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Cardiovascular Journal of Africa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771268/hiv-disease-is-associated-with-increased-biomarkers-of-endothelial-dysfunction-despite-viral-suppression-on-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-in-botswana
#1
Mosepele Mosepele, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Sikhulile Moyo, Kara Bennett, Shahin Lockman, Linda C Hemphill, Virginia A Triant
BACKGROUND: Untreated HIV infection is associated with increased biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. However, the predictors and degree of endothelial dysfunction among virally suppressed HIV-infected adults on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been well studied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We enrolled 112 HIV-infected adults with virological suppression on long-term ART and 84 HIV-uninfected controls in Botswana. We measured plasma levels of markers of endothelial injury [soluble vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin] and plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin 6 (IL-6)] and monocyte activation (sCD163)...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750230/the-role-of-novel-atherosclerosis-markers-in-peripheral-artery-disease-is-there-a-gender-difference
#2
REVIEW
Hora Iu Comşa, Dumitru Zdrenghea, Sorin Claudiu Man, Dana Pop
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) represents a major public health problem due to its high and increasing prevalence, worldwide distribution, and significant morbidity and mortality rate. Female gender is a risk factor for PAD globally and especially in low-income countries. In this review, we summarise the present knowledge regarding the role of novel atherosclerosis markers in the development of PAD in women. We discuss inflammatory markers, cytokines, cellular adhesion molecules, markers of oxidative stress and other circulating markers, and their role in the prediction of presence, severity and complications of PAD, with particular emphasis on gender...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750229/left-ventricular-twist-before-and-after-haemodialysis-an-analysis-using-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#3
Anthony Yip, Saraladevi Naicker, Ferande Peters, Elena Libhaber, Nirvathi Maharaj, Mduduzi Mashabane, Mohammed Rafique Essop
BACKGROUND: The most commonly used parameter of cardiac function in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patient is ejection fraction (EF), using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). EF is a highly load-dependent measurement, which varies considerably in CKD patients undergoing haemodialysis. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate a novel measure of myocardial function, left ventricular twist, which is defined as the 'wringing action of the heart', using speckletracking echocardiography in CKD patients before and after haemodialysis...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750228/hypertension-among-newly-diagnosed-diabetic-patients-at-mulago-national-referral-hospital-in-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Martin Muddu, Edrisa Mutebi, Isaac Ssinabulya, Samuel Kizito, Charles Kiiza Mondo
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypertension in patients with diabetes is approximately two-fold higher than in age-matched subjects without the disease and, conversely, individuals with hypertension are at increased risk of developing diabetes compared with normotensive persons. Up to 75% of cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with diabetes are attributed to hypertension. Diabetics who have hypertension are more likely to develop complications and die, and appropriate blood pressure control in these individuals reduces the risk...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750227/facilitators-context-of-and-barriers-to-acute-coronary-syndrome-care-at-kenyatta-national-hospital-nairobi-kenya-a-qualitative-analysis
#5
Ehete Bahiru, Tecla Temu, Julia Mwanga, Kevin Ndede, Sophie Vusha, Bernard Gitura, Carey Farquhar, Frederick Bukachi, Mark D Huffman
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease and its acute manifestation, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), is growing throughout sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. To address this increasing problem, we sought to understand the facilitators, context of and barriers to ACS care at Kenyatta National Hospital, with the aim of improving the quality of care of ACS. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with healthcare providers involved in the management of ACS patients from January to February 2017 at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750231/echocardiographic-screening-for-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-4-515-sudanese-school-children-marked-disparity-between-two-communities
#6
Sulafa Ali, Sara Domi, Bahja Abbo, Rabab Abbas, Tajudeen Bushari, Khalid Al Awad, Abdelrahman Elhassan, Manar E Abdel-Rahman
INTRODUCTION: Echocardiographic (echo) screening has unmasked a high prevalence of subclinical rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in many countries, and it can be used as a surveillance tool to control the disease. METHODS: School children of 10 to 15 years of age were selected in two areas of Sudan, Khartoum, the capital, and Niyala in western Sudan. Echo screening using a hand-held echo (HHE) was conducted in Khartoum using a three-view protocol, and in Niyala, a one-view protocol, both modified from the World Heart Federation protocol...
April 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583151/ischaemic-heart-disease-and-pregnancy-the-tale-of-two-stories
#7
Mamotabo R Matshela
Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is presumed to be rare in pregnancy. Based on that assumption, patients go undiagnosed or undertreated. IHD in pregnancy frequently occurs as a result of an unusual aetiology, therefore each patient needs to be managed individually since each may present differently. This may pose challenges to the consulting clinician. Pregnancy itself is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, due to its associated hypercoagulable state. From current reports, the prevalence of IHD in females is increasing due to lifestyle changes, including cigarette smoking, diabetes and stress...
