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Microbial Biotechnology

Màrius Tomàs-Gamisans, Pau Ferrer, Joan Albiol
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella spp.) is widely used as cell factory for recombinant protein production. In the past recent years, important breakthroughs in the systems-level quantitative analysis of its physiology have been achieved. This wealth of information has allowed the development of genome-scale metabolic models, which make new approaches possible for host cell and bioprocess engineering. Nevertheless, the predictive accuracy of the previous consensus model required to be upgraded and validated with new experimental data sets for P...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Ana L Arantes, Joana I Alves, Alfons J M Stams, M Madalena Alves, Diana Z Sousa
The substitution of natural gas by renewable biomethane is an interesting option to reduce global carbon footprint. Syngas fermentation has potential in this context, as a diverse range of low-biodegradable materials that can be used. In this study, anaerobic sludge acclimatized to syngas in a multi-orifice baffled bioreactor (MOBB) was used to start enrichments with CO. The main goals were to identify the key players in CO conversion and evaluate potential interspecies metabolic interactions conferring robustness to the process...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Natalia Gómez-Torres, Matthew Dunne, Sonia Garde, Rob Meijers, Arjan Narbad, Marta Ávila, Melinda J Mayer
Late blowing defect (LBD) is a major cause of spoilage in cheeses, caused by the growth of Clostridium spp. in the cheese matrix. We investigated the application of CTP1L, a bacteriophage endolysin active against Clostridium tyrobutyricum, and its enzymatically active and cell wall-binding domains (EAD and CBD) attached to green fluorescent protein (GFP) to detect dairy-related Clostridium species by fluorescence microscopy. GFP-CTP1L and GFP-CBD demonstrated specificity for Clostridium spp. by labelling 15 and 17 of 20 Clostridium strains, respectively, but neither bound to other members of the cheese microbiota...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Jason Carere, Yousef I Hassan, Dion Lepp, Ting Zhou
The biological detoxification of mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), represents a very promising approach to address the challenging problem of cereal grain contamination. The recent discovery of Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8 (Devosia spp. 17-2-E-8), a bacterial isolate capable of transforming DON to the non-toxic stereoisomer 3-epi-deoxynivalenol, along with earlier reports of bacterial species capable of oxidizing DON to 3-keto-DON, has generated interest in the possible mechanism and enzyme(s) involved...
November 17, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Julian Lange, Felix Müller, Ralf Takors, Bastian Blombach
A successful bioeconomy depends on the manifestation of biorefineries that entirely convert renewable resources to valuable products and energies. Here, the poorly exploited hemicellulose fraction (HF) from beech wood organosolv processing was applied for isobutanol production with Corynebacterium glutamicum. To enable growth of C. glutamicum on HF, we integrated genes required for D-xylose and l-arabinose metabolization into two of 16 systematically identified and novel chromosomal integration loci. Under aerobic conditions, this engineered strain CArXy reached growth rates up to 0...
November 8, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
José A Gutiérrez-Barranquero, F Jerry Reen, María L Parages, Ronan McCarthy, Alan D W Dobson, Fergal O'Gara
In recent years, the marine environment has been the subject of increasing attention from biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. A combination of unique physicochemical properties and spatial niche-specific substrates, in wide-ranging and extreme habitats, underscores the potential of the marine environment to deliver on functionally novel bioactivities. One such area of ongoing research is the discovery of compounds that interfere with the cell-cell signalling process called quorum sensing (QS). Described as the next generation of antimicrobials, these compounds can target virulence and persistence of clinically relevant pathogens, independent of any growth-limiting effects...
November 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Natascia Biondi, Giulia Cheloni, Liliana Rodolfi, Carlo Viti, Luciana Giovannetti, Mario R Tredici
Algal cultures are usually co-cultures of algae and bacteria, especially when considering outdoor mass cultivation. The influence of associated bacteria on algal culture performance has been poorly investigated, although bacteria may strongly affect biomass (or derived product) yield and quality. In this work, the influence on growth and productivity of Tetraselmis suecica F&M-M33 of bacterial communities and single bacterial isolates from the algal phycosphere was investigated. Xenic laboratory and outdoor cultures were compared with an axenic culture in batch...
November 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Deirdre E Ricaurte, Esteban Martínez-García, Ákos Nyerges, Csaba Pál, Víctor de Lorenzo, Tomás Aparicio
Bacterial recombineering typically relies on genomic incorporation of synthetic oligonucleotides as mediated by Escherichia coli λ phage recombinase β - an occurrence largely limited to enterobacterial strains. While a handful of similar recombinases have been documented, recombineering efficiencies usually fall short of expectations for practical use. In this work, we aimed to find an efficient Recβ homologue demonstrating activity in model soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida EM42. To this end, a genus-wide protein survey was conducted to identify putative recombinase candidates for study...
November 2, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Francesca Boldrin, Giulia Degiacomi, Agnese Serafini, Gaëlle S Kolly, Marcello Ventura, Claudia Sala, Roberta Provvedi, Giorgio Palù, Stewart T Cole, Riccardo Manganelli
A range of regulated gene expression systems has been developed for mycobacteria in the last few years to facilitate the study of essential genes, validate novel drug targets and evaluate their vulnerability. Among these, the TetR/Pip-OFF repressible promoter system was successfully used in several mycobacterial species both in vitro and in vivo. In the first version of the system, the repressible promoter was Pptr , a strong Pip-repressible promoter of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis, which might hamper effective downregulation of genes with a low basal expression level...
