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Biotechnology for Biofuels

Kyoungseon Min, Taewoo Yum, Jiye Kim, Han Min Woo, Yunje Kim, Byoung-In Sang, Young Je Yoo, Yong Hwan Kim, Youngsoon Um
BACKGROUND: In the biorefinery utilizing lignocellulosic biomasses, lignin decomposition to value-added phenolic derivatives is a key issue, and recently biocatalytic delignification is emerging owing to its superior selectivity, low energy consumption, and unparalleled sustainability. However, besides heme-containing peroxidases and laccases, information about lignolytic biocatalysts is still limited till date. RESULTS: Herein, we report a promiscuous activity of tyrosinase which is closely associated with delignification requiring high redox potentials (>1...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Olga Zhivin, Bareket Dassa, Sarah Moraïs, Sagar M Utturkar, Steven D Brown, Bernard Henrissat, Raphael Lamed, Edward A Bayer
BACKGROUND: (Pseudo) Bacteroides cellulosolvens is an anaerobic, mesophilic, cellulolytic, cellulosome-producing clostridial bacterium capable of utilizing cellulose and cellobiose as carbon sources. Recently, we sequenced the B. cellulosolvens genome, and subsequent comprehensive bioinformatic analysis, herein reported, revealed an unprecedented number of cellulosome-related components, including 78 cohesin modules scattered among 31 scaffoldins and more than 200 dockerin-bearing ORFs...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Christa Ivanova, Jonas Ramoni, Thiziri Aouam, Alexa Frischmann, Bernhard Seiboth, Scott E Baker, Stéphane Le Crom, Sophie Lemoine, Antoine Margeot, Frédérique Bidard
BACKGROUND: The hydrolysis of biomass to simple sugars used for the production of biofuels in biorefineries requires the action of cellulolytic enzyme mixtures. During the last 50 years, the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei, the main source of industrial cellulase and hemicellulase cocktails, has been subjected to several rounds of classical mutagenesis with the aim to obtain higher production levels. During these random genetic events, strains unable to produce cellulases were generated...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Huifang Xu, Linlin Ning, Wenxia Yang, Bo Fang, Cong Wang, Yun Wang, Jian Xu, Severine Collin, Frederic Laeuffer, Laurent Fourage, Shengying Li
BACKGROUND: P450 fatty acid decarboxylases represented by the unusual CYP152 peroxygenase family member OleTJE have been receiving great attention recently since these P450 enzymes are able to catalyze the simple and direct production of 1-alkenes for potential applications in biofuels and biomaterials. To gain more mechanistic insights, broader substrate spectra, and improved decarboxylative activities, it is demanded to discover and investigate more P450 fatty acid decarboxylases. RESULTS: Here, we describe for the first time the expression, purification, and in vitro biochemical characterization of two new CYP152 peroxygenases, CYP-Aa162 and CYP-Sm46Δ29, that are capable of decarboxylating straight-chain saturated fatty acids...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Martina Aulitto, Salvatore Fusco, Simonetta Bartolucci, Carl Johan Franzén, Patrizia Contursi
BACKGROUND: The transition from a petroleum-based economy towards more sustainable bioprocesses for the production of fuels and chemicals (circular economy) is necessary to alleviate the impact of anthropic activities on the global ecosystem. Lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars are suitable alternative feedstocks that can be fermented or biochemically converted to value-added products. An example is lactic acid, which is an essential chemical for the production of polylactic acid, a biodegradable bioplastic...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Ting-Ting Ma, Lai-Yan Liu, Jun-Peng Rui, Quan Yuan, Ding-Shan Feng, Zheng Zhou, Li-Rong Dai, Wan-Qiu Zeng, Hui Zhang, Lei Cheng
BACKGROUND: Over three-fifths of the world's known crude oil cannot be recovered using state-of-the-art techniques, but microbial conversion of petroleum hydrocarbons trapped in oil reservoirs to methane is one promising path to increase the recovery of fossil fuels. The process requires cooperation between syntrophic bacteria and methanogenic archaea, which can be affected by sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRPs). However, the effects of sulfate on hydrocarbon degradation and methane production remain elusive, and the microbial communities involved are not well understood...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Meng Li, Jun Wang, Fu Du, Boubacar Diallo, Guang Hui Xie
