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Biotechnology for Biofuels

Ya-Jun Liu, Shiyue Liu, Sheng Dong, Renmin Li, Yingang Feng, Qiu Cui
Background: Clostridium thermocellum is considered one of the most efficient natural cellulose degraders because of its cellulosomal system. As the major exoglucanase of cellulosome in C. thermocellum, Cel48S plays key roles and influences the activity and features of cellulosome to a great extent. Thus, it is of great importance to reveal the enzymatic features of Cel48S. However, Cel48S has not been well performed due to difficulties in purifying either recombinant or native Cel48S proteins...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Anna S Borisova, Elena V Eneyskaya, Suvamay Jana, Silke F Badino, Jeppe Kari, Antonella Amore, Magnus Karlsson, Henrik Hansson, Mats Sandgren, Michael E Himmel, Peter Westh, Christina M Payne, Anna A Kulminskaya, Jerry Ståhlberg
Background: The ascomycete fungus Trichoderma reesei is the predominant source of enzymes for industrial conversion of lignocellulose. Its glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (GH7 CBH) TreCel7A constitutes nearly half of the enzyme cocktail by weight and is the major workhorse in the cellulose hydrolysis process. The orthologs from Trichoderma atroviride (TatCel7A) and Trichoderma harzianum (ThaCel7A) show high sequence identity with TreCel7A, ~ 80%, and represent naturally evolved combinations of cellulose-binding tunnel-enclosing loop motifs, which have been suggested to influence intrinsic cellobiohydrolase properties, such as endo-initiation, processivity, and off-rate...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Pinjing He, Wenhao Han, Liming Shao, Fan Lü
Background: This study aimed at producing C6-C8 medium-chain carboxylates (MCCAs) directly from gaseous CO using mixed culture. The yield and C2-C8 product composition were investigated when CO was continuously fed with gradually increasing partial pressure. Results: The maximal concentrations of n-caproate, n-heptylate, and n-caprylate were 1.892, 1.635, and 1.033 mmol L-1, which were achieved at the maximal production rates of 0.276, 0.442, and 0.112 mmol L-1 day-1, respectively...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Zhiqiang Xia, Shengkui Zhang, Mingfu Wen, Cheng Lu, Yufang Sun, Meiling Zou, Wenquan Wang
Background: As an important biofuel plant, the demand for higher yield Jatropha curcas L. is rapidly increasing. However, genetic analysis of Jatropha and molecular breeding for higher yield have been hampered by the limited number of molecular markers available. Results: An ultrahigh-density linkage map for a Jatropha mapping population of 153 individuals was constructed and covered 1380.58 cM of the Jatropha genome, with average marker density of 0.403 cM. The genetic linkage map consisted of 3422 SNP and indel markers, which clustered into 11 linkage groups...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Aude Aznar, Camille Chalvin, Patrick M Shih, Michael Maimann, Berit Ebert, Devon S Birdseye, Dominique Loqué, Henrik V Scheller
Background: Second-generation biofuels produced from biomass can help to decrease dependency on fossil fuels, bringing about many economic and environmental benefits. To make biomass more suitable for biorefinery use, we need a better understanding of plant cell wall biosynthesis. Increasing the ratio of C6 to C5 sugars in the cell wall and decreasing the lignin content are two important targets in engineering of plants that are more suitable for downstream processing for second-generation biofuel production...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Wiparat Siripong, Philipp Wolf, Theodora Puspowangi Kusumoputri, Joe James Downes, Kanokarn Kocharin, Sutipa Tanapongpipat, Weerawat Runguphan
Background: Interests in renewable fuels have exploded in recent years as the serious effects of global climate change become apparent. Microbial production of high-energy fuels by economically efficient bioprocesses has emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional production of transportation fuels. Here, we engineered Pichia pastoris, an industrial workhorse in heterologous enzyme production, to produce the biofuel isobutanol from two renewable carbon sources, glucose and glycerol...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Yongil Yang, Chang Geun Yoo, Kimberly A Winkeler, Cassandra M Collins, Maud A W Hinchee, Sara S Jawdy, Lee E Gunter, Nancy L Engle, Yunqiao Pu, Xiaohan Yang, Timothy J Tschaplinski, Arthur J Ragauskas, Gerald A Tuskan, Jin-Gui Chen
Background: Domain of Unknown Function 231-containing proteins (DUF231) are plant specific and their function is largely unknown. Studies in the model plants Arabidopsis and rice suggested that some DUF231 proteins act in the process of O-acetyl substitution of hemicellulose and esterification of pectin. However, little is known about the function of DUF231 proteins in woody plant species. Results: This study provides evidence supporting that one member of DUF231 family proteins in the woody perennial plant Populus deltoides (genotype WV94), PdDUF231A, has a role in the acetylation of xylan and affects cellulose biosynthesis...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Tânia M Shiga, Weihua Xiao, Haibing Yang, Ximing Zhang, Anna T Olek, Bryon S Donohoe, Jiliang Liu, Lee Makowski, Tao Hou, Maureen C McCann, Nicholas C Carpita, Nathan S Mosier
