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Microbial Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809451/roads-to-advanced-vaccines-influenza-case-study
#1
Peggy Riese, Carlos A Guzmán
Vaccines represent a cornerstone to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. However, there are many diseases for which vaccines are not available, are relatively ineffective or need to be adapted periodically. Advances in microbial biotechnology will contribute to overcoming these roadblocks by laying the groundwork for improving and creating new approaches for developing better vaccines, as illustrated here in the case of influenza.
August 15, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809450/microalgae-old-sustainable-food-and-fashion-nutraceuticals
#2
José L García, Marta de Vicente, Beatriz Galán
Microalgae have been used for centuries to provide nourishment to humans and animals, only very recently they have become much more widely cultured and harvested at large industrial scale. This paper reviews the potential health benefits and nutrition provided by microalgae whose benefits are contributing to expand their market. We also point out several key challenges that remain to be addressed in this field.
August 15, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809449/microbial-communities-as-biosensors-for-monitoring-urban-environments
#3
Fangqiong Ling
The BE microbiome is a naturally embedded biosensor in urban infrastructure that can be used to monitor environmental quality and human activity. There are many potential opportunities for leveraging BE microbial communities to guide urban design and public health policy.
August 15, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805354/microbial-ecology-based-engineering-of-microbial-electrochemical-technologies
#4
REVIEW
Christin Koch, Benjamin Korth, Falk Harnisch
Microbial ecology is devoted to the understanding of dynamics, activity and interaction of microorganisms in natural and technical ecosystems. Bioelectrochemical systems represent important technical ecosystems, where microbial ecology is of highest importance for their function. However, whereas aspects of, for example, materials and reactor engineering are commonly perceived as highly relevant, the study and engineering of microbial ecology are significantly underrepresented in bioelectrochemical systems...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805351/microbial-melanins-for-radioprotection-and-bioremediation
#5
Radames J B Cordero, Raghav Vij, Arturo Casadevall
Microbial melanins provide a biocompatible and scalable approach for bioremediation and radioprotection technologies due to their physicochemical properties.
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805347/bioelectricity-electromicrobiology-and-sustainability
#6
Kenneth H Nealson
Electromicrobiology is the domain of those prokaryotes able to interact with charged electrodes, using them as electron donors and/or electron acceptors. This is performed via a process called extracellular electron transport, in which outer membrane cytochromes are used to oxidize and/or reduce otherwise unavailable insoluble electron acceptors. EET-capable bacteria can thus be used for a variety of purposes, ranging from small power sources, water reclamation, to pollution remediation and electrosynthesis...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805317/the-future-of-biologically-inspired-next-generation-factories-for-chemicals
#7
Claudia Schmidt-Dannert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805314/evolved-%C3%AE-factor-prepro-leaders-for-directed-laccase-evolution-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Ivan Mateljak, Thierry Tron, Miguel Alcalde
Although the functional expression of fungal laccases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be complicated, the replacement of signal peptides appears to be a suitable approach to enhance secretion in directed evolution experiments. In this study, twelve constructs were prepared by fusing native and evolved α-factor prepro-leaders from S. cerevisiae to four different laccases with low-, medium- and high-redox potential (PM1L from basidiomycete PM1; PcL from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus; TspC30L from Trametes sp...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805313/about-how-to-capture-and-exploit-the-co2-surplus-that-nature-per-se-is-not-capable-of-fixing
#9
Manuel S Godoy, Beatrice Mongili, Debora Fino, M Auxiliadora Prieto
Human activity has been altering many ecological cycles for decades, disturbing the natural mechanisms which are responsible for re-establishing the normal environmental balances. Probably, the most disrupted of these cycles is the cycle of carbon. In this context, many technologies have been developed for an efficient CO2 removal from the atmosphere. Once captured, it could be stored in large geological formations and other reservoirs like oceans. This strategy could present some environmental and economic problems...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805306/bioprocess-scale-up-down-as-integrative-enabling-technology-from-fluid-mechanics-to-systems-biology-and-beyond
#10
Frank Delvigne, Ralf Takors, Rob Mudde, Walter van Gulik, Henk Noorman
Efficient optimization of microbial processes is a critical issue for achieving a number of sustainable development goals, considering the impact of microbial biotechnology in agrofood, environment, biopharmaceutical and chemical industries. Many of these applications require scale-up after proof of concept. However, the behaviour of microbial systems remains unpredictable (at least partially) when shifting from laboratory-scale to industrial conditions. The need for robust microbial systems is thus highly needed in this context, as well as a better understanding of the interactions between fluid mechanics and cell physiology...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772027/escherichia-coli-surface-display-for-the-selection-of-nanobodies
#11
REVIEW
Valencio Salema, Luis Ángel Fernández
Nanobodies (Nbs) are the smallest functional antibody fragments known in nature and have multiple applications in biomedicine or environmental monitoring. Nbs are derived from the variable segment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies, known as VHH. For selection, libraries of VHH gene segments from naïve, immunized animals or of synthetic origin have been traditionally cloned in E. coli phage display or yeast display systems, and clones binding the target antigen recovered, usually from plastic surfaces with the immobilized antigen (phage display) or using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS; yeast display)...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772020/interplay-between-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-and-candida-and-the-involvement-of-exopolysaccharides
