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Forensic Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660664/pharmacokinetics-of-heroin-and-its-metabolites-in-vitreous-humor-and-blood-in-a-living-pig-model
#1
André Gottås, Marianne Arnestad, Per Steinar Halvorsen, Liliana C Bachs, Gudrun Høiseth
Vitreous humor (VH) is an alternative matrix for drug analysis in forensic toxicology. However, little is known about the distribution of xenobiotics, such as opioids, into VH in living organisms. The aim of this study was to simultaneously measure heroin and metabolite concentrations in blood and VH after injection of heroin in a living pig model. Six pigs were under non-opioid anesthesia during the surgical operation and experiment. Ocular microdialysis was used to acquire dialysate from VH, and a venous catheter was used for blood sampling...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594923/chiral-enantioresolution-of-cathinone-derivatives-present-in-legal-highs-and-enantioselectivity-evaluation-on-cytotoxicity-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv
#2
Bárbara Silva, Carla Fernandes, Maria Elizabeth Tiritan, Madalena M M Pinto, Maria João Valente, Márcia Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Fernando Remião
Recently, great interest has been focused on synthetic cathinones since their consumption has increased exponentially. All synthetic cathinones exist as chiral molecules; the biological and/or toxicological properties of cathinones generally differ according to the enantiomers in human body. In this study, a chiral liquid chromatography method was developed to separate and determine the enantiomeric ratio of synthetic cathinones present in "legal highs" acquired in old smart shops or over the Internet. All the synthetic cathinones were efficiently enantio-separated with α and Rs ranging from 1...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547267/successful-quantification-of-4-methyl-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinohexanophenone-mphp-in-human-urine-using-lc-tof-ms-in-an-autopsy-case
#3
Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Yasuhiro Kakiuchi, Hiroshi Ikegaya
The toxicological detection of the new synthetic cathinone 4'-methyl-α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (MPHP) in urine samples has been impossible, because much of MPHP is metabolized before its excretion into urine. In this study, we successfully quantified unmetabolized MPHP in urine of an autopsy case using a sensitive method by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. The quantification method showed good linearity in the range of 1.00-100 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.5 ng/mL in human urine...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547266/the-2-alkyl-2h-indazole-regioisomers-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-ab-chminaca-ab-fubinaca-ab-pinaca-and-5f-ab-pinaca-are-possible-manufacturing-impurities-with-cannabimimetic-activities
#4
Mitchell Longworth, Samuel D Banister, James B C Mack, Michelle Glass, Mark Connor, Michael Kassiou
Indazole-derived synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) featuring an alkyl substituent at the 1-position and l-valinamide at the 3-carboxamide position (e.g., AB-CHMINACA) have been identified by forensic chemists around the world, and are associated with serious adverse health effects. Regioisomerism is possible for indazole SCs, with the 2-alkyl-2H-indazole regioisomer of AB-CHMINACA recently identified in SC products in Japan. It is unknown whether this regiosiomer represents a manufacturing impurity arising as a synthetic byproduct, or was intentionally synthesized as a cannabimimetic agent...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547265/strategies-to-distinguish-new-synthetic-cannabinoid-fubimina-bim-2201-intake-from-its-isomer-thj-2201-metabolism-of-fubimina-in-human-hepatocytes
#5
Xingxing Diao, Karl B Scheidweiler, Ariane Wohlfarth, Mingshe Zhu, Shaokun Pang, Marilyn A Huestis
Since 2013, a new drugs-of-abuse trend attempts to bypass drug legislation by marketing isomers of scheduled synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), e.g., FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) and THJ-2201. It is much more challenging to confirm a specific isomer's intake and distinguish it from its structural analog because the isomers and their major metabolites usually have identical molecular weights and display the same product ions. Here, we investigated isomers FUBIMINA and THJ-2201 and propose strategies to distinguish their consumption...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429656/new-psychoactive-substance-%C3%AE-pvp-in-a-traffic-accident-case
#6
Sebastian Rojek, Karol Kula, Martyna Maciów-Głąb, Małgorzata Kłys
The problems of new psychoactive substances (NPSs), especially related to drivers, constitute an open research area. In this case report, we present a traffic accident case, in which two passengers of five individuals died instantly, while the other three persons survived the accident with minor injuries only. From the blood samples of the driver and the passengers, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), an NPS belonging to the category of cathinone derivatives, was disclosed. Therefore, we established a detailed procedure for analysis of α-PVP in blood samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429655/pharmacological-evaluation-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-identified-as-constituents-of-spice
#7
Cornelius Hess, Clara T Schoeder, Thanigaimalai Pillaiyar, Burkhard Madea, Christa E Müller
In recent years, many synthetic cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists have appeared on the market as constituents of herbal incense mixtures known as "spice". Contrary to the declared use, they are perorally consumed as a replacement for marijuana to get "high". In many cases, detailed information on the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of the synthetic compounds found in spice preparations is lacking. We have now evaluated a large series of heterocyclic compounds, 1,3-disubstituted indole and 2-azaindole derivatives known or assumed to be CB1 receptor agonists, many of which have previously been identified in forensic samples...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429654/application-of-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-to-determination-of-baclofen-in-a-case-of-fatal-intoxication
