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Cardiovascular Journal of Africa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820539/a-survey-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-among-university-employees-a-single-institutional-study
#1
Emmanuel I Agaba, Maxwell O Akanbi, Patricia A Agaba, Amaka N Ocheke, Zumnan M Gimba, Steve Daniyam, Edith N Okeke
BACKGROUND: The incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising globally, with its attendant morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. This study evaluated the prevalence of NCDs and their risk factors among members of a university community. METHODS: All employees of the university were invited to the University health clinic for screening, using the World Health Organisation's STEPwise approach to NCDs. RESULTS: A total of 883 (521; 59...
August 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817153/a-comparative-study-on-the-cardiac-morphology-and-vertical-jump-height-of-adolescent-black-south-african-male-and-female-amateur-competitive-footballers
#2
Philippe Jean-Luc Gradidge, Demitri Constantinou
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this comparative study was to determine the gender differences in cardiac morphology and performance in adolescent black South African footballers. METHODS: Anthropometry, electrocardiography and echocardiography data were measured in 167 (85 males and 82 females) adolescent black South African footballers (mean age: 14.8 ± 1.3 years). Vertical jump height was used as a performance measure of explosive lower-limb power. RESULTS: The males had less body fat compared with the females (12...
August 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752890/primary-care-in-the-prevention-treatment-and-control-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
REVIEW
Dike B Ojji, Kim Lamont, Olubunmi I Ojji, Bibiana Nonye Egenti, Karen Sliwa
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the frontrunner in the disease spectrum of sub-Saharan Africa, with stroke and ischaemic heart disease ranked seventh and 14th as leading causes of death, respectively, on this sub-continent. Unfortunately, this region is also grappling with many communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional disorders. Limited resources and the high cost of CVD treatment necessitate that primary prevention should have a high priority for CVD control in sub-Saharan Africa. One major challenge of such an approach is how to equip primary care to respond promptly and effectively to this burden...
July 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660273/efficacy-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-a-sub-aortic-aneurysm-case
#4
Ruchika Meel, Richard Nethononda, Ferande Peters, Mohammed Essop
Sub-aortic (SA) aneurysms are a rare entity of variable aetiology. We report the first case of a SA aneurysm assessed using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 33-year-old female with human immunodeficiency virus and on highly active antiretroviral treatment presented with syncope and dyspnoea. Clinical examination suggested moderate to severe aortic regurgitation (AR) confirmed by transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiograms. However, echocardiography was suboptimal in defining the precise mechanism and severity of AR...
June 29, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759083/a-rare-cause-of-early-repolarisation-in-an-adolescent-boy-with-chest-pain-myocardial-bridging
#5
Murat Deveci, Kadir Babaoğlu, Özlem Kayabey
Early repolarisation is a common electrocardiographic (ECG) finding characterised by J-point and ST segment elevation ≥ 0.1 mV in two or more adjacent leads. The ECG pattern of early repolarisation is relatively common in asymptomatic subjects. Early repolarisation pattern may be seen in secondary conditions such as hypothermia, autonomic nervous system disturbances, cocaine abuse, hypercalcaemia and myocardial ischaemia. We present a case of an adolescent boy with chest pain and concurrent ST-segment elevation...
May 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759082/persistent-left-superior-vena-cava
#6
Kamil W Tyrak, Jakub Holda, Mateusz K Holda, Mateusz Koziej, Katarzyna Piatek, Wieslawa Klimek-Piotrowska
Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is the most common congenital malformation of thoracic venous return and is present in 0.3 to 0.5% of individuals in the general population. This heart specimen was dissected from a 35-year-old male cadaver whose cause of death was determined as non-cardiac. The heart was examined and we found a PLSVC draining into the coronary sinus. The right superior vena cava was present with a small-diameter ostium. An anomalous pulmonary vein pattern was observed; there was a common trunk to the left superior and left inferior pulmonary veins (diameter 17...
May 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556849/effects-of-age-on-systemic-inflamatory-response-syndrome-and-results-of-coronary-bypass-surgery
#7
Orhan Gokalp, Nihan Karakas Yesilkaya, Sahin Bozok, Yuksel Besir, Hasan Iner, Huseyin Durmaz, Yasar Gokkurt, Banu Lafci, Gamze Gokalp, Levent Yilik, Ali Gurbuz
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass (CAB) surgery triggers systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) via several mechanisms. Moreover, age is directly correlated with SIRS. We evaluated the effect of age on SIRS and postoperative outcome after CAB surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 229 patients who had undergone CAB surgery. The patients were divided into three groups according to age: group 1, < 40 years (n = 61); group 2, 40-75 years (n = 83); and group 3, > 75 years old (n = 85)...
