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Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907925/the-reversible-sex-of-gonochoristic-fish-insights-and-consequences
#1
Jean-François Baroiller, Helena D'Cotta
Fish sex reversal is a means to understand sex determination and differentiation, but it is also used to control sex in aquaculture. This review discusses sex reversal in gonochoristic fish, with the coexistence of genetic and environmental influences. The different periods of fish sensitivity to sex reversal treatments are presented with the mechanisms implicated. The old players of sex differentiation are revisited with transcriptome data and loss of function studies following hormone- or temperature-induced sex reversal...
December 2, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825173/preface
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820936/bending-genders-the-biology-of-natural-sex-change-in-fish
#3
Erica V Todd, Hui Liu, Simon Muncaster, Neil J Gemmell
Sexual fate is no longer seen as an irreversible deterministic switch set during early embryonic development but as an ongoing battle for primacy between male and female developmental trajectories. That sexual fate is not final and must be actively maintained via continuous suppression of the opposing sexual network creates the potential for flexibility into adulthood. In many fishes, sexuality is not only extremely plastic, but sex change is a usual and adaptive part of the life cycle. Sequential hermaphrodites begin life as one sex, changing sometime later to the other, and include species capable of protandrous (male-to-female), protogynous (female-to-male), or serial (bidirectional) sex change...
November 8, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794577/sex-reversal-in-reptiles-reproductive-oddity-or-powerful-driver-of-evolutionary-change
#4
Clare E Holleley, Stephen D Sarre, Denis O'Meally, Arthur Georges
Is sex a product of genes, the environment, or both? In this review, we describe the diversity of sex-determining mechanisms in reptiles, with a focus on systems that display gene-environment interactions. We summarise the field and laboratory-based evidence for the occurrence of environmental sex reversal in reptiles and ask whether this is a widespread evolutionary mechanism affecting the evolution of sex chromosomes and speciation in vertebrates. Sex determination systems exist across a continuum of genetic and environmental influences, blurring the lines between what was once considered a strict dichotomy between genetic sex determination and temperature-dependent sex determination...
October 29, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794571/inducing-sex-reversal-in-marsupial-mammals
#5
Keng Y Chew, Marilyn B Renfree
Marsupials are born with undifferentiated gonads, and their reproductive organs differentiate consecutively, not simultaneously as in eutherian mammals. Thus, in the main marsupial model, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, the testis forms cords 2 days after birth, the ovary develops cortex and medulla about 8 days after birth, the Wolffian duct enlarges from day 10, the prostate begins to form prostatic buds about 25 days after birth, and the phallus does not become sexually dimorphic until after 50 days postpartum (pp)...
October 29, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648840/sex-reversal-in-amphibians
#6
Stéphane Flament
Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented...
September 21, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529790/sex-reversal-in-birds
#7
Andrew T Major, Craig A Smith
Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body...
August 17, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529721/sex-reversal-in-non-human-placental-mammals
#8
Pietro Parma, Frédéric Veyrunes, Eric Pailhoux
Gonads are very peculiar organs given their bipotential competence. Indeed, early differentiating genital ridges evolve into either of 2 very distinct organs: the testis or the ovary. Accumulating evidence now demonstrates that both genetic pathways must repress the other in order for the organs to differentiate properly, meaning that if this repression is disrupted or attenuated, the other pathway may completely or partially be expressed, leading to disorders of sex development. Among these disorders are the cases of XY male-to-female and XX female-to-male sex reversals as well as true hermaphrodites, in which there is a discrepancy between the chromosomal and gonadal sex...
