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Forensic Toxicology

Piotr Kuś, Joachim Kusz, Maria Książek, Ewelina Pieprzyca, Marcin Rojkiewicz
Purpose: Two compounds newly found in the seizures by drug enforcement agencies were identified and characterized by various instrumental analytical methods. Methods: The obtained powder samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometryn (LC-MSn), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Results: The two compounds were tentatively identified as 4-chloro-α-PVP and 4-MDMC by GC-MS, and LC-MS/MS...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Marcin Rojkiewicz, Piotr Kuś, Joachim Kusz, Maria Książek
Purpose: In this study, we performed identification and physicochemical characterization of two cathinone derivatives, 4-FPD and 4-MEAP, found in market-available materials. Methods: The compounds were characterized by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) in MS2 and MS3 modes, gas chromatography-MS, infrared, Raman and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies, X-ray crystallography, differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Akira Mochizuki, Hiroko Nakazawa, Noboru Adachi, Kenichi Takekawa, Hideki Shojo
Purpose: We encountered a curious case in which two male subjects self-administered mepirapim plus acetyl fentanyl by different routes, i.e., intravenously and by inhalation. We have thus established a detailed procedure for quantification of mepirapim and acetyl fentanyl in whole blood and urine specimens using gas chromatography (GC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Methods: The GC-MS/MS method was validated for linearity, extraction recovery, accuracy, and precision...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Harald John, Marcel J van der Schans, Marianne Koller, Helma E T Spruit, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Daan Noort
During the United Nations fact-finding mission to investigate the alleged use of chemical warfare agents in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2013, numerous tissues from a deceased female victim, who had displayed symptoms of cholinergic crisis, were collected. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) authorized two specialized laboratories in the Netherlands and Germany for forensic analysis of these samples. Diverse modern mass spectrometry (MS)-based procedures in combination with either liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) separation were applied...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Takahiro Doi, Takaomi Tagami, Akihiro Takeda, Akiko Asada, Yoshiyuki Sawabe
Recently, carboxamide-type synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed globally as new psychoactive substances (NPS). Some of these compounds possess asymmetric carbon, which is derived from an amide moiety composed of amino acid derivatives (i.e., amides or esters of amino acids). In this study, we synthesized both enantiomers of synthetic cannabinoids, N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-FUBINACA 2-fluorobenzyl isomer), N-(1-amino-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (APP-CHMINACA), ethyl [1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl]valinate (5F-EMB-PINACA), ethyl [1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl]valinate (EMB-FUBINACA), and methyl 2-[1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamido]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (MDMB-FUBICA), which were reported as NPS found in Europe from 2014 to 2015, to evaluate their activities as CB1/CB2 receptor agonists...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Milena Majchrzak, Rafał Celiński, Piotr Kuś, Teresa Kowalska, Mieczysław Sajewicz
Purpose: Currently, among new psychoactive substances, cathinone derivatives constitute the biggest group, which are mainly classified into N-alkylated, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-alkylated, N-pyrrolidinyl, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-pyrrolidinyl derivatives. These derivatives are actively being subjected to minor modifications at the alkyl chains or the aromatic ring to create new synthetic cathinones with the goal of circumventing laws. In this review, the new synthetic cathinones that have appeared on the illegal drug market during the period 2014-2017 are highlighted, and their characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is presented...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Nektaria Misailidi, Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Artemisia Dona, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotiris Athanaselis
Purpose: Ocfentanil and carfentanil are two potent synthetic opioids that are analogues of fentanyl and are actively involved in the recent fentanyl crisis. The aim of this review is to provide all the available information on these two fentanyl analogues. Methods: All reviewed information was gathered through a detailed search of PubMed and the World Wide Web using relevant keywords. Results: Like most of the members of the family of fentanyls, they are either sold as heroin to unsuspecting users or used extensively to lace heroin street samples...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Engy Shokry, Jair Gonzalez Marques, Paulo César Ragazzo, Naiara Zedes Pereira, Nelson Roberto Antoniosi Filho
In this work, we presented, for the first time, earwax as an alternative forensic specimen for detecting 12 neuropsychotic drugs employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive and negative ion modes after straightforward extraction with methanol. The method was validated and standard curves were established by external calibration with correlation coefficients >0.99. All precision, accuracy, matrix effects, extraction recoveries, and carryover were within acceptable limits; limits of quantification were sufficiently low to quantify almost all the samples tested...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Genri Kawahara, Hideyuki Maeda, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Yukiko K Hayashi
N-Benzyl-substituted 2C class phenethylamines (NBOMes) are psychoactive designer drugs, with strong hallucinogenic and stimulant effects, even at low doses. The designer drug, 2-(4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl) ethanamine (25B-NBOMe) is considered to be one of the most potent agonists of the serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor. Recently, we reported the first lethal case of 25B-NBOMe intoxication with severe rhabdomyolysis, concluded by clinical, pathological and toxicological analyses. There are currently no good animal models that closely recapitulate serotonin receptor-dependent rhabdomyolysis...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Richard C Kevin, Timothy W Lefever, Rodney W Snyder, Purvi R Patel, Timothy R Fennell, Jenny L Wiley, Iain S McGregor, Brian F Thomas
