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Cardiovascular Journal of Africa

Ehete Bahiru, Tecla Temu, Bernard Gitura, Carey Farquhar, Mark D Huffman, Frederick Bukachi
BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is understudied in sub-Saharan Africa despite its increasing disease burden. We sought to create an ACS registry at Kenyatta National Hospital to evaluate the presentation, management and outcomes of ACS patients. METHODS: From November 2016 to April 2017, we conducted a retrospective review of ACS cases managed at Kenyatta National Hospital between 2013 and 2016, with a primary discharge diagnosis of ACS, based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 coding (I20-I24)...
May 24, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Mosepele Mosepele, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Sikhulile Moyo, Kara Bennett, Shahin Lockman, Linda C Hemphill, Virginia A Triant
BACKGROUND: Untreated HIV infection is associated with increased biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. However, the predictors and degree of endothelial dysfunction among virally suppressed HIV-infected adults on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been well studied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We enrolled 112 HIV-infected adults with virological suppression on long-term ART and 84 HIV-uninfected controls in Botswana. We measured plasma levels of markers of endothelial injury [soluble vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin] and plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin 6 (IL-6)] and monocyte activation (sCD163)...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Hora Iu Comşa, Dumitru Zdrenghea, Sorin Claudiu Man, Dana Pop
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) represents a major public health problem due to its high and increasing prevalence, worldwide distribution, and significant morbidity and mortality rate. Female gender is a risk factor for PAD globally and especially in low-income countries. In this review, we summarise the present knowledge regarding the role of novel atherosclerosis markers in the development of PAD in women. We discuss inflammatory markers, cytokines, cellular adhesion molecules, markers of oxidative stress and other circulating markers, and their role in the prediction of presence, severity and complications of PAD, with particular emphasis on gender...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Anthony Yip, Saraladevi Naicker, Ferande Peters, Elena Libhaber, Nirvathi Maharaj, Mduduzi Mashabane, Mohammed Rafique Essop
BACKGROUND: The most commonly used parameter of cardiac function in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patient is ejection fraction (EF), using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). EF is a highly load-dependent measurement, which varies considerably in CKD patients undergoing haemodialysis. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate a novel measure of myocardial function, left ventricular twist, which is defined as the 'wringing action of the heart', using speckletracking echocardiography in CKD patients before and after haemodialysis...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Martin Muddu, Edrisa Mutebi, Isaac Ssinabulya, Samuel Kizito, Charles Kiiza Mondo
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypertension in patients with diabetes is approximately two-fold higher than in age-matched subjects without the disease and, conversely, individuals with hypertension are at increased risk of developing diabetes compared with normotensive persons. Up to 75% of cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with diabetes are attributed to hypertension. Diabetics who have hypertension are more likely to develop complications and die, and appropriate blood pressure control in these individuals reduces the risk...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Ehete Bahiru, Tecla Temu, Julia Mwanga, Kevin Ndede, Sophie Vusha, Bernard Gitura, Carey Farquhar, Frederick Bukachi, Mark D Huffman
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease and its acute manifestation, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), is growing throughout sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. To address this increasing problem, we sought to understand the facilitators, context of and barriers to ACS care at Kenyatta National Hospital, with the aim of improving the quality of care of ACS. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with healthcare providers involved in the management of ACS patients from January to February 2017 at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Sulafa Ali, Sara Domi, Bahja Abbo, Rabab Abbas, Tajudeen Bushari, Khalid Al Awad, Abdelrahman Elhassan, Manar E Abdel-Rahman
INTRODUCTION: Echocardiographic (echo) screening has unmasked a high prevalence of subclinical rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in many countries, and it can be used as a surveillance tool to control the disease. METHODS: School children of 10 to 15 years of age were selected in two areas of Sudan, Khartoum, the capital, and Niyala in western Sudan. Echo screening using a hand-held echo (HHE) was conducted in Khartoum using a three-view protocol, and in Niyala, a one-view protocol, both modified from the World Heart Federation protocol...
April 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Pieter W Meyer, Ronald Anderson, James A Ker, Mahmood T Ally
In developing countries, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains a seriously under-prioritised disease, particularly among the underprivileged, often resulting in presentation of patients late in the course of their disease, further complicated by limited therapeutic options and inconsistent follow up. The consequences are often severe with irreversible disability, increased frequency of co-morbidities, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD), and higher mortality rates, relative to developed countries. Despite addressing traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the impact of subclinical or 'residual' inflammation from uncontrolled RA needs to be considered...
March 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Vimalarani Arulselvam, Neale N Kalis, Suad R Al Amer
We present a case of a six-year-old boy with complex partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections with accessory pulmonary veins, where multi-detector computed tomography proved crucial for accurate identification prior to planning for surgical correction.
March 23, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Vahit Demir, Mehmet Tolga Doğru, Hüseyin Ede, Samet Yilmaz, Cağlar Alp, Yunus Celik, Nesligül Yildirim
INTRODUCTION: Statins can reduce cardiovascular events and improve endothelial function. However, differences in the effect of statins on endothelial dysfunction have not been researched sufficiently. Here, we aimed to compare the effects of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on endothelial function via flow-mediated and endothelial-independent dilation. METHODS: Hyperlipidaemic subjects on treatment with statins for one year (either 20 mg/day atorvastatin or 10 mg/day rosuvastatin) were enrolled in the study...
