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Microbial Biotechnology

Utkarsh Sood, Yogendra Singh, Mallikarjun Shakarad, Rup Lal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Marcin Podleśny, Piotr Jarocki, Jakub Wyrostek, Tomasz Czernecki, Jagoda Kucharska, Anna Nowak, Zdzisław Targoński
Succinic acid is an important C4-building chemical platform for many applications. A novel succinic acid-producing bacterial strain was isolated from goat rumen. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Enterobacter. This is the first report of a wild bacterial strain from the genus Enterobacter that is capable of efficient succinic acid production. Co-fermentation of glycerol and lactose significantly improved glycerol utilization under anaerobic conditions, debottlenecking the utilization pathway of this valuable biodiesel waste product...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Kenneth N Timmis, James K Timmis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Ludmilla Aristilde
Clostridial fermentation of cellulose and hemicellulose relies on the cellular physiology controlling the metabolism of the cellulosic hexose sugar (glucose) with respect to the hemicellulosic pentose sugars (xylose and arabinose) and the hemicellulosic hexose sugars (galactose and mannose). Here, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and stable isotope tracers in Clostridium acetobutylicum were applied to investigate the metabolic hierarchy of glucose relative to the different hemicellulosic sugars towards two important biofuel precursors, acetyl-coenzyme A and butyryl-coenzyme A...
November 22, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Yizhi Zhu, Qingyan Niu, Chao Shi, Jing Wang, Weiyun Zhu
Compensatory growth is a physiological phenomenon found in both humans and animals. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, for the first time, we investigated the role of microbiota in compensatory growth induced by protein restriction using a rat model. Weaned Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low protein diet (L group), a normal protein diet (N group) and a low protein diet for 2 weeks followed by a normal protein diet (LN group). The results showed that in contrast with the inhibited growth of rats in the L group, compensatory growth was observed in the LN group...
November 22, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Nico J Claassens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Lorena Fernández-Cabezón, Beatriz Galán, José L García
A new biotechnological process for the production of testosterone (TS) has been developed to turn the model strain Mycobacterium smegmatis suitable for TS production to compete with the current chemical synthesis procedures. We have cloned and overexpressed two genes encoding microbial 17β-hydroxysteroid: NADP 17-oxidoreductase, from the bacterium Comamonas testosteroni and from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus. The host strains were M. smegmatis wild type and a genetic engineered androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) producing mutant...
November 17, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Yilin Ren, Dechuan Meng, Linping Wu, Jinchun Chen, Qiong Wu, Guo-Qiang Chen
Polylactide (PLA) is a bio-based plastic commonly synthesized by chemical catalytic reaction using lactic acid (LA) as a substrate. Here, novel LA-containing terpolyesters, namely, P[LA-co-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB)-co-3-hydroxypropionate (3HP)], short as PLBP, were successfully synthesized for the first time by a recombinant Escherichia coli harbouring polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PhaC1Ps ) with 4-point mutations at E130D, S325T, S477G and Q481K, and 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA (3HP-CoA) synthesis pathway from glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (3HB-CoA) as well as lactyl-CoA (LA-CoA) pathways from glucose...
November 17, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Claudia Vickers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Frank Persson, Carolina Suarez, Malte Hermansson, Elzbieta Plaza, Razia Sultana, Britt-Marie Wilén
Partial nitritation-anammox (PNA) permits energy effective nitrogen removal. Today PNA is used for treatment of concentrated and warm side streams at wastewater treatment plants, but not the more diluted and colder main stream. To implement PNA in the main stream, better knowledge about microbial communities at the typical environmental conditions is necessary. In order to investigate the response of PNA microbial communities to decreasing substrate availability, we have operated a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) at decreasing reactor concentrations (311-27 mg-N l(-1) of ammonium) and low temperature (13°C) for 302 days and investigated the biofilm community using high throughput amplicon sequencing; quantitative PCR; and fluorescence in situ hybridization...
