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Stem Cell Research

Ana Artero Castro, Marian León, Noelia Luna-Peláez, Angeles Martín Bernal, Verónica Del Buey Furió, Slaven Erceg, Dunja Lukovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Riyo Konishi, Toru Nakano, Shinpei Yamaguchi
Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that maintain a sustainable pluripotent state are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts, in which pluripotency is lost during differentiation in vivo. It is unclear when and how the ability to maintain pluripotency is acquired during the derivation of ESCs. We analyzed the required culture condition for the maintenance and establishment of ESCs in detail. Even at low concentration of the GSK3β inhibitor and LIF (LowGiL), the expression levels of pluripotency markers and the chimera-producing ability of the cells were comparable with those of ESCs cultured in the presence of both inhibitors and LIF (2iL)...
July 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Haisong Wang, Wenhao Zhang, Qian Gao, Xiangrong Cao, Yanni Li, Xu Li, Zheying Min, Yang Yu, Yuanqiang Guo, Ling Shuai
BACKGROUND: Plant natural products have many different biological activities but the precise mechanisms underlying these activities remain largely unknown. Hypericum longistylum has long been recorded in Chinese medicine as a cure for depression and related disorders, but how it repairs neural lineages has not been addressed. METHODS: We extracted compounds from Hypericum longistylum and determined their effect on neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro by using the Pax6-GFP reporter system...
July 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Zuojun Liu, Chao Wang, Xiaoqi Liu, Shihuan Kuang
Adult skeletal muscles are comprised of multinuclear muscle cells called myofibers. During skeletal muscle development and regeneration, mononuclear progenitor cells (myoblasts) fuse to form multinuclear myotubes, which mature and become myofibers. The molecular events mediating myoblast fusion are not fully understood. Here we report that Shisa2, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized protein, regulates the fusion of muscle satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts. Shisa2 expression is repressed by Notch signaling, elevated in activated compared to quiescent satellite cells, and further upregulated during myogenic differentiation...
July 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Uirá Souto Melo, Felipe de Souza Leite, Silvia Costa, Carla Rosenberg, Mayana Zatz
An efficient one-step procedure to reprogram fibroblasts into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) and perform CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing simultaneously was recently reported. Here we show that such simultaneous reprogramming and gene editing can be efficiently done from erythroblasts. We successfully obtained human induced pluripotent stem cells colonies together with in frame and out of frame CAPN1 mutations in one or both alleles. We did not identify off-targets in edited cell lines. The entire process, from blood collection to mutated hiPSC took approximately 5 weeks, a much shorter period than standard multi-step methodologies using fibroblasts...
July 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Hye Young Choi, So-Jung Kim, Gue Youn Go, Ara Kwon, Young Sam Im, Hye-Yeong Ha, Jin Tae Hong, Ji-Won Jung, Soo Kyung Koo
We generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line, KSCBi003-A, from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) using a Sendai virus-based gene delivery system. We confirmed that the KSCBi003-A has a normal karyotype and short tandem repeat (STR)-based identities that match the parent cells. We also confirmed that the cell line expresses pluripotent stem cell markers such as Nanog, OCT4, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81. We also analyzed that the KSCBi003-A has an ability to differentiate three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)...
June 27, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Carmel Braverman-Gross, Neta Nudel, Daniel Ronen, Nicola L Beer, Mark I McCarty, Nissim Benvenisty
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a hereditary form of diabetes mellitus presenting at childhood or adolescence, which eventually leads to pancreatic β-cells dysfunction. The underlying genetic basis of MODY disorders is haploinsufficiency, where loss-of-function mutations in a single allele cause the diabetic phenotype in heterozygous patients. MODY1 is a type of MODY disorder resulting from a mutation in the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α). In order to establish a human based model to study MODY1, we generated patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
June 26, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Jun Liu, Michelle P Ashton, Moira K O'Bryan, Thomas C Brodnicki, Paul J Verma
The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain is a predominant animal model of type 1 diabetes. However, this mouse strain is considered to be non-permissive for embryonic stem cell (ESC) derivation using conventional methods. We examined small molecule inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) to block spontaneous cell differentiation and promote pluripotency persistence. Here we show a single pharmacological GSK3 inhibitor, 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO), in combination with leukemia inhibition factor (LIF), promoted generation of stable NOD ESC lines at >80% efficiency...