Background: The crystallinity of cellulose is a principal factor limiting the efficient hydrolysis of biomass to fermentable sugars or direct catalytic conversion to biofuel components. We evaluated the impact of TFA-induced gelatinization of crystalline cellulose on enhancement of enzymatic digestion and catalytic conversion to biofuel substrates. Results: Low-temperature swelling of cotton linter cellulose in TFA at subzero temperatures followed by gentle heating to 55 °C dissolves the microfibril structure and forms composites of crystalline and amorphous gels upon addition of ethanol...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Richard S Nelson, C Neal Stewart, Jiqing Gou, Susan Holladay, Lina Gallego-Giraldo, Amy Flanagan, David G J Mann, Hiroshi Hisano, Wegi A Wuddineh, Charleson R Poovaiah, Avinash Srivastava, Ajaya K Biswal, Hui Shen, Luis L Escamilla-Treviño, Jiading Yang, C Frank Hardin, Rangaraj Nandakumar, Chunxiang Fu, Jiyi Zhang, Xirong Xiao, Ryan Percifield, Fang Chen, Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Michael Udvardi, Mitra Mazarei, Richard A Dixon, Zeng-Yu Wang, Yuhong Tang, Debra Mohnen, Brian H Davison
Background: The mission of the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) was to enable efficient lignocellulosic-based biofuel production. One BESC goal was to decrease poplar and switchgrass biomass recalcitrance to biofuel conversion while not affecting plant growth. A transformation pipeline (TP), to express transgenes or transgene fragments (constructs) in these feedstocks with the goal of understanding and decreasing recalcitrance, was considered essential for this goal. Centralized data storage for access by BESC members and later the public also was essential...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Sung-Eun Shin, Hyun Gi Koh, Nam Kyu Kang, William I Suh, Byeong-Ryool Jeong, Bongsoo Lee, Yong Keun Chang
Background: Microalgal strain development through genetic engineering has received much attention as a way to improve the traits of microalgae suitable for biofuel production. However, there are still some limitations in application of genetically modified organisms. In this regard, there has been recent interest in the isolation and characterization of superior strains naturally modified and/or adapted under a certain condition and on the interpretation of phenotypic changes through the whole genome sequencing...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Takuya Matsusako, Yoshihiro Toya, Katsunori Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Shimizu
Background: Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is an attractive organism for the production of alcohols, such as isobutanol and ethanol. However, because stress against the produced alcohol is a major barrier for industrial applications, it is highly desirable to engineer organisms with strong alcohol tolerance. Results: Isobutanol-tolerant strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were obtained by long-term passage culture experiments using medium containing 2 g/L isobutanol...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Haipeng Guo, Chuntao Hong, Bingsong Zheng, Fan Lu, Dean Jiang, Wensheng Qin
Background: Bioflocculation has been developed as a cost-effective and environment-friendly method to harvest multiple microalgae. However, the high production cost of bioflocculants makes it difficult to scale up. In the current study, low-cost bioflocculants were produced from untreated corn stover by a biomass-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. GO2. Results: Pseudomonas sp. GO2 showed excellent production ability of bioflocculants through directly hydrolyzing various biomasses...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
John K Henske, Sean P Gilmore, Doriv Knop, Francis J Cunningham, Jessica A Sexton, Chuck R Smallwood, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, James E Evans, Michael K Theodorou, Michelle A O'Malley
Anaerobic gut fungi are the primary colonizers of plant material in the rumen microbiome, but are poorly studied due to a lack of characterized isolates. While most genera of gut fungi form extensive rhizoidal networks, which likely participate in mechanical disruption of plant cell walls, fungi within the Caecomyces genus do not possess these rhizoids. Here, we describe a novel fungal isolate, Caecomyces churrovis, which forms spherical sporangia with a limited rhizoidal network yet secretes a diverse set of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) for plant cell wall hydrolysis...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Hui Wang, Kashif Ur Rehman, Xiu Liu, Qinqin Yang, Longyu Zheng, Wu Li, Minmin Cai, Qing Li, Jibin Zhang, Ziniu Yu
