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Stem Cell Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645005/application-of-stem-cell-derived-neuronal-cells-to-evaluate-neurotoxic-chemotherapy
#1
Claudia Wing, Masaaki Komatsu, Shannon M Delaney, Matthew Krause, Heather E Wheeler, M Eileen Dolan
The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiation to cells composing major organs has opened up the possibility for a new model system to study adverse toxicities associated with chemotherapy. Therefore, we used human iPSC-derived neurons to study peripheral neuropathy, one of the most common adverse effects of chemotherapy and cause for dose reduction. To determine the utility of these neurons in investigating the effects of neurotoxic chemotherapy, we measured morphological differences in neurite outgrowth, cell viability as determined by ATP levels and apoptosis through measures of caspase 3/7 activation following treatment with clinically relevant concentrations of platinating agents (cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin), taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel and nab-paclitaxel), a targeted proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib), an antiangiogenic compound (thalidomide), and 5-fluorouracil, a chemotherapeutic that does not cause neuropathy...
June 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623786/proteolytic-processed-form-of-cxcl12-abolishes-migration-and-induces-apoptosis-in-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro
#2
Taís Adelita, Roberta Sessa Stilhano, Sang Won Han, Giselle Zenker Justo, Marimelia Porcionatto
The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain hosts full potential neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are able to respond to extracellular signals in the brain, amplifying the pool of progenitor cells and giving rise to neuroblasts that show ability to migrate towards an injury site. These signals can come from vascular system, cerebrospinal fluid, glial cells, or projections of neurons in adjoining regions. CXCL12, a chemokine secreted after brain injury, reaches the SVZ in a gradient manner and drives neuroblasts towards the lesion area...
June 4, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636974/sema3a-partially-reverses-vegf-effects-through-binding-to-neuropilin-1
#3
Bruna Palodetto, Adriana da Silva Santos Duarte, Matheus Rodrigues Lopes, Flavia Adolfo Corrocher, Fernanda Marconi Roversi, Fernanda Soares Niemann, Karla Priscila Vieira Ferro, Ana Leda Figueiredo Longhini, Paula Melo Campos, Patricia Favaro, Sara Teresinha Olalla Saad
Cross-talk between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is essential for HSCs regulation and leukemogenesis. Studying bone marrow of myelodysplasia patients, a pre-leukemic condition, we found mRNA overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in CD34(+) HSCs and semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) in BMSCs. To better understand the role of VEGFA and SEMA3A in leukemogenesis, we recruited 30 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, 29 acute myeloid leukemia (6 secondary to MDS) patients and 12 controls...
June 3, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600955/parp-activity-and-inhibition-in-fetal-and-adult-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-effect-on-cell-survival-and-differentiation
#4
Vito A Baldassarro, Alessandra Marchesini, Luciana Giardino, Laura Calzà
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family members are ubiquitously expressed and play a key role in cellular processes, including DNA repair and cell death/survival balance. Accordingly, PARP inhibition is an emerging pharmacological strategy for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Consistent evidences support the critical involvement of PARP family members in cell differentiation and phenotype maturation. In this study we used an oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) enriched system derived from fetal and adult brain to investigate the role of PARP in OPCs proliferation, survival, and differentiation...
May 30, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595116/the-unique-spliceosome-signature-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-is-mediated-by-snrpa1-snrpd1-and-pnn
#5
Young-Dae Kim, Jungwoon Lee, Han-Seop Kim, Mi-Ok Lee, Mi-Young Son, Chae Hwa Yoo, Jung-Kyun Choi, Sang Chul Lee, Yee Sook Cho
Spliceosomes are the core host of pre-mRNA splicing, allowing multiple protein isoforms to be produced from a single gene. Herein, we reveal that spliceosomes are more abundant in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSs), than non-hPSs, and their presence is associated with high transcriptional activity. Supportively, spliceosomal components involved in the catalytically active pre-mRNA splicing step were mainly co-localized with hPS spliceosomes...
May 30, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558327/d-alanine-2-leucine-5-enkephaline-dadle-mediated-dor-activation-augments-human-hucb-bfs-viability-subjected-to-oxidative-stress-via-attenuation-of-the-upr
#6
Madhubanti Mullick, Katari Venkatesh, Dwaipayan Sen
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) although being potent in repairing injured or ischemic tissues, their success regarding tissue-regenerative approaches are hindered by the paucity in their viability. The elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in damaged sites provoke the pernicious effects of donor MSC survival. In the present study, the effect of delta-opioid receptor (DOR) activation on human umbilical cord-blood borne fibroblasts (hUCB-BFs) survival under oxidative stress (H2O2) was evaluated...
