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Cardiovascular Journal of Africa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498386/atorvastatin-inhibits-cholesterol-induced-caspase-3-cleavage-through-down-regulation-of-p38-and-up-regulation-of-bcl-2-in-the-rat-carotid-artery
#1
Roshanak Bayatmakoo, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Mehdi Farhoudi, Pouran Karimi
AIM: Atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid arteries lead to a broad range of cerebrovascular disorders such as vascular dementia and ischaemic stroke. Recent studies have verified the beneficial role of atorvastatin (AV) in atherosclerosis. Despite a large body of studies, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been completely explained. In this study, several experiments were performed on atherosclerotic rat models to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of AV in the carotid artery...
May 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470327/relationship-between-coronary-tortuosity-and-plateletcrit-coronary-tortuosity-and-plateletcrit
#2
Levent Cerit, Zeynep Cerit
BACKGROUND: Coronary tortuosity (CorT) is a common angiographic finding and may be associated with myocardial ischaemia, even without coronary artery disease. Platelets play a crucial role in inflammatory and thrombotic processes and the physiopathology of cardiovascular disease. Larger platelets are more active enzymatically and have higher thrombotic ability compared to smaller platelets. Plateletcrit (PCT) provides complete information on total platelet mass. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between CorT and PCT in patients with chronic stable angina...
April 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430286/clinical-presentation-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-acute-rheumatic-fever-and-rheumatic-heart-disease-seen-at-a-tertiary-hospital-setting-in-port-elizabeth-south-africa
#3
Zongezile Masonwabe Makrexeni, Lungile Pepeta
BACKGROUND: The incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) has waned in Western countries, however that is not the situation in developing nations. METHODS: Records were reviewed of patients from the Eastern Cape municipal districts who presented to the Paediatric Cardiology Unit with ARF and RHD from January 2008 to August 2015. RESULTS: Total of 56 patients with ARF/RHD was reviewed. The majority of patients (n = 52) presented for the first time with RHD...
April 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345730/electrocardiographic-abnormalities-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-subjects-in-south-east-nigeria
#4
Innocent Chukwuemeka Okoye, Ernest Ndukaife Anyabolu
BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are important causes of morbidity and mortality. We set out to determine the electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in treatment-naïve HIV-positive patients in Enugu, south-east Nigeria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 250 HIV-positive and 200 HIV-negative subjects. Demographic and anthropometric data, relevant investigations and ECG results were compared between the groups...
March 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345729/medication-adherence-among-cardiac-patients-in-khartoum-state-sudan-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Abdelmoneim Awad, Nahid Osman, Siham Altayib
INTRODUCTION: Non-adherence to medication among cardiac patients is often the major risk factor for poor clinical outcomes, increased mortality rates and higher healthcare costs. The literature evaluating the prevalence of and reasons for non-adherence in resource-poor settings is extremely limited compared to resource-rich settings. There is a scarcity of data about medication adherence in Sudan hence this study was performed to identify prevalence, predictors and barriers of non-adherence to medication among cardiac patients in Khartoum State...
March 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295118/an-unusual-case-of-aorta-right-atrial-tunnel-with-windsock-aneurysm-imaging-diagnosis-and-treatment
#6
Shehzaadi Aneesah Khan, Leonie Scholtz, F Adriaan Snyders, Johan de Villiers
The first successfully diagnosed and treated case of aorta-right atrial tunnel was reported by Coto et al. in 1980. The most common cause of aorta-right atrial tunnel is a ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms had been reported as early as 1840 by Thurnam; these were diagnosed at autopsy. With the advances in radiology, many cases of aorta-right atrial tunnel have been reported since then, each with its own subtle variations. We report on a unique case of aorta-right atrial tunnel with a windsock aneurysm in the right atrium...
March 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252676/factors-affecting-interest-in-cardiothoracic-surgery-among-junior-surgical-residents-in-nigeria
#7
Emeka B Kesieme, Umar Abubakar, Olugbenga Olusoji, Ismail Mohammed Inuwa, John Kefas, Ndubuisi Anumenechi
OBJECTIVE: A survey was undertaken to determine the factors that affect interest in cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) among junior surgical residents in Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done using a pilottested, 56-item, semi-structured questionnaire, which was filled in by 238 junior surgical residents in accredited hospitals in Nigeria. RESULTS: Few of the respondents (8.4%) were committed to specialising in CTS. A minority of them, 28...
