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Microbial Biotechnology

Fernando A Pagliai, Janelle F Coyle, Sharan Kapoor, Claudio F Gonzalez, Graciela L Lorca
Huanglongbing or citrus greening disease is causing devastation to the citrus industry. Liberibacter asiaticus, an obligate intracellular pathogen of citrus, is one the causative agents of the disease. Most of the knowledge about this bacterium has been deduced from the in silico exploration of its genomic sequence. L. asiaticus differentially expresses genes during its transmission from the psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri, to the plant. However, the regulatory mechanisms for the adaptation of the bacterium into either hosts remain unknown...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Wenyong Shao, Chiyuan Lv, Yu Zhang, Jin Wang, Changjun Chen
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator complex consisting of the six Elp1-Elp6 proteins has been proposed to participate in three distinct cellular processes: transcriptional elongation, polarized exocytosis and formation of modified wobble uridines in tRNA. In this study, we investigated the function of BcElp4 in Botrytis cinerea, which is homologous to S. cerevisiae Elp4. A bcelp4 deletion mutant was significantly impaired in vegetative growth, sclerotia formation and melanin biosynthesis. This mutant exhibited decreased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses as well as cell way-damaging agent...
May 5, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Shuo-Fu Yuan, Gia-Luen Guo, Wen-Song Hwang
Renewable and low-cost lignocellulosic wastes have attractive applications in bioethanol production. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely used ethanol-producing microbe; however, its fermentation temperature (30-35°C) is not optimum (40-50°C) for enzymatic hydrolysis in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. In this study, we successfully performed an SSF process at 42°C from a high solid loading of 20% (w/v) acid-impregnated steam explosion (AISE)-treated rice straw with low inhibitor concentrations (furfural 0...
May 5, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Joana Danica Simen, Michael Löffler, Günter Jäger, Karin Schäferhoff, Andreas Freund, Jakob Matthes, Jan Müller, Ralf Takors
In large-scale production processes, metabolic control is typically achieved by limited supply of essential nutrients such as glucose or ammonia. With increasing bioreactor dimensions, microbial producers such as Escherichia coli are exposed to changing substrate availabilities due to limited mixing. In turn, cells sense and respond to these dynamic conditions leading to frequent activation of their regulatory programmes. Previously, we characterized short- and long-term strategies of cells to adapt to glucose fluctuations...
April 26, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Beatriz Maestro, Jesús M Sanz
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural polyesters of increasing biotechnological importance that are synthesized by many prokaryotic organisms as carbon and energy storage compounds in limiting growth conditions. PHAs accumulate intracellularly in form of inclusion bodies that are covered with a proteinaceous surface layer (granule-associated proteins or GAPs) conforming a network-like surface of structural, metabolic and regulatory polypeptides, and configuring the PHA granules as complex and well-organized subcellular structures that have been designated as 'carbonosomes'...
April 20, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
So Young Choi, Won Jun Kim, Seung Jung Yu, Si Jae Park, Sung Gap Im, Sang Yup Lee
Poly(lactate-co-glycolate), PLGA, is a representative synthetic biopolymer widely used in medical applications. Recently, we reported one-step direct fermentative production of PLGA and its copolymers by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli from xylose and glucose. In this study, we report development of metabolically engineered E. coli strains for the production of PLGA and poly(d-lactate-co-glycolate-co-d-2-hydroxybutyrate) having various monomer compositions from xylose as a sole carbon source. To achieve this, the metabolic flux towards Dahms pathway was modulated using five different synthetic promoters for the expression of Caulobacter crescentus XylBC...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Armando A Losada, Carolina Cano-Prieto, Raúl García-Salcedo, Alfredo F Braña, Carmen Méndez, José A Salas, Carlos Olano
Streptomyces sp. NTK937, producer of benzoxazole antibiotic caboxamycin, produces in addition a methyl ester derivative, O-methylcaboxamycin. Caboxamycin cluster, comprising one regulatory and nine structural genes, has been delimited, and each gene has been individually inactivated to demonstrate its role in the biosynthetic process. The O-methyltransferase potentially responsible for O-methylcaboxamycin synthesis would reside outside this cluster. Five of the genes, cbxR, cbxA, cbxB, cbxD and cbxE, encoding a SARP transcriptional regulator, salicylate synthase, 3-oxoacyl-ACP-synthase, ACP and amidohydrolase, respectively, have been found to be essential for caboxamycin biosynthesis...
April 18, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Ren Wei, Wolfgang Zimmermann
Biocatalysis can enable a closed-loop recycling of post-consumer PET waste.
April 12, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Jitka Makovcova, Vladimir Babak, Pavel Kulich, Josef Masek, Michal Slany, Lenka Cincarova
Microorganisms are not commonly found in the planktonic state but predominantly form dual- and multispecies biofilms in almost all natural environments. Bacteria in multispecies biofilms cooperate, compete or have neutral interactions according to the involved species. Here, the development of mono- and dual-species biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, potentially pathogenic Raoultella planticola and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli over the course of 24, 48 and 72 h was studied...
April 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Marta Estevez-Canales, David Pinto, Thibaud Coradin, Christel Laberty-Robert, Abraham Esteve-Núñez
Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) rely on the control of interactions between microorganisms and electronic devices, enabling to transform chemical energy into electricity. We report a new approach to construct ready-to-use artificial bioelectrodes by immobilizing Geobacter sulfurreducens cells in composite materials associating silica gel and carbon felt fibres. Viability test confirmed that the majority of bacteria (ca. 70 ± 5%) survived the encapsulation process in silica and that cell density did not increase in 96 h...
