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Microbial Biotechnology

Ainara Domínguez-Garay, Jose Rodrigo Quejigo, Ulrike Dörfler, Reiner Schroll, Abraham Esteve-Núñez
The absence of suitable terminal electron acceptors (TEA) in soil might limit the oxidative metabolism of environmental microbial populations. Bioelectroventing is a bioelectrochemical strategy that aims to enhance the biodegradation of a pollutant in the environment by overcoming the electron acceptor limitation and maximizing metabolic oxidation. Microbial electroremediating cells (MERCs) are devices that can perform such a bioelectroventing. We also report an overall profile of the (14) C-ATR metabolites and (14) C mass balance in response to the different treatments...
June 23, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Hans W Paerl
Cyanobacteria's long evolutionary history has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recent human and climatic modifications of aquatic ecosystems, including nutrient over-enrichment, hydrologic modifications, and global warming. Harmful (toxic, hypoxia-generating, food web altering) cyanobacterial bloom (CyanoHAB) genera are controlled by the synergistic effects of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) supplies, light, temperature, water residence/flushing times, and biotic interactions...
June 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Bat-Erdene Jugder, Susanne Bohl, Helene Lebhar, Robert D Healey, Mike Manefield, Christopher P Marquis, Matthew Lee
We report herein the purification of a chloroform (CF)-reducing enzyme, TmrA, from the membrane fraction of a strict anaerobe Dehalobacter sp. strain UNSWDHB to apparent homogeneity with an approximate 23-fold increase in relative purity compared to crude lysate. The membrane fraction obtained by ultracentrifugation was solubilized in Triton X-100 in the presence of glycerol, followed by purification by anion exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified TmrA was determined to be 44.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF...
June 20, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Fernando Guzmán-Chávez, Oleksandr Salo, Yvonne Nygård, Peter P Lankhorst, Roel A L Bovenberg, Arnold J M Driessen
Penicillium chrysogenum is a filamentous fungus that is used to produce β-lactams at an industrial scale. At an early stage of classical strain improvement, the ability to produce the yellow-coloured sorbicillinoids was lost through mutation. Sorbicillinoids are highly bioactive of great pharmaceutical interest. By repair of a critical mutation in one of the two polyketide synthases in an industrial P. chrysogenum strain, sorbicillinoid production was restored at high levels. Using this strain, the sorbicillin biosynthesis pathway was elucidated through gene deletion, overexpression and metabolite profiling...
June 15, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Kristie Tanner, Cristina Vilanova, Manuel Porcar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Stephanie Karmann, Stéphanie Follonier, Daniel Egger, Dirk Hebel, Sven Panke, Manfred Zinn
Recently, syngas has gained significant interest as renewable and sustainable feedstock, in particular for the biotechnological production of poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). PHB is a biodegradable, biocompatible polyester produced by some bacteria growing on the principal component of syngas, CO. However, working with syngas is challenging because of the CO toxicity and the explosion danger of H2 , another main component of syngas. In addition, the bioprocess control needs specific monitoring tools and analytical methods that differ from standard fermentations...
June 6, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Callum J Highmore, Steve D Rothwell, Charles W Keevil
The prominence of fresh produce as a vehicle for foodborne pathogens such as enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 is rising, where disease cases can cause hospitalization and in some cases death. This rise emphasises the necessity for accurate and sensitive methods for detection of pathogens in soil, potential sources of contamination of fresh produce. The complexity of the soil matrix has previously proven prohibitive to pathogen detection via molecular methods without the use of a culture enrichment step, thereby excluding the detection of viable but non-culturable cells...
June 6, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Felice Quartinello, Simona Vajnhandl, Julija Volmajer Valh, Thomas J Farmer, Bojana Vončina, Alexandra Lobnik, Enrique Herrero Acero, Alessandro Pellis, Georg M Guebitz
Due to the rising global environment protection awareness, recycling strategies that comply with the circular economy principles are needed. Polyesters are among the most used materials in the textile industry; therefore, achieving a complete poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) hydrolysis in an environmentally friendly way is a current challenge. In this work, a chemo-enzymatic treatment was developed to recover the PET building blocks, namely terephthalic acid (TA) and ethylene glycol. To monitor the monomer and oligomer content in solid samples, a Fourier-transformed Raman method was successfully developed...
June 2, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Irina S Druzhinina, Christian P Kubicek
Lignocellulosic biomass, which mainly consists of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is the most abundant renewable source for production of biofuel and biorefinery products. The industrial use of plant biomass involves mechanical milling or chipping, followed by chemical or physicochemical pretreatment steps to make the material more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Thereby the cost of enzyme production still presents the major bottleneck, mostly because some of the produced enzymes have low catalytic activity under industrial conditions and/or because the rate of hydrolysis of some enzymes in the secreted enzyme mixture is limiting...