#8
Paweł Szpot, Agnieszka Chłopaś, Grzegorz Buszewicz, Grzegorz Teresiński
The study focused on the application of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to postmortem toxicological analysis. Fast and simple sample preparation involved precipitation with acetonitrile, removal of phospholipids using special columns and filtration. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method was validated by determining the limit of quantification, precision, recovery and matrix effect...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26793280/four-types-of-cannabimimetic-indazole-and-indole-derivatives-adb-binaca-ab-fubica-adb-fubica-and-ab-bica-identified-as-new-psychoactive-substances
#9
Zhenhua Qian, Zhendong Hua, Cuimei Liu, Wei Jia
We identified four cannabimimetic indazole and indole derivatives in new illegal psychoactive substances seized from a clandestine laboratory in China. These four derivatives included N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (ADB-BINACA, 1), N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (AB-FUBICA, 2), N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (ADB-FUBICA, 3), and N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (AB-BICA, 4)...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26793279/differentiation-of-ring-substituted-bromoamphetamine-analogs-by-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#10
Hiroyuki Inoue, Shoko Negishi, Yukiko Nakazono, Yuko T Iwata, Kenji Tsujikawa, Osamu Ohtsuru, Kazuna Miyamoto, Takuya Yamashita, Fumiyo Kasuya
There has been a rapid increase over the last decade in the appearance of new non-controlled psychoactive substances. Minor changes in the chemical structures of these compounds, such as the extension of an alkyl residue or replacement of a single substituent, are regularly made to avoid regulatory control, leading to the manufacture of many new potentially dangerous drugs. Bromoamphetamine analogs (bromoamphetamine [Br-AP] and bromomethamphetamine (Br-MA]) are ring-substituted amphetamines that can behave as stimulants, as well as exhibiting inhibitory activity towards monoamine oxidases in the same way as amphetamines...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26793278/identification-and-characterization-of-new-designer-drug-4-fluoro-pv9-and-%C3%AE-php-in-the-seized-materials
#11
Milena Majchrzak, Marcin Rojkiewicz, Rafał Celiński, Piotr Kuś, Mieczysław Sajewicz
In this study, we present identification and physicochemical characterization of new cathinone derivatives, 4-fluoro-PV9 and already known α-PHP in seized materials. Although the disclosure of α-PHP from an illegal product had been reported and characterized to some extent, the data on α-PHP are also presented together with those of 4-fluoro-PV9. The data of characterization for the two compounds were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry and HPLC-diode array detection, electrospray ionization/ion trap mass spectrometry in MS(2) and MS(3) modes, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26793277/4-methoxy-%C3%AE-pvp-in-silico-prediction-metabolic-stability-and-metabolite-identification-by-human-hepatocyte-incubation-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#12
Kayla N Ellefsen, Ariane Wohlfarth, Madeleine J Swortwood, Xingxing Diao, Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
Novel psychoactive substances are continuously developed to circumvent legislative and regulatory efforts. A new synthetic cathinone, 4-methoxy-α-PVP, was identified for the first time in illegal products; however, the metabolism of this compound is not known. Complete metabolic profiles are needed for these novel psychoactive substances to enable identification of their intake and to link adverse effects to the causative agent. This study assessed 4-methoxy-α-PVP metabolic stability with human liver microsomes (HLMs) and identified its metabolites after HLM and hepatocyte incubations followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26793276/vitreous-humor-analysis-for-the-detection-of-xenobiotics-in-forensic-toxicology-a-review
#13
Fabien Bévalot, Nathalie Cartiser, Charline Bottinelli, Laurent Fanton, Jérôme Guitton
Vitreous humor (VH) is a gelatinous substance contained in the posterior chamber of the eye, playing a mechanical role in the eyeball. It has been the subject of numerous studies in various forensic applications, primarily for the assessment of postmortem interval and for postmortem chemical analysis. Since most of the xenobiotics present in the bloodstream are detected in VH after crossing the selective blood-retinal barrier, VH is an alternative matrix useful for forensic toxicology. VH analysis offers particular advantages over other biological matrices: it is less prone to postmortem redistribution, is easy to collect, has relatively few interfering compounds for the analytical process, and shows sample stability over time after death...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691350/differentiation-of-regioisomeric-chloroamphetamine-analogs-using-gas-chromatography-chemical-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#14
Shoko Negishi, Yukiko Nakazono, Yuko T Iwata, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Kenji Tsujikawa, Kenji Kuwayama, Tadashi Yamamuro, Kazuna Miyamoto, Takuya Yamashita, Fumiyo Kasuya, Hiroyuki Inoue
In recent years, a large number of clandestinely synthesized new psychoactive substances with high structural variety have been detected in forensic samples. Analytical differentiation of regioisomers is a significant issue in forensic drug analysis, because, in most cases, legal controls are placed on only one or two of the conceivable isomers. In this study, gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) was used to differentiate the regioisomers of chloroamphetamine analogs (chloroamphetamines and chloromethamphetamines) synthesized in the authors' laboratories...
