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Microbial Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327434/a-fast-and-reliable-method-for-monitoring-of-prophage-activating-chemicals
#1
Juan Xu, Bärbel Kiesel, René Kallies, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yi Liu, Thomas Maskow
Bacteriophages, that is viruses that infect bacteria, either lyse bacteria directly or integrate their genome into the bacterial genome as so-called prophages, where they remain at a silent state. Both phages and bacteria are able to survive in this state. However, prophages can be reactivated with the introduction of chemicals, followed by the release of a high number of phage particles, which could infect other bacteria, thus harming ecosystems by a viral bloom. The basics for a fast, automatable analytical method for the detection of prophage-activating chemicals are developed and successfully tested here...
January 12, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316319/protein-profile-in-aspergillus-nidulans-recombinant-strains-overproducing-heterologous-enzymes
#2
Mariane Paludetti Zubieta, Fabiano Jares Contesini, Marcelo Ventura Rubio, Any Elisa de Souza Schmidt Gonçalves, Jaqueline Aline Gerhardt, Rolf Alexander Prade, André Ricardo de Lima Damasio
Filamentous fungi are robust cell factories and have been used for the production of large quantities of industrially relevant enzymes. However, the production levels of heterologous proteins still need to be improved. Therefore, this article aimed to investigate the global proteome profiling of Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains in order to understand the bottlenecks of heterologous enzymes production. About 250, 441 and 424 intracellular proteins were identified in the control strain Anid_pEXPYR and in the recombinant strains Anid_AbfA and Anid_Cbhl respectively...
January 8, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282886/biorefining-of-platinum-group-metals-from-model-waste-solutions-into-catalytically-active-bimetallic-nanoparticles
#3
Angela J Murray, Ju Zhu, Joe Wood, Lynne E Macaskie
Bacteria can fabricate platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts cheaply, a key consideration of industrial processes and waste decontaminations. Biorecovery of PGMs from wastes is promising but PGM leachates made from metallic scraps are acidic. A two-step biosynthesis 'pre-seeds' metallic deposits onto bacterial cells benignly; chemical reduction of subsequent metal from acidic solution via the seeds makes bioscaffolded nanoparticles (NPs). Cells of Escherichia coli were seeded using Pd(II) or Pt(IV) and exposed to a mixed Pd(II)/Pt(IV) model solution under H2 to make bimetallic catalyst...
December 28, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243404/molecular-viability-testing-of-viable-but-non-culturable-bacteria-induced-by-antibiotic-exposure
#4
Seunguk Lee, Sungwoo Bae
Nucleic acid amplification-based methods are limited by their inability to discriminate between viable and dead cells. To overcome this drawback, propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with qPCR has been used to differentiate viable from nonviable cells in environmental samples. However, assessing bacterial physiology using PMA-qPCR remains a challenge due to its incapability of detecting metabolic activities, leading to overestimation of the viable bacteria population under an inactivation condition (e.g. antibiotic treatments)...
December 15, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239514/analyses-of-monascus-pigment-secretion-and-cellular-morphology-in-non-ionic-surfactant-micelle-aqueous-solution
#5
Gong Chen, Meihua Wang, Xiaofei Tian, Zhenqiang Wu
Monascus pigments produced by Monascus spp. are widely used as natural food colourants. Extractive fermentation technology can facilitate the secretion of intracellular Monascus pigments into extracellular non-ionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution, so as to avoid the feedback inhibition and decomposition. In this study, behaviour of the trans-membrane secretion of Monascus pigments was investigated using morphological and spectroscopic analyses. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) traced that pigment secretion occurred through rapid trans-membrane permeation in 4 min, with a simultaneous conversion in pigment characteristics...
December 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239114/engineering-thermal-stability-and-solvent-tolerance-of-the-soluble-quinoprotein-pede-from-pseudomonas-putida-kt2440-with-a-heterologous-whole-cell-screening-approach
#6
Matthias Wehrmann, Janosch Klebensberger
Due to their ability for direct electron transfer to electrodes, the utilization of rare earth metals as cofactor, and their periplasmic localization, pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (PQQ-ADHs) represent an interesting class of biocatalysts for various biotechnological applications. For most biocatalysts protein stability is crucial, either to increase the performance of the protein under a given process condition or to maximize robustness of the protein towards mutational manipulations, which are often needed to enhance or introduce a functionality of interest...