BACKGROUND: Due to its chemical composition and abundance, lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive feedstock source for global bioenergy production. However, chemical composition variations interfere with the success of any single methodology for efficient bioenergy extraction from diverse lignocellulosic biomass sources. Although chemical component distributions could guide process design, they are difficult to obtain and vary widely among lignocellulosic biomass types. Therefore, expensive and laborious "one-size-fits-all" processes are still widely used...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Vera Novy, Ruifei Wang, Johan O Westman, Carl Johan Franzén, Bernd Nidetzky
BACKGROUND: The most advanced strains of xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae still utilize xylose far less efficiently than glucose, despite the extensive metabolic and evolutionary engineering applied in their development. Systematic comparison of strains across literature is difficult due to widely varying conditions used for determining key physiological parameters. Here, we evaluate an industrial and a laboratory S. cerevisiae strain, which has the assimilation of xylose via xylitol in common, but differ fundamentally in the history of their adaptive laboratory evolution development, and in the cofactor specificity of the xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Kannikar Charoensuk, Tomoko Sakurada, Amina Tokiyama, Masayuki Murata, Tomoyuki Kosaka, Pornthap Thanonkeo, Mamoru Yamada
BACKGROUND: High-temperature fermentation (HTF) technology is expected to reduce the cost of bioconversion of biomass to fuels or chemicals. For stable HTF, the development of a thermotolerant microbe is indispensable. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism of thermotolerance would enable the thermal stability of microbes to be improved. RESULTS: Thermotolerant genes that are essential for survival at a critical high temperature (CHT) were identified via transposon mutagenesis in ethanologenic, thermotolerant Zymomonas mobilis TISTR 548...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Satoshi Katahira, Nobuhiko Muramoto, Shigeharu Moriya, Risa Nagura, Nobuki Tada, Noriko Yasutani, Moriya Ohkuma, Toru Onishi, Kenro Tokuhiro
BACKGROUND: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a promising host for lignocellulosic bioethanol production, is unable to metabolize xylose. In attempts to confer xylose utilization ability in S. cerevisiae, a number of xylose isomerase (XI) genes have been expressed heterologously in this yeast. Although several of these XI encoding genes were functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, the need still exists for a S. cerevisiae strain with improved xylose utilization ability for use in the commercial production of bioethanol...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Chen Zhao, Hao Fang, Shaolin Chen
BACKGROUND: Single cell oil (SCO) production from lignocelluloses by oleaginous microorganisms is still high in production cost, making the subsequent production of biofuels inviable economically in such an era of low oil prices. Therefore, how to upgrade the final products of lignocellulose-based bioprocess to more valuable ones is becoming a more and more important issue. RESULTS: Differently sourced cellulases were compared in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the steam-exploded corn stover (SECS) and the cellulase from the mixed culture of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger was found to have the highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield 86...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Bianca Colombo, Francesca Favini, Barbara Scaglia, Tommy Pepè Sciarria, Giuliana D'Imporzano, Michele Pognani, Anna Alekseeva, Giorgio Eisele, Cesare Cosentino, Fabrizio Adani
BACKGROUND: In Europe, almost 87.6 million tonnes of food waste are produced. Despite the high biological value of food waste, traditional management solutions do not consider it as a precious resource. Many studies have reported the use of food waste for the production of high added value molecules. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) represent a class of interesting bio-polyesters accumulated by different bacterial cells, and has been proposed for production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Man Zhou, Peng Guo, Tao Wang, Lina Gao, Huijun Yin, Cheng Cai, Jie Gu, Xin Lü
BACKGROUND: Degradation of pectin in lignocellulosic materials is one of the key steps for biofuel production. Biological hydrolysis of pectin, i.e., degradation by pectinolytic microbes and enzymes, is an attractive paradigm because of its obvious advantages, such as environmentally friendly procedures, low in energy demand for lignin removal, and the possibility to be integrated in consolidated process. In this study, a metagenomics sequence-guided strategy coupled with enrichment culture technique was used to facilitate targeted discovery of pectinolytic microbes and enzymes...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Xiaoqing Wang, Davinia Salvachúa, Violeta Sànchez I Nogué, William E Michener, Adam D Bratis, John R Dorgan, Gregg T Beckham
