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Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273663/sex-specific-transcript-diversity-in-the-fly-head-is-established-during-pupal-stages-and-adulthood-and-is-largely-independent-of-the-mating-process-and-the-germline
#1
Carmen Mohr, Sarah Kleiner, Marco Blanchette, George Pyrowolakis, Britta Hartmann
Alternative splicing (AS), the process which generates multiple RNA and protein isoforms from a single pre-mRNA, greatly contributes to transcript diversity and compensates for the fact that the gene number does not scale with organismal complexity. A number of genomic approaches have established that the extent of AS is much higher than previously expected, raising questions on its spatio-temporal regulation and function. In the present study, we address AS in the context of sex-specific neuronal development in the model Drosophila melanogaster...
March 9, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214852/the-clinical-manifestation-and-genetic-evaluation-in-patients-with-45-x-46-xy-mosaicism
#2
Qinghua Wu, Cong Wang, Huirong Shi, Xiangdong Kong, Shumin Ren, Miao Jiang
45,X/46,XY mosaicism is a rare chromosomal abnormality and probably underdiagnosed. Although clinical and genetic analyses have been performed in some disorders of sexual development, there have been few studies focusing on the phenotype and genetic details of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, especially in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of our service in relation to 16 cases with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. The age at the first evaluation of the patients ranged from 43 days to 30 years...
February 18, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190008/two-moroccan-sisters-presenting-with-a-severe-salt-wasting-form-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-but-normal-female-genitalia
#3
Rosa T Scaramuzzo, Soara Menabò, Lilia Baldazzi, Francesca Moscuzza, Alessandro Saba, Antonio Balsamo, Antonio Boldrini, Paolo Ghirri
We report the case of 2 sisters (46,XX) born from consanguineous Moroccan parents. Both sisters had normal female genitalia, but within 2 weeks after birth, they presented with a severe salt-wasting crisis. Hormonal investigations suggested the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which was confirmed by subsequent molecular analysis to be caused by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 deficiency. Here, we discuss the main features like onset, possible complications, genetics, and replacement therapy of this rare disease...
February 11, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196369/leveraging-online-resources-to-prioritize-candidate-genes-for-functional-analyses-using-the-fetal-testis-as-a-test-case
#4
Kathryn S McClelland, Humphrey H-C Yao
With each new microarray or RNA-seq experiment, massive quantities of transcriptomic information are generated with the purpose to produce a list of candidate genes for functional analyses. Yet an effective strategy remains elusive to prioritize the genes on these candidate lists. In this review, we outline a prioritizing strategy by taking a step back from the bench and leveraging the rich range of public databases. This in silico approach provides an economical, less biased, and more effective solution. We discuss the publicly available online resources that can be used to answer a range of questions about a gene...
2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192783/androgen-insensitivity-syndrome-in-a-family-of-warmblood-horses-caused-by-a-25-bp-deletion-of-the-dna-binding-domain-of-the-androgen-receptor-gene
#5
G Eastman Welsford, Rikke Munk, Daniel A F Villagómez, Poul Hyttel, W Allan King, Tamas Revay
Testicular feminization, an earlier term coined for describing a syndrome resulting from failure of masculinization of target organs by androgen secretions during embryo development, has been well documented not only in humans but also in the domestic horse. The pathology, actually referred to as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), has been proposed to follow an X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance in some horse breeds already investigated. Affected individuals are characterized by a female phenotype but with a stallion genotype of 64,XY SRY+ constitution...
2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142151/novel-amh-and-amhr2-mutations-in-two-egyptian-families-with-persistent-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-syndrome
#6
Inas Mazen, Mona El-Gammal, Ken McElreavey, Aya Elaidy, Mohamed S Abdel-Hamid
Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) is produced by Sertoli cells and signals through 2 transmembrane receptors (AMHR), specific types I and II, leading to regression of müllerian ducts during fetal male sex differentiation. Mutations in AMH and AMHR2 lead to the persistence of müllerian ducts in males which is transmitted in a recessive pattern. Here, we report 2 Egyptian DSD (disorder of sex development) patients reared as males who presented with bilateral cryptorchidism and otherwise normal male external genitalia and who both had a 46,XY karyotype...
