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Microbial Biotechnology

Xiaoyun Wang, Wanqiang Wang, Qiao Gao, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Fen Zhu
Chrysomya megacephala is a saprophagous fly whose larvae can compost manure and yield biomass and bio-fertilizer simultaneously. However, there are concerns for the safety of the composting system, that is risk of diseases spread by way of manure pathogens, residue of harmful metals and emission of greenhouse gases. Microbiota analysis and heavy metal speciation by European Communities Bureau of Reference were evaluated in raw, C. megacephala-composted and natural stacked swine manure to survey pathogenic bacterial changes and mobility of lead and cadmium in manure after C...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Xiaomei Su, Shuo Zhang, Rongwu Mei, Yu Zhang, Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi, Jingjing Liu, Hongjun Lin, Linxian Ding, Faqian Sun
Nowadays, much of what we know regarding the isolated cellulolytic bacteria comes from the conventional plate separation techniques. However, the culturability of many bacterial species is controlled by resuscitation-promoting factors (Rpfs) due to entering a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. Therefore, in this study, Rpf from Micrococcus luteus was added in the culture medium to evaluate its role in bacterial isolation and enhanced effects on cellulose-degrading capability of bacterial community in the compost...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Esther Frohnmeyer, Paulina Deptula, Tuula A Nyman, Pia K S Laine, Helena Vihinen, Lars Paulin, Petri Auvinen, Eija Jokitalo, Vieno Piironen, Pekka Varmanen, Kirsi Savijoki
This study compared the secretomes (proteins exported out of the cell) of Propionibacterium freudenreichii of different origin to identify plausible adaptation factors. Phylosecretomics indicated strain-specific variation in secretion of adhesins/invasins (SlpA, InlA), cell-wall hydrolysing (NlpC60 peptidase, transglycosylase), protective (RpfB) and moonlighting (DnaK, GroEL, GaPDH, IDH, ENO, ClpB) enzymes and/or proteins. Detailed secretome comparison suggested that one of the cereal strains (JS14) released a tip fimbrillin (FimB) in to the extracellular milieu, which was in line with the electron microscopy and genomic analyses, indicating the lack of surface-associated fimbrial-like structures, predicting a mutated type-2 fimbrial gene cluster (fimB-fimA-srtC2) and production of anchorless FimB...
February 28, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Shiri Topman, Dafna Tamir-Ariel, Heli Bochnic-Tamir, Tal Stern Bauer, Sharoni Shafir, Saul Burdman, Zvi Hayouka
Many types of crops are severely affected by at least one important bacterial disease. Chemical control of bacterial plant diseases in the field vastly relies on copper-based bactericides, yet with limited efficacy. In this study, we explored the potential of two random peptide mixture (RPM) models as novel crop protection agents. These unique peptide mixtures consist of random combination of l-phenylalanine and l- or d-lysine (FK-20 and FdK-20, respectively) along the 20 mer chain length of the peptides. Both RPMs displayed powerful bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities towards strains belonging to several plant pathogenic bacterial genera, for example, Xanthomonas, Clavibacter and Pseudomonas...
February 28, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Kenneth Timmis, Franziska Jebok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Elisabet Navarro-Tapia, Amparo Querol, Roberto Pérez-Torrado
The toxic effect of ethanol is one of the most important handicaps for many biotechnological applications of yeasts, such as bioethanol production. Elucidation of ethanol stress response will help to improve yeast performance in biotechnological processes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol stress has been recently described as an activator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved intracellular signalling pathway that regulates the transcription of ER homoeostasis-related genes. However, the signal and activation mechanism has not yet been unravelled...
February 22, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Kees C H van der Ark, Steven Aalvink, Maria Suarez-Diez, Peter J Schaap, Willem M de Vos, Clara Belzer
The abundance of the human intestinal symbiont Akkermansia muciniphila has found to be inversely correlated with several diseases, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. A. muciniphila is known to use mucin as sole carbon and nitrogen source. To study the physiology and the potential for therapeutic applications of this bacterium, we designed a defined minimal medium. The composition of the medium was based on the genome-scale metabolic model of A. muciniphila and the composition of mucin. Our results indicate that A...
January 26, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Claire Duvallet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Michaela Projahn, Katrin Daehre, Torsten Semmler, Sebastian Guenther, Uwe Roesler, Anika Friese
High prevalence numbers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-)/plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase- (pAmpC-) producing Escherichia coli in broiler chicken and their distribution along the broiler production chain is an ongoing problem in food production. We, therefore, investigated resistant isolates along the broiler production chain to determine whether there is a constantly occurring direct vertical transmission of the ESBL-/pAmpC-producing E. coli from the parent flocks to their offspring or not...
January 17, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Sneha Bairy, Lakshmi Narayanan Gopalan, Thanuja Gangi Setty, Sathya Srinivasachari, Lavanyaa Manjunath, Jay Prakash Kumar, Sai R Guntupalli, Sucharita Bose, Vinod Nayak, Swagatha Ghosh, Nitish Sathyanarayanan, Rhawnie Caing-Carlsson, Weixiao Yuan Wahlgren, Rosmarie Friemann, S Ramaswamy, Muniasamy Neerathilingam
The process of obtaining a well-expressing, soluble and correctly folded constructs can be made easier and quicker by automating the optimization of cloning, expression and purification. While there are many semiautomated pipelines available for cloning, expression and purification, there is hardly any pipeline that involves complete automation. Here, we achieve complete automation of all the steps involved in cloning and in vivo expression screening. This is demonstrated using 18 genes involved in sialic acid catabolism and the surface sialylation pathway...
