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Microbial Biotechnology

Helen Y Buse, Pan Ji, Vicente Gomez-Alvarez, Amy Pruden, Marc A Edwards, Nicholas J Ashbolt
It is unclear how the water-based pathogen, Legionella pneumophila (Lp), and associated free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts change or are changed by the microbial composition of drinking water (DW) biofilm communities. Thus, this study characterized the bacterial community structure over a 7-month period within mature (> 600-day-old) copper DW biofilms in reactors simulating premise plumbing and assessed the impact of temperature and introduction of Lp and its FLA host, Vermamoeba vermiformis (Vv), co-cultures (LpVv)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz, Daniela Lucio-Hernández, Isabel Martínez-Ángeles, Nicola Demitri, Maurizio Polentarutti, María J Rosales-Hoz, Abel Moreno
Nature produces biominerals (biogenic minerals) that are synthesized as complex structures, in terms of their physicochemical properties. These biominerals are composed of minerals and biological macromolecules. They are produced by living organisms and are usually formed through a combination of chemical, biochemical and biophysical processes. Microorganisms like Candida in the presence of heavy metals can biomineralize those metals to form microcrystals (MCs) and nanocrystals (NCs). In this work, MCs and NCs of PbS, HgS or HgCl2 as well as CdS are synthesized both in vitro (gels) and in vivo by four Candida species...
January 16, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Hugh D Goold, Heinrich Kroukamp, Thomas C Williams, Ian T Paulsen, Cristian Varela, Isak S Pretorius
Alcohol is fundamental to the character of wine, yet too much can put a wine off-balance. A wine is regarded to be well balanced if its alcoholic strength, acidity, sweetness, fruitiness and tannin structure complement each other so that no single component dominates on the palate. Balancing a wine's positive fruit flavours with the optimal absolute and relative concentration of alcohol can be surprisingly difficult. Over the past three decades, consumers have increasingly demanded wine with richer and riper fruit flavour profiles...
January 13, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Brajesh K Singh, Pankaj Trivedi
Microbiome and the future for food and nutrient security.
January 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Jan B A Arends
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Antoine, Auxi, Juan Luis, Larry, Ken, Siegfried, Willem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Daniel van der Lelie, Safiyh Taghavi, Christopher Henry, Jack A Gilbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Jose Ignacio Jiménez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Danilo Ercolini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
José Berenguer, Mario Mencía, Aurelio Hidalgo
Droplet microfluidics will become a disruptive technology in the field of library screening and replace biological selections if the central dogma of biology and other processes are successfully implemented within microdroplets.
January 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Antoine Danchin
Genomic studies focus on key metabolites and pathways that, despite their obvious anthropocentric design, keep being 'predicted', while this is only finding again what is already known. As increasingly more genomes are sequenced, this lightpost effect may account at least in part for our failure to understand the function of a continuously growing number of genes. Core metabolism often goes astray, accidentally producing a variety of unexpected compounds. Catabolism of these forgotten metabolites makes an essential part of the functions coded in metagenomes...
December 29, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Patricia Lozano-Martínez, Rubén M Buey, Rodrigo Ledesma-Amaro, Alberto Jiménez, José Luis Revuelta
Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus that naturally overproduces riboflavin, and it is currently exploited for the industrial production of this vitamin. The utilization of A. gossypii for biotechnological applications presents important advantages such as the utilization of low-cost culture media, inexpensive downstream processing and a wide range of molecular tools for genetic manipulation, thus making A. gossypii a valuable biotechnological chassis for metabolic engineering. A. gossypii has been shown to accumulate high levels of lipids in oil-based culture media; however, the lipid biosynthesis capacity is rather limited when grown in sugar-based culture media...
December 23, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
James D McMillan, Gregg T Beckham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Ali H A Elbehery, David J Leak, Rania Siam
The advent of metagenomics has greatly facilitated the discovery of enzymes with useful biochemical characteristics for industrial and biomedical applications, from environmental niches. In this study, we used sequence-based metagenomics to identify two antibiotic resistance enzymes from the secluded, lower convective layer of Atlantis II Deep Red Sea brine pool (68°C, ~2200 m depth and 250‰ salinity). We assembled > 4 000 000 metagenomic reads, producing 43 555 contigs. Open reading frames (ORFs) called from these contigs were aligned to polypeptides from the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database using BLASTX...
December 22, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Yogita Patil, Madan Junghare, Nicolai Müller
Growth of biodiesel industries resulted in increased coproduction of crude glycerol which is therefore becoming a waste product instead of a valuable 'coproduct'. Glycerol can be used for the production of valuable chemicals, e.g. biofuels, to reduce glycerol waste disposal. In this study, a novel bacterial strain is described which converts glycerol mainly to ethanol and hydrogen with very little amounts of acetate, formate and 1,2-propanediol as coproducts. The bacterium offers certain advantages over previously studied glycerol-fermenting microorganisms...
December 22, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Michael J Dillon, Andrew E Bowkett, Michael J Bungard, Katie M Beckman, Michelle F O'Brien, Kieran Bates, Matthew C Fisher, Jamie R Stevens, Christopher R Thornton
The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) causes chytridiomycosis, a lethal epizootic disease of amphibians. Rapid identification of the pathogen and biosecurity is essential to prevent its spread, but current laboratory-based tests are time-consuming and require specialist equipment. Here, we describe the generation of an IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb), 5C4, specific to Bd as well as the related salamander and newt pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). The mAb, which binds to a glycoprotein antigen present on the surface of zoospores, sporangia and zoosporangia, was used to develop a lateral-flow assay (LFA) for rapid (15 min) detection of the pathogens...
December 19, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Catherine W Bogner, Ramsay S T Kamdem, Gisela Sichtermann, Christian Matthäus, Dirk Hölscher, Jürgen Popp, Peter Proksch, Florian M W Grundler, Alexander Schouten
In order to replace particularly biohazardous nematocides, there is a strong drive to finding natural product-based alternatives with the aim of containing nematode pests in agriculture. The metabolites produced by the fungal endophyte Fusarium oxysporum 162 when cultivated on rice media were isolated and their structures elucidated. Eleven compounds were obtained, of which six were isolated from a Fusarium spp. for the first time. The three most potent nematode-antagonistic compounds, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibepyrone D had LC50 values of 104, 117 and 134 μg ml(-1) , respectively, after 72 h...
December 19, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Tijs J M van den Bosch, Cornelia U Welte
Pest insects lead to excessive agricultural and therefore economical losses on crops worldwide. These insects have to withstand toxic molecules that are inherent to plant defences, as well as those that are produced and introduced by humans in the form of insecticides. In recent years, research on insect-microbe symbioses has recognized that microbial symbionts may play a role protecting against these toxins, leading to a form of defensive symbiosis between the pest insect and different types of microorganisms that we term detoxifying symbioses...
December 12, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Young Hoon Jung, Sooah Kim, Jungwoo Yang, Jin-Ho Seo, Kyoung Heon Kim
Furfural, one of the most common inhibitors in pre-treatment hydrolysates, reduces the cell growth and ethanol production of yeast. Evolutionary engineering has been used as a selection scheme to obtain yeast strains that exhibit furfural tolerance. However, the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to furfural at the metabolite level during evolution remains unknown. In this study, evolutionary engineering and metabolomic analyses were applied to determine the effects of furfural on yeasts and their metabolic response to continuous exposure to furfural...
December 8, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
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