October 27, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Lauren B Stadler, Jeseth Delgado Vela, Sunit Jain, Gregory J Dick, Nancy G Love
In addition to removing organics and other nutrients, the microorganisms in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) biotransform many pharmaceuticals present in wastewater. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between pharmaceutical biotransformation and biodiversity in WWTP bioreactor microbial communities and identify taxa and functional genes that were strongly associated with biotransformation. Dilution-to-extinction of an activated sludge microbial community was performed to establish cultures with a gradient of microbial biodiversity...
October 27, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Irina Spacova, Elke Lievens, Tine Verhoeven, Hans Steenackers, Jos Vanderleyden, Sarah Lebeer, Mariya I Petrova
Probiotic Lactobacillus strains are widely used to benefit human and animal health, although the exact mechanisms behind their interactions with the host and the microbiota are largely unknown. Fluorescent tagging of live probiotic cells is an important tool to unravel their modes of action. In this study, the implementation of different heterologously expressed fluorescent proteins for the labelling of the model probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosusGG (gastrointestinal) and Lactobacillus rhamnosusGR-1 (vaginal) was explored...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Daniel Heinrich, Matthias Raberg, Alexander Steinbüchel
The biotechnical platform strain Ralstonia eutropha H16 was genetically engineered to express a cox subcluster of the carboxydotrophic Oligotropha carboxidovoransOM5, including (i) the structural genes coxM, -S and -L, coding for an aerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) and (ii) the genes coxD, -E, -F and -G, essential for the maturation of CODH. The coxOc genes expressed under control of the CO2 -inducible promoter PL enabled R. eutropha to oxidize CO to CO2 for the use as carbon source, as demonstrated by (13) CO experiments, but the recombinant strains remained dependent on H2 as external energy supply...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Diana C Garcia-Ramon, Colin Berry, Carmen Tse, Alberto Fernández-Fernández, Antonio Osuna, Susana Vílchez
Bacillus pumilus strain 15.1 was previously found to cause larval mortality in the Med-fly Ceratitis capitata and was shown to produce crystals in association with the spore. As parasporal crystals are well-known as invertebrate-active toxins in entomopathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry and Cyt toxins) and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Bin and Cry toxins), the B. pumilus crystals were characterized. The crystals were composed of a 45 kDa protein that was identified as an oxalate decarboxylase by peptide mass fingerprinting, N-terminal sequencing and by comparison with the genome sequence of strain 15...
October 12, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Narcís Pous, Maria Dolors Balaguer, Jesús Colprim, Sebastià Puig
Groundwater pollution is a serious worldwide concern. Aromatic compounds, chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals and nutrients among others can be widely found in different aquifers all over the world. However, there is a lack of sustainable technologies able to treat these kinds of compounds. Microbial electro-remediation, by the means of microbial electrochemical technologies (MET), can become a promising alternative in the near future. MET can be applied for groundwater treatment in situ or ex situ, as well as for monitoring the chemical state or the microbiological activity...
October 6, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Ya He, Jacques Mathieu, Marcio L B da Silva, Mengyan Li, Pedro J J Alvarez
Two bacterial consortia were enriched from uncontaminated soil by virtue of their ability to grow on 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) as a sole carbon and energy source. Their specific dioxane degradation rates at 30°C, pH = 7 (i.e. 5.7 to 7.1 g-dioxane per g-protein per day) were comparable to those of two dioxane-metabolizing archetypes: Pseudonocardia dioxanivoransCB1190 and Mycobacterium dioxanotrophicusPH-06. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, Mycobacterium was the dominant genus. Acetylene inhibition tests suggest that dioxane degradation was mediated by monooxygenases...
October 6, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Lea Bircher, Clarissa Schwab, Annelies Geirnaert, Christophe Lacroix
Interest in faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has increased as therapy for intestinal diseases, but safety issues limit its widespread use. Intestinal fermentation technology (IFT) can produce controlled, diverse and metabolically active 'artificial' colonic microbiota as potential alternative to common FMT. However, suitable processing technology to store this artificial microbiota is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the two cryoprotectives, glycerol (15% v/v) and inulin (5% w/v) alone and in combination, in preserving short-chain fatty acid formation and recovery of major butyrate-producing bacteria in three artificial microbiota during cryopreservation for 3 months at -80°C...
October 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Laura Graf, Kent Wu, James W Wilson
Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are protein organelles that typically house toxic or volatile reaction intermediates involved in metabolic pathways. Engineering bacteria to express exogenous MCPs will allow these cells to gain useful functions involving molecule compartmentalization. We cloned a 38 kb region from the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genome containing the pdu 1,2 propanediol (1,2 PD) utilization and cob/cbi genes using the FRT-Capture strategy to clone and transfer large genomic segments...
October 2, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Nicolas Chabert, Violaine Bonnefoy, Wafa Achouak
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a strict acidophilic chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that obtains its energy from reduced inorganic sulfur species or ferrous iron oxidation under aerobic conditions. Carbon felt electrodes were pre-colonized by A. ferrooxidansATCC 23270(T) using ferrous iron or sulfur as electron donors, via the addition (or not) of a mixture of C14 acyl-homoserine lactones (C14-AHLs). Electrode coverage during pre-colonization was sparse regardless of the electron donor source, whereas activation of quorum sensing significantly enhanced it...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Michiel H In 't Zandt, Sabrina Beckmann, Ruud Rijkers, Mike S M Jetten, Mike Manefield, Cornelia U Welte
Coal mining is responsible for 11% of total anthropogenic methane emission thereby contributing considerably to climate change. Attempts to harvest coalbed methane for energy production are challenged by relatively low methane concentrations. In this study, we investigated whether nutrient and acetate amendment of a non-producing sub-bituminous coal well could transform the system to a methane source. We tracked cell counts, methane production, acetate concentration and geochemical parameters for 25 months in one amended and one unamended coal well in Australia...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Fernando de la Calle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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