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Microbial Biotechnology

Wenjing Cui, Feiya Suo, Jintao Cheng, Laichuang Han, Wenliang Hao, Junling Guo, Zhemin Zhou
Nattokinase (NK) is an important serine-protease with direct fibrinolytic activity involving the prevention of cardiovascular disease as an antithrombotic agent. Dozens of studies have focused on the characterization of intrinsic novel promoters and signal peptides to the secretory production of recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis. However, intrinsic genetic elements have several drawbacks, which cannot mediate the production of NK to the desired level. In this study, the genetic elements, which were used to overproduce the recombinant secretory NK, were rationally modified in B...
July 8, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Jie Lian, Rene H Wijffels, Hauke Smidt, Detmer Sipkema
Microbes are ubiquitously distributed, and they are also present in algae production systems. The algal microbiome is a pivotal part of the alga holobiont and has a key role in modulating algal populations in nature. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the role of bacteria in artificial systems ranging from laboratory flasks to industrial ponds. Coexisting microorganisms, and predominantly bacteria, are often regarded as contaminants in algal research, but recent studies manifested that many algal symbionts not only promote algal growth but also offer advantages in downstream processing...
July 5, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Caihong Song, Yali Zhang, Xunfeng Xia, Hui Qi, Mingxiao Li, Hongwei Pan, Beidou Xi
In order to overcome the excessive acidification problem, a microbial consortium for the degradation of organic acids (MCDOA), which acts synergistically in degrading organic acids, was developed and used as an inoculum to improve the efficiency of food waste composting. MCDOA could eliminate the initial lag phase of the pile temperature rise because of excessive acidification and effectively shorten the composting period. Fluorescence regional integration analysis of the excitation-emission matrix spectra of dissolved organic matter showed that compared with raw material, in compost with MCDOA inoculation, the percent fluorescence response (Pi,n ) values of Regions I, II and IV decreased by 95...
July 2, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Ningning Ren, Jingfang JinLi, Yingyu Chen, Xia Zhou, Jieru Wang, Pan Ge, Farhan Anwar Khan, Li Zhang, Changmin Hu, Ian D Robertson, Huanchun Chen, Aizhen Guo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) regions of difference (RD) encode proteins which are potentially useful as diagnostic reagents for tuberculosis (TB). In this study, 75 genes from M. tuberculosis RD1-RD16 were successfully cloned from which 68 proteins were expressed and purified. Three serum pools from patients with pulmonary TB (PTB), extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and healthy controls (HC) were used to preliminarily screen individual RD proteins. The OD630 ratio of the PTB or EPTB to the HC group ≥ 2-fold was positive...
June 27, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Renmin Li, Yingang Feng, Shiyue Liu, Kuan Qi, Qiu Cui, Ya-Jun Liu
Cellulosome is a highly efficient supramolecular machine for lignocellulose degradation, and its substrate-coupled regulation requires soluble transmembrane signals. However, the inducers for cellulosome synthesis and the inducing effect have not been clarified quantitatively. Values of cellulosome production capacity (CPC) and estimated specific activity (eSA) were calculated based on the primary scaffoldin ScaA to define the stimulating effects on the cellulosome synthesis in terms of quantity and quality respectively...
June 25, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Alexander Bollinger, Stephan Thies, Nadine Katzke, Karl-Erich Jaeger
Marine habitats represent a prolific source for molecules of biotechnological interest. In particular, marine bacteria have attracted attention and were successfully exploited for industrial applications. Recently, a group of Pseudomonas species isolated from extreme habitats or living in association with algae or sponges were clustered in the newly established Pseudomonas pertucinogena lineage. Remarkably for the predominantly terrestrial genus Pseudomonas, more than half (9) of currently 16 species within this lineage were isolated from marine or saline habitats...
