligodendrocyte differentiation, and promotes astrocyte differentiation. miR-410 also reverses the increase in neuronal differentiation and decreased astroglial differentiation caused by Noggin over-expression...
July 17, 2016: Stem Cell Research
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