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Microbial Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332326/fermentation-of-glycerol-by-a-newly-discovered-anaerobic-bacterium-adding-value-to-biodiesel-production
#1
María Hidalgo, Elena Puerta-Fernández
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322023/caldicellulosiruptor-saccharolyticus-transcriptomes-reveal-consequences-of-chemical-pretreatment-and-genetic-modification-of-lignocellulose
#2
Sara E Blumer-Schuette, Jeffrey V Zurawski, Jonathan M Conway, Piyum Khatibi, Derrick L Lewis, Quanzi Li, Vincent L Chiang, Robert M Kelly
Recalcitrance of plant biomass is a major barrier for commercially feasible cellulosic biofuel production. Chemical and enzymatic assays have been developed to measure recalcitrance and carbohydrate composition; however, none of these assays can directly report which polysaccharides a candidate microbe will sense during growth on these substrates. Here, we propose using the transcriptomic response of the plant biomass-deconstructing microbe, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, as a direct measure of how suitable a sample of plant biomass may be for fermentation based on the bioavailability of polysaccharides...
March 20, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321989/expansion-of-the-%C3%AF-oxidation-system-alkbgtl-of-pseudomonas-putida-gpo1-with-alkj-and-alkh-results-in-exclusive-mono-esterified-dicarboxylic-acid-production-in-e-%C3%A2-coli
#3
Youri M van Nuland, Fons A de Vogel, Gerrit Eggink, Ruud A Weusthuis
The AlkBGTL proteins coded on the alk operon from Pseudomonas putida GPo1 can selectively ω-oxidize ethyl esters of C6 to C10 fatty acids in whole-cell conversions with Escherichia coli. The major product in these conversions is the ω-alcohol. However, AlkB also has the capacity to overoxidize the substrate to the ω-aldehyde and ω-acid. In this study, we show that alcohol dehydrogenase AlkJ and aldehyde dehydrogenase AlkH are able to oxidize ω-alcohols and ω-aldehydes of esterified fatty acids respectively...
March 20, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296178/photosynthetic-bacterium-rhodopseudomonas-palustris-gj-22-induces-systemic-resistance-against-viruses
#4
Pin Su, Xinqiu Tan, Chenggang Li, Deyong Zhang, Ju'e Cheng, Songbai Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Qingpin Yan, Jing Peng, Zhuo Zhang, Yong Liu, Xiangyang Lu
Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have been extensively used in agriculture to promote plant growth and to improve crop quality. Their potential application in plant disease management, however, is largely overlooked. In this study, the PSB strain Rhodopseudomonas palustris GJ-22 was investigated for its ability to induce resistance against a plant virus while promoting plant growth. In the field, a foliar spray of GJ-22 suspension protected tobacco plants against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Under axenic conditions, GJ-22 colonized the plant phyllosphere and induced resistance against TMV...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296150/history-of-adaptation-determines-short-term-shifts-in-performance-and-community-structure-of-hydrogen-producing-microbial-communities-degrading-wheat-straw
#5
Idania Valdez-Vazquez, Ana L Morales, Ana E Escalante
This study addresses the question of ecological interest for the determination of structure and diversity of microbial communities that degrade lignocellulosic biomasses to produce biofuels. Two microbial consortia with different history, native of wheat straw (NWS) and from a methanogenic digester (MD) fed with cow manure, were contrasted in terms of hydrogen performance, substrate disintegration and microbial diversity. NWS outperformed the hydrogen production rate of MD. Microscopic images revealed that NWS acted on the cuticle and epidermis, generating cellulose strands with high crystallinity, while MD degraded deeper layers, equally affecting all polysaccharides...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276630/the-xyls-pm-regulator-promoter-system-and-its-use-in-fundamental-studies-of-bacterial-gene-expression-recombinant-protein-production-and-metabolic-engineering
#6
REVIEW
Agnieszka Gawin, Svein Valla, Trygve Brautaset
The XylS/Pm regulator/promoter system originating from the Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid pWW0 is widely used for regulated low- and high-level recombinant expression of genes and gene clusters in Escherichia coli and other bacteria. Induction of this system can be graded by using different cheap benzoic acid derivatives, which enter cells by passive diffusion, operate in a dose-dependent manner and are typically not metabolized by the host cells. Combinatorial mutagenesis and selection using the bla gene encoding β-lactamase as a reporter have demonstrated that the Pm promoter, the DNA sequence corresponding to the 5' untranslated end of its cognate mRNA and the xylS coding region can be modified and improved relative to various types of applications...