August 17, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649576/the-distribution-and-cellular-lineages-of-xx-and-xy-cells-in-gonads-associated-with-ovotesticular-disorder-of-sexual-development
#9
Noriko Nishina-Uchida, Ryuji Fukuzawa, Tomohiro Ishii, Matthew R Anaka, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Yukihiro Hasegawa
Individuals with a 46,XX/46,XY karyotype are categorized as ovotesticular disorder of sexual development (ODSD) and have gonads with either an ovary on one side and a testis on the other side or a mixed ovotestis. To examine the distribution of 46,XX and 46,XY cells in gonads of 3 patients with ODSD, FISH for X and Y chromosomes and immunohistochemistry for SOX9 and FOXL2 were carried out. FISH analysis showed that XX signals were present in Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules, while cells containing Y signals were seen in epithelia of ovarian follicles...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649556/involvement-of-foxl2-and-rspo1-in-ovarian-determination-development-and-maintenance-in-mammals
#10
Maëlle Pannetier, Anne-Amandine Chassot, Marie-Christine Chaboissier, Eric Pailhoux
In mammals, sex determination is a process through which the gonad is committed to differentiate into a testis or an ovary. This process relies on a delicate balance between genetic pathways that promote one fate and inhibit the other. Once the gonad is committed to the female pathway, ovarian differentiation begins and, depending on the species, is completed during gestation or shortly after birth. During this step, granulosa cell precursors, steroidogenic cells, and primordial germ cells start to express female-specific markers in a sex-dimorphic manner...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648561/nr0b1-frameshift-mutation-in-a-boy-with-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty
#11
Hirohito Shima, Shuichi Yatsuga, Akie Nakamura, Shinichiro Sano, Takako Sasaki, Noriyuki Katsumata, Erina Suzuki, Kenichiro Hata, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Yukihide Momozawa, Michiaki Kubo, Kohji Okamura, Shigeo Kure, Yoichi Matsubara, Tsutomu Ogata, Satoshi Narumi, Maki Fukami
NR0B1 is the causative gene for X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, characterized by adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and infertility. We identified an NR0B1 frameshift mutation in a boy with precocious puberty who had no signs of adrenal insufficiency. Blood examination revealed elevated testosterone levels and gonadotropin hyperresponses to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation, together with normal adrenal hormone levels. GnRH analog treatment partially ameliorated his clinical features...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626911/non-virilizing-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-in-a-female-patient-with-a-novel-hsd3b2-mutation
#12
Ursina Probst-Scheidegger, Sameer S Udhane, Dagmar l'Allemand, Christa E Flück, Núria Camats
Classic 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (3β-HSD II) deficiency causes congenital adrenal hyperplasia with glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and sex steroid deficiency. We present a female patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia detected in newborn screening due to elevated 17OH-progesterone. Female external genitalia and non-measurable androgen levels elicited the suspicion of a defect early in the steroid cascade. Two loss-of-function HSD3B2 mutations (1 novel) were detected and confirmed in silico...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598577/novel-genetic-associations-and-range-of-phenotypes-in-children-with-disorders-of-sex-development-and-neurodevelopment-insights-from-the-deciphering-developmental-disorders-study
#13
Gabriella Gazdagh, Edward S Tobias, S Faisal Ahmed, Ruth McGowan
A range of phenotypes that are associated with disorders of sex development (DSD) may also be encountered in patients with neurodevelopmental delay. In this study we have undertaken a collaborative retrospective review of anonymised phenotypic and genotypic data from the UK-wide Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study. Our objectives were to determine the frequency and range of DSD phenotypes observed in participants in the DDD study and to identify novel genetic associations. We found that of 7,439 DDD participants, 603 (8%) had at least one genital abnormality...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562942/a-window-of-mhm-demethylation-correlates-with-key-events-in-gonadal-differentiation-in-the-chicken
#14
Xiurong Yang, Jixian Deng, Jiangxia Zheng, Li Xia, Zhuliang Yang, Lujiang Qu, Sirui Chen, Guiyun Xu, Hesheng Jiang, Michael Clinton, Ning Yang
The MHM (male hypermethylated) region on the chicken Z chromosome is of interest in terms of sex determination both because hypermethylation of the promoter in males results in female-specific expression, and in females the non-coding transcripts accumulate in the region of a locus that encodes a key candidate gene for testis differentiation in birds - DMRT1. However, it has yet to be established whether MHM plays a role in either sex determination or gonadal development in chicken. Here, we sought to establish the MHM methylation pattern during chicken gonadal development and determine how this pattern correlates with the expression profiles of genes involved in sex determination and gonadal differentiation...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561106/gene-expression-changes-underlying-idiopathic-central-hypogonadism-in-cryptorchidism-with-defective-mini-puberty