March 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583150/rheumatoid-arthritis-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease
#8
REVIEW
Pieter W Meyer, Ronald Anderson, James A Ker, Mahmood T Ally
In developing countries, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains a seriously under-prioritised disease, particularly among the underprivileged, often resulting in presentation of patients late in the course of their disease, further complicated by limited therapeutic options and inconsistent follow up. The consequences are often severe with irreversible disability, increased frequency of co-morbidities, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD), and higher mortality rates, relative to developed countries. Despite addressing traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the impact of subclinical or 'residual' inflammation from uncontrolled RA needs to be considered...
March 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583149/absolute-cardiovascular-risk-of-women-using-hormonal-contraception-in-porto-novo
#9
Arnaud Sonou, Mathieu Ogoudjobi, Philippe Mahouna Adjagba, Corine Houehanou, Richard Aniglé, Léopold Codjo, Murielle Hounkponou, Rosaire Bognon, Salimatou Assani, Daniel Amoussou-Guénou, Dèdonougbo Martin Houénassi
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this work was to determine the absolute cardiovascular risk (ACVR) of women using hormonal contraception in Porto-Novo. METHODS: We carried out a descriptive, cross-sectional study, including women at the time of renewal of a hormonal contraceptive method. Blood pressure, fasting venous blood glucose level, body mass index and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy were studied. The determination of ACVR was dual based on the World Health Organisation (WHO/ISH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC/ESH) models...
March 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570206/participation-in-research-improves-overall-patient-management-insights-from-the-global-rheumatic-heart-disease-registry-remedy
#10
E A Prendergast, S Perkins, M E Engel, B Cupido, V Francis, A Joachim, M Al Kebsi, F Bode-Thomas, A Damasceno, A Abul Fadl, A El Sayed, B Gitura, N Kennedy, A Ibrahim, J Mucumbitsi, A M Adeoye, J Musuku, E Okello, T Olunuga, S Sheta, B M Mayosi, L J Zühlke
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs), with a paucity of high-quality trial data to improve patient outcomes. Investigators felt that involvement in a recent large, observational RHD study impacted positively on their practice, but this was poorly defined. AIM: The purpose of this study was to document the experience of investigators and research team members from LMICs who participated in a prospective, multi-centre study, the global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (REMEDY), conducted in 25 centres in 14 countries from 2010 to 2012...
March 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528361/the-effects-of-treatment-with-atorvastatin-versus-rosuvastatin-on-endothelial-dysfunction-in-patients-with-hyperlipidaemia
#11
Vahit Demir, Mehmet Tolga Doğru, Hüseyin Ede, Samet Yilmaz, Cağlar Alp, Yunus Celik, Nesligül Yildirim
INTRODUCTION: Statins can reduce cardiovascular events and improve endothelial function. However, differences in the effect of statins on endothelial dysfunction have not been researched sufficiently. Here, we aimed to compare the effects of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on endothelial function via flow-mediated and endothelial-independent dilation. METHODS: Hyperlipidaemic subjects on treatment with statins for one year (either 20 mg/day atorvastatin or 10 mg/day rosuvastatin) were enrolled in the study...
March 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488543/association-of-traditional-cardiovascular-risk-factors-with-carotid-atherosclerosis-among-adults-at-a-teaching-hospital-in-south-western-nigeria
#12
Adeleye Dorcas Omisore, Olusola Comfort Famurewa, Morenikeji Adeyoyin Komolafe, Christiana Mopelola Asaleye, Michael Bimbola Fawale, Babalola Ishmael Afolabi
BACKGROUND: Traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), which include age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, chronic kidney disease and obesity, have been shown to be associated with atherosclerosis. We aimed to evaluate the impact of traditional CVRFs on carotid atherosclerosis (CA) in a sample of Nigerian adults. METHODS: We examined 162 subjects with traditional CVRFs in a cross-sectional study. Demographic and clinical data, including history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol intake and chronic kidney disease, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight and height were collected...
February 28, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745963/partial-anomalous-pulmonary-venous-connection-with-accessory-pulmonary-veins
#13
Vimalarani Arulselvam, Neale N Kalis, Suad R Al Amer
We present a case of a six-year-old boy with complex partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections with accessory pulmonary veins, where multi-detector computed tomography proved crucial for accurate identification prior to planning for surgical correction.
