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Microbial Biotechnology

Mariola Paściak, Sabina Górska, Natalia Jawiarczyk, Andrzej Gamian
Structural studies of the major glycolipids produced by two Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ) strains, LJ 151 isolated from intestinal tract of healthy mice and LJ 142 isolated from mice with experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), were performed. Two major glycolipids, GL1 and GL2, were present in lipid extracts from L. johnsonii 142 and 151 strains. Glycolipid GL1 has been identified as β-D-Glcp-(1→6)-α-D-Galp-(1→2)-α-D-Glcp-diglyceride and GL2 as α-D-Galp-(1→2)-α-D-Glcp-diglyceride...
October 21, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Magali Ranchou-Peyruse, Cyrielle Gasc, Marion Guignard, Thomas Aüllo, David Dequidt, Pierre Peyret, Anthony Ranchou-Peyruse
The formation water of a deep aquifer (853 m of depth) used for geological storage of natural gas was sampled to assess the mono-aromatic hydrocarbons attenuation potential of the indigenous microbiota. The study of bacterial diversity suggests that Firmicutes and, in particular, sulphate-reducing bacteria (Peptococcaceae) predominate in this microbial community. The capacity of the microbial community to biodegrade toluene and m- and p-xylenes was demonstrated using a culture-based approach after several hundred days of incubation...
October 21, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Thomas K Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Jack A Gilbert
It is now well accepted that our modern lifestyle has certain implications for our health (Schaub et al., ), mainly as a result of our willingness to remove ourselves from the biological diversity of our natural environments (Roduit et al., ), while still being drawn inextricably to interact with it (Kellert and Wilson, ). Much of our interaction with the biological world is shaped by our interaction with the microbiological world. The bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea and protists that comprise the microbiome of this planet, are also key to the development and normal functioning of our bodies...
October 17, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Yizhi Song, Anne-Kristin Kaster, John Vollmers, Yanqing Song, Paul A Davison, Martinique Frentrup, Gail M Preston, Ian P Thompson, J Colin Murrell, Huabing Yin, C Neil Hunter, Wei E Huang
Cell sorting coupled with single-cell genomics is a powerful tool to circumvent cultivation of microorganisms and reveal microbial 'dark matter'. Single-cell Raman spectra (SCRSs) are label-free biochemical 'fingerprints' of individual cells, which can link the sorted cells to their phenotypic information and ecological functions. We employed a novel Raman-activated cell ejection (RACE) approach to sort single bacterial cells from a water sample in the Red Sea based on SCRS. Carotenoids are highly diverse pigments and play an important role in phototrophic bacteria, giving strong and distinctive Raman spectra...
October 17, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Lorena Jiménez-Díaz, Antonio Caballero, Natalia Pérez-Hernández, Ana Segura
Bio-jet fuel has attracted a lot of interest in recent years and has become a focus for aircraft and engine manufacturers, oil companies, governments and researchers. Given the global concern about environmental issues and the instability of oil market, bio-jet fuel has been identified as a promising way to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from the aviation industry, while also promoting energy security. Although a number of bio-jet fuel sources have been approved for manufacture, their commercialization and entry into the market is still a far way away...
October 10, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Francesca De Filippis, Eugenio Parente, Danilo Ercolini
This review describes the recent advances in the study of food microbial ecology, with a focus on food fermentations. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies have been widely applied to the study of food microbial consortia and the different applications of HTS technologies were exploited in order to monitor microbial dynamics in food fermentative processes. Phylobiomics was the most explored application in the past decade. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, although still underexploited, promise to uncover the functionality of complex microbial consortia...
October 6, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Diana M Mate, Miguel Alcalde
Laccases are multicopper containing enzymes capable of performing one electron oxidation of a broad range of substrates. Using molecular oxygen as the final electron acceptor, they release only water as a by-product, and as such, laccases are eco-friendly, versatile biocatalysts that have generated an enormous biotechnological interest. Indeed, this group of enzymes has been used in different industrial fields for very diverse purposes, from food additive and beverage processing to biomedical diagnosis, and as cross-linking agents for furniture construction or in the production of biofuels...
October 3, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Babu Halan, Igor Vassilev, Karsten Lang, Andreas Schmid, Katja Buehler
Biocatalytic processes often encounter problems due to toxic reactants and products, which reduce biocatalyst viability. Thus, robust organisms capable of tolerating or adapting towards such compounds are of high importance. This study systematically investigated the physiological response of Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120∆C biofilms when exposed to n-butanol, one of the potential next generation biofuels as well as a toxic substance using microscopic and biochemical methods. Initially P. taiwanensis VLB120∆C biofilms did not show any observable growth in the presence of 3% butanol...
October 3, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Olga Revelles, Daniel Beneroso, J Angel Menéndez, Ana Arenillas, J Luis García, M Auxiliadora Prieto
The massive production of urban and agricultural wastes has promoted a clear need for alternative processes of disposal and waste management. The potential use of municipal solid wastes (MSW) as feedstock for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by a process known as syngas fermentation is considered herein as an attractive bio-economic strategy to reduce these wastes. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of Rhodospirillum rubrum as microbial cell factory for the synthesis of PHA from syngas produced by microwave pyrolysis of the MSW organic fraction from a European city (Seville)...
