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Microbial Biotechnology

Kenneth Timmis, Franziska Jebok, Manfred Rohde, Gabriella Molinari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Glaci V Moro, Rafaela T R Almeida, Amanda P Napp, Carla Porto, Eduardo J Pilau, Diogo S Lüdtke, Angélica V Moro, Marilene H Vainstein
Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from samples collected in areas contaminated with crude oil. The isolates were screened for biosurfactant production using qualitative drop-collapse test, oil-spreading and emulsification assays, and measurement of their tensoactive properties. Five isolates tested positive for in the screening experiments and displayed decrease in the surface tension below 30 mN m-1 . The biosurfactants produced by these isolates were further investigated and their molecular identification revealed that they are bacteria related to the Bacillus genus...
May 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Jianhe Wang, Jing Wang, Lian-Hui Zhang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to cause life-threatening infections. The previous studies showed that the type III secretion system (T3SS) of this pathogen is a key virulence determinant, which is activated by polyamines signals spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) from mammalian host. To test the potential of blocking host-pathogen communication in disease control, in this study we developed a high potency mouse monoclonal antibody (Mab 4E4, IgG1 sub-isotype) by using Spm-protein conjugate as an immunogen...
May 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Ralf Takors, Michael Kopf, Joerg Mampel, Wilfried Bluemke, Bastian Blombach, Bernhard Eikmanns, Frank R Bengelsdorf, Dirk Weuster-Botz, Peter Dürre
The reduction of CO2 emissions is a global effort which is not only supported by the society and politicians but also by the industry. Chemical producers worldwide follow the strategic goal to reduce CO2 emissions by replacing existing fossil-based production routes with sustainable alternatives. The smart use of CO and CO2 /H2 mixtures even allows to produce important chemical building blocks consuming the said gases as substrates in carboxydotrophic fermentations with acetogenic bacteria. However, existing industrial infrastructure and market demands impose constraints on microbes, bioprocesses and products that require careful consideration to ensure technical and economic success...
May 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Ariel Levi Simons, Nathan Churches, Sergey Nuzhdin
The composition of digestive microbiomes is known to be a significant factor in the health of a variety of hosts, including animal livestock. Therefore, it is important to ascertain how readily the microbiome can be significantly altered. To this end, the role of changing diet on the digestive microbiome of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was assessed via weekly faecal sampling. Over the course of 12 weeks, isolated individual oysters were fed either a control diet of Tetraselmis algae (Tet) or a treatment diet which shifted in composition every 4 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Mariya Tarazanova, Thom Huppertz, Jan Kok, Herwig Bachmann
Lactic acid bacteria are widely used for the fermentation of dairy products. While bacterial acidification rates, proteolytic activity and the production of exopolysaccharides are known to influence textural properties of fermented milk products, little is known about the role of the microbial surface on microbe-matrix interactions in dairy products. To investigate how alterations of the bacterial cell surface affect fermented milk properties, 25 isogenic Lactococcus lactis strains that differed with respect to surface charge, hydrophobicity, cell chaining, cell-clumping, attachment to milk proteins, pili expression and EPS production were used to produce fermented milk...
May 9, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Bastian Barker Rasmussen, Katrine Ege Erner, Mikkel Bentzon-Tilia, Lone Gram
The expanding aquaculture industry plays an important role in feeding the growing human population and with the expansion, sustainable bacterial disease control, such as probiotics, becomes increasingly important. Tropodithietic acid (TDA)-producing Phaeobacter spp. can protect live feed, for example rotifers and Artemia as well as larvae of turbot and cod against pathogenic vibrios. Here, we show that the emerging live feed, copepods, is unaffected by colonization of the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, making them potential infection vectors...
May 6, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Kyle S Enger, Jade Mitchell, Bharathi Murali, Dawn N Birdsell, Paul Keim, Patrick L Gurian, David M Wagner
Bacillus spores resist inactivation, but the extent of their persistence on common surfaces is unclear. This work addresses knowledge gaps regarding biothreat agents in the environment to reduce uncertainty in risk assessment models. Studies were conducted to investigate the long-term inactivation of Bacillus anthracis and three commonly used surrogate organisms - B. cereus, B. atrophaeus and B. thuringiensis on three materials: laminate countertop, stainless steel and polystyrene Petri dishes. Viable spores were measured at 1, 30, 90, 196, 304 and 1038 days...
May 3, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Miia R Mäkelä, Adiphol Dilokpimol, Salla M Koskela, Jaana Kuuskeri, Ronald P de Vries, Kristiina Hildén
Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are accessory enzymes for plant biomass degradation, which catalyse hydrolysis of carboxylic ester linkages between hydroxycinnamic acids and plant cell-wall carbohydrates. They are a diverse group of enzymes evolved from, e.g. acetyl xylan esterases (AXEs), lipases and tannases, thus complicating their classification and prediction of function by sequence similarity. Recently, an increasing number of fungal FAEs have been biochemically characterized, owing to their potential in various biotechnological applications and multitude of candidate FAEs in fungal genomes...
April 26, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Barbara Beer, André Pick, Manuel Döring, Petra Lommes, Volker Sieber
Rare sugars and sugar derivatives that can be obtained from abundant sugars are of great interest to biochemical and pharmaceutical research. Here, we describe the substrate scope of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Sphingomonas species A1 (SpsADH) in the oxidation of aldonates and polyols. The resulting products are rare uronic acids and rare sugars respectively. We provide insight into the substrate recognition of SpsADH using kinetic analyses, which show that the configuration of the hydroxyl groups adjacent to the oxidized carbon is crucial for substrate recognition...
