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Microbial Biotechnology

Cristina García-Aljaro, Elisenda Ballesté, Maite Muniesa, Juan Jofre
In recent decades, considerable effort has been devoted to finding microbial source-tracking (MST) markers that are suitable to assess the health risks of faecally polluted waters, with no universal marker reported so far. In this study, the abundance and prevalence of a crAssphage-derived DNA marker in wastewaters of human and animal origins were studied by a new qPCR assay with the ultimate aim of assessing its potential as an MST marker. crAssphage showed up to 10(6) GC/ml in the sewage samples of human origin, in both the total DNA and the viral DNA fraction...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Nicolas Chabert, Violaine Bonnefoy, Wafa Achouak
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a strict acidophilic chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that obtains its energy from reduced inorganic sulfur species or ferrous iron oxidation under aerobic conditions. Carbon felt electrodes were pre-colonized by A. ferrooxidansATCC 23270(T) using ferrous iron or sulfur as electron donors, via the addition (or not) of a mixture of C14 acyl-homoserine lactones (C14-AHLs). Electrode coverage during pre-colonization was sparse regardless of the electron donor source, whereas activation of quorum sensing significantly enhanced it...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Michiel H In 't Zandt, Sabrina Beckmann, Ruud Rijkers, Mike S M Jetten, Mike Manefield, Cornelia U Welte
Coal mining is responsible for 11% of total anthropogenic methane emission thereby contributing considerably to climate change. Attempts to harvest coalbed methane for energy production are challenged by relatively low methane concentrations. In this study, we investigated whether nutrient and acetate amendment of a non-producing sub-bituminous coal well could transform the system to a methane source. We tracked cell counts, methane production, acetate concentration and geochemical parameters for 25 months in one amended and one unamended coal well in Australia...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Cristal Zuñiga, Livia Zaramela, Karsten Zengler
Microorganisms engage in complex interactions with other members of the microbial community, higher organisms as well as their environment. However, determining the exact nature of these interactions can be challenging due to the large number of members in these communities and the manifold of interactions they can engage in. Various omic data, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing, shotgun metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics, have been deployed to unravel the community structure, interactions and resulting community dynamics in situ...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Pooja Basnett, Barbara Lukasiewicz, Elena Marcello, Harpreet K Gura, Jonathan C Knowles, Ipsita Roy
This study demonstrated the utilization of unprocessed biodiesel waste as a carbon feedstock for Pseudomonas mendocinaCH50, for the production of PHAs. A PHA yield of 39.5% CDM was obtained using 5% (v/v) biodiesel waste substrate. Chemical analysis confirmed that the polymer produced was poly(3-hydroxyhexanoate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxydecanoate-co-3-hydroxydodecanoate) or P(3HHx-3HO-3HD-3HDD). P(3HHx-3HO-3HD-3HDD) was further characterized and evaluated for its use as a tissue engineering scaffold (TES)...
September 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
S Jane Fowler, Barth F Smets
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Caroline M Plugge
Biogas production represents a fascinating process for the recovery of nutrients and renewable energy from various organic waste streams. The process is of interest for the production of value-added chemicals by mixed cultures and can also be applied in combined bioenergy production systems. Strategies and opportunities for optimization of biogas quality and quantity are presented.
September 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Kenneth Timmis, Victor de Lorenzo, Willy Verstraete, Juan Luis Ramos, Antoine Danchin, Harald Brüssow, Brajesh K Singh, James Kenneth Timmis
Our communication discusses the profound impact of bio-based economies - in particular microbial biotechnologies - on SDG 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. A bio-based economy provides significant potential for improving labour supply, education and investment, and thereby for substantially increasing the demographic dividend. This, in turn, improves the sustainable development of economies.
September 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
José Manuel Borrero-de Acuña, Kenneth N Timmis, Martina Jahn, Dieter Jahn
The most efficient means of generating cellular energy is through aerobic respiration. Under anaerobic conditions, several prokaryotes can replace oxygen by nitrate as final electron acceptor. During denitrification, nitrate is reduced via nitrite, NO and N2 O to molecular nitrogen (N2 ) by four membrane-localized reductases with the simultaneous formation of an ion gradient for ATP synthesis. These four multisubunit enzyme complexes are coupled in four electron transport chains to electron donating primary dehydrogenases and intermediate electron transfer proteins...
August 31, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Chulwoo Park, Bora Shin, Jaejoon Jung, Yunho Lee, Woojun Park
Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 can utilize C12 -C30 alkanes as a sole carbon source but not short-chain alkanes (C6 , C10 ). Two copies of each alkB-, almA- and ladA-type alkane hydroxylase (AH) are present in the genome of DR1 cells. Expression and mutational analyses of AHs showed that alkB1 and alkB2 are the major AH-encoding genes under C12 -C30 , and the roles of other almA- and ladA genes are negligible. Our data suggested that AlkB1 is responsible for long-chain alkane utilization (C24 -C26 ), and AlkB2 is important for medium-chain alkane (C12 -C16 ) metabolism...
