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Neural Regeneration Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323053/roles-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-repair-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#1
REVIEW
Chong Wang, Chang-Feng Lu, Jiang Peng, Cheng-Dong Hu, Yu Wang
Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323052/quantification-of-intermuscular-and-intramuscular-adipose-tissue-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-after-neurodegenerative-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Madoka Ogawa, Robert Lester, Hiroshi Akima, Ashraf S Gorgey
Ectopic adiposity has gained considerable attention because of its tight association with metabolic and cardiovascular health in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Ectopic adiposity is characterized by the storage of adipose tissue in non-subcutaneous sites. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven to be an effective tool in quantifying ectopic adiposity and provides the opportunity to measure different adipose depots including intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and intramuscular adipose tissue (IntraMAT) or intramuscular fat (IMF)...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323051/notch-pathway-inhibitor-dapt-enhances-atoh1-activity-to-generate-new-hair-cells-in-situ-in-rat-cochleae
#3
Wen-Wei Luo, Zhao Han, Dong-Dong Ren, Xin-Wei Wang, Fang-Lu Chi, Juan-Mei Yang
Atoh1 overexpression in cochlear epithelium induces new hair cell formation. Use of adenovirus-mediated Atoh1 overexpression has mainly focused on the rat lesser epithelial ridge and induces ectopic hair cell regeneration. The sensory region of rat cochlea is difficult to transfect, thus new hair cells are rarely produced in situ in rat cochlear explants. After culturing rat cochleae in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, adenovirus successfully infected the sensory region as the width of the supporting cell area was significantly increased...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323050/long-non-coding-rna-nonmmug014387-promotes-schwann-cell-proliferation-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#4
Bin Pan, Zhong-Ju Shi, Jia-Yin Yan, Jia-He Li, Shi-Qing Feng
Schwann cells play a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration through dedifferentiation and proliferation. In a previous study, we performed microarray analysis of the sciatic nerve after injury. Accordingly, we predicted that long non-coding RNA NONMMUG014387 may promote Schwann cell proliferation after peripheral nerve injury, as bioinformatic analysis revealed that the target gene of NONMMUG014387 was collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1). Cthrc1 may promote cell proliferation in a variety of cells by activating Wnt/PCP signaling...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323049/autologous-transplantation-with-fewer-fibers-repairs-large-peripheral-nerve-defects
#5
Jiu-Xu Deng, Dian-Yin Zhang, Ming Li, Jian Weng, Yu-Hui Kou, Pei-Xun Zhang, Na Han, Bo Chen, Xiao-Feng Yin, Bao-Guo Jiang
Peripheral nerve injury is a serious disease and its repair is challenging. A cable-style autologous graft is the gold standard for repairing long peripheral nerve defects; however, ensuring that the minimum number of transplanted nerve attains maximum therapeutic effect remains poorly understood. In this study, a rat model of common peroneal nerve defect was established by resecting a 10-mm long right common peroneal nerve. Rats receiving transplantation of the common peroneal nerve in situ were designated as the in situ graft group...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323048/topiramate-as-a-neuroprotective-agent-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Firat Narin, Sahin Hanalioglu, Huseyin Ustun, Kamer Kilinc, Burcak Bilginer
Topiramate (TPM) is a widely used antiepileptic and antimigraine agent which has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental traumatic brain injury and stroke models. However, its utility in spinal cord injury has not been studied extensively. Thus, we evaluated effects of TPM on secondary cellular injury mechanisms in an experimental rat model of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). After rat models of thoracic contusive SCI were established by free weight-drop method, TPM (40 mg/kg) was given at 12-hour intervals for four times orally...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323047/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-spinal-microstructure-in-healthy-adults-improved-resolution-with-the-readout-segmentation-of-long-variable-echo-trains
#7
Bu-Tian Zhang, Meng Li, Li-Li Yu, Yi-Meng Dai, Shao-Nan Yu, Jin-Lan Jiang
Diffusion tensor imaging plays an important role in the accurate diagnosis and prognosis of spinal cord diseases. However, because of technical limitations, the imaging sequences used in this technique cannot reveal the fine structure of the spinal cord with precision. We used the readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains (RESOLVE) sequence in this cross-sectional study of 45 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 63 years. We found that the RESOLVE sequence significantly increased the resolution of the diffusion images and improved the median signal-to-noise ratio of the middle (C4-6) and lower (C7-T1) cervical segments to the level of the upper cervical segment...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323046/non-concomitant-cortical-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-sensorimotor-areas-following-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Yu Pan, Wei-Bei Dou, Yue-Heng Wang, Hui-Wen Luo, Yun-Xiang Ge, Shu-Yu Yan, Quan Xu, Yuan-Yuan Tu, Yan-Qing Xiao, Qiong Wu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hong-Liang Zhao