March 9, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233476/antimicrobial-activity-of-biogenically-produced-spherical-se-nanomaterials-embedded-in-organic-material-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and%C3%A2-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-on-hydroxyapatite-coated-surfaces
#7
Elena Piacenza, Alessandro Presentato, Emanuele Zonaro, Joseph A Lemire, Marc Demeter, Giovanni Vallini, Raymond J Turner, Silvia Lampis
In an effort to prevent the formation of pathogenic biofilms on hydroxyapatite (HA)-based clinical devices and surfaces, we present a study evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of Spherical biogenic Se-Nanostructures Embedded in Organic material (Bio Se-NEMO-S) produced by Bacillus mycoides SelTE01 in comparison with two different chemical selenium nanoparticle (SeNP) classes. These nanomaterials have been studied as potential antimicrobials for eradication of established HA-grown biofilms, for preventing biofilm formation on HA-coated surfaces and for inhibition of planktonic cell growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 12934 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923...
February 23, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224723/synthetic-extreme-environments-overlooked-sources-of-potential-biotechnologically-relevant-microorganisms
#8
Timothy Sibanda, Ramganesh Selvarajan, Memory Tekere
Synthetic extreme environments like carwash effluent tanks and drains are potential sources of biotechnologically important microorganisms and molecules which have, however, remained unexplored. Using culture- and molecular-based methods, a total of 17 bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Shewanella, Proteus, Paenibacillus, Enterobacter and Citrobacter, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Pantoea were identified. Hydrocarbon utilization and enzyme production screening assays showed that Aeromonas sp. CAC11, Paenibacillus sp...
February 22, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220690/metabolite-labelling-as-a-tool-to-define-hierarchies-in-clostridium-acetobutylicum-sugar-usage-and-its-relevance-for-biofuel-production
#9
María Hidalgo, Elena Puerta-Fernández
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217936/-pyrococcus-furiosus-30%C3%A2-years-on
#10
Servé W M Kengen
Pyrococcus furiosus has come of age. In 1986 the first publication on a remarkable microorganism, Pyrococcus furiosus, appeared. Now, 30 years later it is still "the fast and the furious".
February 20, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217905/evaluation-of-rv0220-rv2958c-rv2994-and-rv3347c-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-for-serodiagnosis-of-tuberculosis
#11
Xiaolong You, Ranhui Li, Kanglin Wan, Liangzhuan Liu, Xiaoping Xie, Lanhua Zhao, Ning Wu, Xiangying Deng, Li Wang, Yanhua Zeng
Tuberculosis (TB), the leading cause of death among infectious diseases worldwide, is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Early accurate diagnosis means earlier prevention, treatment and control of TB. To confirm efficient diagnostic antigens for M. tuberculosis, the serodiagnosis value of four recombinant proteins including Rv0220, Rv2958c, Rv2994 and Rv3347c was evaluated in this study. The specificities and sensitivities of four recombinant proteins were determined based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) by screening sera from smear-positive pulmonary TB patients (n = 92), uninfected individuals (n = 60) and patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 32) that potentially cross-react with M...
February 20, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205337/should-the-biofilm-mode-of-life-be-taken-into-consideration-for-microbial-biocontrol-agents
#12
REVIEW
Caroline Pandin, Dominique Le Coq, Alexis Canette, Stéphane Aymerich, Romain Briandet
Almost one-third of crop yields are lost every year due to microbial alterations and diseases. The main control strategy to limit these losses is the use of an array of chemicals active against spoilage and unwanted pathogenic microorganisms. Their massive use has led to extensive environmental pollution, human poisoning and a variety of diseases. An emerging alternative to this chemical approach is the use of microbial biocontrol agents. Biopesticides have been used with success in several fields, but a better understanding of their mode of action is necessary to better control their activity and increase their use...
February 16, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194879/ethanol-production-by-the-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-pyrococcus-furiosus-by-expression-of-bacterial-bifunctional-alcohol-dehydrogenases
#13
Matthew W Keller, Gina L Lipscomb, Diep M Nguyen, Alexander T Crowley, Gerrit J Schut, Israel Scott, Robert M Kelly, Michael W W Adams
Ethanol is an important target for the renewable production of liquid transportation fuels. It can be produced biologically from pyruvate, via pyruvate decarboxylase, or from acetyl-CoA, by alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE). Thermophilic bacteria utilize AdhE, which is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Many of these organisms also contain a separate alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) that generates ethanol from acetaldehyde, although the role of AdhA in ethanol production is typically not clear...
February 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169510/differences-in-internalization-and-growth-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-within-the-apoplast-of-edible-plants-spinach-and-lettuce-compared-with-the-model-species-nicotiana-benthamiana
#14
Kathryn M Wright, Louise Crozier, Jacqueline Marshall, Bernhard Merget, Ashleigh Holmes, Nicola J Holden
Internalization of food-borne bacteria into edible parts of fresh produce plants represents a serious health risk. Therefore, internalization of verocytotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai was assessed in two species associated with outbreaks, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and compared to the model species Nicotiana benthamiana. Internalization occurred in the leaves and roots of spinach and lettuce throughout a 10 day time-course. The plant species, tissue type and inoculum dose all impacted the outcome...
