Read by QxMD icon Read

Forensic Toxicology

Luciano Chaves Arantes, Ettore Ferrari Júnior, Luciano Figueiredo de Souza, Andriele Costa Cardoso, Thaynara Lino Fernandes Alcântara, Luciano Morais Lião, Yuri Machado, Rogério Araújo Lordeiro, José Coelho Neto, Ana Flávia B Andrade
A new potent serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist was identified in blotter papers by several state level forensic laboratories in Brazil. The 25I-NBOH is a labile molecule, which fragments into 2C-I when analyzed by routine seized material screening gas chromatography (GC) methods. GC-mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-MS, and Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were performed to complete molecular characterization. Individual doses range from 300 to 1000 μg...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Shuji Kaneko
From 2012 to 2014 in Japan, 214 cases of motor vehicle collisions were attributed to the use of illegal drugs. In 93 out of 96 investigated cases, the causative agents were a variety of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). These SCs can be classified into three groups according to the lineage of the chemical structures: (1) naphthoyl indoles, such as MAM-2201, (2) quinolinyl ester indoles, such as 5F-PB-22, and (3) indazole carboxamides, such as 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-AMB, and 5F-ADB. These SCs became available sequentially with increasing cannabinoid CB1 agonist potencies and reached a nationwide outbreak in the summer of 2014...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Xingxing Diao, Jeremy Carlier, Mingshe Zhu, Shaokun Pang, Robert Kronstrand, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
In 2014, NM-2201 (CBL-2201), a novel synthetic cannabinoid (SC), was detected by Russian and United States laboratories. It was already added to the scheduled drugs list in Japan, Sweden and Germany. Unfortunately, no human metabolism data are currently available, making it challenging to confirm its intake because all previous investigated SCs were extensively metabolized. The present study aims to recommend appropriate marker metabolites by investigating NM-2201 metabolism in human hepatocytes and confirm the results in authentic human urine specimens...
January 2017: Forensic Toxicology
Piotr Kuś, Joachim Kusz, Maria Książek, Ewelina Pieprzyca, Marcin Rojkiewicz
Comprehensive chemical characterization for two cathinone derivatives, N-ethyl-2-amino-1-phenylpropan-1-one (ethcathinone) hydrochloride and N-ethyl-2-amino-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-propan-1-one (4-chloroethcathinone, 4-CEC) hydrochloride, in material seized by drug enforcement agencies was performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in positive electron ionization mode, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode and X-ray crystallography...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Mamoru Akutsu, Ken-Ichi Sugie, Koichi Saito
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in electron ionization (EI) mode is one of the most commonly used techniques for analysis of synthetic cannabinoids, because the GC-EI-MS spectra contain characteristic fragment ions for identification of a compound; however, the information on its molecular ions is frequently lacking. To obtain such molecular ion information, GC-MS in chemical ionization (CI) mode is frequently used. However, GC-CI-MS requires a relatively tedious process using reagent gas such as methane or isobutane...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Erina Kohyama, Takao Chikumoto, Hiroyuki Tada, Kiyoyuki Kitaichi, Tetsuro Ito
Differentiation among regioisomers of synthetic cannabinoids in forensic drug analysis is a crucial issue, since all isomers are not regulated by law. New equivalent analogs obtained via minor modification of their preexisting molecules keep on emerging. Isomers formed via substitutional exchange are also a cause for concern. This study is focused on the isomeric molecules that stem from minor modifications of 5F-PB-22. The analytical properties of these molecules and methods of differentiation are reported...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Maria Katselou, Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotiris Athanaselis
Fonazepam (desmethylflunitrazepam) and nifoxipam (3-hydroxy-desmethylflunitrazepam) are benzodiazepine derivatives and active metabolites of flunitrazepam. They recently invaded the drug arena as substances of abuse and alerted the forensic community after being seized in powder and tablet forms in Europe between 2014 and 2016. A review of all the existing knowledge of fonazepam and nifoxipam is reported, concerning their chemistry, synthesis, pharmacology and toxicology, prevalence/use, biotransformation and their analysis in biological samples...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
André Gottås, Marianne Arnestad, Per Steinar Halvorsen, Liliana C Bachs, Gudrun Høiseth
Vitreous humor (VH) is an alternative matrix for drug analysis in forensic toxicology. However, little is known about the distribution of xenobiotics, such as opioids, into VH in living organisms. The aim of this study was to simultaneously measure heroin and metabolite concentrations in blood and VH after injection of heroin in a living pig model. Six pigs were under non-opioid anesthesia during the surgical operation and experiment. Ocular microdialysis was used to acquire dialysate from VH, and a venous catheter was used for blood sampling...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Bárbara Silva, Carla Fernandes, Maria Elizabeth Tiritan, Madalena M M Pinto, Maria João Valente, Márcia Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Fernando Remião
Recently, great interest has been focused on synthetic cathinones since their consumption has increased exponentially. All synthetic cathinones exist as chiral molecules; the biological and/or toxicological properties of cathinones generally differ according to the enantiomers in human body. In this study, a chiral liquid chromatography method was developed to separate and determine the enantiomeric ratio of synthetic cathinones present in "legal highs" acquired in old smart shops or over the Internet. All the synthetic cathinones were efficiently enantio-separated with α and Rs ranging from 1...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Yasuhiro Kakiuchi, Hiroshi Ikegaya
The toxicological detection of the new synthetic cathinone 4'-methyl-α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (MPHP) in urine samples has been impossible, because much of MPHP is metabolized before its excretion into urine. In this study, we successfully quantified unmetabolized MPHP in urine of an autopsy case using a sensitive method by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. The quantification method showed good linearity in the range of 1.00-100 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.5 ng/mL in human urine...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Mitchell Longworth, Samuel D Banister, James B C Mack, Michelle Glass, Mark Connor, Michael Kassiou