CUMYL-PICA [1-pentyl- N -(2-phenylpropan-2-yl)-1 H -indole-3-carboxamide] and 5F-CUMYL-PICA [1-(5-fluoropentyl)- N -(2-phenylpropan-2-yl)-1 H -indole-3-carboxamide] are recently identified recreationally used/abused synthetic cannabinoids, but have uncharacterized pharmacokinetic profiles and metabolic processes. This study characterized clearance and metabolism of these compounds by human and rat liver microsomes and hepatocytes, and then compared these parameters with in vivo rat plasma and urine sampling...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Luciano Chaves Arantes, Ettore Ferrari Júnior, Luciano Figueiredo de Souza, Andriele Costa Cardoso, Thaynara Lino Fernandes Alcântara, Luciano Morais Lião, Yuri Machado, Rogério Araújo Lordeiro, José Coelho Neto, Ana Flávia B Andrade
A new potent serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist was identified in blotter papers by several state level forensic laboratories in Brazil. The 25I-NBOH is a labile molecule, which fragments into 2C-I when analyzed by routine seized material screening gas chromatography (GC) methods. GC-mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-MS, and Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were performed to complete molecular characterization. Individual doses range from 300 to 1000 μg...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Shuji Kaneko
From 2012 to 2014 in Japan, 214 cases of motor vehicle collisions were attributed to the use of illegal drugs. In 93 out of 96 investigated cases, the causative agents were a variety of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). These SCs can be classified into three groups according to the lineage of the chemical structures: (1) naphthoyl indoles, such as MAM-2201, (2) quinolinyl ester indoles, such as 5F-PB-22, and (3) indazole carboxamides, such as 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-AMB, and 5F-ADB. These SCs became available sequentially with increasing cannabinoid CB1 agonist potencies and reached a nationwide outbreak in the summer of 2014...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Xingxing Diao, Jeremy Carlier, Mingshe Zhu, Shaokun Pang, Robert Kronstrand, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
In 2014, NM-2201 (CBL-2201), a novel synthetic cannabinoid (SC), was detected by Russian and United States laboratories. It was already added to the scheduled drugs list in Japan, Sweden and Germany. Unfortunately, no human metabolism data are currently available, making it challenging to confirm its intake because all previous investigated SCs were extensively metabolized. The present study aims to recommend appropriate marker metabolites by investigating NM-2201 metabolism in human hepatocytes and confirm the results in authentic human urine specimens...
January 2017: Forensic Toxicology
Piotr Kuś, Joachim Kusz, Maria Książek, Ewelina Pieprzyca, Marcin Rojkiewicz
Comprehensive chemical characterization for two cathinone derivatives, N-ethyl-2-amino-1-phenylpropan-1-one (ethcathinone) hydrochloride and N-ethyl-2-amino-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-propan-1-one (4-chloroethcathinone, 4-CEC) hydrochloride, in material seized by drug enforcement agencies was performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in positive electron ionization mode, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode and X-ray crystallography...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Mamoru Akutsu, Ken-Ichi Sugie, Koichi Saito
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in electron ionization (EI) mode is one of the most commonly used techniques for analysis of synthetic cannabinoids, because the GC-EI-MS spectra contain characteristic fragment ions for identification of a compound; however, the information on its molecular ions is frequently lacking. To obtain such molecular ion information, GC-MS in chemical ionization (CI) mode is frequently used. However, GC-CI-MS requires a relatively tedious process using reagent gas such as methane or isobutane...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Erina Kohyama, Takao Chikumoto, Hiroyuki Tada, Kiyoyuki Kitaichi, Tetsuro Ito
Differentiation among regioisomers of synthetic cannabinoids in forensic drug analysis is a crucial issue, since all isomers are not regulated by law. New equivalent analogs obtained via minor modification of their preexisting molecules keep on emerging. Isomers formed via substitutional exchange are also a cause for concern. This study is focused on the isomeric molecules that stem from minor modifications of 5F-PB-22. The analytical properties of these molecules and methods of differentiation are reported...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Maria Katselou, Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotiris Athanaselis
Fonazepam (desmethylflunitrazepam) and nifoxipam (3-hydroxy-desmethylflunitrazepam) are benzodiazepine derivatives and active metabolites of flunitrazepam. They recently invaded the drug arena as substances of abuse and alerted the forensic community after being seized in powder and tablet forms in Europe between 2014 and 2016. A review of all the existing knowledge of fonazepam and nifoxipam is reported, concerning their chemistry, synthesis, pharmacology and toxicology, prevalence/use, biotransformation and their analysis in biological samples...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
André Gottås, Marianne Arnestad, Per Steinar Halvorsen, Liliana C Bachs, Gudrun Høiseth
Vitreous humor (VH) is an alternative matrix for drug analysis in forensic toxicology. However, little is known about the distribution of xenobiotics, such as opioids, into VH in living organisms. The aim of this study was to simultaneously measure heroin and metabolite concentrations in blood and VH after injection of heroin in a living pig model. Six pigs were under non-opioid anesthesia during the surgical operation and experiment. Ocular microdialysis was used to acquire dialysate from VH, and a venous catheter was used for blood sampling...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Bárbara Silva, Carla Fernandes, Maria Elizabeth Tiritan, Madalena M M Pinto, Maria João Valente, Márcia Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Fernando Remião
Recently, great interest has been focused on synthetic cathinones since their consumption has increased exponentially. All synthetic cathinones exist as chiral molecules; the biological and/or toxicological properties of cathinones generally differ according to the enantiomers in human body. In this study, a chiral liquid chromatography method was developed to separate and determine the enantiomeric ratio of synthetic cathinones present in "legal highs" acquired in old smart shops or over the Internet. All the synthetic cathinones were efficiently enantio-separated with α and Rs ranging from 1...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Yasuhiro Kakiuchi, Hiroshi Ikegaya
The toxicological detection of the new synthetic cathinone 4'-methyl-α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (MPHP) in urine samples has been impossible, because much of MPHP is metabolized before its excretion into urine. In this study, we successfully quantified unmetabolized MPHP in urine of an autopsy case using a sensitive method by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. The quantification method showed good linearity in the range of 1.00-100 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.5 ng/mL in human urine...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
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