September 28, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Zhongwei Zhang, Xiaodong Wu, Lili Cao, Zhengdong Zhong, Yan Zhou
We aimed to assess the feasibility of enhancing the intestinal development of weaned rats using glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2)-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). GLP-2-expressing S. cerevisiae (GLP2-SC) was generated using a recombinant approach. The diet of weaned rats was supplemented with the GLP2-SC strain. The average daily gain (ADG), the intestinal morphology and the activities of the digestive enzymes in the jejunum were tested to assess the influence of the GLP2-SC strain on intestinal development...
September 19, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Shihui Yang, Qiang Fei, Yaoping Zhang, Lydia M Contreras, Sagar M Utturkar, Steven D Brown, Michael E Himmel, Min Zhang
Zymomonas mobilis is a natural ethanologen with many desirable industrial biocatalyst characteristics. In this review, we will discuss work to develop Z. mobilis as a model system for biofuel production from the perspectives of substrate utilization, development for industrial robustness, potential product spectrum, strain evaluation and fermentation strategies. This review also encompasses perspectives related to classical genetic tools and emerging technologies in this context.
September 15, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Veronica Gatto, Giulia Tabanelli, Chiara Montanari, Valentina Prodomi, Eleonora Bargossi, Sandra Torriani, Fausto Gardini
Few information is available about the tyraminogenic potential of the species Enterococcus mundtii. In this study, two plant-derived strains of E. mundtii were selected and investigated to better understand the phenotypic behaviour and the genetic mechanisms involved in tyramine accumulation. Both the strains accumulated tyramine from the beginning of exponential phase of growth, independently on the addition of tyrosine to the medium. The strains accumulated also 2-phenylethylamine, although with lower efficiency and in greater extent when tyrosine was not added...
September 14, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Detmer Sipkema
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Marta Tortajada
Successful merging of chemical and biotechnological operations is essential to achieve cost-efficient industrialization of bio-based processes. The demonstration of the use of syngas, derived from microwave assisted pyrolysis of municipal solid waste, for the improved growth and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate production in Rhodospirillium rubrum, stands out as an example of the synergistic contribution of chemical engineering and applied microbiology to sustainable biomaterial manufacturing, paving the way to similar applications for other syngas derived bioproducts...
August 30, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Mengdong Yuan, Jing Zhu, Cheng Wang, Mengxiong Wu, Faqian Sun, Xingguo Han, Yangyang He, Weixiang Wu
Considering wide utilization and high methane fluxes from anaerobic biological stabilization ponds (ABSPs), understanding the methanogenesis in ABSPs is of fundamental importance. Here we investigated the variation and impact factors of methanogenesis in seven ABSPs that spanned from the north to the south of China. Results showed that methanogen abundance (7.7 × 10(9) -8.7 × 10(10)  copies g(-1) dry sediment) and methanogenic activities (2.2-21.2 μmol CH4  g(-1)  dry sediment h(-1) ) were considerable for all sediments...
August 26, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Andrew Stevenson, Philip G Hamill, Jan Dijksterhuis, John E Hallsworth
Water activity, temperature and pH are determinants for biotic activity of cellular systems, biosphere function and, indeed, for all life processes. This study was carried out at high concentrations of glycerol, which concurrently reduces water activity and acts as a stress protectant, to characterize the biophysical capabilities of the most extremely xerophilic organisms known. These were the fungal xerophiles: Xeromyces bisporus (FRR 0025), Aspergillus penicillioides (JH06THJ) and Eurotium halophilicum (FRR 2471)...
August 26, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Wei Zeng, Guiguang Chen, Hao Wu, Jun Wang, Yanliao Liu, Ye Guo, Zhiqun Liang
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a promising microbial polymer with potential applications in industry, agriculture and medicine. The use of high γ-PGA-producing strains is an effective approach to improve productivity of γ-PGA. In this study, we developed a mutant, F3-178, from Bacillus subtilis GXA-28 using genome shuffling. The morphological characteristics of F3-178 and GXA-28 were not identical. Compared with GXA-28 (18.4 ± 0.8 g l(-1) ), the yield of γ-PGA was 1.9-fold higher in F3-178 (34.3 ± 1...
August 26, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Nanna B Svenningsen, Mette H Nicolaisen, Hans Christian B Hansen, Victor de Lorenzo, Ole Nybroe
The nitrogen species available in the growth medium are key factors determining expression of xyl genes for biodegradation of aromatic compounds by Pseudomonas putida. Nitrogen compounds are frequently amended to promote degradation at polluted sites, but it remains unknown how regulation observed in the test tube is propagated into actual catabolism of, e.g. m-xylene in soil, the natural habitat of this bacterium. To address this issue, we have developed a test-tube-to-soil model system that exposes the end-effects of remediation practices influencing gene expression of P...
August 26, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Verónica Hernández-Sánchez, Lázaro Molina, Juan Luis Ramos, Ana Segura
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) contamination is a serious threat to public health and the environment, and therefore, there is an urgent need to detect its presence in nature. The use of whole-cell reporters is an efficient, easy-to-use and low-cost approach to detect and follow contaminants outside specialized laboratories; this is especially important in oil spills that are frequent in marine environments. The aim of this study is the construction of a bioreporter system and its comparison and validation for the specific detection of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different host bacteria and environmental samples...
August 3, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
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