Brain plasticity, including anatomical changes and functional reorganization, is the physiological basis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The correlation between brain anatomical changes and functional reorganization after SCI is unclear. This study aimed to explore whether alterations of cortical structure and network function are concomitant in sensorimotor areas after incomplete SCI. Eighteen patients with incomplete SCI (mean age 40.94 ± 14.10 years old; male:female, 7:11) and 18 healthy subjects (37...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323045/does-vitamin-c-have-the-ability-to-augment-the-therapeutic-effect-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Nesrine Salem, Mohamed Y Salem, Mohammed M Elmaghrabi, Moataz A Elawady, Mona A Elawady, Dina Sabry, Ashraf Shamaa, Abdel-Haleem H Elkasapy, Noha Ibrhim, Azza Elamir
Methylprednisolone (MP) is currently the only drug confirmed to exhibit a neuroprotective effect on acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Vitamin C (VC) is a natural water-soluble antioxidant that exerts neuroprotective effects through eliminating free radical damage to nerve cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), as multipotent stem cells, are promising candidates in SCI repair. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of MP, VC and BMMSCs on traumatic SCI, 80 adult male rats were randomly divided into seven groups: control, SCI (SCI induction by weight-drop method), MP (SCI induction, followed by administration of 30 mg/kg MP via the tail vein, once every other 6 hours, for five times), VC (SCI induction, followed by intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg VC once a day, for 28 days), MP + VC (SCI induction, followed by administration of MP and VC as the former), BMMSCs (SCI induction, followed by injection of 3 × 106 BMMSCs at the injury site), and BMMSCs + VC (SCI induction, followed by BMMSCs injection and VC administration as the former)...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323044/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-focused-ultrasound-to-increase-localized-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-permeability
#10
Allison H Payne, Gregory W Hawryluk, Yoshimi Anzai, Henrik Odéen, Megan A Ostlie, Ethan C Reichert, Amanda J Stump, Satoshi Minoshima, Donna J Cross
Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects thousands of people every year in the USA, and most patients are left with some permanent paralysis. Therapeutic options are limited and only modestly affect outcome. To address this issue, we used magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) as a non-invasive approach to increase permeability in the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). We hypothesize that localized, controlled sonoporation of the BSCB by MRgFUS will aid delivery of therapeutics to the injury. Here, we report our preliminary findings for the ability of MRgFUS to increase BSCB permeability in the thoracic spinal cord of a normal rat model...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323043/neural-computational-modeling-reveals-a-major-role-of-corticospinal-gating-of-central-oscillations-in-the-generation-of-essential-tremor
#11
Hong-En Qu, Chuanxin M Niu, Si Li, Man-Zhao Hao, Zi-Xiang Hu, Qing Xie, Ning Lan
Essential tremor, also referred to as familial tremor, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease and the most common movement disorder. It typically involves a postural and motor tremor of the hands, head or other part of the body. Essential tremor is driven by a central oscillation signal in the brain. However, the corticospinal mechanisms involved in the generation of essential tremor are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we used a neural computational model that includes both monosynaptic and multisynaptic corticospinal pathways interacting with a propriospinal neuronal network...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323042/mitochondrial-protective-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-of-rhodiola-crenulata-extract-on-hippocampal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Jun-Mei Wang, Ze-Qiang Qu, Jin-Lang Wu, Peter Chung, Yuan-Shan Zeng
In our previous study, we found that the edible alcohol extract of the root of the medicinal plant Rhodiola crenulata (RCE) improved spatial cognition in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Another study from our laboratory showed that RCE enhanced neural cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and prevented damage to hippocampal neurons in a rat model of chronic stress-induced depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of RCE are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of RCE and its neuroprotective mechanism of action in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease established by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323041/central-post-stroke-pain-due-to-injury-of-the-spinothalamic-tract-in-patients-with-cerebral-infarction-a-diffusion-tensor-tractography-imaging-study
#13