#12
Camille N Allonsius, Marianne F L van den Broek, Ilke De Boeck, Shari Kiekens, Eline F M Oerlemans, Filip Kiekens, Kenn Foubert, Dieter Vandenheuvel, Paul Cos, Peter Delputte, Sarah Lebeer
A number of clinical studies have shown protective effects of lactobacilli against Candida species in the gastrointestinal tract, the urogenital tract and the oral cavity, while others did not show clear effects. Evidence on the mode of action of lactobacilli against Candida is also still lacking. In this study, the anti-Candida activity of the model probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was explored in different assays to determine molecular interactions. We found that L. rhamnosus GG was able to interfere with Candida growth, morphogenesis and adhesion...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772004/the-contribution-of-bacterial-genome-engineering-to-sustainable-development
#13
Daniel R Reuß, Fabian M Commichau, Jörg Stülke
The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals define important challenges for the prosperous development of mankind. To reach several of these goals, among them the production of value-added compounds, improved economic and ecologic balance of production processes, prevention of climate change and protection of ecosystems, the use of engineered bacteria can make valuable contributions. We discuss the strategies for genome engineering and how they can be applied to meet the United Nations' goals for sustainable development...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771998/biomining-of-metals-how-to-access-and-exploit-natural-resource-sustainably
#14
Carlos A Jerez
Mining activities have been carried out for thousands of years and nowadays have an enormous worldwide use to obtain important metals of industrial use. These include copper, iron, gold and several others. Although modern mining companies have sustainable mining programs that include tailings management and external verifications, it is recognized that these industrial activities are responsible for a significant damage to the environment. Specially, technologies such as smelting and roasting generate very toxic emissions, including solid particles in the air, very large tailings and contribute to generate acid mine drainage (AMD) that affects humans health and all kinds of living plants, animals and microorganisms...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771996/microbial-biotechnology-approaches-to-mitigating-the-deterioration-of-construction-and-heritage-materials
#15
Pilar Junier, Edith Joseph
Microorganisms are the main engines of elemental cycling in this planet and therefore have a profound impact on both organic and mineral substrates. As such, past and present human-made structures and cultural heritage can be negatively affected by microbial activity. Processes such as bioweathering (rocks and minerals), biodeterioration (organic substrates) or biocorrosion (metals) participate to the degradation or structural damage of construction and heritage materials. This structural damage can cause major economic losses (e...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771995/seven-microbial-bio-processes-to-help-the-planet
#16
EDITORIAL
Víctor de Lorenzo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771985/how-to-access-and-exploit-natural-resources-sustainably-petroleum-biotechnology
#17
Angela Sherry, Luiza Andrade, Anne Velenturf, Beate Christgen, Neil D Gray, Ian M Head
As we transition from fossil fuel reliance to a new energy future, innovative microbial biotechnologies may offer new routes to maximize recovery from conventional and unconventional energy assets; as well as contributing to reduced emission pathways and new technologies for carbon capture and utilization. Here we discuss the role of microbiology in petroleum biotechnologies in relation to addressing UN Sustainable Development Goal 12 (ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns), with a focus on microbially-mediated energy recovery from unconventionals (heavy oil to methane), shale gas and fracking, bioelectrochemical systems for the production of electricity from fossil fuel resources, and innovations in synthetic biology...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771979/the-contribution-of-microbially-produced-nanoparticles-to-sustainable-development-goals
#18
Miguel E Cueva, Louise E Horsfall
Nanoparticles (NPs), particles having one or more dimensions below 100 nm, are currently being synthesized through chemical and physical methods on an industrial scale. However, these methods for the synthesis of NPs do not fit with sustainable development goals. NP synthesis, through chemical and physical methods, requires high temperatures and/or pressures resulting in high energy consumption and the generation of large amounts of waste. In recent years, research into the synthesis of NPs has shifted to more green and biological methods, often using microorganisms...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771954/influence-of-biofilm-lubricity-on-shear-induced-transmission-of-staphylococcal-biofilms-from-stainless-steel-to-silicone-rubber
#19
Niar Gusnaniar, Jelmer Sjollema, Ed D Jong, Willem Woudstra, Joop de Vries, Titik Nuryastuti, Henny C van der Mei, Henk J Busscher
In real-life situations, bacteria are often transmitted from biofilms growing on donor surfaces to receiver ones. Bacterial transmission is more complex than adhesion, involving bacterial detachment from donor and subsequent adhesion to receiver surfaces. Here, we describe a new device to study shear-induced bacterial transmission from a (stainless steel) pipe to a (silicone rubber) tube and compare transmission of EPS-producing and non-EPS-producing staphylococci. Transmission of an entire biofilm from the donor to the receiver tube did not occur, indicative of cohesive failure in the biofilm rather than of adhesive failure at the donor-biofilm interface...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771951/microbial-approaches-for-targeting-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#20
REVIEW
Wing Fei Wong, Marina Santiago
Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections are a global public health challenge that has been increasing in severity and scope for the last few decades. Without creative solutions to this problem, treatment of injuries and infections will become progressively more challenging. A better understanding of the human microbiome has led to a new appreciation for the role commensal microbes play in protecting us from pathogens, especially in the gut. Antibiotics lead to disruption of the gut microbial ecosystem, enabling colonization by antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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