May 29, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Bradley G Lusk, Alexandra Colin, Prathap Parameswaran, Bruce E Rittmann, Cesar I Torres
An enriched mixed culture of thermophilic (60°C) bacteria was assembled for the purpose of using cellulose to produce current in thermophilic microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Cellulose was fermented into sugars and acids before being consumed by anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) for current production. Current densities (j) were sustained at 6.5 ± 0.2 A m(-2) in duplicate reactors with a coulombic efficiency (CE) of 84 ± 0.3%, a coulombic recovery (CR) of 54 ± 11% and without production of CH4 ...
May 29, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Wenyong Shao, Chiyuan Lv, Yu Zhang, Jin Wang, Changjun Chen
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator complex consisting of the six Elp1-Elp6 proteins has been proposed to participate in three distinct cellular processes: transcriptional elongation, polarized exocytosis and formation of modified wobble uridines in tRNA. In this study, we investigated the function of BcElp4 in Botrytis cinerea, which is homologous to S. cerevisiae Elp4. A bcelp4 deletion mutant was significantly impaired in vegetative growth, sclerotia formation and melanin biosynthesis. This mutant exhibited decreased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses as well as cell way-damaging agent...
May 5, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Shuo-Fu Yuan, Gia-Luen Guo, Wen-Song Hwang
Renewable and low-cost lignocellulosic wastes have attractive applications in bioethanol production. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely used ethanol-producing microbe; however, its fermentation temperature (30-35°C) is not optimum (40-50°C) for enzymatic hydrolysis in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. In this study, we successfully performed an SSF process at 42°C from a high solid loading of 20% (w/v) acid-impregnated steam explosion (AISE)-treated rice straw with low inhibitor concentrations (furfural 0...
May 5, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Beatriz Maestro, Jesús M Sanz
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural polyesters of increasing biotechnological importance that are synthesized by many prokaryotic organisms as carbon and energy storage compounds in limiting growth conditions. PHAs accumulate intracellularly in form of inclusion bodies that are covered with a proteinaceous surface layer (granule-associated proteins or GAPs) conforming a network-like surface of structural, metabolic and regulatory polypeptides, and configuring the PHA granules as complex and well-organized subcellular structures that have been designated as 'carbonosomes'...
April 20, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
So Young Choi, Won Jun Kim, Seung Jung Yu, Si Jae Park, Sung Gap Im, Sang Yup Lee
Poly(lactate-co-glycolate), PLGA, is a representative synthetic biopolymer widely used in medical applications. Recently, we reported one-step direct fermentative production of PLGA and its copolymers by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli from xylose and glucose. In this study, we report development of metabolically engineered E. coli strains for the production of PLGA and poly(d-lactate-co-glycolate-co-d-2-hydroxybutyrate) having various monomer compositions from xylose as a sole carbon source. To achieve this, the metabolic flux towards Dahms pathway was modulated using five different synthetic promoters for the expression of Caulobacter crescentus XylBC...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Ren Wei, Wolfgang Zimmermann
Biocatalysis can enable a closed-loop recycling of post-consumer PET waste.
April 12, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Jitka Makovcova, Vladimir Babak, Pavel Kulich, Josef Masek, Michal Slany, Lenka Cincarova
Microorganisms are not commonly found in the planktonic state but predominantly form dual- and multispecies biofilms in almost all natural environments. Bacteria in multispecies biofilms cooperate, compete or have neutral interactions according to the involved species. Here, the development of mono- and dual-species biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, potentially pathogenic Raoultella planticola and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli over the course of 24, 48 and 72 h was studied...
April 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Marta Estevez-Canales, David Pinto, Thibaud Coradin, Christel Laberty-Robert, Abraham Esteve-Núñez
Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) rely on the control of interactions between microorganisms and electronic devices, enabling to transform chemical energy into electricity. We report a new approach to construct ready-to-use artificial bioelectrodes by immobilizing Geobacter sulfurreducens cells in composite materials associating silica gel and carbon felt fibres. Viability test confirmed that the majority of bacteria (ca. 70 ± 5%) survived the encapsulation process in silica and that cell density did not increase in 96 h...
April 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Rohola Hosseini, Jannis Kuepper, Sebastian Koebbing, Lars M Blank, Nick Wierckx, Johannes H de Winde
Organic solvent-tolerant bacteria are outstanding and versatile hosts for the bio-based production of a broad range of generally toxic aromatic compounds. The energetically costly solvent tolerance mechanisms are subject to multiple levels of regulation, involving among other mobile genetic elements. The genome of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 contains many such mobile elements that play a major role in the regulation and adaptation to various stress conditions, including the regulation of expression of the solvent efflux pump SrpABC...
April 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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