June 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Songyan Han, Christopher Tan, Junjun Ding, Jianlong Wang, Avi Ma'ayan, Valerie Gouon-Evans
Liver organogenesis requires complex cell-cell interactions between hepatic endoderm cells and adjacent cell niches. Endothelial cells are key players for endoderm hepatic fate decision. We previously demonstrated that the endothelial cell niche promotes hepatic specification of mouse embryonic stem cell(ESC)-derived endoderm through dual repression of Wnt and Notch pathways in endoderm cells. In the present study, we dissected further the mechanisms by which endothelial cells trigger endoderm hepatic specification...
June 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Stefanie Nicole Hayer, Yvonne Schelling, Philip Hoeflinger, Stefan Hauser, Ludger Schöls
An induced pluripotent stem cell line, HIHCNi003-A (iPSC-ALSP), was created from a skin biopsy of a patient with adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) caused by a heterozygous c.2512G>C, p.Val838Leu mutation in the CSF1R gene. Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using episomal plasmids carrying hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF4, hL-MYC, and hLIN28. The iPSC-ALSP line exhibits chromosomal stability with conservation of the CSF1R mutation, expresses pluripotency markers and differentiates into endo-, meso-, and ectodermal cells in vitro...
June 20, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Yasuyoshi Tanaka, Norimichi Higurashi, Naoto Shirasu, Shin'ichiro Yasunaga, Kevin Mello Moreira, Hideyuki Okano, Shinichi Hirose
De novo mutations in SCN1A are the most common cause of Dravet syndrome (DS), an infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy. In this study, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line FUi002-A was generated from skin fibroblasts obtained from a clinically diagnosed 26-year-old male DS patient with the R1525X variant of the SCN1A gene. Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using OriP/EBNA-1 based episomal plasmids expressing reprogramming factors expressing OCT4, SOX2, KLF-4, L-MYC, LIN28, and p53 shRNA. The transgene-free FUi002-A showed pluripotency, three germ layer differentiation capacity in vitro, and a normal karyotype...
June 19, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Natalia Pashkovskaia, Uta Gey, Gerhard Rödel
ROS are frequently associated with deleterious effects caused by oxidative stress. Despite the harmful effects of non-specific oxidation, ROS also function as signal transduction molecules that regulate various biological processes, including stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we show that mitochondrial ROS level determines cell fate during differentiation of the pluripotent stem cell line P19. As stem cells in general, P19 cells are characterized by a low respiration activity, accompanied by a low level of ROS formation...
June 19, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Valentina Alari, Silvia Russo, Davide Rovina, Aoife Gowran, Maria Garzo, Milena Crippa, Laura Mazzanti, Claudia Scalera, Ennio Prosperi, Daniela Giardino, Cristina Gervasini, Palma Finelli, Giulio Pompilio, Lidia Larizza
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth retardation, skeletal anomalies and intellectual disability, caused by heterozygous mutation in either the CREBBP (RSTS1) or EP300 (RSTS2) genes. We generated an induced pluripotent stem cell line from an RSTS2 patient's blood mononuclear cells by Sendai virus non integrative reprogramming method. The iPSC line (IAIi001RSTS2-65-A) displayed iPSC morphology, expressed pluripotency markers, possessed trilineage differentiation potential and was stable by karyotyping...
June 18, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Julia Higelin, Alberto Catanese, Lena Luisa Semelink-Sedlacek, Sertap Oeztuerk, Anne-Kathrin Lutz, Julia Bausinger, Gotthold Barbi, Günter Speit, Peter M Andersen, Albert C Ludolph, Maria Demestre, Tobias M Boeckers
Mutations in genes coding for proteins involved in DNA damage response (DDR) and repair, such as C9orf72 and FUS (Fused in Sarcoma), are associated with neurodegenerative diseases and lead to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in NEK1 (NIMA-related kinase 1) have also been recently found to cause ALS. NEK1 codes for a multifunctional protein, crucially involved in mitotic checkpoint control and DDR. To resolve pathological alterations associated with NEK1 mutation, we compared hiPSC-derived motoneurons carrying a NEK1 mutation with mutant C9orf72 and wild type neurons at basal level and after DNA damage induction...