Indazole-derived synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) featuring an alkyl substituent at the 1-position and l-valinamide at the 3-carboxamide position (e.g., AB-CHMINACA) have been identified by forensic chemists around the world, and are associated with serious adverse health effects. Regioisomerism is possible for indazole SCs, with the 2-alkyl-2H-indazole regioisomer of AB-CHMINACA recently identified in SC products in Japan. It is unknown whether this regiosiomer represents a manufacturing impurity arising as a synthetic byproduct, or was intentionally synthesized as a cannabimimetic agent...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Xingxing Diao, Karl B Scheidweiler, Ariane Wohlfarth, Mingshe Zhu, Shaokun Pang, Marilyn A Huestis
Since 2013, a new drugs-of-abuse trend attempts to bypass drug legislation by marketing isomers of scheduled synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), e.g., FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) and THJ-2201. It is much more challenging to confirm a specific isomer's intake and distinguish it from its structural analog because the isomers and their major metabolites usually have identical molecular weights and display the same product ions. Here, we investigated isomers FUBIMINA and THJ-2201 and propose strategies to distinguish their consumption...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Sebastian Rojek, Karol Kula, Martyna Maciów-Głąb, Małgorzata Kłys
The problems of new psychoactive substances (NPSs), especially related to drivers, constitute an open research area. In this case report, we present a traffic accident case, in which two passengers of five individuals died instantly, while the other three persons survived the accident with minor injuries only. From the blood samples of the driver and the passengers, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), an NPS belonging to the category of cathinone derivatives, was disclosed. Therefore, we established a detailed procedure for analysis of α-PVP in blood samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Cornelius Hess, Clara T Schoeder, Thanigaimalai Pillaiyar, Burkhard Madea, Christa E Müller
In recent years, many synthetic cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists have appeared on the market as constituents of herbal incense mixtures known as "spice". Contrary to the declared use, they are perorally consumed as a replacement for marijuana to get "high". In many cases, detailed information on the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of the synthetic compounds found in spice preparations is lacking. We have now evaluated a large series of heterocyclic compounds, 1,3-disubstituted indole and 2-azaindole derivatives known or assumed to be CB1 receptor agonists, many of which have previously been identified in forensic samples...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Paweł Szpot, Agnieszka Chłopaś, Grzegorz Buszewicz, Grzegorz Teresiński
The study focused on the application of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to postmortem toxicological analysis. Fast and simple sample preparation involved precipitation with acetonitrile, removal of phospholipids using special columns and filtration. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method was validated by determining the limit of quantification, precision, recovery and matrix effect...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Zhenhua Qian, Zhendong Hua, Cuimei Liu, Wei Jia
We identified four cannabimimetic indazole and indole derivatives in new illegal psychoactive substances seized from a clandestine laboratory in China. These four derivatives included N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (ADB-BINACA, 1), N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (AB-FUBICA, 2), N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (ADB-FUBICA, 3), and N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-benzyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (AB-BICA, 4)...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Hiroyuki Inoue, Shoko Negishi, Yukiko Nakazono, Yuko T Iwata, Kenji Tsujikawa, Osamu Ohtsuru, Kazuna Miyamoto, Takuya Yamashita, Fumiyo Kasuya
There has been a rapid increase over the last decade in the appearance of new non-controlled psychoactive substances. Minor changes in the chemical structures of these compounds, such as the extension of an alkyl residue or replacement of a single substituent, are regularly made to avoid regulatory control, leading to the manufacture of many new potentially dangerous drugs. Bromoamphetamine analogs (bromoamphetamine [Br-AP] and bromomethamphetamine (Br-MA]) are ring-substituted amphetamines that can behave as stimulants, as well as exhibiting inhibitory activity towards monoamine oxidases in the same way as amphetamines...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Milena Majchrzak, Marcin Rojkiewicz, Rafał Celiński, Piotr Kuś, Mieczysław Sajewicz
In this study, we present identification and physicochemical characterization of new cathinone derivatives, 4-fluoro-PV9 and already known α-PHP in seized materials. Although the disclosure of α-PHP from an illegal product had been reported and characterized to some extent, the data on α-PHP are also presented together with those of 4-fluoro-PV9. The data of characterization for the two compounds were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry and HPLC-diode array detection, electrospray ionization/ion trap mass spectrometry in MS(2) and MS(3) modes, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Kayla N Ellefsen, Ariane Wohlfarth, Madeleine J Swortwood, Xingxing Diao, Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
Novel psychoactive substances are continuously developed to circumvent legislative and regulatory efforts. A new synthetic cathinone, 4-methoxy-α-PVP, was identified for the first time in illegal products; however, the metabolism of this compound is not known. Complete metabolic profiles are needed for these novel psychoactive substances to enable identification of their intake and to link adverse effects to the causative agent. This study assessed 4-methoxy-α-PVP metabolic stability with human liver microsomes (HLMs) and identified its metabolites after HLM and hepatocyte incubations followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Fabien Bévalot, Nathalie Cartiser, Charline Bottinelli, Laurent Fanton, Jérôme Guitton
Vitreous humor (VH) is a gelatinous substance contained in the posterior chamber of the eye, playing a mechanical role in the eyeball. It has been the subject of numerous studies in various forensic applications, primarily for the assessment of postmortem interval and for postmortem chemical analysis. Since most of the xenobiotics present in the bloodstream are detected in VH after crossing the selective blood-retinal barrier, VH is an alternative matrix useful for forensic toxicology. VH analysis offers particular advantages over other biological matrices: it is less prone to postmortem redistribution, is easy to collect, has relatively few interfering compounds for the analytical process, and shows sample stability over time after death...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"