May 24, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549249/cd146-mcam-in-human-cs-dlk1-cs-cd34-adipose-stromal-progenitor-cells
#7
Susanne Hörl, Asim Ejaz, Sebastian Ernst, Monika Mattesich, Andreas Kaiser, Brigitte Jenewein, Marit E Zwierzina, Sarina Hammerle, Carina Miggitsch, Maria C Mitterberger-Vogt, Claudia Krautgasser, Gerhard Pierer, Werner Zwerschke
To precisely characterize CD146 in adipose stromal/progenitor cells (ASCs) we sorted the stromal vascular faction (SVF) of human abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) according to cell surface (cs) expression of CD146, DLK1 and CD34. This test identified three main SVF cell populations: ~50% cs-DLK1(-)/cs-CD34(+)/cs-CD146(-) ASCs, ~7.5% cs-DLK1(+)/cs-CD34(dim/+)/cs-CD146(+) and ~7.5% cs-DLK1(+)/cs-CD34(dim/+)/cs-CD146(-) cells. All cells contained intracellular CD146. Whole mount fluorescent IHC staining of small vessels detected CD146(+) endothelial cells (CD31(+)/CD34(+)/CD146(+)) and pericytes (CD31(-)/CD34(-)/CD146(+) ASCs)...
May 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578005/isolation-characterization-and-differentiation-of-multipotent-neural-progenitor-cells-from-human-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-fetal-cystic-myelomeningocele
#8
Mario Marotta, Alejandra Fernández-Martín, Marc Oria, Cesar G Fontecha, Carles Giné, Vicente Martínez-Ibáñez, Elena Carreras, Michael A Belfort, Gloria Pelizzo, Jose L Peiró
Despite benefits of prenatal in utero repair of myelomeningocele, a severe type of spina bifida aperta, many of these patients will still suffer mild to severe impairment. One potential source of stem cells for new regenerative medicine-based therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury repair is neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To this aim, we extracted CSF from the cyst surrounding the exposed neural placode during the surgical repair of myelomeningocele in 6 fetuses (20 to 26weeks of gestation)...
May 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500913/myb-fusions-and-cd-markers-as-tools-for-authentication-and-purification-of-cancer-stem-cells-from-salivary-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma
#9
Alex Panaccione, Yi Zhang, Molly Ryan, Christopher A Moskaluk, Karen S Anderson, Wendell G Yarbrough, Sergey V Ivanov
Cancer stem cells (CSC) are considered the major cause of aggressive tumor behavior, recurrence, metastases, and resistance to radiation, making them an attractive therapeutic target. However, isolation of CSC from tumor tissue and their characterization are challenging due to uncertainty about their molecular markers and conditions for their propagation. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), which arises predominantly in the salivary glands, is a slow-growing but relentless tumor that frequently invades nerves and metastasizes...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499264/initial-clonogenic-potential-of-human-endothelial-progenitor-cells-is-predictive-of-their-further-properties-and-establishes-a-functional-hierarchy-related-to-immaturity
#10
Ségolène Ferratge, Guillaume Ha, Gilles Carpentier, Nassim Arouche, Rümeyza Bascetin, Laurent Muller, Stéphane Germain, Georges Uzan
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) generate in vitro Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs) combining features of endothelial and stem/progenitor cells. Their angiogenic properties confer them a therapeutic potential for treating ischemic lesions. They may be isolated from umbilical cord blood (CB-ECFCs) or peripheral adult blood (AB-ECFCs). It is generally accepted that CB-ECFCs are more clonogenic, proliferative and angiogenic than AB-ECFCs. Nevertheless, only a few studies have focused on the functional heterogeneity of CB-ECFCs from different individuals...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494434/p-cadherin-is-necessary-for-retinal-stem-cell-behavior-in-vitro-but-not-in-vivo
#11
Brenda L K Coles, Derek van der Kooy
Adult retinal stem cells (RSCs) are rare quiescent cells within the ciliary epithelium of the eye, which is made up of non-pigmented N-Cadherin(+ve) inner and pigmented P-Cadherin(+ve) outer cell layers. Through FACs and single cell analyses, we have shown that RSCs arise from single cells from within the pigmented CE and express P-Cadherin. However, whether the expression of P-Cadherin is required for maintenance of the stem cell in vivo or in the formation of the clonal stem cell spheres in vitro is not known...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445828/targeting-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-nuclear-translocator-complex-with-dmog-and-stemregenin-1-improves-primitive-hematopoietic-stem-cell-expansion
#12
Carlo Stephan Jackson, Chrisna Durandt, Ilse Janse van Rensburg, Vincent Praloran, Philippe Brunet de la Grange, Michael Sean Pepper
Culture conditions used for the expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs and HPCs, collectively HSPCs) should ideally favor the self renewal of long-term HSCs. At 20% O2, the synthesis of HIF-1α is balanced by its hydroxylation and proteasomal degradation. This favors HSPC differentiation, but can be prevented by culturing CD34+ cord blood cells in the presence of dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG). This differentiation may also be reduced by culturing the cells in the presence of Stemregenin 1, an antagonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434825/rna-binding-proteins-in-human-oogenesis-balancing-differentiation-and-self-renewal-in-the-female-fetal-germline
#13
Roseanne Rosario, Andrew J Childs, Richard A Anderson