June 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Weili Wang, Xiaolu Sun, Tianyuan Hu, Le Wang, Shuxu Dong, Jie Gu, Yajing Chu, Xiaomin Wang, Yanhan Li, Yongxin Ru, Tao Cheng, Weiping Yuan
PDK1 (phosphoinositide dependent kinase-1) plays an important regulatory role in B cells, T cells and platelets. Less is known about how PDK1 acts in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), especially in the fetal liver (FL) during embryonic hematopoiesis, as the FL is the primary fetal hematopoietic organ and the main site of HSC expansion and differentiation. Here, we deleted the PDK1 gene in hematopoietic cells by crossing Vav-Cre transgenic mice with PDK1f/f mice. Using a transplantation assay, we found that HSCs from the E15...
June 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Stefanie Nicole Hayer, Yvonne Schelling, Jeannette Huebener-Schmid, Jonasz Jeremiasz Weber, Stefan Hauser, Ludger Schöls
A skin biopsy of a patient with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD)) caused by a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene, was used to generate an induced pluripotent stem cell line, HIHCNi002-A (iPSC-SCA3). Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using episomal plasmids carrying hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF4, hL-MYC, and hLIN28. The iPSC-SCA3 line exhibits chromosomal stability with conservation of the ATXN3 repeat expansion, expresses pluripotency markers and differentiates into endo-, meso-, and ectodermal cells in vitro...
June 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Seo-Young Lee, SangKyun Jeong, Janghwan Kim, Sun-Ku Chung
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. PD can result from a mutation of alpha-synuclein (α-SNCA), such as α-SNCA A53T. Using episomal vectors, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from skin fibroblasts with the α-SNCA A53T mutation. A huge bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) harboring the normal α-SNCA gene successfully corrected the α-SNCA A53T-mutant iPSCs. Melting curve analysis for allelic composition indicated that the BAC DNA was precisely targeted to the α-SNCA A53T mutation allele, without random integration...
June 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Soraia Martins, Hatice Yigit, Martina Bohndorf, Nina Graffmann, Aurelian Robert Fiszl, Wasco Wruck, Kristel Sleegers, Christine Van Broeckhoven, James Adjaye
Human lymphoblast cells from a male diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) expressing the TREM2 p.R47H variant were used to generate integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by over-expressing episomal-based plasmids harbouring OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, LIN28, L-MYC and p53 shRNA. The derived iPSC line - AD-TREM2-3 was defined as pluripotent based on (i) expression of pluripotency-associated markers (ii) embryoid body-based differentiation into cell types representative of the three germ layers and (iii) the similarity between the transcriptome of the iPSC line and the human embryonic stem cell line H1 with a Pearson correlation of 0...
June 1, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Shih-Jie Chou, Yu-Ling Ko, Yu-Hsuan Yang, Aliaksandr A Yarmishyn, Yu-Ting Wu, Chien-Tsun Chen, Hsin-Chen Lee, Yau-Huei Wei, Shih-Hwa Chiou
MERRF syndrome is predominantly caused by A8344G mutation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), affecting MT-TK gene, which impairs the mitochondrial electron transport chain function. Here, we report the generation of two isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines, TVGH-iPSC-MRF-Mlow and TVGH-iPSC-MRF-Mhigh , from the skin fibroblasts of a female MERRF patient harboring mtDNA A8344G mutation by using retrovirus transduction system. Both cell lines share the same genetic background except containing different proportions of mtDNA with the A8344G mutation...
May 28, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Ryan P Russell, Yu Fu, Yaling Liu, Peter Maye
We have investigated the differentiation of paraxial mesoderm from mouse embryonic stem cells utilizing a Tbx6-EYFP/Brachyury (T)-Cherry dual reporter system. Differentiation from the mouse ESC state directly into mesoderm via Wnt pathway activation was low, but augmented by treatment with AGN193109, a pan-retinoic acid receptor inverse agonist. After five days of differentiation, T+ cells increased from 12.2% to 18.8%, Tbx6+ cells increased from 5.8% to 12.7%, and T+ /Tbx6+ cells increased from 2.4% to 14...
May 22, 2018: Stem Cell Research
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