June 25, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Shiyin Liu, Fei He, Nuoqiao Lin, Yumei Chen, Zhibin Liang, Lisheng Liao, Mingfa Lv, Yufan Chen, Shaohua Chen, Jianuan Zhou, Lian-Hui Zhang
Sexual mating of compatible sporida is essential for Sporisorium scitamineum to form dikaryotic mycelia and then cause infection on sugarcane. Our previous work identified a Pseudomonas sp. ST4 from a soil sample, which showed a promising biocontrol potential by inhibiting the mating of S. scitamineum sporida and hyphal growth. In this study, we set to isolate the active compounds from Pseudomonas sp. ST4 through solid fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation coupling with bioassay showed that Pseudomonas sp...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Patricia Calero, Pablo I Nikel
The last few years have witnessed an unprecedented increase in the number of novel bacterial species that hold potential to be used for metabolic engineering. Historically, however, only a handful of bacteria have attained the acceptance and widespread use that are needed to fulfil the needs of industrial bioproduction - and only for the synthesis of very few, structurally simple compounds. One of the reasons for this unfortunate circumstance has been the dearth of tools for targeted genome engineering of bacterial chassis, and, nowadays, synthetic biology is significantly helping to bridge such knowledge gap...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Angela Sessitsch, Günter Brader, Nikolaus Pfaffenbichler, Doris Gusenbauer, Birgit Mitter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Li Zhuang, Jinlian Ma, Zhen Yu, Yueqiang Wang, Jia Tang
Ammonia accumulation is a major inhibitory substance causing anaerobic digestion upset and failure in CH4 production. At high ammonia levels, CH4 production through syntrophic acetate oxidization (SAO) pathways is more tolerant to ammonia toxicity than the acetoclastic methanogenesis pathway, but the low CH4 production rate through SAO constitutes the main reason for the low efficiency of energy recovery in anaerobic digesters treating ammonia-rich substrates. In this study, we showed that acetate fermentation to CH4 and CO2 occurred through SAO pathway in the anaerobic reactors containing a high ammonia concentration (5...
June 12, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Daniel Bello-Gil, Emma Roig-Molina, Jennifer Fonseca, María Dolores Sarmiento-Ferrández, Marcela Ferrándiz, Esther Franco, Elena Mira, Beatriz Maestro, Jesús M Sanz
The presence of synthetic dyes in wastewaters generated by the textile industry constitutes a serious environmental and health problem that urges the scientific community on an appropriate action. As a proof-of-concept, we have developed a novel approach to design enzymatic bioreactors with the ability to decolorize dye solutions through the immobilization of the bacterial CueO laccase-like multicopper oxidase from Escherichia coli on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) beads by making use of the BioF affinity tag. The decolorization efficiency of the system was characterized by a series of parameters, namely maximum enzyme adsorption capacity, pH profile, kinetic constants, substrate range, temperature and bioreactor recycling...
June 12, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Yanan Zhang, Kaifan Yu, Huizi Chen, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly butyrate, are known to suppress inflammation, and regulate the gut bacterial ecology. However, little is known about propionate. We report here that propionate infusion in the caecum dramatically affected the structure of colonic microbiota of pigs based on 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Sixteen pig models were perfused with saline or sodium propionate by a fistula in the caecum. At d 28, all pigs were slaughtered for analysing bacterial metabolites, colonic microbiota and the expression of genes related to inflammation...
June 1, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Hannes Löwe, Peter Sinner, Andreas Kremling, Katharina Pflüger-Grau
Using agricultural wastes as a substrate for biotechnological processes is of great interest in industrial biotechnology. A prerequisite for using these wastes is the ability of the industrially relevant microorganisms to metabolize the sugars present therein. Therefore, many metabolic engineering approaches are directed towards widening the substrate spectrum of the workhorses of industrial biotechnology like Escherichia coli, yeast or Pseudomonas putida. For instance, neither xylose or arabinose from cellulosic residues, nor sucrose, the main sugar in waste molasses, can be metabolized by most E...