2015: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26257834/postmortem-distribution-of-mab-chminaca-in-body-fluids-and-solid-tissues-of-a-human-cadaver
#15
Koutaro Hasegawa, Amin Wurita, Kayoko Minakata, Kunio Gonmori, Hideki Nozawa, Itaru Yamagishi, Kanako Watanabe, Osamu Suzuki
During the latter part of 2014, we experienced an autopsy case in which 5-fluoro-ADB, one of the most dangerous synthetic cannabinoids, was identified and quantitated in solid tissues and in three herbal blend products [Forensic Toxicol (2015) 33:112-121]. At that time, although we suspected that there may be some drug(s) other than 5-fluoro-ADB in the herbal products, all trials to find it/them were unsuccessful. Subsequently, we carefully re-examined the presence of other synthetic cannabinoid(s) in the above herbal blend products using accurate mass spectrometry and found two new compounds, 5-fluoro-ADB-PINACA and MAB-CHMINACA (Forensic Toxicol...
2015: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26257833/a-synthetic-cannabinoid-fdu-nnei-two-2h-indazole-isomers-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-ab-chminaca-and-nnei-indazole-analog-mn-18-a-phenethylamine-derivative-n-oh-edma-and-a-cathinone-derivative-dimethoxy-%C3%AE-php-newly-identified-in-illegal-products
#16
Nahoko Uchiyama, Yoshihiko Shimokawa, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Yosuke Demizu, Yukihiro Goda, Takashi Hakamatsuka
Six new psychoactive substances were identified together with two other substances (compounds 1-8) in illegal products by our ongoing survey in Japan between January and July 2014. A new synthetic cannabinoid, FDU-NNEI [1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-N-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide, 2], was detected with the newly distributed synthetic cannabinoid FDU-PB-22 (1). Two 2H-indazole isomers of synthetic cannabinoids, AB-CHMINACA 2H-indazole analog (3) and NNEI 2H-indazole analog (4), were newly identified with 1H-indazoles [AB-CHMINACA and NNEI indazole analog (MN-18)]...
2015: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26257832/ah-7921-the-list-of-new-psychoactive-opioids-is-expanded
#17
Maria Katselou, Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotiris Athanaselis
AH-7921 is a structurally unique synthetic opioid analgesic that has recently entered the drug arena in Europe, the USA, and Japan. Although it was synthesized and patented in the mid-1970s, it was first identified in a seized sample purchased via the Internet in July 2012 and formally brought to the attention of the European Union early warning system in August 2012 by the United Kingdom. Several in vitro experiments and animal model studies established the morphine-like analgesic action of AH-7921 as a μ-opioid receptor agonist that has been found to be several times more potent than codeine and at least as potent as morphine...
2015: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26257831/comprehensive-review-of-the-detection-methods-for-synthetic-cannabinoids-and-cathinones
#18
Akira Namera, Maho Kawamura, Akihiro Nakamoto, Takeshi Saito, Masataka Nagao
A number of N-alkyl indole or indazole-3-carbonyl analogs, with modified chemical structures, are distributed throughout the world as synthetic cannabinoids. Like synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone analogs are also abused and cause serious problems worldwide. Acute deaths caused by overdoses of these drugs have been reported. Various analytical methods that can cope with the rapid changes in chemical structures are required for routine analysis and screening of these drugs in seized and biological materials for forensic and clinical purposes...
2015: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23440626/simple-and-rapid-determination-of-myristicin-in-human-serum
#19
Andrzej L Dawidowicz, Michal P Dybowski
Myristicin (5-allyl-1-methoxy-2,3-methylenodioxybenzene) is the main component of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) essential oil. The increasing use of myristicin as a cheap hallucinogenic intoxicant, frequently causing fatal cases of myristicin poisoning, requires new methods for determination of this compound in blood. This report describes the rapid, simple, and useful procedure for myristicin analysis in human serum, involving myristicin-protein complex degradation before chromatographic analysis. The developed method is characterized by a high recovery (above 99 %), a low detection limit (6...
January 2013: Forensic Toxicology
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