BACKGROUND: The production of value-added chemicals alongside biofuels from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is critical for developing economically viable biorefineries. Here, the production of propionic acid (PA), a potential building block for C3-based chemicals, from corn stover hydrolysate is investigated using the native PA-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acidipropionici. RESULTS: A wide range of culture conditions and process parameters were examined and experimentally optimized to maximize titer, rate, and yield of PA...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Changman Kim, Mi Yeon Kim, Iain Michie, Byong-Hun Jeon, Giuliano C Premier, Sunghoon Park, Jung Rae Kim
BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical which can be produced biologically from glycerol. Klebsiella pneumoniae is an ideal biocatalyst for 3-HP because it can grow well on glycerol and naturally synthesize the essential coenzyme B12. On the other hand, if higher yields and titers of 3-HP are to be achieved, the sustained regeneration of NAD(+) under anaerobic conditions, where coenzyme B12 is synthesized sustainably, is required. RESULTS: In this study, recombinant K...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Daniel Jaeger, Anika Winkler, Jan H Mussgnug, Jörn Kalinowski, Alexander Goesmann, Olaf Kruse
BACKGROUND: Oleaginous microalgae are promising production hosts for the sustainable generation of lipid-based bioproducts and as bioenergy carriers such as biodiesel. Transcriptomics of the lipid accumulation phase, triggered efficiently by nitrogen starvation, is a valuable approach for the identification of gene targets for metabolic engineering. RESULTS: An explorative analysis of the detailed transcriptional response to different stages of nitrogen availability was performed in the oleaginous green alga Monoraphidium neglectum...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Hannes Löwe, Karina Hobmeier, Manuel Moos, Andreas Kremling, Katharina Pflüger-Grau
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges for the present and future generations is to find suitable substitutes for the fossil resources we rely on today. Cyanobacterial carbohydrates have been discussed as an emerging renewable feedstock in industrial biotechnology for the production of fuels and chemicals, showing promising production rates when compared to crop-based feedstock. However, intrinsic capacities of cyanobacteria to produce biotechnological compounds are limited and yields are low...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Feng Li, Yuanxiu Li, Liming Sun, Xiaofei Li, Changji Yin, Xingjuan An, Xiaoli Chen, Yao Tian, Hao Song
BACKGROUND: The microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a green and sustainable technology for electricity energy harvest from biomass, in which exoelectrogens use metabolism and extracellular electron transfer pathways for the conversion of chemical energy into electricity. However, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, one of the most well-known exoelectrogens, could not use xylose (a key pentose derived from hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass) for cell growth and power generation, which limited greatly its practical applications...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Peter Ryden, Maria-Nefeli Efthymiou, Teddy A M Tindyebwa, Adam Elliston, David R Wilson, Keith W Waldron, Pradeep K Malakar
BACKGROUND: In Uganda, the chaff remaining from threshed panicles of millet and sorghum is a low value, lignocellulose-rich agricultural by-product. Currently, it is used as a substrate for the cultivation of edible Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). The aim of this study was to assess the potential to exploit the residual post-harvest compost for saccharification and fermentation to produce ethanol. RESULTS: Sorghum and millet chaff-derived spent oyster mushroom composts minus large mycelium particles were assessed at small-scale and low substrate concentrations (5% w/v) for optimal severity hydrothermal pre-treatment, enzyme loading and fermentation with robust yeasts to produce ethanol...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Rui Liu, Ling Chen, Yanping Jiang, Gen Zou, Zhihua Zhou
BACKGROUND: The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is widely utilized in industry for cellulase production, but its xylanase activity must be improved to enhance the accessibility of lignocellulose to cellulases. Several transcription factors play important roles in this progress; however, nearly all the reported transcription factors typically target both cellulase and hemi-cellulase genes. Specific xylanase transcription factor would be useful to regulate xylanase activity directly...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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