May 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656193/a-preliminary-review-of-warfarin-toxicity-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-cape-town-south-africa
#8
Annemarie Jacobs, Fatima Bassa, Eric H Decloedt
AIM: Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. We conducted a retrospective review to determine the causes and management of warfarin toxicity of patients admitted to Tygerberg hospital between June 2014 and June 2015. RESULTS: We identified and evaluated 126 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The cause of warfarin toxicity was identified and addressed in only 14.3% (18/126) of patients. Where the cause was identified, 56% (10/18) was due to dosing errors and 17% (3/18) drug-drug interaction (DDI)...
May 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556852/role-of-melatonin-in-glucose-uptake-by-cardiomyocytes-from-insulin-resistant-wistar-rats
#9
Frederic Nduhirabandi, Barbara Huisamen, Hans Strijdom, Amanda Lochner
AIM: Melatonin supplementation reduces insulin resistance and protects the heart in obese rats. However, its role in myocardial glucose uptake remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of short-term melatonin treatment on glucose uptake by cardiomyocytes isolated from obese and insulin-resistant rats. METHODS: Cardiomyocytes were isolated from obese rats fed a high-calorie diet for 16 to 23 weeks, their age-matched controls, as well as young control rats aged four to eight weeks...
May 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556850/clinical-profile-management-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-pulmonary-embolism-a-retrospective-tertiary-centre-study-in-angola
#10
Ana Manuel, Adelina Aufico, Rui Africano, Tomáz Peralta, Abel Salas, Adelaide Silva, José Ricardo, Pedro Sabola, Domingas Baião, Carlos Sotolongo, António Dias Neto, Telmo Martins, Vasco Sabino, Joaquim van Dúnem, António Pedro Filipe Júnior
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal disease. In Angola, few data are available on its occurrence. The aim of the study was to characterise the clinical profile, management and outcomes of patients with PE. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at the Girassol Clinic in Luanda, Angola. The medical records of patients admitted to the intensive care unit were analysed from 2011 to 2015. RESULTS: Fifty patients were included and the median age was 50...
May 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556848/pilot-study-of-risk-factors-associated-with-cardiovascular-disease-in-northern-and-southern-cameroonians
#11
Jeanne Durendale Chiadak, Jason Perret, Hilaire Macaire Womeni, Jules Roger Kuiaté, Pierre Cullus, Christelle Senterre, Christine Delporte
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are similar in the northern and southern regions of Cameroon. METHODS: The participants answered a questionnaire concerning their lifestyle. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were evaluated in 192 individuals and biochemical parameters in 50 randomly selected volunteers. RESULTS: Northerners displayed low alcohol and tobacco consumption, little practice of sport but physically demanding professions, and consumption of soybean, refined palm and other polyunsaturated oils...
May 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498386/atorvastatin-inhibits-cholesterol-induced-caspase-3-cleavage-through-down-regulation-of-p38-and-up-regulation-of-bcl-2-in-the-rat-carotid-artery
#12
Roshanak Bayatmakoo, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Mehdi Farhoudi, Pouran Karimi
AIM: Atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid arteries lead to a broad range of cerebrovascular disorders such as vascular dementia and ischaemic stroke. Recent studies have verified the beneficial role of atorvastatin (AV) in atherosclerosis. Despite a large body of studies, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been completely explained. In this study, several experiments were performed on atherosclerotic rat models to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of AV in the carotid artery...
