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Biotechnology for Biofuels

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228843/a-new-mechanism-for-efficient-hydrocarbon-electro-extraction-from-botryococcus-braunii
#1
Alexis Guionet, Bahareh Hosseini, Justin Teissié, Hidenori Akiyama, Hamid Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Recent understanding that specific algae have high hydrocarbon production potential has attracted considerable attention. Botryococcus braunii is a microalga with an extracellular hydrocarbon matrix, which makes it an appropriate green energy source. RESULTS: This study focuses on extracting oil from the microalgae matrix rather than the cells, eliminating the need for an excessive electric field to create electro-permeabilization. In such a way, technical limitations due to high extraction energy and cost can be overcome...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203276/a-biorefinery-scheme-to-fractionate-bamboo-into-high-grade-dissolving-pulp-and-ethanol
#2
Zhaoyang Yuan, Yangbing Wen, Nuwan Sella Kapu, Rodger Beatson, D Mark Martinez
BACKGROUND: Bamboo is a highly abundant source of biomass which is underutilized despite having a chemical composition and fiber structure similar as wood. The main challenge for the industrial processing of bamboo is the high level of silica, which forms water-insoluble precipitates negetively affecting the process systems. A cost-competitive and eco-friendly scheme for the production of high-purity dissolving grade pulp from bamboo not only requires a process for silica removal, but also needs to fully utilize all of the materials dissolved in the process which includes lignin, and cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars as well as the silica...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191038/physiological-and-molecular-characterizations-of-the-interactions-in-two-cellulose-to-methane-cocultures
#3
Hongyuan Lu, Siu-Kin Ng, Yangyang Jia, Mingwei Cai, Patrick K H Lee
BACKGROUND: The interspecies interactions in a biomethanation community play a vital role in substrate degradation and methane (CH4) formation. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms of interaction among the microbial members of this community remain poorly understood due to the lack of an experimentally tractable model system. In this study, we successfully established two coculture models combining the cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium cellulovorans 743B with Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro or Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 for the direct conversion of cellulose to CH4...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191037/understanding-the-structural-and-chemical-changes-of-plant-biomass-following-steam-explosion-pretreatment
#4
Thomas Auxenfans, David Crônier, Brigitte Chabbert, Gabriel Paës
BACKGROUND: Biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass has become one of the most valuable alternatives for the production of multi-products such as biofuels. Pretreatment is a prerequisite to increase the enzymatic conversion of the recalcitrant lignocellulose. However, there is still considerable debate regarding the key features of biomass impacting the cellulase accessibility. In this study, we evaluate the structural and chemical features of three different representative biomasses (Miscanthus × giganteus, poplar and wheat straw), before and after steam explosion pretreatment at increasing severities, by monitoring chemical analysis, SEM, FTIR and 2D NMR...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184248/expression-of-aspergillus-niger-cazymes-is-determined-by-compositional-changes-in-wheat-straw-generated-by-hydrothermal-or-ionic-liquid-pretreatments
#5
Paul Daly, Jolanda M van Munster, Martin J Blythe, Roger Ibbett, Matt Kokolski, Sanyasi Gaddipati, Erika Lindquist, Vasanth R Singan, Kerrie W Barry, Anna Lipzen, Chew Yee Ngan, Christopher J Petzold, Leanne Jade G Chan, Steven T Pullan, Stéphane Delmas, Paul R Waldron, Igor V Grigoriev, Gregory A Tucker, Blake A Simmons, David B Archer
BACKGROUND: The capacity of fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, to degrade lignocellulose is harnessed in biotechnology to generate biofuels and high-value compounds from renewable feedstocks. Most feedstocks are currently pretreated to increase enzymatic digestibility: improving our understanding of the transcriptomic responses of fungi to pretreated lignocellulosic substrates could help to improve the mix of activities and reduce the production costs of commercial lignocellulose saccharifying cocktails...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184247/a-versatile-2a-peptide-based-bicistronic-protein-expressing-platform-for-the-industrial-cellulase-producing-fungus-trichoderma-reesei
#6
Venkataramanan Subramanian, Logan A Schuster, Kyle T Moore, Larry E Taylor, John O Baker, Todd A Vander Wall, Jeffrey G Linger, Michael E Himmel, Stephen R Decker
BACKGROUND: The industrial workhorse fungus, Trichoderma reesei, is typically exploited for its ability to produce cellulase enzymes, whereas use of this fungus for over-expression of other proteins (homologous and heterologous) is still very limited. Identifying transformants expressing target protein is a tedious task due to low transformation efficiency, combined with highly variable expression levels between transformants. Routine methods for identification include PCR-based analysis, western blotting, or crude activity screening, all of which are time-consuming techniques...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184246/determination-of-glycoside-hydrolase-specificities-during-hydrolysis-of-plant-cell-walls-using-glycome-profiling