August 31, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Tanja Narancic, Kevin E O'Connor
Biodegradable polymers such as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) are part of the emerging portfolio of renewable materials, which are addressing the issue of plastic waste. Syngas, as a cheap, renewable and sustainable resource that can be obtained from biomass or waste, is viewed as an excellent feedstock for different bioprocesses, including syngas to PHB bioconversion. However, due to the hazardous nature of syngas, it is of utmost importance to consider safety aspects of the process. This recently developed tailor-made platform for safe syngas fermentation and PHB production addresses safety aspects and demonstrates the importance of robust online and in-line analytical tools allowing for monitoring and controlling of this bioprocess...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Filip Van Immerseel, Venessa Eeckhaut, Robert J Moore, Mingan Choct, Richard Ducatelle
More sustainable broiler meat production can be facilitated by the increased use of cheap by-products and local crops as feed ingredients, while not affecting animal performance and intestinal health, or even improving intestinal health, so that antibiotic usage is further reduced. To achieve this, knowledge of the relationship between the taxonomic and functional microbiota composition and intestinal health is required. In addition, the relationship between the novel feed sources, the substrates present in these feed sources, and the breakdown by enzymes and microbial networks can be crucial, because this can form the basis for development of tailored feed-type specific solutions for optimal digestion and animal performance...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Kenneth Timmis, Willem M de Vos, Juan Luis Ramos, Siegfried E Vlaeminck, Auxiliadora Prieto, Antoine Danchin, Willy Verstraete, Victor de Lorenzo, Sang Yup Lee, Harald Brüssow, James Kenneth Timmis, Brajesh K Singh
The signature and almost unique characteristic of microbial technology is the exceptional diversity of applications it can address, and the exceptional range of human activities and needs to which it is and can be applied. Precisely because sustainability goals have very diverse and complex components and requirements, microbial technology has the ability to contribute substantively on many levels in many arenas to global efforts to achieve sustainability. Indeed, microbial technology could be viewed as a unifying element in our progress towards sustainability...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Sophie-Marie Martirani-Von Abercron, Patricia Marín, Marta Solsona-Ferraz, Mayra-Alejandra Castañeda-Cataña, Silvia Marqués
Toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are frequently released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. PAH remediation strategies focus on biological processes mediated by bacteria. The availability of oxygen in polluted environments is often limited or absent, and only bacteria able to thrive in these conditions can be considered for bioremediation strategies. To identify bacterial strains able to degrade PAHs under oxygen-limiting conditions, we set up enrichment cultures from samples of an oil-polluted aquifer, using either anoxic or microaerophilic condition and with PAHs as the sole carbon source...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
James Kenneth Timmis, Kenneth Timmis
Healthcare systems worldwide are confronted with major economic, organizational and logistical challenges. Historic evolution of health care has led to significant healthcare sector fragmentation, resulting in systemic inefficiencies and suboptimal resource exploitation. To attain a sustainable healthcare model, fundamental, system-wide improvements that effectively network, and ensure fulfilment of potential synergies between sectors, and include and facilitate coherent strategic planning and organisation of healthcare infrastructure are needed...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Hongyu Zhao, Zhenyu Yao, Xiangbin Chen, Xinquan Wang, Guo-Qiang Chen
Phasins are unusual amphiphilic proteins that bind to microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules in nature and show great potential for various applications in biotechnology and medicine. Despite their remarkable diversity, only the crystal structure of PhaPAh from Aeromonas hydrophila has been solved to date. Based on the structure of PhaPAh , homology models of PhaPAz from Azotobacter sp. FA-8 and PhaPTD from Halomonas bluephagenesis TD were successfully established, allowing rational mutagenesis to be conducted to enhance the stability and surfactant properties of these proteins...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Miguel A Matilla
Biofilm formation is a multifactorial and dynamic process. Stages of biofilm formation are highly regulated and include bacterial attachment to a target surface, formation of microcolonies, biofilm maturation and dispersion. This article highlights recent research by Gusnaniar et al., () in which the authors develop a device to investigate bacterial biofilm transmission between surfaces under shearing pressures. The instrument can potentially be used to investigate the role of different genetic determinants and environmental cues on biofilm stability and transmission...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Pankaj Trivedi, Peer M Schenk, Matthew D Wallenstein, Brajesh K Singh
Plant-associated microbiomes have tremendous potential to improve plant resilience and yields in farming systems. There is increasing evidence that biological technologies that use microbes or their metabolites can enhance nutrient uptake and yield, control pests and mitigate plant stress responses. However, to fully realize the potential of microbial technology, their efficacy and consistency under the broad range of real-world conditions need to be improved. While the optimization of microbial biofertilizers and biopesticides is advancing rapidly to enable use in various soils, crop varieties and environments, crop breeding programmes have yet to incorporate the selection of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to breed 'microbe-optimized plants'...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Alan J Stephen, Sophie A Archer, Rafael L Orozco, Lynne E Macaskie
Biological production of hydrogen is poised to become a significant player in the future energy mix. This review highlights recent advances and bottlenecks in various approaches to biohydrogen processes, often in concert with management of organic wastes or waste CO2 . Some key bottlenecks are highlighted in terms of the overall energy balance of the process and highlighting the need for economic and environmental life cycle analyses with regard also to socio-economic and geographical issues.
August 22, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Lynne E Macaskie, Iryna P Mikheenko, Jacob B Omajai, Alan J Stephen, Joseph Wood
Microbially generated or supported nanocatalysts have potential applications in green chemistry and environmental application. However, precious (and base) metals biorefined from wastes may be useful for making cheap, low-grade catalysts for clean energy production. The concept of bionanomaterials for energy applications is reviewed with respect to potential fuel cell applications, bio-catalytic upgrading of oils and manufacturing 'drop-in fuel' precursors. Cheap, effective biomaterials would facilitate progress towards dual development goals of sustainable consumption and production patterns and help to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy...
August 22, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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