May 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759089/training-community-health-workers-to-screen-for-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-the-community-experiences-from-cape-town-south-africa
#13
Thandi Puoane, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, Thomas A Gaziano, Naomi Levitt
This article describes a training process to equip community health workers (CHWs) with knowledge and skills to identify individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a township in Cape Town. METHODS: CHWs were employed by a non-governmental organisation (NGO) primarily focusing on non-communicable diseases (NCDs). They were trained in the theory of CVD, including physiological changes and related risk factors and in obtaining anthropometric and blood pressure measurements...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759088/the-effects-of-treatment-in-patients-with-childhood-asthma-on-the-elastic-properties-of-the-aorta
#14
Osman Bektaş, Zeki Yüksel Günaydin, Ahmet Karagöz, Recep Akgedik, Adil Bayramoğlu, Ahmet Kaya
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to investigate the effects of treatment in patients with childhood asthma on the elastic properties of the aorta and cardiovascular risk. METHODS: The study was performed in 66 paediatric patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma (BA). All patients were administered the β2 agonist, salbutamol, for seven days, followed by one month of montelukast and six months of inhaled steroid treatment. All patients underwent conventional transthoracic echocardiographic imaging before and after treatment...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759087/saliva-serum-ghrelin-obestatin-and-homocysteine-levels-in-patients-with-ischaemic-heart-disease
#15
Nermin Kilic, Necati Dagli, Suleyman Aydin, Fazilet Erman, Yuksel Bek, Okhan Akin, S S Kilic, Haci Kemal Erdemli, Hasan Alacam
BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare ghrelin, obestatin, homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B12 and folate levels in the serum and saliva of ischaemic heart disease patients. METHODS: Serum and saliva were collected from 33 ischaemic heart disease (IHD) patients and 28 age- and body mass index-matched healthy individuals. Levels of acylated and desacylated ghrelin, obestatin and Hcy were determined using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Acylated ghrelin, desacylated ghrelin and obestatin levels in the saliva were found to be higher than those in the serum of the control group, while acylated and desacylated ghrelin levels in the saliva were significantly lower than those in the serum...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759086/assessment-of-myocardial-repolarisation-parameters-in-patients-with-familial-mediterranean-fever
#16
Kayihan Karaman, Metin Karayakali, Ertuğrul Erken, Ahmet Demirtaş, Mustafa Öztürk, Fatih Altunkaş, Arif Arisoy, Oğuzhan Ekrem Turan, Köksal Ceyhan, Ataç Çelik
BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a chronic, recurrent auto-inflammatory disease characterised by self-terminating attacks of fever and sterile polyserositis. The main cause of death in auto-inflammatory diseases is cardiovascular events. Additionally, auto-inflammatory diseases have potential effects on the myocardial repolarisation parameters, including the T-wave peak-to-end (Tp-Te) interval, cTp-Te interval (corrected Tp-Te) and the cTp-Te/QT ratio. The aim of this study was to analyse the efficacy of myocardial repolarisation alterations in anticipation of cardiovascular risks in patients with FMF...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759085/resveratrol-did-not-alter-blood-pressure-in-rats-with-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibited-hypertension
#17
Mehmet Aydin, Buket Gungor, A Secil Akdur, Hakki Engin Aksulu, Coskun Silan, Ibrahim Susam, Ali Kemal Cabuk, Gizem Cabuk
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a well-known experimental model of hypertension (HT). It was shown that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of HT. Resveratrol is a potent anti-oxidant that is found in red grapes, peanuts and red wine. It improves the NO response and increases endothelial NOS expression, which causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation as well as renal vasodilation. We aimed to explore the effects of resveratrol on blood pressure, the water-salt balance and sodium excretion as a reflection of renal function in NOS-inhibited rat models...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759084/radiation-safety-time-to-act
#18
EDITORIAL
S C Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556851/perceptions-of-radiation-safety-training-among-interventionalists-in-south-africa
#19
André Rose, William Ian Rae
Exposure to ionising radiation may have deterministic and stochastic health effects, which include skin changes, chromosomal aberrations, cataracts and carcinomas. Formalised training in radiation safety and protection improves knowledge on the subject and facilitates greater compliance in safety practices. This qualitative study included 54 interventionalists (adult and paediatric cardiologists, and interventional radiologists). The participants were purposively selected and interviewed to explore their perceptions about radiation safety...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834982/telmisartan-decreases-microalbuminuria-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-following-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#20
Cevdet Furat, Riza Dogan, Gokhan Ilhan, Ekrem Bayar, Berkan Ozpak, Hakan Kara, Şahin Bozok
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to investigate the effects of the selective angiotensin receptor antagonist, telmisartan, on microalbuminuria after coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Patients were divided into two groups with block randomisation, using the sealed envelope technique: group T (telmisartan group) consisted of patients who received the angiotensin receptor blocking agent telmisartan 80 mg daily for at least six months in the pre-operative period; group N-T (non-telmisartan group) consisted of patients who received no telmisartan treatment...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
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