February 7, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169492/comparison-of-biofilm-formation-and-motility-processes-in-arsenic-resistant-thiomonas-spp-strains-revealed-divergent-response-to-arsenite
#15
Julien Farasin, Sandrine Koechler, Hugo Varet, Julien Deschamps, Marie-Agnès Dillies, Caroline Proux, Mathieu Erhardt, Aline Huber, Bernd Jagla, Romain Briandet, Jean-Yves Coppée, Florence Arsène-Ploetze
Bacteria of the genus Thiomonas are found ubiquitously in arsenic contaminated waters such as acid mine drainage (AMD), where they contribute to the precipitation and the natural bioremediation of arsenic. In these environments, these bacteria have developed a large range of resistance strategies among which the capacity to form particular biofilm structures. The biofilm formation is one of the most ubiquitous adaptive response observed in prokaryotes to various stresses, such as those induced in the presence of toxic compounds...
February 7, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168836/a-rapid-method-for-selecting-suitable-animal-species-for-studying-pathogen-interactions-with-plasma-protein-ligands-in%C3%A2-vivo
#16
Clément Naudin, Ariane Schumski, Outi M H Salo-Ahen, Heiko Herwald, Emanuel Smeds
Species tropism constitutes a serious problem for developing relevant animal models of infection. Human pathogens can express virulence factors that show specific selectivity to human proteins, while their affinity for orthologs from other species can vary significantly. Suitable animal species must be used to analyse whether virulence factors are potential targets for drug development. We developed an assay that rapidly predicts applicable animal species for studying virulence factors binding plasma proteins...
February 7, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165194/diversity-and-functions-of-the-sheep-faecal-microbiota-a-multi-omic-characterization
#17
Alessandro Tanca, Cristina Fraumene, Valeria Manghina, Antonio Palomba, Marcello Abbondio, Massimo Deligios, Daniela Pagnozzi, Maria Filippa Addis, Sergio Uzzau
Little is currently known on the microbial populations colonizing the sheep large intestine, despite their expected key role in host metabolism, physiology and immunity. This study reports the first characterization of the sheep faecal microbiota composition and functions, obtained through the application of a multi-omic strategy. An optimized protocol was first devised for DNA extraction and amplification from sheep stool samples. Then, 16S rDNA sequencing, shotgun metagenomics and shotgun metaproteomics were applied to unravel taxonomy, genetic potential and actively expressed functions and pathways respectively...
February 6, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165193/polysaccharides-l900-2-and-l900-3-isolated-from-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-lock-0900-modulate-allergic-sensitization-to-ovalbumin-in-a-mouse-model
#18
Sabina Górska, Martin Schwarzer, Dagmar Srutkova, Petra Hermanova, Ewa Brzozowska, Hana Kozakova, Andrzej Gamian
Here, we compared the abilities of polysaccharides L900/2 and L900/3, which were previously isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK 0900, to modulate the immune response to bystander antigens in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. In vivo, both polysaccharides reduced the levels of OVA-specific IgE, IgE-dependent basophil degranulation and IgG2a antibodies, but had no effect on the levels of OVA-specific IgA or IgG1. Interestingly, both polysaccharides triggered recall cellular responses with distinct properties...
February 6, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127869/importance-of-producing-economic-compounds-to-combat-cancer
#19
Jesús Muñoz-Rojas
The manuscript published by Microb Biotechnol, volume 10, highlights the relevance of the fungus Nigrospora sphaerica, an endophyte isolated from Catharanthus roseus, as an alternative source to obtain vinblastine, a compound used in chemotherapy schemes to treat several types of cancer. Authors showed that purification of vinblastine from extracts of the fungus has higher activity and yield in comparison with that obtained from the plant Catharanthus roseus. This work represents a biotechnological approach to obtain vinblastine with promising results to decrease the production cost...
January 26, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097816/effect-of-temperature-and-colonization-of-legionella-pneumophila-and-vermamoeba-vermiformis-on-bacterial-community-composition-of-copper-drinking-water-biofilms
#20
Helen Y Buse, Pan Ji, Vicente Gomez-Alvarez, Amy Pruden, Marc A Edwards, Nicholas J Ashbolt
It is unclear how the water-based pathogen, Legionella pneumophila (Lp), and associated free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts change or are changed by the microbial composition of drinking water (DW) biofilm communities. Thus, this study characterized the bacterial community structure over a 7-month period within mature (> 600-day-old) copper DW biofilms in reactors simulating premise plumbing and assessed the impact of temperature and introduction of Lp and its FLA host, Vermamoeba vermiformis (Vv), co-cultures (LpVv)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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