May 28, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Gemma Reguera
The reduction of iron oxide minerals and uranium in model metal reducers in the genus Geobacter is mediated by conductive pili composed primarily of a structurally divergent pilin peptide that is otherwise recognized, processed and assembled in the inner membrane by a conserved Type IVa pilus apparatus. Electronic coupling among the peptides is promoted upon assembly, allowing the discharge of respiratory electrons at rates that greatly exceed the rates of cellular respiration. Harnessing the unique properties of these conductive appendages and their peptide building blocks in metal bioremediation will require understanding of how the pilins assemble to form a protein nanowire with specialized sites for metal immobilization...
May 27, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Jianhe Wang, Jing Wang, Lian-Hui Zhang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to cause life-threatening infections. The previous studies showed that the type III secretion system (T3SS) of this pathogen is a key virulence determinant, which is activated by polyamines signals spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) from mammalian host. To test the potential of blocking host-pathogen communication in disease control, in this study we developed a high potency mouse monoclonal antibody (Mab 4E4, IgG1 sub-isotype) by using Spm-protein conjugate as an immunogen...
May 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Ariel Levi Simons, Nathan Churches, Sergey Nuzhdin
The composition of digestive microbiomes is known to be a significant factor in the health of a variety of hosts, including animal livestock. Therefore, it is important to ascertain how readily the microbiome can be significantly altered. To this end, the role of changing diet on the digestive microbiome of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was assessed via weekly faecal sampling. Over the course of 12 weeks, isolated individual oysters were fed either a control diet of Tetraselmis algae (Tet) or a treatment diet which shifted in composition every 4 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Bastian Barker Rasmussen, Katrine Ege Erner, Mikkel Bentzon-Tilia, Lone Gram
The expanding aquaculture industry plays an important role in feeding the growing human population and with the expansion, sustainable bacterial disease control, such as probiotics, becomes increasingly important. Tropodithietic acid (TDA)-producing Phaeobacter spp. can protect live feed, for example rotifers and Artemia as well as larvae of turbot and cod against pathogenic vibrios. Here, we show that the emerging live feed, copepods, is unaffected by colonization of the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, making them potential infection vectors...
May 6, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Kyle S Enger, Jade Mitchell, Bharathi Murali, Dawn N Birdsell, Paul Keim, Patrick L Gurian, David M Wagner
Bacillus spores resist inactivation, but the extent of their persistence on common surfaces is unclear. This work addresses knowledge gaps regarding biothreat agents in the environment to reduce uncertainty in risk assessment models. Studies were conducted to investigate the long-term inactivation of Bacillus anthracis and three commonly used surrogate organisms - B. cereus, B. atrophaeus and B. thuringiensis on three materials: laminate countertop, stainless steel and polystyrene Petri dishes. Viable spores were measured at 1, 30, 90, 196, 304 and 1038 days...
May 3, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Miia R Mäkelä, Adiphol Dilokpimol, Salla M Koskela, Jaana Kuuskeri, Ronald P de Vries, Kristiina Hildén
Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are accessory enzymes for plant biomass degradation, which catalyse hydrolysis of carboxylic ester linkages between hydroxycinnamic acids and plant cell-wall carbohydrates. They are a diverse group of enzymes evolved from, e.g. acetyl xylan esterases (AXEs), lipases and tannases, thus complicating their classification and prediction of function by sequence similarity. Recently, an increasing number of fungal FAEs have been biochemically characterized, owing to their potential in various biotechnological applications and multitude of candidate FAEs in fungal genomes...
April 26, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Barbara Beer, André Pick, Manuel Döring, Petra Lommes, Volker Sieber
Rare sugars and sugar derivatives that can be obtained from abundant sugars are of great interest to biochemical and pharmaceutical research. Here, we describe the substrate scope of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Sphingomonas species A1 (SpsADH) in the oxidation of aldonates and polyols. The resulting products are rare uronic acids and rare sugars respectively. We provide insight into the substrate recognition of SpsADH using kinetic analyses, which show that the configuration of the hydroxyl groups adjacent to the oxidized carbon is crucial for substrate recognition...
April 26, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
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