#15
Faruk Hadziselimovic, Katharina Gegenschatz-Schmid, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Maria J Docampo-Garcia, Philippe Demougin, Vytautas Bilius, Dalius Malcius, Darius Dasevicius, Michael B Stadtler
The whole genome RNA profiling of testicular biopsies by DNA strand-specific RNA sequencing was examined to determine a potential causative role of isolated congenital cryptorchidism in azoospermia and/or infertility in the context of our previously published GeneChip data. Cryptorchid patients, aged 7 months to 5 years and otherwise healthy, were enrolled in this prospective study. During surgery, testicular tissue biopsies were obtained for histological examination and RNA sequencing. Fifteen patients were selected based on the histological results and were divided into 2 groups...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559746/real-time-sexing-of-chicken-embryos-and-compatibility-with-in-ovo-protocols
#16
Michael Clinton, Sunil Nandi, Debiao Zhao, Sarah Olson, Patrick Peterson, Tom Burdon, Derek McBride
The chicken embryo is an established model system for studying early vertebrate development. One of the major advantages of this model is the facility to perform manipulations in ovo and then continue incubation and observe the effects on embryonic development. However, in common with other vertebrate models, there is a tendency to disregard the sex of the experimental chicken embryos, and this can lead to erroneous conclusions, a lack of reproducibility, and wasted efforts. That this neglect is untenable is emphasised by the recent demonstration that avian cells and tissues have an inherent sex identity and that male and female tissues respond differently to the same stimulus...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463801/nr5a1-loss-of-function-mutations-lead-to-46-xy-partial-gonadal-dysgenesis-phenotype-report-of-three-novel-mutations
#17
Helena C Fabbri, Juliana G Ribeiro de Andrade, Andréa T Maciel-Guerra, Gil Guerra-Júnior, Maricilda P de Mello
Mutations in the NR5A1 gene, which encodes the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), are responsible for different phenotypes of disorders of sex development (DSD), such as bilateral anorchia and hypospadias. Furthermore, they can be associated with primary amenorrhea, premature ovarian failure, male infertility, adrenal tumors, and endometriosis. Direct sequencing of the 7 NR5A1 exons including ∼1,000 bp of the 5'-upstream and 3'-downstream regions and all intron-exon boundaries was performed in patients with DSD...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441599/foxl2-and-its-relatives-are-evolutionary-conserved-players-in-gonadal-sex-differentiation
#18
Sylvain Bertho, Jeremy Pasquier, Qiaowei Pan, Gaël Le Trionnaire, Julien Bobe, John H Postlethwait, Eric Pailhoux, Manfred Schartl, Amaury Herpin, Yann Guiguen
Foxl2 is a member of the large family of Forkhead Box (Fox) domain transcription factors. It emerged during the last 15 years as a key player in ovarian differentiation and oogenesis in vertebrates and especially mammals. This review focuses on Foxl2 genes in light of recent findings on their evolution, expression, and implication in sex differentiation in animals in general. Homologs of Foxl2 and its paralog Foxl3 are found in all metazoans, but their gene evolution is complex, with multiple gains and losses following successive whole genome duplication events in vertebrates...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27410401/a-structurally-and-functionally-common-unit-in-testes-and-ovaries-of-medaka-oryzias-latipes-a-teleost-fish
#19
Toshiya Nishimura, Shuhei Nakamura, Minoru Tanaka
Testes and ovaries are structurally and functionally different organs, but they originate from the same gonadal primordium. Here, we propose how a tissue composed of germ cells and sox9b-expressing cells underlain by a basement membrane develops a functionally common unit that reserves sexually indifferent or unfixed germline stem cells in both the ovaries and testes of adult medaka. During testicular development, the unit expands and gives rise to lobules where germline stem cells continuously produce a tremendous amount of sperm, while the unit in the female becomes germinal cradles that represent niche areas for neo-oogenesis...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169744/identification-of-nr5a1-mutations-and-possible-digenic-inheritance-in-46-xy-gonadal-dysgenesis
#20
Inas Mazen, Mohamed Abdel-Hamid, Mona Mekkawy, Joëlle Bignon-Topalovic, Radia Boudjenah, Mona El Gammal, Mona Essawi, Anu Bashamboo, Ken McElreavey
The phenotypic spectrum of patients carrying NR5A1 mutations ranges from 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis to male infertility. Phenotypic variability could be due to digenic or oligogenic inheritance of pathogenic variants in other testis-determining genes. Here, exome sequencing identified 2 pathogenic de novo NR5A1 mutations in 2 patients with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, p.Q206Tfs*20 and p.Arg313Cys. The latter patient also carried a missense mutation in MAP3K1. Our data extend the number of NR5A1 gene mutations associated with gonadal dysgenesis...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
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