#7
Johnnie A Walker, Sivakumar Pattathil, Lai F Bergeman, Emily T Beebe, Kai Deng, Maryam Mirzai, Trent R Northen, Michael G Hahn, Brian G Fox
BACKGROUND: Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes that hydrolyze polysaccharides into simple sugars. To better understand the specificity of enzyme hydrolysis within the complex matrix of polysaccharides found in the plant cell wall, we studied the reactions of individual enzymes using glycome profiling, where a comprehensive collection of cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies are used to detect polysaccharide epitopes remaining in the walls after enzyme treatment and quantitative nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry (oxime-NIMS) to determine soluble sugar products of their reactions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184245/development-of-a-low-cost-cellulase-production-process-using-trichoderma-reesei-for-brazilian-biorefineries
#8
Simo Ellilä, Lucas Fonseca, Cristiane Uchima, Junio Cota, Gustavo Henrique Goldman, Markku Saloheimo, Vera Sacon, Matti Siika-Aho
BACKGROUND: During the past few years, the first industrial-scale cellulosic ethanol plants have been inaugurated. Although the performance of the commercial cellulase enzymes used in this process has greatly improved over the past decade, cellulases still represent a very significant operational cost. Depending on the region, transport of cellulases from a central production facility to a biorefinery may significantly add to enzyme cost. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple, cost-efficient cellulase production process that could be employed locally at a Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184244/solid-binding-peptides-for-immobilisation-of-thermostable-enzymes-to-hydrolyse-biomass-polysaccharides
#9
Andrew Care, Kerstin Petroll, Emily S Y Gibson, Peter L Bergquist, Anwar Sunna
BACKGROUND: Solid-binding peptides (SBPs) bind strongly to a diverse range of solid materials without the need for any chemical reactions. They have been used mainly for the functionalisation of nanomaterials but little is known about their use for the immobilisation of thermostable enzymes and their feasibility in industrial-scale biocatalysis. RESULTS: A silica-binding SBP sequence was fused genetically to three thermostable hemicellulases. The resulting enzymes were active after fusion and exhibited identical pH and temperature optima but differing thermostabilities when compared to their corresponding unmodified enzymes...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174602/erratum-to-continuous-production-of-biohythane-from-hydrothermal-liquefied-cornstalk-biomass-via-two-stage-high-rate-anaerobic-reactors
#10
Bu-Chun Si, Jia-Ming Li, Zhang-Bing Zhu, Yuan-Hui Zhang, Jian-Wen Lu, Rui-Xia Shen, Chong Zhang, Xin-Hui Xing, Zhidan Liu
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13068-016-0666-z.].
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174601/development-of-a-genetically-programed-vanillin-sensing-bacterium-for-high-throughput-screening-of-lignin-degrading-enzyme-libraries
#11
Barindra Sana, Kuan Hui Burton Chia, Sarada S Raghavan, Balamurugan Ramalingam, Niranjan Nagarajan, Jayasree Seayad, Farid J Ghadessy
BACKGROUND: Lignin is a potential biorefinery feedstock for the production of value-added chemicals including vanillin. A huge amount of lignin is produced as a by-product of the paper industry, while cellulosic components of plant biomass are utilized for the production of paper pulp. In spite of vast potential, lignin remains the least exploited component of plant biomass due to its extremely complex and heterogenous structure. Several enzymes have been reported to have lignin-degrading properties and could be potentially used in lignin biorefining if their catalytic properties could be improved by enzyme engineering...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163785/efficient-estimation-of-the-maximum-metabolic-productivity-of-batch-systems
#12
Peter C St John, Michael F Crowley, Yannick J Bomble
BACKGROUND: Production of chemicals from engineered organisms in a batch culture involves an inherent trade-off between productivity, yield, and titer. Existing strategies for strain design typically focus on designing mutations that achieve the highest yield possible while maintaining growth viability. While these methods are computationally tractable, an optimum productivity could be achieved by a dynamic strategy in which the intracellular division of resources is permitted to change with time...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163784/feasibility-of-co2-mitigation-and-carbohydrate-production-by-microalga-scenedesmus-obliquus-cnw-n-used-for-bioethanol-fermentation-under-outdoor-conditions-effects-of-seasonal-changes
#13
Shih-Hsin Ho, Yi-Di Chen, Ching-Yu Chang, Yen-Ying Lai, Chun-Yen Chen, Akihiko Kondo, Nan-Qi Ren, Jo-Shu Chang
BACKGROUND: Although outdoor cultivation systems have been widely used for mass production of microalgae at a relatively low cost, there are still limited efforts on outdoor cultivation of carbohydrate-rich microalgae that were further used as feedstock for fermentative bioethanol production. In particular, the effects of seasonal changes on cell growth, CO2 fixation, and carbohydrate production of the microalgae have not been well investigated. RESULTS: This work demonstrates the feasibility of using outdoor tubular photobioreactors (PBR) for whole-year-round cultivation of a carbohydrate-rich microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N in southern Taiwan...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163783/a-framework-for-accelerated-phototrophic-bioprocess-development-integration-of-parallelized-microscale-cultivation-laboratory-automation-and-kriging-assisted-experimental-design