December 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239113/detection-of-novel-syntrophic-acetate-oxidizing-bacteria-from-biogas-processes-by-continuous-acetate-enrichment-approaches
#7
Maria Westerholm, Bettina Müller, Abhijeet Singh, Oskar Karlsson Lindsjö, Anna Schnürer
To enrich syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB), duplicate chemostats were inoculated with sludge from syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO)-dominated systems and continuously supplied with acetate (0.4 or 7.5 g l-1 ) at high-ammonia levels. The chemostats were operated under mesophilic (37°C) or thermophilic (52°C) temperature for about six hydraulic retention times (HRT 28 days) and were sampled over time. Irrespective of temperature, a methane content of 64-69% and effluent acetate level of 0.4-1...
December 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235728/semicontinuous-sophorolipid-fermentation-using-a-novel-bioreactor-with-dual-ventilation-pipes-and-dual-sieve-plates-coupled-with-a-novel-separation-system
#8
Yaguang Zhang, Dan Jia, Wanqi Sun, Xue Yang, Chuanbo Zhang, Fanglong Zhao, Wenyu Lu
Sophorolipids (SLs) are biosurfactants with widespread applications. The yield and purity of SLs are two important factors to be considered during their commercial large-scale production. Notably, SL accumulation causes an increase in viscosity, decrease in dissolved oxygen and product inhibition in the fermentation medium. This inhibits the further production and purification of SLs. This describes the development of a novel integrated system for SL production using Candida albicans O-13-1. Semicontinuous fermentation was performed using a novel bioreactor with dual ventilation pipes and dual sieve-plates (DVDSB)...
December 13, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215212/enhancement-of-methane-production-from-1-hexadecene-by-additional-electron-donors
#9
A M S Paulo, A F Salvador, J I Alves, R Castro, A A M Langenhoff, A J M Stams, A J Cavaleiro
1-Hexadecene-contaminated wastewater is produced in oil refineries and can be treated in methanogenic bioreactors, although generally at low conversion rates. In this study, a microbial culture able to degrade 1-hexadecene was enriched, and different stimulation strategies were tested for enhancing 1-hexadecene conversion to methane. Seven and three times faster methane production was obtained in cultures stimulated with yeast extract or lactate, respectively, while cultures amended with crotonate lost the ability to degrade 1-hexadecene...
December 7, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215194/citrate-low-ph-and-amino-acid-limitation-induce-citrate-utilization-in-lactococcus-lactis-biovar-diacetylactis
#10
Oscar van Mastrigt, Emma E Mager, Casper Jamin, Tjakko Abee, Eddy J Smid
In Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis, citrate transport is facilitated by the plasmid-encoded citrate permease (CitP). In this work, we analysed regulation of citrate utilization by pH, nutrient limitation and the presence of citrate at four different levels: (i) plasmid copy number, (ii) citP transcription, (iii) citP mRNA processing and (iv) citrate utilization capacity. Citrate was supplied as cosubstrate together with lactose. The citP gene is known to be induced in cells grown at low pH...
December 7, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205959/maintenance-and-assessment-of-cell-viability-in-formulation-of-non-sporulating-bacterial-inoculants
#11
REVIEW
Teresa Berninger, Óscar González López, Ana Bejarano, Claudia Preininger, Angela Sessitsch
The application of beneficial, plant-associated microorganisms is a sustainable approach to improving crop performance in agriculture. However, microbial inoculants are often susceptible to prolonged periods of storage and deleterious environmental factors, which negatively impact their viability and ultimately limit efficacy in the field. This particularly concerns non-sporulating bacteria. To overcome this challenge, the availability of protective formulations is crucial. Numerous parameters influence the viability of microbial cells, with drying procedures generally being among the most critical ones...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205936/facile-methods-for-heterologous-production-of-bacterial-microcompartments-in-diverse-host-species
#12
Todd O Yeates, Thomas A Bobik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205932/designing-synbiotics-for-improved-human-health
#13
EDITORIAL
Sean M Kearney, Sean M Gibbons
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205917/targeted-in%C3%A2-situ-metatranscriptomics-for-selected-taxa-from-mesophilic-and-thermophilic-biogas-plants
#14
Yvonne Stolze, Andreas Bremges, Irena Maus, Alfred Pühler, Alexander Sczyrba, Andreas Schlüter
