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Cardiovascular Journal of Africa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660273/efficacy-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-a-sub-aortic-aneurysm-case
#1
Ruchika Meel, Richard Nethononda, Ferande Peters, Mohammed Essop
Sub-aortic (SA) aneurysms are a rare entity of variable aetiology. We report the first case of a SA aneurysm assessed using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 33-year-old female with human immunodeficiency virus and on highly active antiretroviral treatment presented with syncope and dyspnoea. Clinical examination suggested moderate to severe aortic regurgitation (AR) confirmed by transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiograms. However, echocardiography was suboptimal in defining the precise mechanism and severity of AR...
June 29, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556851/perceptions-of-radiation-safety-training-among-interventionalists-in-south-africa
#2
André Rose, William Ian Rae
Exposure to ionising radiation may have deterministic and stochastic health effects, which include skin changes, chromosomal aberrations, cataracts and carcinomas. Formalised training in radiation safety and protection improves knowledge on the subject and facilitates greater compliance in safety practices. This qualitative study included 54 interventionalists (adult and paediatric cardiologists, and interventional radiologists). The participants were purposively selected and interviewed to explore their perceptions about radiation safety...
May 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556849/effects-of-age-on-systemic-inflamatory-response-syndrome-and-results-of-coronary-bypass-surgery
#3
Orhan Gokalp, Nihan Karakas Yesilkaya, Sahin Bozok, Yuksel Besir, Hasan Iner, Huseyin Durmaz, Yasar Gokkurt, Banu Lafci, Gamze Gokalp, Levent Yilik, Ali Gurbuz
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass (CAB) surgery triggers systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) via several mechanisms. Moreover, age is directly correlated with SIRS. We evaluated the effect of age on SIRS and postoperative outcome after CAB surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 229 patients who had undergone CAB surgery. The patients were divided into three groups according to age: group 1, < 40 years (n = 61); group 2, 40-75 years (n = 83); and group 3, > 75 years old (n = 85)...
May 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656193/a-preliminary-review-of-warfarin-toxicity-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-cape-town-south-africa
#4
Annemarie Jacobs, Fatima Bassa, Eric H Decloedt
AIM: Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. We conducted a retrospective review to determine the causes and management of warfarin toxicity of patients admitted to Tygerberg hospital between June 2014 and June 2015. RESULTS: We identified and evaluated 126 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The cause of warfarin toxicity was identified and addressed in only 14.3% (18/126) of patients. Where the cause was identified, 56% (10/18) was due to dosing errors and 17% (3/18) drug-drug interaction (DDI)...
May 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556852/role-of-melatonin-in-glucose-uptake-by-cardiomyocytes-from-insulin-resistant-wistar-rats
#5
Frederic Nduhirabandi, Barbara Huisamen, Hans Strijdom, Amanda Lochner
AIM: Melatonin supplementation reduces insulin resistance and protects the heart in obese rats. However, its role in myocardial glucose uptake remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of short-term melatonin treatment on glucose uptake by cardiomyocytes isolated from obese and insulin-resistant rats. METHODS: Cardiomyocytes were isolated from obese rats fed a high-calorie diet for 16 to 23 weeks, their age-matched controls, as well as young control rats aged four to eight weeks...
May 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556850/clinical-profile-management-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-pulmonary-embolism-a-retrospective-tertiary-centre-study-in-angola
#6
Ana Manuel, Adelina Aufico, Rui Africano, Tomáz Peralta, Abel Salas, Adelaide Silva, José Ricardo, Pedro Sabola, Domingas Baião, Carlos Sotolongo, António Dias Neto, Telmo Martins, Vasco Sabino, Joaquim van Dúnem, António Pedro Filipe Júnior
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal disease. In Angola, few data are available on its occurrence. The aim of the study was to characterise the clinical profile, management and outcomes of patients with PE. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at the Girassol Clinic in Luanda, Angola. The medical records of patients admitted to the intensive care unit were analysed from 2011 to 2015. RESULTS: Fifty patients were included and the median age was 50...