#14
Holger Morschett, Lars Freier, Jannis Rohde, Wolfgang Wiechert, Eric von Lieres, Marco Oldiges
BACKGROUND: Even though microalgae-derived biodiesel has regained interest within the last decade, industrial production is still challenging for economic reasons. Besides reactor design, as well as value chain and strain engineering, laborious and slow early-stage parameter optimization represents a major drawback. RESULTS: The present study introduces a framework for the accelerated development of phototrophic bioprocesses. A state-of-the-art micro-photobioreactor supported by a liquid-handling robot for automated medium preparation and product quantification was used...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163782/coupling-and-uncoupling-of-triglyceride-and-beta-carotene-production-by-dunaliella-salina-under-nitrogen-limitation-and-starvation
#15
Hubert Bonnefond, Nina Moelants, Amélie Talec, Patrick Mayzaud, Olivier Bernard, Antoine Sciandra
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen starvation and limitation are known to induce important physiological changes especially in lipid metabolism of microalgae (triglycerides, membrane lipids, beta-carotene, etc.). Although little information is available for Dunaliella salina, it is a promising microalga for biofuel production and biotechnological applications due to its ability to accumulate lipid together with beta-carotene. RESULTS: Batch and chemostat experiments with various degrees of nitrogen limitation, ranging from starvation to nitrogen-replete conditions, were carried out to study carbon storage dynamics (total carbon, lipids, and beta-carotene) in steady state cultures of D...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163781/enhancement-of-furan-aldehydes-conversion-in-zymomonas-mobilis-by-elevating-dehydrogenase-activity-and-cofactor-regeneration
#16
Xia Wang, Qiuqiang Gao, Jie Bao
BACKGROUND: Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are the two major furan aldehyde inhibitors generated from lignocellulose dilute acid pretreatment which significantly inhibit subsequent microbial cell growth and ethanol fermentation. Zymomonas mobilis is an important strain for cellulosic ethanol fermentation but can be severely inhibited by furfural and (or) HMF. Previous study showed that Z. mobilis contains its native oxidoreductases to catalyze the conversion of furfural and HMF, but the corresponding genes have not been identified...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163780/efficient-molasses-fermentation-under-high-salinity-by-inocula-of-marine-and-terrestrial-origin
#17
Alberto Scoma, Marta Coma, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Nico Boon, Korneel Rabaey
BACKGROUND: Molasses is a dense and saline by-product of the sugar agroindustry. Its high organic content potentially fuels a myriad of renewable products of industrial interest. However, the biotechnological exploitation of molasses is mainly hampered by the high concentration of salts, an issue that is nowadays tackled through dilution. In the present study, the performance of microbial communities derived from marine sediment was compared to that of communities from a terrestrial environment (anaerobic digester sludge)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149324/exploring-eukaryotic-formate-metabolisms-to-enhance-microbial-growth-and-lipid-accumulation
#18
Zhiguo Liu, Tolutola Oyetunde, Whitney D Hollinshead, Anna Hermanns, Yinjie J Tang, Wei Liao, Yan Liu
BACKGROUND: C1 substrates (such as formate and methanol) are promising feedstock for biochemical/biofuel production. Numerous studies have been focusing on engineering heterologous pathways to incorporate C1 substrates into biomass, while the engineered microbial hosts often demonstrate inferior fermentation performance due to substrate toxicity, metabolic burdens from engineered pathways, and poor enzyme activities. Alternatively, exploring native C1 pathways in non-model microbes could be a better solution to address these challenges...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138339/well-to-wake-analysis-of-ethanol-to-jet-and-sugar-to-jet-pathways
#19
Jeongwoo Han, Ling Tao, Michael Wang
BACKGROUND: To reduce the environmental impacts of the aviation sector as air traffic grows steadily, the aviation industry has paid increasing attention to bio-based alternative jet fuels (AJFs), which may provide lower life-cycle petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum jet fuel. This study presents well-to-wake (WTWa) results for four emerging AJFs: ethanol-to-jet (ETJ) from corn and corn stover, and sugar-to-jet (STJ) from corn stover via both biological and catalytic conversion...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127401/synthetic-redesign-of-escherichia-coli-for-cadaverine-production-from-galactose
#20
Dong Hun Kwak, Hyun Gyu Lim, Jina Yang, Sang Woo Seo, Gyoo Yeol Jung
BACKGROUND: With increasing concerns over the environment, biological production of cadaverine has been suggested as an alternative route to replace polyamides generated from the petroleum-based process. For an ideal bioprocess, cadaverine should be produced with high yield and productivity from various sugars abundant in biomass. However, most microorganisms are not able to efficiently metabolize other biomass-derived sugars as fast as glucose. This results in reduced growth rate and low carbon flux toward the production of desired bio-chemicals...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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