March 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252675/prevalence-of-rheumatic-valvular-heart-disease-in-rwandan-school-children-echocardiographic-evaluation-using-the-world-heart-federation-criteria
#8
J Mucumbitsi, B Bulwer, L Mutesa, V Ndahindwa, M Semakula, E Rusingiza, P Arya, S Breakey, C Patton-Bolman, E L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic valvular heart disease (RHD) remain important medical, surgical and public health concerns in many parts of the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are no published data from Rwanda. We performed a RHD prevalence study in a randomly selected sample of Rwandan school children using the 2012 World Heart Federation (WHF) criteria. METHODS: Echocardiographic assessment of 2 501 Rwandan school children from 10 schools in the Gasabo district near Kigali was carried out...
March 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470326/successful-surgical-treatment-of-a-subtotal-descending-aortic-occlusion
#9
Mateusz Puślecki, Bartlomiej Perek, Sebastian Stefaniak, Andrzej Siniawski, Grzegorz Oszkinis, Marek Jemielity
We present the case of a 33-year-old man with middle aortic syndrome. The final diagnosis was established with magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent a successful aorto-aortic bypass. Two-year follow-up imaging showed the new graft was patent, with no abnormalities at the anastomosis sites. At the last follow-up examination he was asymptomatic with no neurological dysfunction.
April 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470331/pacemaker-syndrome-with-sub-acute-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-in-a-patient-with-a-dual-chamber-pacemaker-consequence-of-lead-switch-at-the-header
#10
Mohammad Reeaze Khurwolah, Brian Zwelethini Vezi
In the daily practice of pacemaker insertion, the occurrence of atrial and ventricular lead switch at the pacemaker box header is a rare and unintentional phenomenon, with less than five cases reported in the literature. The lead switch may have dire consequences, depending on the indication for the pacemaker. One of these consequences is pacemaker syndrome, in which the normal sequence of atrial and ventricular activation is impaired, leading to sub-optimal ventricular filling and cardiac output. It is important for the attending physician to recognise any worsening of symptoms in a patient who has recently had a permanent pacemaker inserted...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470330/the-role-of-coronary-artery-collaterals-in-the-preservation-of-left-ventricular-function-a-study-to-address-a-long-standing-controversy
#11
N O Ajayi, E A Vanker, K S Satyapal
INTRODUCTION: The functional significance of coronary artery collateral (CAC) vasculature in humans has been debated for decades and this has been compounded by the lack of a standard, systematic, objective method of grading and documenting CAC flow in man. CACs serve as alternative conduits for blood in obstructive coronary artery disease. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of CACs on left ventricular function in the presence of total coronary arterial occlusion. METHODS: The study group included the coronary angiographic records of 97 patients (mean age: 59 ± 8 years)...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470329/awareness-of-hypertension-guidelines-and-the-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-hypertension-by-primary-care-physicians-in-nigeria
#12
Ok Ale, R W Braimoh
BACKGROUND: The availability of numerous hypertension guidelines seems not to have impacted significantly on the burden of hypertension. We evaluated awareness of hypertension guidelines among primary-care physicians (PCPs) in Nigeria and its relationship to hypertension diagnosis and work up. METHODS: Anonymous self-administered questionnaires were filled in by PCPs categorised into two groups: hypertension guideline aware (GA) and unaware (GU). RESULTS: The 403 participating PCPs had a mean age and experience of 40 ± 11...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470328/from-the-editor-s-desk
#13
EDITORIAL
Patrick Commerford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942693/the-integrated-effect-of-moderate-exercise-on-coronary-heart-disease
#14
REVIEW
Marc J Mathews, Edward H Mathews, George E Mathews
BACKGROUND: Moderate exercise is associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). A suitable integrated model of the CHD pathogenetic pathways relevant to moderate exercise may help to elucidate this association. Such a model is currently not available in the literature. METHODS: An integrated model of CHD was developed and used to investigate pathogenetic pathways of importance between exercise and CHD. Using biomarker relative-risk data, the pathogenetic effects are representable as measurable effects based on changes in biomarkers...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805237/the-role-of-genetics-in-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-patients-under-30-years-of-age
#15
Sabit Sarikaya, Ebuzer Aydin, Yucel Ozen, Tanil Ozer, Kaan Kirali, Murat Bulent Rabus