January 17, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Guan Wang, Junfei Zhao, Cees Haringa, Wenjun Tang, Jianye Xia, Ju Chu, Yingping Zhuang, Siliang Zhang, Amit T Deshmukh, Walter van Gulik, Joseph J Heijnen, Henk J Noorman
In a 54 m3 large-scale penicillin fermentor, the cells experience substrate gradient cycles at the timescales of global mixing time about 20-40 s. Here, we used an intermittent feeding regime (IFR) and a two-compartment reactor (TCR) to mimic these substrate gradients at laboratory-scale continuous cultures. The IFR was applied to simulate substrate dynamics experienced by the cells at full scale at timescales of tens of seconds to minutes (30 s, 3 min and 6 min), while the TCR was designed to simulate substrate gradients at an applied mean residence time (τc) of 6 min...
January 15, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Juan Xu, Bärbel Kiesel, René Kallies, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yi Liu, Thomas Maskow
Bacteriophages, that is viruses that infect bacteria, either lyse bacteria directly or integrate their genome into the bacterial genome as so-called prophages, where they remain at a silent state. Both phages and bacteria are able to survive in this state. However, prophages can be reactivated with the introduction of chemicals, followed by the release of a high number of phage particles, which could infect other bacteria, thus harming ecosystems by a viral bloom. The basics for a fast, automatable analytical method for the detection of prophage-activating chemicals are developed and successfully tested here...
January 12, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Mariane Paludetti Zubieta, Fabiano Jares Contesini, Marcelo Ventura Rubio, Any Elisa de Souza Schmidt Gonçalves, Jaqueline Aline Gerhardt, Rolf Alexander Prade, André Ricardo de Lima Damasio
Filamentous fungi are robust cell factories and have been used for the production of large quantities of industrially relevant enzymes. However, the production levels of heterologous proteins still need to be improved. Therefore, this article aimed to investigate the global proteome profiling of Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains in order to understand the bottlenecks of heterologous enzymes production. About 250, 441 and 424 intracellular proteins were identified in the control strain Anid_pEXPYR and in the recombinant strains Anid_AbfA and Anid_Cbhl respectively...
January 8, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Angela J Murray, Ju Zhu, Joe Wood, Lynne E Macaskie
Bacteria can fabricate platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts cheaply, a key consideration of industrial processes and waste decontaminations. Biorecovery of PGMs from wastes is promising but PGM leachates made from metallic scraps are acidic. A two-step biosynthesis 'pre-seeds' metallic deposits onto bacterial cells benignly; chemical reduction of subsequent metal from acidic solution via the seeds makes bioscaffolded nanoparticles (NPs). Cells of Escherichia coli were seeded using Pd(II) or Pt(IV) and exposed to a mixed Pd(II)/Pt(IV) model solution under H2 to make bimetallic catalyst...
December 28, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Gong Chen, Meihua Wang, Xiaofei Tian, Zhenqiang Wu
Monascus pigments produced by Monascus spp. are widely used as natural food colourants. Extractive fermentation technology can facilitate the secretion of intracellular Monascus pigments into extracellular non-ionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution, so as to avoid the feedback inhibition and decomposition. In this study, behaviour of the trans-membrane secretion of Monascus pigments was investigated using morphological and spectroscopic analyses. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) traced that pigment secretion occurred through rapid trans-membrane permeation in 4 min, with a simultaneous conversion in pigment characteristics...
March 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Matthias Wehrmann, Janosch Klebensberger
Due to their ability for direct electron transfer to electrodes, the utilization of rare earth metals as cofactor, and their periplasmic localization, pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (PQQ-ADHs) represent an interesting class of biocatalysts for various biotechnological applications. For most biocatalysts protein stability is crucial, either to increase the performance of the protein under a given process condition or to maximize robustness of the protein towards mutational manipulations, which are often needed to enhance or introduce a functionality of interest...
March 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Oscar van Mastrigt, Emma E Mager, Casper Jamin, Tjakko Abee, Eddy J Smid
In Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis, citrate transport is facilitated by the plasmid-encoded citrate permease (CitP). In this work, we analysed regulation of citrate utilization by pH, nutrient limitation and the presence of citrate at four different levels: (i) plasmid copy number, (ii) citP transcription, (iii) citP mRNA processing and (iv) citrate utilization capacity. Citrate was supplied as cosubstrate together with lactose. The citP gene is known to be induced in cells grown at low pH...
March 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Teresa Berninger, Óscar González López, Ana Bejarano, Claudia Preininger, Angela Sessitsch
The application of beneficial, plant-associated microorganisms is a sustainable approach to improving crop performance in agriculture. However, microbial inoculants are often susceptible to prolonged periods of storage and deleterious environmental factors, which negatively impact their viability and ultimately limit efficacy in the field. This particularly concerns non-sporulating bacteria. To overcome this challenge, the availability of protective formulations is crucial. Numerous parameters influence the viability of microbial cells, with drying procedures generally being among the most critical ones...
March 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
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