2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110336/new-territory-for-an-old-disease-5-alpha-reductase-type-2-deficiency-in-bulgaria
#7
Silvia Andonova, Ralitsa Robeva, Radoslava Vazharova, Susanne Ledig, Liliana Grozdanova, Elisaveta Stefanova, Irena Bradinova, Tihomir Todorov, George Hadjidekov, Milko Sirakov, Peter Wieacker, Philip Kumanov, Alexey Savov
Disorders/differences of sexual development (DSD) are a group of conditions, some of which can be clinically indistinguishable mainly due to their phenotypic variability. Defining the molecular basis of their wide spectrum is still in progress. The diagnosis of 5-alpha-reductase type 2 (5α-reductase-2) deficiency is difficult especially in newborns and pre-pubertal individuals, and as a result its frequency might be underestimated. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics and molecular defects in 3 nonrelated 5α-reductase-2 deficiency patients of Bulgarian descent...
2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081536/wt1-haploinsufficiency-supports-milder-renal-manifestation-in-two-patients-with-denys-drash-syndrome
#8
Mara S Guaragna, Juliana G Ribeiro de Andrade, Bárbara de Freitas Carli, Vera M S Belangero, Andréa T Maciel-Guerra, Gil Guerra-Júnior, Maricilda P de Mello
Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS) is characterized by nephropathy, genital abnormalities, and predisposition to Wilms' tumor. DDS patients usually present heterozygous de novo germline WT1 mutations. The WT1 gene comprises 10 exons encoding the N-terminal transactivation and the C-terminal DNA-binding regions. Two unrelated patients with genital ambiguity and Wilms' tumor were analyzed by sequencing of the WT1 gene, and 3 mutations in exon 1 were identified of which 2 are novel. Patient 1 carried a c.555delC mutation that causes a frameshift and a premature stop codon...
2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974725/azoospermia-and-testicular-hypoplasia-in-a-boar-carrier-of-a-novel-y-autosome-translocation
#9
Daniel A F Villagómez, Tamas Revay, Brendan Donaldson, Samira Rezaei, Alain Pinton, Manuel Palomino, Awang Junaidi, Ali Honaramooz, W Allan King
Few sex-autosome chromosome abnormalities have been documented in domestic animal species. In humans, Y-autosome chromosome abnormalities may occur at a rate of 1/2,000 live births, whereas in the domestic pig only 2 Y-autosome reciprocal translocations have been previously described. During a routine cytogenetic screening of young boars, we identified a new Y-autosome translocation carrier, which after puberty showed semen devoid of sperm and testicular hypoplasia with spermatogenesis arrest. Whole chromosome painting by FISH analysis corroborated the reciprocal nature of the chromosomal exchanges between the Y chromosome and SSC13...
2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960177/alterations-in-fetal-leydig-cell-gene-expression-during-fetal-and-adult-development
#10
Kanako Miyabayashi, Yuichi Shima, Miki Inoue, Tetsuya Sato, Takashi Baba, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Mikita Suyama, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi
Fetal Leydig cells (FLCs) and adult Leydig cells (ALCs) develop in the mammalian prenatal and postnatal testes, respectively. In mice, FLCs emerge in the interstitial space of the testis as early as embryonic day 12.5 and thereafter increase in number during the fetal stage. We previously established a transgenic mouse line in which FLCs are labeled with EGFP and demonstrated that the EGFP-labeled FLCs were present even in adult testes. However, the characteristics of FLCs during postnatal stages remained unclear...