Primordial germ cells undergo three significant processes on their path to becoming primary oocytes: the initiation of meiosis, the formation and breakdown of germ cell nests, and the assembly of single oocytes into primordial follicles. However at the onset of meiosis, the germ cell becomes transcriptionally silenced. Consequently translational control of pre-stored mRNAs plays a central role in coordinating gene expression throughout the remainder of oogenesis; RNA binding proteins are key to this regulation...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433655/targeting-sarcoma-tumor-initiating-cells-through-differentiation-therapy
#14
Dan Han, Veronica Rodriguez-Bravo, Elizabeth Charytonowicz, Elizabeth Demicco, Josep Domingo-Domenech, Robert G Maki, Carlos Cordon-Cardo
Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) down-regulation has been reported in many human cancers to be associated with poor clinical outcome. However, its connection to tumor-initiating cells (TICs) remains unknown. In this study, we report that HLA-I is down-regulated in a subpopulation of cells that have high tumor initiating capacity in different types of human sarcomas. Detailed characterization revealed their distinct molecular profiles regarding proliferation, apoptosis and stemness programs. Notably, these TICs can be induced to differentiate along distinct mesenchymal lineages, including the osteogenic pathway...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433654/high-molecular-weight-fgf2-isoforms-demonstrate-canonical-receptor-mediated-activity-and-support-human-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#15
Denis Kole, Alexandra Grella, David Dolivo, Lucia Shumaker, William Hermans, Tanja Dominko
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006), and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011). A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18kDa low molecular weight (LMW) isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms (Arese et al...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431857/modeling-human-infertility-with-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Di Chen, Joanna J Gell, Yu Tao, Enrique Sosa, Amander T Clark
Human fertility is dependent upon the correct establishment and differentiation of the germline. This is because no other cell type in the body is capable of passing a genome and epigenome from parent to child. Terminally differentiated germline cells in the adult testis and ovary are called gametes. However, the initial specification of germline cells occurs in the embryo around the time of gastrulation. Most of our knowledge regarding the cell and molecular events that govern human germline specification involves extrapolating scientific principles from model organisms, most notably the mouse...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426972/unlocking-the-chromatin-of-adenoid-cystic-carcinomas-using-hdac-inhibitors-sensitize-cancer-stem-cells-to-cisplatin-and-induces-tumor-senescence
#17
Luciana O Almeida, Douglas M Guimarães, Manoela D Martins, Marco A T Martins, Kristy A Warner, Jacques E Nör, Rogerio M Castilho, Cristiane H Squarize
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412509/a-monoclonal-antibody-recognizes-undifferentiation-specific-carbohydrate-moieties-expressed-on-cell-surface-of-the-human-dental-pulp-cells
#18
Kyung-Jung Kang, Seon-Yle Ko, Chun-Jeih Ryu, Young-Joo Jang
Human dental pulp cells are obtained from dental pulp tissue, and have the ability to form dentin and a pulp-like complex. Although adult stem cells have been identified from the primary culture by using specific cell surface markers, the identity of surface markers for the purification of stem cells within the dental pulp population are still unclear. Previously, we had constructed monoclonal antibodies against the undifferentiated cell-specific surface markers of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) by performing decoy immunization...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411439/neuropeptide-y-enhances-proliferation-and-prevents-apoptosis-in-rat-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-in-association-with-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-vitro
#19
Jianqun Wu, Song Liu, Huan Meng, Tianyu Qu, Su Fu, Zhao Wang, Jianguo Yang, Dan Jin, Bin Yu
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) exhibits a critical but poorly understood regulatory signaling function and has been shown to promote proliferation, vascularization and migration in several types of cells and tissues. However, little is known about the specific role of NPY in the proliferation and apoptosis of bone marrow stromal cells (also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, BMSCs), which contain a subpopulation of multipotent skeletal stem cells. Based on BrdU incorporation tests, Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, we showed that NPY significantly promoted the proliferation of BMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, with a maximal effect observed at a concentration of 10(-10)M for pro-proliferative and 10(-12)M for anti-apoptotic activities...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390992/patient-specific-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-evaluate-the-pathophysiology-of-trnt1-associated-retinitis-pigmentosa
#20
Tasneem P Sharma, Luke A Wiley, S Scott Whitmore, Kristin R Anfinson, Cathryn M Cranston, Douglas J Oppedal, Heather T Daggett, Robert F Mullins, Budd A Tucker, Edwin M Stone
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of monogenic disorders characterized by progressive death of the light-sensing photoreceptor cells of the outer neural retina. We recently identified novel hypomorphic mutations in the tRNA Nucleotidyl Transferase, CCA-Adding 1 (TRNT1) gene that cause early-onset RP. To model this disease in vitro, we generated patient-specific iPSCs and iPSC-derived retinal organoids from dermal fibroblasts of patients with molecularly confirmed TRNT1-associated RP. Pluripotency was confirmed using rt-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and a TaqMan Scorecard Assay...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
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