Biogas production is performed anaerobically by complex microbial communities with key species driving the process. Hence, analyses of their in situ activities are crucial to understand the process. In a previous study, metagenome sequencing and subsequent genome binning for different production-scale biogas plants (BGPs) resulted in four genome bins of special interest, assigned to the phyla Thermotogae, Fusobacteria, Spirochaetes and Cloacimonetes, respectively, that were genetically analysed. In this study, metatranscriptome sequencing of the same BGP samples was conducted, enabling in situ transcriptional activity determination of these genome bins...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205906/the-race-for-antimicrobials-in-the-multidrug-resistance-era
#15
Carlos Molina-Santiago, Antonio de Vicente, Diego Romero
The appearance of multidrug-resistant pathogens is a major threat to human health with the reemergence of fatal and untreatable diseases. In addition to a rational use of the well-known and available antibiotics, two complementary ways to overcome this public health issue are (i) the discovery of new antimicrobials and (ii) the chemical modification of pre-existing potent antibiotics. In this article, we highlight some of the strategies to generate new and promising antimicrobials for use in the management of these so-called 'superbugs'...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205864/a-bifunctional-cellulase-xylanase-of-a-new-chryseobacterium-strain-isolated-from-the-dung-of-a-straw-fed-cattle
#16
Hao Tan, Renyun Miao, Tianhai Liu, Lufang Yang, Yumin Yang, Chunxiu Chen, Jianrong Lei, Yuhui Li, Jiabei He, Qun Sun, Weihong Peng, Bingcheng Gan, Zhongqian Huang
A new cellulolytic strain of Chryseobacterium genus was screened from the dung of a cattle fed with cereal straw. A putative cellulase gene (cbGH5) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5 subfamily 46 (GH5_46) was identified and cloned by degenerate PCR plus genome walking. The CbGH5 protein was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. It is the first bifunctional cellulase-xylanase reported in GH5_46 as well as in Chryseobacterium genus. The enzyme showed an endoglucanase activity on carboxymethylcellulose of 3237 μmol min-1  mg-1 at pH 9, 90 °C and a xylanase activity on birchwood xylan of 1793 μmol min-1  mg-1 at pH 8, 90 °C...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205849/editorial-the-microbiome-as-a-source-of-new-enterprises-and-job-creation
#17
EDITORIAL
Jan-Ulrich Kreft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205848/the-efficacy-biodistribution-and-safety-of-an-inhibin-dna-vaccine-delivered-by-attenuated-salmonella-choleraesuis
#18
Wei-Zhen Chen, Ying-Mei Li, Xue Yu, Yue Li, Wen-Ke Li, Qing-Ling Wang, Ai-Xin Liang, Xiang Li, Li-Guo Yang, Li Han
DNA vaccines, the third-generation vaccines, were extensively studied. The attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis (S. choleraesuis) was widely focused as a carrier to deliver DNA vaccines in the chromosome-plasmid balanced-lethal system. The efficacy of inhibin DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated S. choleraesuis was proved in mice and cows in our previous studies. In this study, the efficacy of inhibin DNA vaccine was confirmed in rhesus monkeys. To further study the biodistribution and safety, the mice were immunized under laboratory conditions...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194975/biofilm-recruitment-under-nanofiltration-conditions-the-influence-of-resident-biofilm-structural-parameters-on-planktonic-cell-invasion
#19
Olivier Habimana, Eoin Casey
It is now generally accepted that biofouling is inevitable in pressure-driven membrane processes for water purification. A large number of published articles describe the development of novel membranes in an effort to address biofouling in such systems. It is reasonable to assume that such membranes, even those with antimicrobial properties, when applied in industrial-scale systems will experience some degree of biofouling. In such a scenario, an understanding of the fate of planktonic cells, such as those entering with the feed water, has important implications with respect to contact killing particularly for membranes with antimicrobial properties...
December 1, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160039/fine-tuning-the-p-pastoris-imt1026-genome-scale-metabolic-model-for-improved-prediction-of-growth-on-methanol-or-glycerol-as-sole-carbon-sources
#20
Màrius Tomàs-Gamisans, Pau Ferrer, Joan Albiol
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella spp.) is widely used as cell factory for recombinant protein production. In the past recent years, important breakthroughs in the systems-level quantitative analysis of its physiology have been achieved. This wealth of information has allowed the development of genome-scale metabolic models, which make new approaches possible for host cell and bioprocess engineering. Nevertheless, the predictive accuracy of the previous consensus model required to be upgraded and validated with new experimental data sets for P...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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