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Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043202/sex-specific-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-indices-related-to-hemodynamics-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#1
Ping Yuan, Tian-Xiang Chen, Bigyan Pudasaini, Jie Zhang, Jian Guo, Si-Jin Zhang, Lan Wang, Qin-Hua Zhao, Su-Gang Gong, Rong Jiang, Wen-Hui Wu, Jing He, Jin-Ming Liu, Qing-Hua Hu
BACKGROUND: Many studies have highlighted sex preponderance in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). It is well established that there are differences in exercise capacities in the two sexes but how much of that difference reflects on disease severity or correlates to markers of severity in the two sexes is still not clear. Right heart catheterization (RHC) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) have been widely used for assessing functional capacity, prognosis and treatment response in IPAH...
January 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913761/best-practices-in-the-treatment-of-early-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease
#2
REVIEW
Marijke Proesmans
For many years, management of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease was focused on symptomatic treatment of chronic lung infection, which is characterized by cough and sputum production, leading to progressive lung damage. With increasing survival and better knowledge of the pathogenesis of CF lung disease, it has become clear that treatment has to start very early because lung damage occurs in young patients, often before obvious symptoms appear. The arrival of new cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance-regulator (CFTR)-correcting therapies will bring more opportunities to prevent the disease, apart from only treating chronic lung infection...
December 2, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030992/macrolides-a-promising-pharmacologic-therapy-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Shilin Qiu, Xiaoning Zhong
Chronic inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are no effective anti-inflammatory pharmacologic therapies available for COPD so far. Recent evidence suggests that an immunologic mechanism has a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Macrolides possess anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects may be helpful in the treatment of COPD. Several clinical studies have shown that long-term use of macrolides reduces the frequency of COPD exacerbations...
December 1, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903791/rapid-and-partial-remission-of-primary-lesion-but-complicated-by-secondary-fibrosis-after-treatment-with-nivolumab-in-a-lung-squamous-carcinoma
#4
LETTER
Ling Ding, Yehan Zhu, Cheng Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872176/the-evolving-landscape-of-combination-therapy-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#5
REVIEW
Matthew Griffin, Terence K Trow
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressively fatal disease, and the goal in treatment is to prevent disease progression. The standard of care often involves medications from multiple therapeutic classes, and there has been significant interest both in the choice of agent as well as the timing of initiation. There is a growing body of support for starting multiple medications at the time of diagnosis, or 'upfront ', rather than using sequential addition to prevent clinical deterioration.
November 21, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777372/current-best-practice-in-the-evaluation-and-management-of-malignant-pleural-effusions
#6
Steven Walker, Anna C Bibby, Nick A Maskell
Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are an important cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity. It is a heterogeneous group of conditions, which leads to debilitating symptoms and confers a poor prognosis. Recent well-designed randomized trials have provided a broader evidence base for an expanding range of treatment options. Together, with new prognostic scoring systems and a greater understanding of how different patient phenotypes respond to treatment, this allows greater personalization of management...