March 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
M A Talle, A Bonny, W Scholtz, A Chin, G Nel, K M Karaye, J B Anzouan-Kacou, A Damasceno, Y R Lubenga, M U Sani, B M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the availability of health services to treat cardiac arrhythmias in Africa. METHODS: The Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) Sudden Cardiac Death Task Force conducted a survey of the burden of cardiac arrhythmias and related services over two months (15 October to 15 December) in 2017. An electronic questionnaire was completed by general cardiologists and electrophysiologists working in African countries. The questionnaire focused on availability of human resources, diagnostic tools and treatment modalities in each country...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Lydia Kaduka, Anne Korir, Chrispine Owuor Oduor, Judith Kwasa, Jane Mbui, Sylvanos Wabwire, Robai Gakunga, Nathan Okerosi, Yvonne Opanga, Isaac Kisiang'ani, Mercy Rotich Chepkurui, Erastus Muniu, Scot C Remick
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. However, there is limited clinic-epidemiological data on stroke to inform decision making. This study sought to establish stroke distribution patterns and characteristics in patients seeking care at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH), with the ultimate aim of establishing the first national stroke registry in Kenya. METHODS: This was a prospective multicentre cohort study among stroke patients...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
P J Commerford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Mamotabo R Matshela
Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is presumed to be rare in pregnancy. Based on that assumption, patients go undiagnosed or undertreated. IHD in pregnancy frequently occurs as a result of an unusual aetiology, therefore each patient needs to be managed individually since each may present differently. This may pose challenges to the consulting clinician. Pregnancy itself is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, due to its associated hypercoagulable state. From current reports, the prevalence of IHD in females is increasing due to lifestyle changes, including cigarette smoking, diabetes and stress...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Arnaud Sonou, Mathieu Ogoudjobi, Philippe Mahouna Adjagba, Corine Houehanou, Richard Aniglé, Léopold Codjo, Murielle Hounkponou, Rosaire Bognon, Salimatou Assani, Daniel Amoussou-Guénou, Dèdonougbo Martin Houénassi
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this work was to determine the absolute cardiovascular risk (ACVR) of women using hormonal contraception in Porto-Novo. METHODS: We carried out a descriptive, cross-sectional study, including women at the time of renewal of a hormonal contraceptive method. Blood pressure, fasting venous blood glucose level, body mass index and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy were studied. The determination of ACVR was dual based on the World Health Organisation (WHO/ISH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC/ESH) models...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
E A Prendergast, S Perkins, M E Engel, B Cupido, V Francis, A Joachim, M Al Kebsi, F Bode-Thomas, A Damasceno, A Abul Fadl, A El Sayed, B Gitura, N Kennedy, A Ibrahim, J Mucumbitsi, A M Adeoye, J Musuku, E Okello, T Olunuga, S Sheta, B M Mayosi, L J Zühlke
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs), with a paucity of high-quality trial data to improve patient outcomes. Investigators felt that involvement in a recent large, observational RHD study impacted positively on their practice, but this was poorly defined. AIM: The purpose of this study was to document the experience of investigators and research team members from LMICs who participated in a prospective, multi-centre study, the global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (REMEDY), conducted in 25 centres in 14 countries from 2010 to 2012...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Casmir E Amadi, Tim P Grove, Amam C Mbakwem, Obianuju B Ozoh, Oyewole A Kushimo, David A Wood, Michael Akinkunmi
BACKGROUND: Professional drivers are known to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was carried out to highlight these risk factors and their predictors among male long-distance professional bus drivers in Lagos, south-west Nigeria, with a view to improving health awareness in this group. METHOD: Socio-demographic data, anthropometric indices, blood pressure, fasting plasma blood glucose levels and lipid and physical activity profiles of 293 drivers were measured...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
João M Pedro, Miguel Brito, Henrique Barros
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia in an Angolan population aged 15 to 64 years and to determine relationships with sociodemographic, behavioural and anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: A total of 2 354 individuals were assessed for behavioural, sociodemographic and physical characteristics in a cross-sectional, community-based survey. Post-stratification survey weights were applied to obtain prevalence levels...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Hyun-Jin Kim, Hyung-Bok Park, Yongsung Suh, Yoon-Hyeong Cho, Eui-Seok Hwang, Deok-Kyu Cho, Tae-Young Choi
INTRODUCTION: Fatty liver disease (FLD) is correlated with cardiovascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) can noninvasively identify subclinical atherosclerosis and predict risk for cardiovascular events. This study evaluated CIMT and CACS measurements to detect subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with and without FLD. METHODS: Patients who underwent carotid and abdominal ultrasounds as well as cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated retrospectively...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Tinus du Toit, Kathryn Manning, Nadraj G Naidoo
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to report on our experience with upper limb ischaemia (ULI), to define the pattern and distribution of disease, describe key demographic features and report on conventional clinical outcomes. METHODS: This was a single-centre, retrospective, descriptive study. All patients (n = 64) who underwent a surgical intervention for ULI over a 12-year study period were included. Findings were analysed and compared with the current literature...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
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