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Microbial Biotechnology

Dongmei Zhou, Xing-Feng Huang, Jianhua Guo, Marcia L Dos-Santos, Jorge M Vivanco
Plants can re-programme their transcriptome, proteome and metabolome to deal with environmental and biotic stress. It has been shown that the rhizosphere microbiome has influence on the plant metabolome and on herbivore behaviour. In the present study, Trichoderma gamsii was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana rhizosphere soil. The inoculation of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana with T. gamsii significantly inhibited the feeding behaviour of Trichoplusia ni and affected the metabolome as well as the content of phytohormones in Arabidopsis leaves...
September 17, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Shuo Zhao, Jun-Jun Huang, Xiuyun Sun, Xiaorong Huang, Shuna Fu, Liang Yang, Xue-Wei Liu, Fei He, Yinyue Deng
Clinical treatment of Candida albicans infections has become more difficult due to the limited development of antifungal agents and the rapid emergence of drug resistance. In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of a series of piperazine derivatives and the evaluation of their inhibitory activity against C. albicans virulence. Thirty-four (1-aryloxy-2-hydroxypropyl)-phenylpiperazine derivatives, including 25 new compounds, were synthesized and assessed for their efficacy against the physiology and pathogenesis of C...
September 17, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Zhangyong Song, Jie Yang, Caiyan Xin, Xiaorui Xing, Qing Yuan, Youping Yin, Zhongkang Wang
Microsclerotia (MS) are pseudoparenchymatous aggregations of hyphae of fungi that can be induced in liquid culture for biocontrol applications. Previously, we determined that the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signalling pathway was involved in regulating MS development in the dimorphic insect pathogen Metarhizium rileyi. To further investigate the mechanisms by which the signalling pathway is regulated, we characterized the transcriptional factor MrMsn2, a homologue of the yeast C2 H2 transcriptional factor Msn2, which is predicted to function downstream of the HOG pathway in M...
August 29, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Concha García, María Auxiliadora Prieto
Shoe patterns and a sole made of BC, baby shoe made of BC and, on the right BC material dyed in red. (prototype made by
August 22, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Ute Lechner, Dominique Türkowsky, Thi Thu Hang Dinh, Hassan Al-Fathi, Stefan Schwoch, Stefan Franke, Michelle-Sophie Gerlach, Mandy Koch, Martin von Bergen, Nico Jehmlich, Thi Cam Ha Dang
The herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) was a major component of Agent Orange, which was used as a defoliant in the Vietnam War. Little is known about its degradation under anoxic conditions. Established enrichment cultures using soil from an Agent Orange bioremediation plant in southern Vietnam with pyruvate as potential electron donor and carbon source were shown to degrade 2,4,5-T via ether cleavage to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP), which was further dechlorinated to 3,4-dichlorophenol...
August 16, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Caihong Song, Yali Zhang, Xunfeng Xia, Hui Qi, Mingxiao Li, Hongwei Pan, Beidou Xi
In order to overcome the excessive acidification problem, a microbial consortium for the degradation of organic acids (MCDOA), which acts synergistically in degrading organic acids, was developed and used as an inoculum to improve the efficiency of food waste composting. MCDOA could eliminate the initial lag phase of the pile temperature rise because of excessive acidification and effectively shorten the composting period. Fluorescence regional integration analysis of the excitation-emission matrix spectra of dissolved organic matter showed that compared with raw material, in compost with MCDOA inoculation, the percent fluorescence response (Pi,n ) values of Regions I, II and IV decreased by 95...
July 2, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Hirofumi Ichinose, Takuya Kitaoka
A wide variety of sesquiterpenoids have been isolated from basidiomycetes, and their bioactive properties have attracted significant attention in an effort to understand biosynthetic machineries. As both sesquiterpene synthases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play key roles in the diversification of sesquiterpenoids, it is important to widely and mutually understand their biochemical properties. In this study, we performed genome-wide annotation and functional characterization of sesquiterpene synthases from the brown-rot basidiomycete Postia placenta...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Sara Correa-García, Pranav Pande, Armand Séguin, Marc St-Arnaud, Etienne Yergeau
Phytoremediation is a green and sustainable alternative to physico-chemical methods for contaminated soil remediation. One of the flavours of phytoremediation is rhizoremediation, where plant roots stimulate soil microbes to degrade organic contaminants. This approach is particularly interesting as it takes advantage of naturally evolved interaction mechanisms between plant and microorganisms and often results in a complete mineralization of the contaminants (i.e. transformation to water and CO2 ). However, many biotic and abiotic factors influence the outcome of this interaction, resulting in variable efficiency of the remediation process...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Yoojae Maeng, Kyoung Tae Kim, Xuan Zhou, Litai Jin, Ki Soo Kim, Young Heui Kim, Suyeon Lee, Ji Ho Park, Xiuyu Chen, Mingxia Kong, Lu Cai, Xiaokun Li
Horse oil contains linoleic, palmitoleic and unsaturated fatty acids that are similar to those in human skin, and may therefore be an ideal substance from which to isolate biosurfactants for cosmetic products to improve human skin quality. Herein, an innovative approach was developed to synthesise sophorolipids from horse oil by hydrolysis, followed by fermentation using the yeast Candida bombicola. The yield of sophorolipids from direct fermentation of horse oil and hydrolysed horse oil was 40.6 ± 1.3 g l-1 and 58...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Christine L Kirkpatrick, Nicole C Parsley, Tessa E Bartges, Casey E Wing, Sushma Kommineni, Christopher J Kristich, Nita H Salzman, Steven M Patrie, Leslie M Hicks