December 14, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915330/mechanism-of-sex-determination-in-humans-insights-from-disorders-of-sex-development
#11
Anu Bashamboo, Ken McElreavey
In this review we will consider the gene mutations responsible for the non-syndromic forms of disorders of sex development (DSD) and how recent genetic findings are providing insights into the mechanism of sex determination. High-throughput sequencing technologies are having a major impact on our understanding of the genetic basis of rare human disorders, including DSD. The study of human DSD is progressively revealing subtle differences in the genetics of the sex-determining system between the mouse and the human...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907925/the-reversible-sex-of-gonochoristic-fish-insights-and-consequences
#12
Jean-François Baroiller, Helena D'Cotta
Fish sex reversal is a means to understand sex determination and differentiation, but it is also used to control sex in aquaculture. This review discusses sex reversal in gonochoristic fish, with the coexistence of genetic and environmental influences. The different periods of fish sensitivity to sex reversal treatments are presented with the mechanisms implicated. The old players of sex differentiation are revisited with transcriptome data and loss of function studies following hormone- or temperature-induced sex reversal...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825173/preface
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820936/bending-genders-the-biology-of-natural-sex-change-in-fish
#14
Erica V Todd, Hui Liu, Simon Muncaster, Neil J Gemmell
Sexual fate is no longer seen as an irreversible deterministic switch set during early embryonic development but as an ongoing battle for primacy between male and female developmental trajectories. That sexual fate is not final and must be actively maintained via continuous suppression of the opposing sexual network creates the potential for flexibility into adulthood. In many fishes, sexuality is not only extremely plastic, but sex change is a usual and adaptive part of the life cycle. Sequential hermaphrodites begin life as one sex, changing sometime later to the other, and include species capable of protandrous (male-to-female), protogynous (female-to-male), or serial (bidirectional) sex change...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794577/sex-reversal-in-reptiles-reproductive-oddity-or-powerful-driver-of-evolutionary-change
#15
Clare E Holleley, Stephen D Sarre, Denis O'Meally, Arthur Georges
Is sex a product of genes, the environment, or both? In this review, we describe the diversity of sex-determining mechanisms in reptiles, with a focus on systems that display gene-environment interactions. We summarise the field and laboratory-based evidence for the occurrence of environmental sex reversal in reptiles and ask whether this is a widespread evolutionary mechanism affecting the evolution of sex chromosomes and speciation in vertebrates. Sex determination systems exist across a continuum of genetic and environmental influences, blurring the lines between what was once considered a strict dichotomy between genetic sex determination and temperature-dependent sex determination...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794571/inducing-sex-reversal-in-marsupial-mammals
#16
Keng Y Chew, Marilyn B Renfree
Marsupials are born with undifferentiated gonads, and their reproductive organs differentiate consecutively, not simultaneously as in eutherian mammals. Thus, in the main marsupial model, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, the testis forms cords 2 days after birth, the ovary develops cortex and medulla about 8 days after birth, the Wolffian duct enlarges from day 10, the prostate begins to form prostatic buds about 25 days after birth, and the phallus does not become sexually dimorphic until after 50 days postpartum (pp)...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649576/the-distribution-and-cellular-lineages-of-xx-and-xy-cells-in-gonads-associated-with-ovotesticular-disorder-of-sexual-development
#17
Noriko Nishina-Uchida, Ryuji Fukuzawa, Tomohiro Ishii, Matthew R Anaka, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Yukihiro Hasegawa
Individuals with a 46,XX/46,XY karyotype are categorized as ovotesticular disorder of sexual development (ODSD) and have gonads with either an ovary on one side and a testis on the other side or a mixed ovotestis. To examine the distribution of 46,XX and 46,XY cells in gonads of 3 patients with ODSD, FISH for X and Y chromosomes and immunohistochemistry for SOX9 and FOXL2 were carried out. FISH analysis showed that XX signals were present in Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules, while cells containing Y signals were seen in epithelia of ovarian follicles...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649556/involvement-of-foxl2-and-rspo1-in-ovarian-determination-development-and-maintenance-in-mammals
#18
Maëlle Pannetier, Anne-Amandine Chassot, Marie-Christine Chaboissier, Eric Pailhoux
In mammals, sex determination is a process through which the gonad is committed to differentiate into a testis or an ovary. This process relies on a delicate balance between genetic pathways that promote one fate and inhibit the other. Once the gonad is committed to the female pathway, ovarian differentiation begins and, depending on the species, is completed during gestation or shortly after birth. During this step, granulosa cell precursors, steroidogenic cells, and primordial germ cells start to express female-specific markers in a sex-dimorphic manner...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648840/sex-reversal-in-amphibians
#19
Stéphane Flament
Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648561/nr0b1-frameshift-mutation-in-a-boy-with-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty
#20
Hirohito Shima, Shuichi Yatsuga, Akie Nakamura, Shinichiro Sano, Takako Sasaki, Noriyuki Katsumata, Erina Suzuki, Kenichiro Hata, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Yukihide Momozawa, Michiaki Kubo, Kohji Okamura, Shigeo Kure, Yoichi Matsubara, Tsutomu Ogata, Satoshi Narumi, Maki Fukami
NR0B1 is the causative gene for X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, characterized by adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and infertility. We identified an NR0B1 frameshift mutation in a boy with precocious puberty who had no signs of adrenal insufficiency. Blood examination revealed elevated testosterone levels and gonadotropin hyperresponses to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation, together with normal adrenal hormone levels. GnRH analog treatment partially ameliorated his clinical features...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
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