AIM: We undertook genetic assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) in 20 patients aged 30 years or less undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, to investigate the prognostic value of pre-defined genes. METHODS: Twenty patients, who underwent CABG surgery between December 2001 and May 2013, were retrospectively analysed to find out the role their genetic make-up played in their disease. We used three genetic diagnostic tests, the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) -1 gene, the A1/A2 polymorphism of glycoprotein IIIa (GpIIIa) gene, and common polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701487/the-effect-of-proximal-anastomosis-on-the-expansion-rate-of-a-dilated-ascending-aorta-in-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-a-prospective-study
#16
Ahmet Yavuz Balci, Unsal Vural, Rezan Aksoy, M Fatih Özdemir, Seçkin Satilmiş, Mehmet Kizilay, Mutlu Şenocak, Huseyin Şaşkin, Ilyas Kayacioğlu, Ibrahim Yekeler
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine the short- and long-term effects of proximal aortic anastomosis, performed during isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with dilatation of the ascending aorta who did not require surgical intervention. METHODS: The study was performed on 192 (38 female and 160 male patients; mean age, 62.1 ± 9.2 years; range, 42-80 years) patients with dilatation of the ascending aorta who underwent CABG surgery between 1 June 2006 and 31 May 2014...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701486/relationship-between-vitamin-d-and-the-development-of-atrial-fibrillation-after-on-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery
#17
Levent Cerit, Hatice Kemal, Kamil Gulsen, Barcin Ozcem, Zeynep Cerit, Hamza Duygu
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with many diverse cardiovascular disorders, such as hypertension, heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. The relationship between Vitamin D and the development of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has not been studied. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between Vitamin D and the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after CABG. METHODS: Medical records of consecutive patients who underwent CABG surgery were retrospectively reviewed for the development of atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701484/comparative-analysis-of-anthropometric-indices-of-obesity-as-correlates-and-potential-predictors-of-risk-for-hypertension-and-prehypertension-in-a-population-in-nigeria
#18
Chimaobi James Ononamadu, Chinwe Nonyelum Ezekwesili, Onyemaechi Faith Onyeukwu, Uchenna Francis Umeoguaju, Obiajulu Christian Ezeigwe, Godwin Okwudiri Ihegboro
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-established independent risk factor for hypertension and other cardiometabolic disorders. However, the best anthropometric index of obesity that predicts or associates strongly with hypertension and related conditions remains controversial and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the performance of eight anthropometric indices of obesity: body mass index (BMI), ponderal index (PI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), body adiposity index (BAI) and conicity index (CI) as correlates and potential predictors of risk of hypertension and prehypertension in a Nigerian population, and also the possible effect of combining two or more indices in that regard...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701482/presentation-and-mortality-of-patients-hospitalised-with-acute-heart-failure-in-botswana
#19
Julius Chacha Mwita, Matthew J Dewhurst, Mgaywa G Magafu, Monkgogi Goepamang, Bernard Omech, Koketso Lister Majuta, Marea Gaenamong, Tommy Baboloki Palai, Mosepele Mosepele, Yohana Mashalla
INTRODUCTION: Heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation and therefore contributes to in-hospital outcomes such as mortality. In this study we describe patient characteristics and outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) in Botswana. METHODS: Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 193 consecutive patients admitted with AHF at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone between February 2014 and February 2015. The length of hospital stay and 30-, 90- and 180-day in-hospital mortality rates were assessed...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701480/factors-associated-with-early-mortality-in-haemodialysis-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#20
Deniz Çevirme, Taylan Adademir, Mehmet Aksüt, Tülay Örki, Kamil Cantürk Çakalağaoğlu, Mete Alp, Kaan Kirali
INTRODUCTION: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) results in higher morbidity and mortality rates in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient populations than in patients with normal renal function. This study aimed to identify the early results of CABG performed on ESRD patients, and the factors that affected the mortality rates of those patients. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of our hospital database revealed 84 haemodialysis-receiving patients who underwent CABG during the years 2006 to 2012...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
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