May 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556848/pilot-study-of-risk-factors-associated-with-cardiovascular-disease-in-northern-and-southern-cameroonians
#7
Jeanne Durendale Chiadak, Jason Perret, Hilaire Macaire Womeni, Jules Roger Kuiaté, Pierre Cullus, Christelle Senterre, Christine Delporte
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are similar in the northern and southern regions of Cameroon. METHODS: The participants answered a questionnaire concerning their lifestyle. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were evaluated in 192 individuals and biochemical parameters in 50 randomly selected volunteers. RESULTS: Northerners displayed low alcohol and tobacco consumption, little practice of sport but physically demanding professions, and consumption of soybean, refined palm and other polyunsaturated oils...
May 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498386/atorvastatin-inhibits-cholesterol-induced-caspase-3-cleavage-through-down-regulation-of-p38-and-up-regulation-of-bcl-2-in-the-rat-carotid-artery
#8
Roshanak Bayatmakoo, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Mehdi Farhoudi, Pouran Karimi
AIM: Atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid arteries lead to a broad range of cerebrovascular disorders such as vascular dementia and ischaemic stroke. Recent studies have verified the beneficial role of atorvastatin (AV) in atherosclerosis. Despite a large body of studies, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been completely explained. In this study, several experiments were performed on atherosclerotic rat models to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of AV in the carotid artery...
May 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470327/relationship-between-coronary-tortuosity-and-plateletcrit-coronary-tortuosity-and-plateletcrit
#9
Levent Cerit, Zeynep Cerit
BACKGROUND: Coronary tortuosity (CorT) is a common angiographic finding and may be associated with myocardial ischaemia, even without coronary artery disease. Platelets play a crucial role in inflammatory and thrombotic processes and the physiopathology of cardiovascular disease. Larger platelets are more active enzymatically and have higher thrombotic ability compared to smaller platelets. Plateletcrit (PCT) provides complete information on total platelet mass. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between CorT and PCT in patients with chronic stable angina...
April 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470326/successful-surgical-treatment-of-a-subtotal-descending-aortic-occlusion
#10
Mateusz Puślecki, Bartlomiej Perek, Sebastian Stefaniak, Andrzej Siniawski, Grzegorz Oszkinis, Marek Jemielity
We present the case of a 33-year-old man with middle aortic syndrome. The final diagnosis was established with magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent a successful aorto-aortic bypass. Two-year follow-up imaging showed the new graft was patent, with no abnormalities at the anastomosis sites. At the last follow-up examination he was asymptomatic with no neurological dysfunction.
April 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430286/clinical-presentation-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-acute-rheumatic-fever-and-rheumatic-heart-disease-seen-at-a-tertiary-hospital-setting-in-port-elizabeth-south-africa
#11
Zongezile Masonwabe Makrexeni, Lungile Pepeta
BACKGROUND: The incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) has waned in Western countries, however that is not the situation in developing nations. METHODS: Records were reviewed of patients from the Eastern Cape municipal districts who presented to the Paediatric Cardiology Unit with ARF and RHD from January 2008 to August 2015. RESULTS: Total of 56 patients with ARF/RHD was reviewed. The majority of patients (n = 52) presented for the first time with RHD...
April 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345730/electrocardiographic-abnormalities-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-subjects-in-south-east-nigeria
#12
Innocent Chukwuemeka Okoye, Ernest Ndukaife Anyabolu
BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are important causes of morbidity and mortality. We set out to determine the electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in treatment-naïve HIV-positive patients in Enugu, south-east Nigeria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 250 HIV-positive and 200 HIV-negative subjects. Demographic and anthropometric data, relevant investigations and ECG results were compared between the groups...
March 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345729/medication-adherence-among-cardiac-patients-in-khartoum-state-sudan-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Abdelmoneim Awad, Nahid Osman, Siham Altayib
INTRODUCTION: Non-adherence to medication among cardiac patients is often the major risk factor for poor clinical outcomes, increased mortality rates and higher healthcare costs. The literature evaluating the prevalence of and reasons for non-adherence in resource-poor settings is extremely limited compared to resource-rich settings. There is a scarcity of data about medication adherence in Sudan hence this study was performed to identify prevalence, predictors and barriers of non-adherence to medication among cardiac patients in Khartoum State...