November 14, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Jesús M Sanz, Beatriz Maestro
Walk on the small side. Nanotechnology meets Microbiology thanks to the high versatility of synthetic routes in microorganisms, leading to the production of nanoparticles of biotechnological and biomedical interest.
November 14, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Miguel Alcalde
The directed evolution of ancestral -resurrected- enzymes can give a new twist in protein engineering approaches towards more versatile and robust biocatalysts.
November 11, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Lars M Blank
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Beatriz Galán, Iria Uhía, Esther García-Fernández, Igor Martínez, Esther Bahíllo, Juan L de la Fuente, José L Barredo, Lorena Fernández-Cabezón, José L García
A number of pharmaceutical steroid synthons are currently produced through the microbial side-chain cleavage of natural sterols as an alternative to multi-step chemical synthesis. Industrially, these synthons have been usually produced through fermentative processes using environmental isolated microorganisms or their conventional mutants. Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 is a model organism for tuberculosis studies which uses cholesterol as the sole carbon and energy source for growth, as other mycobacterial strains...
November 2, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Cristóbal Martínez-Bussenius, Claudio A Navarro, Carlos A Jerez
Industrial biomining has been extensively used for many years to recover valuable metals such as copper, gold, uranium and others. Furthermore, microorganisms involved in these processes can also be used to bioremediate places contaminated with acid and metals. These uses are possible due to the great metal resistance that these extreme acidophilic microorganisms possess. In this review, the most recent findings related to copper resistance mechanisms of bacteria and archaea related to biohydrometallurgy are described...
October 28, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Antonino Baez-Rogelio, Yolanda Elizabeth Morales-García, Verónica Quintero-Hernández, Jesús Muñoz-Rojas
In this Crystal Ball we describe the negative effects of the scheme of intensive agriculture of the green revolution technology. To recover the contaminated soils derived from intensive farming is necessary introduce new successful technologies to replace the use of chemical fertilizer and toxic pesticides by organic fertilizers and biological control agents. Our principal speculation is that in a short time authors in the field of PGPB and bioremediation will be expanding the knowledge on the development of different formulations containing super-bacteria or a mixture of super-bacteria able to provide beneficial effect for agriculture and bioremediation...
October 28, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Peter Dürre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Yannick D N Tremblay, Josée Labrie, Sonia Chénier, Mario Jacques
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes porcine pleuropneumonia and forms biofilms in vitro on abiotic surfaces; however, presence of biofilms during infections has not been documented. The aim of this study was to use a species-specific fluorescent oligonucleotide probe and confocal microscopy to localize A. pleuropneumoniae in the lungs of two naturally infected pigs. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and observed to grow as aggregates (~30-45 μm) during a natural infection...
October 28, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Linnea Qvirist, Egor Vorontsov, Jenny Veide Vilg, Thomas Andlid
In this work, we present the development and characterization of a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii (TY1322), with highly improved phytate-degrading capacity. The mutant strain TY1322 shows a biomass-specific phytate degradation of 1.26 mmol g(-1)  h(-1) after 8 h of cultivation in a high-phosphate medium, which is about 8 times higher compared with the wild-type strain. Strain TY1322 was able to grow at low pH (pH 2), at high temperature (46°C) and in the presence of ox bile (2% w/v), indicating this strain's ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract...
October 28, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Cédric Grangeteau, Chloé Roullier-Gall, Sandrine Rousseaux, Régis D Gougeon, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Hervé Alexandre, Michèle Guilloux-Benatier
The effects of different anthropic activities (vineyard: phytosanitary protection; winery: pressing and sulfiting) on the fungal populations of grape berries were studied. The global diversity of fungal populations (moulds and yeasts) was performed by pyrosequencing. The anthropic activities studied modified fungal diversity. Thus, a decrease in biodiversity was measured for three successive vintages for the grapes of the plot cultivated with Organic protection compared to plots treated with Conventional and Ecophyto protections...
October 25, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
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