October 24, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043213/clinical-relevance-of-ige-mediated-sensitization-against-the-mould-alternaria-alternata-in-children-with-asthma
#7
Sylvia Lehmann, Anja Sprünken, Norbert Wagner, Klaus Tenbrock, Hagen Ott
BACKGROUND: Asthma in childhood has a prevalence of 5-10% in Germany and severe asthma accounts for about 5% in this patient group. Positive predictive values for severe asthma are atopy, a positive family history and sensitizations against inhalative allergens. Alternaria is an important inhalative allergen and sensitization is suspected to correlate with severe and lethal asthma. We investigated the prevalence and impact of Alternaria sensitization in paediatric asthma. METHODS: We reviewed paediatric patients with a diagnosis of low-grade, moderate and severe asthma...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043212/the-effect-of-acetazolamide-on-sleep-apnea-at-high-altitude-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Hsin-Ming Liu, I-Jen Chiang, Ken N Kuo, Cher-Ming Liou, Chiehfeng Chen
BACKGROUND: Acetazolamide has been investigated for treating sleep apnea in newcomers ascending to high altitude. This study aimed to assess the effect of acetazolamide on sleep apnea at high altitude, determine the optimal therapeutic dose, and compare its effectiveness in healthy trekkers and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Airiti Library databases were searched up to July 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed above 2500 m in lowlanders and that used acetazolamide as intervention in sleep studies...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856823/mepolizumab-in-the-management-of-severe-eosinophilic-asthma-in-adults-current-evidence-and-practical-experience
#9
Gilda Varricchi, Diego Bagnasco, Matteo Ferrando, Francesca Puggioni, Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio W Canonica
Eosinophils represent approximately 1% of peripheral blood leukocytes in normal donors and their maturation and differentiation in the bone marrow are mainly regulated by interleukin (IL)-5 [Broughton et al. 2015]. IL-5, a cytokine that belongs to the β common-chain family, together with IL-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), stimulates also the activation and survival of eosinophils and, to some extent, of basophils. IL-5 binds to a heterodimer receptor composed of the specific subunit IL-5Rα and a common subunit βc shared with IL-3 and GM-CSF...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784816/endoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-coil-treatment-in-patients-with-chronic-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-an-observational-study
#10
Marcel Simon, Lars Harbaum, Tim Oqueka, Stefan Kluge, Hans Klose
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic lung volume reduction coil (LVRC) treatment is an option for selected patients with severe emphysema. In the advanced stages, emphysema leads to respiratory failure: hypoxemia and eventually chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. It can be hypothesized that LVRC treatment, a procedure targeting hyperinflation and thereby reducing ventilatory workload, may be especially beneficial in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. This study was conducted to gain first insights into the effects and the safety of LVRC treatment in patients with emphysema and chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742781/endobronchial-valves-for-bronchopleural-fistula-pitfalls-and-principles
#11
Dany Gaspard, Thaddeus Bartter, Ziad Boujaoude, Haroon Raja, Rohan Arya, Nikhil Meena, Wissam Abouzgheib
BACKGROUND: Placement of endobronchial valves for bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is not always straightforward. A simple guide to the steps for an uncomplicated procedure does not encompass pitfalls that need to be understood and overcome to maximize the efficacy of this modality. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to discuss examples of difficult cases for which the placement of endobronchial valves was not straightforward and required alterations in the usual basic steps...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733490/therapeutic-management-of-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-associated-interstitial-lung-disease-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Andrea Picchianti Diamanti, Milica Markovic, Giuseppe Argento, Simonetta Giovagnoli, Alberto Ricci, Bruno Laganà, Raffaele D'Amelio
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease that can present different extrarticular manifestations involving heart, lungs and kidneys. In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the central role played by the lungs in the onset and progression of RA. In particular interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common pulmonary manifestation that may be related to the inflammatory process itself, infectious complications and to the treatments used. Management of patients with ILD/RA is still a challenge for clinicians, both synthetic [mainly methotrexate (MTX), leflunomide] and biologic immunosuppressors [mainly anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α] have in fact been related to the onset or worsening of lung diseases with conflicting data...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678500/applications-and-mechanisms-of-immunotherapy-in-allergic-rhinitis-and-asthma
#13
Jasper H Kappen, Stephen R Durham, Hans In 't Veen, Mohamed H Shamji
Clinical and immunologic tolerance are hallmarks of successful allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Clinical benefits such as reduced symptoms, pharmacotherapy intake and improvement of quality of life persist following cessation of treatment. Successful AIT is associated with suppression of allergic inflammatory cells such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils in target organs. Furthermore, AIT down-regulates type 2 innate lymphoid cells and allergen-specific type 2 T-helper (Th2) cells. The immunologic tolerant state following AIT is associated with the induction of distinct phenotypes of regulatory T-cells (T-regs) including interleukin (IL)-10-, IL-35- and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β- producing T-regs and FoxP3(+) T-regs...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595643/a-review-of-therapeutic-agents-for-the-management-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
Stella S Hahn, Mina Makaryus, Arunabh Talwar, Mangala Narasimhan, Gulrukh Zaidi
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an uncommon, progressive and life threatening disease characterized by a proliferative vasculopathy of the small muscular pulmonary arterioles resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and eventually right ventricular failure. An increasing understanding of the pathobiology of PAH and its natural history has led to the development of numerous targeted therapies. Despite these advances there is significant progression of disease and the survival rate remains low...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784815/osimertinib-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-t790m-mutation-positive-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-clinical-trial-evidence-and-experience
#15
REVIEW
Ivana Sullivan, David Planchard
Patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are particularly sensitive to treatment with first- or second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib, which block the cell-signaling pathways that drive the growth of tumor cells. Unfortunately, the majority of patients develop resistance to them after a median duration of response of around 10 months, and in over half of these patients the emergence of the EGFR T790M resistance mutation is detected...