April 26, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Estrella Duque, Abdelali Daddaoua, Baldo F Cordero, Zulema Udaondo, Carlos Molina-Santiago, Amalia Roca, Jennifer Solano, Eduarda Molina-Alcaide, Ana Segura, Juan-Luis Ramos
The success of second-generation (2G) ethanol technology relies on the efficient transformation of hemicellulose into monosaccharides and, particularly, on the full conversion of xylans into xylose for over 18% of fermentable sugars. We sought new hemicellulases using ruminal liquid, after enrichment of microbes with industrial lignocellulosic substrates and preparation of metagenomic libraries. Among 150 000 fosmid clones tested, we identified 22 clones with endoxylanase activity and 125 with β-xylosidase activity...
April 17, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Lea Bircher, Annelies Geirnaert, Frederik Hammes, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum...
April 17, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee
Certain pathogenic bacteria and yeast form biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces including medical devices and implants. Hence, the development of antibiofilm coating materials becomes relevant. The virulence of those colonizing pathogens can be reduced by inhibiting biofilm formation rather than killing pathogens using excessive amounts of antimicrobials, which is touted as one of the main reasons for the development of drug resistance. Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, and the transition of yeast cells to hyphal cells is believed to be a crucial virulence factor...
April 15, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Eleonora Cremonini, Marzia Boaretti, Ilse Vandecandelaere, Emanuele Zonaro, Tom Coenye, Maria M Lleo, Silvia Lampis, Giovanni Vallini
Increasing emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms poses a great concern to clinicians; thus, new active products are urgently required to treat a number of infectious disease cases. Different metallic and metalloid nanoparticles have so far been reported as possessing antimicrobial properties and proposed as a possible alternative therapy against resistant pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) synthesized by the environmental bacterial isolate Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02 were shown to exert a clear antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against different pathogenic bacteria, either reference strains or clinical isolates...
April 10, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Ryan M Ziels, Bo H Svensson, Carina Sundberg, Madeleine Larsson, Anna Karlsson, Sepehr Shakeri Yekta
This study examined whether the abundance and expression of microbial 16S rRNA genes were associated with elemental concentrations and substrate conversion biokinetics in 20 full-scale anaerobic digesters, including seven municipal sewage sludge (SS) digesters and 13 industrial codigesters. SS digester contents had higher methane production rates from acetate, propionate and phenyl acetate compared to industrial codigesters. SS digesters and industrial codigesters were distinctly clustered based on their elemental concentrations, with higher concentrations of NH3 -N, Cl, K and Na observed in codigesters...
April 6, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Yizhi Zhu, Chao Shi, Qingyan Niu, Jing Wang, Weiyun Zhu
We previously reported that protein-restricted rats experienced compensatory growth when they were switched to a normal protein diet (NPD). This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene expression and microbiome in the jejunum of compensatory-growth rats. Weaned Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to an N group, an LN group and an L group. The rats in the L and N groups were fed a low protein diet (LPD) and the NPD respectively. The rats in the LN group were fed with the LPD for 2 weeks, followed by the NPD...
April 6, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Jun-Jun Liu, Simon Francis Shamoun, Isabel Leal, Robert Kowbel, Grace Sumampong, Arezoo Zamany
Characterization of genes involved in differentiation of pathogen species and isolates with variations of virulence traits provides valuable information to control tree diseases for meeting the challenges of sustainable forest health and phytosanitary trade issues. Lack of genetic knowledge and genomic resources hinders novel gene discovery, molecular mechanism studies and development of diagnostic tools in the management of forest pathogens. Here, we report on transcriptome profiling of Heterobasidion occidentale isolates with contrasting virulence levels...
April 2, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Ricardo Cavicchioli
Microbes are the most abundant lifeforms on the planet and perform functions critical for all other life to exist. Environmental 'omic' technologies provide the capacity to discover the 'what, how and why' of indigenous species. However, in order to accurately interpret this data, sound conceptual frameworks are required. Here I argue that our understanding of microbes will advances much more effectively if we adopt a microbcentric, and not anthropocentric view of the world.
April 2, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Zulema Udaondo, Juan-Luis Ramos, Ana Segura, Tino Krell, Abdelali Daddaoua
Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas are widespread in nature. In the last decades, members of this genus, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida, have acquired great interest because of their interactions with higher organisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the lung of cystic fibrosis patients, while P. putida is a soil bacterium able to establish a positive interaction with the plant rhizosphere. Members of Pseudomonas genus have a robust metabolism for amino acids and organic acids as well as aromatic compounds; however, these microbes metabolize a very limited number of sugars...
April 2, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Franziska Buchholz, Tanja Kostić, Angela Sessitsch, Birgit Mitter
The role of the plant microbiota in plant establishment, growth and health is well studied, but the dynamics of postharvest crop microbiota and its role in postharvest crop quality are largely unexplored, although food loss is an enormous issue worldwide. The microbiota might be especially important during crop storage by either preventing or favouring rots, or quality loss due to, for example, sprouting, saccharification, water loss or spoilage. We need more research on plant-microbe interactions in postharvest crops to be in future able to provide microbial solutions for plant production along the whole food chain from field to fork...
March 26, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
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