As current methods for antibiotic drug discovery are being outpaced by the rise of antimicrobial resistance, new methods and innovative technologies are necessary to replenish our dwindling arsenal of antimicrobial agents. To this end, we developed the PepSAVI-MS pipeline to expedite the search for natural product bioactive peptides. Herein we demonstrate expansion of PepSAVI-MS for the discovery of bacterial-sourced bioactive peptides through identification of the bacteriocin Bac-21 from Enterococcus faecalis pPD1...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Shu Zhang, Nancy Merino, Akihiro Okamoto, Phillip Gedalanga
Microbial consortia are capable of surviving diverse conditions through the formation of synergistic population-level structures, such as stromatolites, microbial mats and biofilms. Biotechnological applications are poised to capitalize on these unique interactions. However, current artificial co-cultures constructed for societal benefits, including biosynthesis, agriculture and bioremediation, face many challenges to perform as well as natural consortia. Interkingdom microbial consortia tend to be more robust and have higher productivity compared with monocultures and intrakingdom consortia, but the control and design of these diverse artificial consortia have received limited attention...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Wenjing Cui, Feiya Suo, Jintao Cheng, Laichuang Han, Wenliang Hao, Junling Guo, Zhemin Zhou
Nattokinase (NK) is an important serine-protease with direct fibrinolytic activity involving the prevention of cardiovascular disease as an antithrombotic agent. Dozens of studies have focused on the characterization of intrinsic novel promoters and signal peptides to the secretory production of recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis. However, intrinsic genetic elements have several drawbacks, which cannot mediate the production of NK to the desired level. In this study, the genetic elements, which were used to overproduce the recombinant secretory NK, were rationally modified in B...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Jie Lian, Rene H Wijffels, Hauke Smidt, Detmer Sipkema
Microbes are ubiquitously distributed, and they are also present in algae production systems. The algal microbiome is a pivotal part of the alga holobiont and has a key role in modulating algal populations in nature. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the role of bacteria in artificial systems ranging from laboratory flasks to industrial ponds. Coexisting microorganisms, and predominantly bacteria, are often regarded as contaminants in algal research, but recent studies manifested that many algal symbionts not only promote algal growth but also offer advantages in downstream processing...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Ningning Ren, Jingfang JinLi, Yingyu Chen, Xia Zhou, Jieru Wang, Pan Ge, Farhan Anwar Khan, Li Zhang, Changmin Hu, Ian D Robertson, Huanchun Chen, Aizhen Guo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) regions of difference (RD) encode proteins which are potentially useful as diagnostic reagents for tuberculosis (TB). In this study, 75 genes from M. tuberculosis RD1-RD16 were successfully cloned from which 68 proteins were expressed and purified. Three serum pools from patients with pulmonary TB (PTB), extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and healthy controls (HC) were used to preliminarily screen individual RD proteins. The OD630 ratio of the PTB or EPTB to the HC group ≥ 2-fold was positive...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Renmin Li, Yingang Feng, Shiyue Liu, Kuan Qi, Qiu Cui, Ya-Jun Liu
Cellulosome is a highly efficient supramolecular machine for lignocellulose degradation, and its substrate-coupled regulation requires soluble transmembrane signals. However, the inducers for cellulosome synthesis and the inducing effect have not been clarified quantitatively. Values of cellulosome production capacity (CPC) and estimated specific activity (eSA) were calculated based on the primary scaffoldin ScaA to define the stimulating effects on the cellulosome synthesis in terms of quantity and quality respectively...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Angela Sessitsch, Günter Brader, Nikolaus Pfaffenbichler, Doris Gusenbauer, Birgit Mitter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Daniel Bello-Gil, Emma Roig-Molina, Jennifer Fonseca, María Dolores Sarmiento-Ferrández, Marcela Ferrándiz, Esther Franco, Elena Mira, Beatriz Maestro, Jesús M Sanz
The presence of synthetic dyes in wastewaters generated by the textile industry constitutes a serious environmental and health problem that urges the scientific community on an appropriate action. As a proof-of-concept, we have developed a novel approach to design enzymatic bioreactors with the ability to decolorize dye solutions through the immobilization of the bacterial CueO laccase-like multicopper oxidase from Escherichia coli on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) beads by making use of the BioF affinity tag. The decolorization efficiency of the system was characterized by a series of parameters, namely maximum enzyme adsorption capacity, pH profile, kinetic constants, substrate range, temperature and bioreactor recycling...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Yanan Zhang, Kaifan Yu, Huizi Chen, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly butyrate, are known to suppress inflammation, and regulate the gut bacterial ecology. However, little is known about propionate. We report here that propionate infusion in the caecum dramatically affected the structure of colonic microbiota of pigs based on 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Sixteen pig models were perfused with saline or sodium propionate by a fistula in the caecum. At d 28, all pigs were slaughtered for analysing bacterial metabolites, colonic microbiota and the expression of genes related to inflammation...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Ariel Levi Simons, Nathan Churches, Sergey Nuzhdin
The composition of digestive microbiomes is known to be a significant factor in the health of a variety of hosts, including animal livestock. Therefore, it is important to ascertain how readily the microbiome can be significantly altered. To this end, the role of changing diet on the digestive microbiome of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was assessed via weekly faecal sampling. Over the course of 12 weeks, isolated individual oysters were fed either a control diet of Tetraselmis algae (Tet) or a treatment diet which shifted in composition every 4 weeks...
September 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
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