October 26, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612491/tiotropium-in-the-add-on-treatment-of-asthma-in-adults-clinical-trial-evidence-and-experience
#16
REVIEW
Christian Vogelberg
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease, and its treatment is frequently challenging despite detailed national and international guidelines. While basic anti-inflammatory therapy usually consists of inhaled corticosteroids in doses adapted to the asthma severity, add-on treatment with bronchodilators is essential in more severe asthma. Only recently, the long-acting anticholinergic tiotropium was introduced into the GINA guidelines. This review reports on the studies that have been performed with tiotropium in adult asthmatic patients...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591046/factors-associated-with-experience-of-fatigue-and-functional-limitations-due-to-fatigue-in-patients-with-stable-copd
#17
Magnus Kentson, Kristina Tödt, Elisabeth Skargren, Per Jakobsson, Jan Ernerudh, Mitra Unosson, Kersti Theander
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of selected physiological, psychological and situational factors on experience of fatigue, and functional limitations due to fatigue in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: In total 101 patients with COPD and 34 control patients were assessed for experience of fatigue, functional limitation due to fatigue (Fatigue Impact Scale), physiological [lung function, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), body mass index (BMI), dyspnoea, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), surfactant protein D], psychological (anxiety, depression, insomnia), situational variables (age, sex, smoking, living alone, education), and quality of life...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585599/segmentectomy-versus-wedge-resection-for-the-treatment-of-high-risk-operable-patients-with-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#18
Bing Hou, Xu-Feng Deng, Dong Zhou, Quan-Xing Liu, Ji-Gang Dai
BACKGROUND: Although lobectomy is still the preferred treatment for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), segmentectomy or wedge resection is frequently performed on patients who cannot withstand the physiological rigors of lobectomy. The objective of this study was to compare the overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and disease-free survival outcomes among patients with stage I NSCLC who have undergone these procedures. METHODS: A systematic electronic search in three online databases was conducted from their earliest publication dates to June 2015...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585598/spontaneous-pneumomediastinum-and-subcutaneous-emphysema-as-a-complication-of-asthma-in-children-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Miguel Tortajada-Girbés, Miriam Moreno-Prat, David Ainsa-Laguna, Silvia Mas
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is an uncommon disorder. It is rarely reported in paediatric patients and may be accompanied by subcutaneous emphysema. It is usually benign and self-limiting, with only supportive therapy being needed, but severe cases may require invasive measures. Asthma exacerbations have classically been described as a cause of SPM. However, detailed descriptions in asthmatic children are scarce. We aimed at improving the current understanding of the features of SPM and subcutaneous emphysema, and outcomes, by means of a case report and a systematic review...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585597/end-of-life-care-in-patients-with-advanced-lung-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Richard B L Lim
Despite advances in the detection, pathological diagnosis and therapeutics of lung cancer, many patients still develop advanced, incurable and progressively fatal disease. As physicians, the duties to cure sometimes, relieve often and comfort always should be a constant reminder to us of the needs that must be met when caring for a patient with lung cancer. Four key areas of end-of-life care in advanced lung cancer begin with first recognizing 'when a patient is approaching the end of life'. The clinician should be able to recognize when the focus of care needs to shift from an aggressive life-sustaining approach to an approach that helps prepare and support a patient and family members through a period of progressive, inevitable decline...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
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