Sung Ho Jang, Jun Lee, Sang Seok Yeo
Many studies using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) have demonstrated that injury of the spinothalamic tract (STT) is the pathogenetic mechanism of central post-stroke pain (CPSP) in intracerebral hemorrhage; however, there is no DTT study reporting the pathogenetic mechanism of CPSP in cerebral infarction. In this study, we investigated injury of the STT in patients with CPSP following cerebral infarction, using DTT. Five patients with CPSP following cerebral infarction and eight age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were recruited for this study...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323040/d-dimer-may-predict-poor-outcomes-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-retrospective-study
#14
Jun-Hui Liu, Xiang-Kui Li, Zhi-Biao Chen, Qiang Cai, Long Wang, Ying-Hu Ye, Qian-Xue Chen
Serum biomarkers may play a reliable role in predicting the outcomes of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. This study retrospectively analyzed the relationship between serum biomarkers on admission and outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We recruited 146 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who were treated in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University of China between 1 May 2014 and 30 March 2016. There were 57 males and 89 females included and average age of included patients was 57...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323039/neuronal-injury-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-hippocampus-in-the-early-period-of-asphyxia-induced-cardiac-arrest-under-normothermia
#15
Hyun-Jin Tae, Il Jun Kang, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, Jae-Chul Lee, Myoung Cheol Shin, Yoon Sung Kim, Jun Hwi Cho, Jong-Dai Kim, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Joon Ha Park, In-Shik Kim, Hyang-Ah Lee, Yang Hee Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Young Joo Lee
Low survival rate occurs in patients who initially experience a spontaneous return of circulation after cardiac arrest (CA). In this study, we induced asphyxial CA in adult male Sprague-Daley rats, maintained their body temperature at 37 ± 0.5°C, and then observed the survival rate during the post-resuscitation phase. We examined neuronal damage in the hippocampus using cresyl violet (CV) and Fluore-Jade B (F-J B) staining, and pro-inflammatory response using ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus after asphyxial CA in rats under normothermia...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323038/electroacupuncture-improves-neurovascular-unit-reconstruction-by-promoting-collateral-circulation-and-angiogenesis
#16
Lei Shi, Hong-Mei Cao, Ying Li, Shi-Xin Xu, Yan Zhang, Yang Zhang, Zhe-Feng Jin
Acupuncture at Shuigou (GV26) shows good clinical efficacy for treating stroke, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, a cerebral infarction model of ischemia/reperfusion injury received electroacupuncture at GV26 (15 Hz and 1 mA, continuous wave [biphasic pulses], for 5 minutes). Electroacupuncture effectively promoted regional cerebral blood flow on the infarct and non-infarct sides, increased infarct lesions, lectin, and number of blood vessels, upregulated von Willebrand factor and cell proliferation marker Ki67 expression, and diminished neurological severity score...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323037/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorate-sodium-nitrite-induced-hypoxic-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model
#17
Elham H A Ali, Omar A Ahmed-Farid, Amany A E Osman
Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is an inorganic salt used broadly in chemical industry. NaNO2 is highly reactive with hemoglobin causing hypoxia. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into a variety of tissue specific cells and MSC therapy is a potential method for improving brain functions. This work aims to investigate the possible therapeutic role of bone marrow-derived MSCs against NaNO2 induced hypoxic brain injury. Rats were divided into control group (treated for 3 or 6 weeks), hypoxic (HP) group (subcutaneous injection of 35 mg/kg NaNO2 for 3 weeks to induce hypoxic brain injury), HP recovery groups N-2wR and N-3wR (treated with the same dose of NaNO2 for 2 and 3 weeks respectively, followed by 4-week or 3-week self-recovery respectively), and MSCs treated groups N-2wSC and N-3wSC (treated with the same dose of NaNO2 for 2 and 3 weeks respectively, followed by one injection of 2 × 106 MSCs via the tail vein in combination with 4 week self-recovery or intravenous injection of NaNO2 for 1 week in combination with 3 week self-recovery)...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323036/the-drosophila-adult-neuromuscular-junction-as-a-model-for-unravelling-amyloid-peptide-influence-on-synapse-dynamics
#18
Begoña Lopez-Arias, Ignacio Monedero, Enrique Turiégano, Laura Torroja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323035/intentional-and-unintentional-impacts-of-anaesthesia-insights-from-experiments-in-pain-and-injury
#19
James W M Kang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323034/implications-of-periostin-in-the-development-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-induced-brain-injuries
#20
Hirofumi Nishikawa, Hidenori Suzuki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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