March 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295118/an-unusual-case-of-aorta-right-atrial-tunnel-with-windsock-aneurysm-imaging-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
Shehzaadi Aneesah Khan, Leonie Scholtz, F Adriaan Snyders, Johan de Villiers
The first successfully diagnosed and treated case of aorta-right atrial tunnel was reported by Coto et al. in 1980. The most common cause of aorta-right atrial tunnel is a ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms had been reported as early as 1840 by Thurnam; these were diagnosed at autopsy. With the advances in radiology, many cases of aorta-right atrial tunnel have been reported since then, each with its own subtle variations. We report on a unique case of aorta-right atrial tunnel with a windsock aneurysm in the right atrium...
March 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470331/pacemaker-syndrome-with-sub-acute-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-in-a-patient-with-a-dual-chamber-pacemaker-consequence-of-lead-switch-at-the-header
#15
Mohammad Reeaze Khurwolah, Brian Zwelethini Vezi
In the daily practice of pacemaker insertion, the occurrence of atrial and ventricular lead switch at the pacemaker box header is a rare and unintentional phenomenon, with less than five cases reported in the literature. The lead switch may have dire consequences, depending on the indication for the pacemaker. One of these consequences is pacemaker syndrome, in which the normal sequence of atrial and ventricular activation is impaired, leading to sub-optimal ventricular filling and cardiac output. It is important for the attending physician to recognise any worsening of symptoms in a patient who has recently had a permanent pacemaker inserted...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470330/the-role-of-coronary-artery-collaterals-in-the-preservation-of-left-ventricular-function-a-study-to-address-a-long-standing-controversy
#16
N O Ajayi, E A Vanker, K S Satyapal
INTRODUCTION: The functional significance of coronary artery collateral (CAC) vasculature in humans has been debated for decades and this has been compounded by the lack of a standard, systematic, objective method of grading and documenting CAC flow in man. CACs serve as alternative conduits for blood in obstructive coronary artery disease. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of CACs on left ventricular function in the presence of total coronary arterial occlusion. METHODS: The study group included the coronary angiographic records of 97 patients (mean age: 59 ± 8 years)...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470329/awareness-of-hypertension-guidelines-and-the-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-hypertension-by-primary-care-physicians-in-nigeria
#17
Ok Ale, R W Braimoh
BACKGROUND: The availability of numerous hypertension guidelines seems not to have impacted significantly on the burden of hypertension. We evaluated awareness of hypertension guidelines among primary-care physicians (PCPs) in Nigeria and its relationship to hypertension diagnosis and work up. METHODS: Anonymous self-administered questionnaires were filled in by PCPs categorised into two groups: hypertension guideline aware (GA) and unaware (GU). RESULTS: The 403 participating PCPs had a mean age and experience of 40 ± 11...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470328/from-the-editor-s-desk
#18
EDITORIAL
Patrick Commerford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252676/factors-affecting-interest-in-cardiothoracic-surgery-among-junior-surgical-residents-in-nigeria
#19
Emeka B Kesieme, Umar Abubakar, Olugbenga Olusoji, Ismail Mohammed Inuwa, John Kefas, Ndubuisi Anumenechi
OBJECTIVE: A survey was undertaken to determine the factors that affect interest in cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) among junior surgical residents in Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done using a pilottested, 56-item, semi-structured questionnaire, which was filled in by 238 junior surgical residents in accredited hospitals in Nigeria. RESULTS: Few of the respondents (8.4%) were committed to specialising in CTS. A minority of them, 28...
March 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252675/prevalence-of-rheumatic-valvular-heart-disease-in-rwandan-school-children-echocardiographic-evaluation-using-the-world-heart-federation-criteria
#20
J Mucumbitsi, B Bulwer, L Mutesa, V Ndahindwa, M Semakula, E Rusingiza, P Arya, S Breakey, C Patton-Bolman, E L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic valvular heart disease (RHD) remain important medical, surgical and public health concerns in many parts of the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are no published data from Rwanda. We performed a RHD prevalence study in a randomly selected sample of Rwandan school children using the 2012 World Heart Federation (WHF) criteria. METHODS: Echocardiographic assessment of 2 501 Rwandan school children from 10 schools in the Gasabo district near Kigali was carried out...
March 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
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