March 23, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745966/status-of-cardiac-arrhythmia-services-in-africa-in-2018-a-pascar-sudden-cardiac-death-task-force-report
#14
M A Talle, A Bonny, W Scholtz, A Chin, G Nel, K M Karaye, J B Anzouan-Kacou, A Damasceno, Y R Lubenga, M U Sani, B M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the availability of health services to treat cardiac arrhythmias in Africa. METHODS: The Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) Sudden Cardiac Death Task Force conducted a survey of the burden of cardiac arrhythmias and related services over two months (15 October to 15 December) in 2017. An electronic questionnaire was completed by general cardiologists and electrophysiologists working in African countries. The questionnaire focused on availability of human resources, diagnostic tools and treatment modalities in each country...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745965/stroke-distribution-patterns-and-characteristics-in-kenya-s-leading-public-health-tertiary-institutions-kenyatta-national-hospital-and-moi-teaching-and-referral-hospital
#15
Lydia Kaduka, Anne Korir, Chrispine Owuor Oduor, Judith Kwasa, Jane Mbui, Sylvanos Wabwire, Robai Gakunga, Nathan Okerosi, Yvonne Opanga, Isaac Kisiang'ani, Mercy Rotich Chepkurui, Erastus Muniu, Scot C Remick
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. However, there is limited clinic-epidemiological data on stroke to inform decision making. This study sought to establish stroke distribution patterns and characteristics in patients seeking care at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH), with the ultimate aim of establishing the first national stroke registry in Kenya. METHODS: This was a prospective multicentre cohort study among stroke patients...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745964/from-the-editor-s-desk
#16
EDITORIAL
P J Commerford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457827/percutaneous-transmitral-balloon-commissurotomy-using-a-single-balloon-with-arteriovenous-loop-stabilisation-an-alternative-when-there-is-no-inoue-balloon
#17
Endale Tefera, Mohamed Leye, Patrick Garceau, Denis Bouchard, Joaquim Miró
BACKGROUND: The Inoue balloon technique is the standard technique for mitral valve balloon commissurotomy at this stage. However, the hardware for this technique is expensive and may not always be available in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVE: This article reports our experience with percutaneous transmitral balloon commissurotomy using a single balloon (Nucleus) with arteriovenous loop stabilisation. METHOD: Eleven young patients, aged 12-26 years and weighing 23-48 kg, underwent transmitral balloon commissurotomy using the described technique at our centre from April to May 2014...
February 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457826/prevalence-of-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-professional-male-long-distance-bus-drivers-in-lagos-south-west-nigeria-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Casmir E Amadi, Tim P Grove, Amam C Mbakwem, Obianuju B Ozoh, Oyewole A Kushimo, David A Wood, Michael Akinkunmi
BACKGROUND: Professional drivers are known to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was carried out to highlight these risk factors and their predictors among male long-distance professional bus drivers in Lagos, south-west Nigeria, with a view to improving health awareness in this group. METHOD: Socio-demographic data, anthropometric indices, blood pressure, fasting plasma blood glucose levels and lipid and physical activity profiles of 293 drivers were measured...
February 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443353/obesity-masks-the-relationship-between-dietary-salt-intake-and-blood-pressure-in-people-of-african-ancestry-the-impact-of-obesity-on-the-relationship-between-sodium-and-blood-pressure
#19
Muzi Maseko, Mercy Mashao, Abdulraheem Bawa-Allah, Edgar Phukubje, Bongubuhle Mlambo, Thamsanqa Nyundu
Previous studies conducted to investigate the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in our African population have yielded contradictory results. With the high prevalence of obesity in this population, it is possible that these contradictory findings are due to the masking effects of obesity on this relationship. We measured 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and 24-hour urine excretion on 547 South Africans of African ancestry. A multivariate regression analysis revealed no independent relationship between 24-hour sodium excretion and blood pressure in the total population sample, but when participants were stratified according to body mass index (BMI) status, there was a significant association between 24-hour sodium excretion and blood pressure in the normal-BMI participants but not in the overweight/obese participants...
February 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443352/levitronix-bilateral-ventricular-assist-device-a-bridge-to-recovery-in-a-patient-with-acute-fulminant-myocarditis-and-concomitant-cerebellar-infarction
#20
Yi-Fan Huang, Po-Shun Hsu, Chien-Sung Tsai, Yi-Ting Tsai, Chih-Yuan Lin, Hong-Yan Ke, Yi-Chang Lin, Hsiang-Yu Yang
We report on the case of a 27-year-old male who presented to our emergency room with chest tightness, dyspnoea and cold sweats. The 12-lead electrocardiogram showed diffuse ventricular tachycardia with wide QRS complexes. Troponin-I level was elevated to 100 ng/ml. The coronary angiogram showed good patency of all three coronary vessels, and acute fulminant myocarditis was suspected. The patient underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the catheter room and high-dose inotropic support was initiated to stabilise his haemodynamic status...
February 7, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
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