Background: As a major lignocellulosic biomass, which represented more than half of the world's agricultural phytomass, crop residues have been considered as feedstock for biofuel production. However, large-scale application of this conventional biofuel process has been facing obstacles from cost efficiency, pretreatment procedure, and secondary pollution. To meet the growing demands for food, feed, and energy as the global population continues to grow, certain kinds of insects, many of which are voracious feeders of organic wastes that may help address environmental, economic, and health issues, have been highlighted as a source of protein and fat...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Carolina Cruz Viggi, Serena Simonetti, Enza Palma, Pamela Pagliaccia, Camilla Braguglia, Stefano Fazi, Silvia Baronti, Maria Assunta Navarra, Ida Pettiti, Christin Koch, Falk Harnisch, Federico Aulenta
Background: Recent studies have suggested that addition of electrically conductive biochar particles is an effective strategy to improve the methanogenic conversion of waste organic substrates, by promoting syntrophic associations between acetogenic and methanogenic organisms based on interspecies electron transfer processes. However, the underlying fundamentals of the process are still largely speculative and, therefore, a priori identification, screening, and even design of suitable biochar materials for a given biotechnological process are not yet possible...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
John Christian Gaby, Mirzaman Zamanzadeh, Svein Jarle Horn
Background: Food waste is a large bio-resource that may be converted to biogas that can be used for heat and power production, or as transport fuel. We studied the anaerobic digestion of food waste in a staged digestion system consisting of separate acidogenic and methanogenic reactor vessels. Two anaerobic digestion parameters were investigated. First, we tested the effect of 55 vs. 65 °C acidogenic reactor temperature, and second, we examined the effect of reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 17 to 10 days in the methanogenic reactor...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jiawen Liu, Ning Zhu, Jinshui Yang, Yi Yang, Ruonan Wang, Liang Liu, Hongli Yuan
Background: Surfactants have attracted increasing interest for their capability to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Compared to chemical surfactants, biosurfactants have a broader prospect for industrial applications because they are more environmentally friendly and more effective in some researches. Commercial cellulase preparations are mainly composed of endoglucanases (EGs) and cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) that possess carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). However, the effects of lipopeptide-type biosurfactants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose and adsorption behaviors of cellulases with CBMs remain unclear...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Yongni Shao, Hui Fang, Hong Zhou, Qi Wang, Yiming Zhu, Yong He
In this study, confocal Raman microspectroscopy was used to detect lipids in microalgae rapidly and non-destructively. Microalgae cells were cultured under nitrogen deficiency. The accumulation of lipids in Scenedesmus obliquus was observed by Nile red staining, and the total amount of lipids accumulated in the cells was measured by gravimetric method. The signals from different microalgae cells were collected by confocal Raman microspectroscopy to establish a prediction model of intracellular lipid content, and surface scanning signals for drawing pseudo color images of lipids distribution...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Ye Zhang, Dehua Liu, Zhen Chen
C2-C4 diols classically derived from fossil resource are very important bulk chemicals which have been used in a wide range of areas, including solvents, fuels, polymers, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Production of C2-C4 diols from renewable resources has received significant interest in consideration of the reducing fossil resource and the increasing environmental issues. While bioproduction of certain diols like 1,3-propanediol has been commercialized in recent years, biosynthesis of many other important C2-C4 diol isomers is highly challenging due to the lack of natural synthesis pathways...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Zhong-Peng Guo, Sophie Duquesne, Sophie Bozonnet, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Alain Marty, Michael Joseph O'Donohue
Background: A recently constructed cellulolytic Yarrowia lipolytica is able to grow efficiently on an industrial organosolv cellulose pulp, but shows limited ability to degrade crystalline cellulose. In this work, we have further engineered this strain, adding accessory proteins xylanase II (XYNII), lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO), and swollenin (SWO) from Trichoderma reesei in order to enhance the degradation of recalcitrant substrate. Results: The production of EG I was enhanced using a promoter engineering strategy...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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