April 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Rohola Hosseini, Jannis Kuepper, Sebastian Koebbing, Lars M Blank, Nick Wierckx, Johannes H de Winde
Organic solvent-tolerant bacteria are outstanding and versatile hosts for the bio-based production of a broad range of generally toxic aromatic compounds. The energetically costly solvent tolerance mechanisms are subject to multiple levels of regulation, involving among other mobile genetic elements. The genome of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 contains many such mobile elements that play a major role in the regulation and adaptation to various stress conditions, including the regulation of expression of the solvent efflux pump SrpABC...
April 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Jacqueline Morris, Jason Shiller, Rachel Mann, Grant Smith, Alan Yen, Brendan Rodoni
A novel candidate species of the liberibacter genus, 'Candidatus Liberibacter brunswickensis' (CLbr), was identified in the Australian eggplant psyllid, Acizzia solanicola. This is the first discovery of a species belonging to the liberibacter genus in Australia and the first report of a liberibacter species in the psyllid genus Acizzia. This new candidate liberibacter species has not been associated with plant disease, unlike other psyllid-vectored species in the genus including 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), 'Candidatus Liberibacter africanus' (CLaf) and 'Ca...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Christoph Westerwalbesloh, Alexander Grünberger, Wolfgang Wiechert, Dietrich Kohlheyer, Eric von Lieres
Microfluidic single-cell bioreactors have found widespread application to investigate growth and gene expression of microbial model organisms, but yet there are few attempts to systematically characterize different design and cultivation concepts. Quantitative measurements of critical solute concentrations, e.g. limiting nutrients, are not yet feasible within the typical volumes in the range of picolitres. A way to gain new insights about the mass transport within those volumes is by simulation, but the complex geometry resulting from the multitude of cells within a colony leads to time and resource consuming computational challenges...
April 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Ren Wei, Wolfgang Zimmermann
Petroleum-based plastics have replaced many natural materials in their former applications. With their excellent properties, they have found widespread uses in almost every area of human life. However, the high recalcitrance of many synthetic plastics results in their long persistence in the environment, and the growing amount of plastic waste ending up in landfills and in the oceans has become a global concern. In recent years, a number of microbial enzymes capable of modifying or degrading recalcitrant synthetic polymers have been identified...
March 28, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Sara E Blumer-Schuette, Jeffrey V Zurawski, Jonathan M Conway, Piyum Khatibi, Derrick L Lewis, Quanzi Li, Vincent L Chiang, Robert M Kelly
Recalcitrance of plant biomass is a major barrier for commercially feasible cellulosic biofuel production. Chemical and enzymatic assays have been developed to measure recalcitrance and carbohydrate composition; however, none of these assays can directly report which polysaccharides a candidate microbe will sense during growth on these substrates. Here, we propose using the transcriptomic response of the plant biomass-deconstructing microbe, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, as a direct measure of how suitable a sample of plant biomass may be for fermentation based on the bioavailability of polysaccharides...
March 20, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Idania Valdez-Vazquez, Ana L Morales, Ana E Escalante
This study addresses the question of ecological interest for the determination of structure and diversity of microbial communities that degrade lignocellulosic biomasses to produce biofuels. Two microbial consortia with different history, native of wheat straw (NWS) and from a methanogenic digester (MD) fed with cow manure, were contrasted in terms of hydrogen performance, substrate disintegration and microbial diversity. NWS outperformed the hydrogen production rate of MD. Microscopic images revealed that NWS acted on the cuticle and epidermis, generating cellulose strands with high crystallinity, while MD degraded deeper layers, equally affecting all polysaccharides...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Agnieszka Gawin, Svein Valla, Trygve Brautaset
The XylS/Pm regulator/promoter system originating from the Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid pWW0 is widely used for regulated low- and high-level recombinant expression of genes and gene clusters in Escherichia coli and other bacteria. Induction of this system can be graded by using different cheap benzoic acid derivatives, which enter cells by passive diffusion, operate in a dose-dependent manner and are typically not metabolized by the host cells. Combinatorial mutagenesis and selection using the bla gene encoding β-lactamase as a reporter have demonstrated that the Pm promoter, the DNA sequence corresponding to the 5' untranslated end of its cognate mRNA and the xylS coding region can be modified and improved relative to various types of applications...
March 9, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Elena Piacenza, Alessandro Presentato, Emanuele Zonaro, Joseph A Lemire, Marc Demeter, Giovanni Vallini, Raymond J Turner, Silvia Lampis
In an effort to prevent the formation of pathogenic biofilms on hydroxyapatite (HA)-based clinical devices and surfaces, we present a study evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of Spherical biogenic Se-Nanostructures Embedded in Organic material (Bio Se-NEMO-S) produced by Bacillus mycoides SelTE01 in comparison with two different chemical selenium nanoparticle (SeNP) classes. These nanomaterials have been studied as potential antimicrobials for eradication of established HA-grown biofilms, for preventing biofilm formation on HA-coated surfaces and for inhibition of planktonic cell growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 12934 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923...
February 23, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Kenneth Timmis, Franziska Jebok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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