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ACS Nano

Connor Howe, Saswat Mishra, Yun-Soung Kim, Yanfei Chen, Sang-Ho Ye, William R Wagner, Jae-Woong Jeong, Hun-Soo Byun, Jong-Hoon Kim, Youngjae Chun, Woon-Hong Yeo
Random weakening of an intracranial blood vessel results in abnormal blood flow into an aneurysmal sac. Recent advancements show that an implantable flow diverter, integrated with a medical stent, enables a highly effective treatment of cerebral aneurysms by guiding blood flow into the normal vessel path. None of such treatment systems, however, offers post-treatment monitoring to assess the progress of sac occlusion. Therefore, physicians rely heavily on either angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Both methods require a dedicated facility with sophisticated equipment settings and time-consuming, cumbersome procedures...
July 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Yuanyuan Zhang, Jingsong Peng, Mingzhu Li, Eduardo Saiz, Stephan E Wolf, Qunfeng Cheng
Natural nacre exhibits extraordinary functional and structural diversity, combining high strength and toughness. The mechanical properties of nacre are attributed to (i) a highly arranged hierarchical layered structure of inorganic minerals (95 vol %) containing a small amount only of organic materials (5 vol %), (ii) abundant synergistic interfacial interactions, and (iii) formation under ambient temperature. Herein, inspired by these three design principles originating from natural nacre, the supertough bioinspired graphene-based nanocomposite fibers (BGNFs) are prepared under room temperature via sequential interfacial interactions of ionic bonding and π-π interactions...
July 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Shawn Stapleton, Michael Dunne, Michael Milosevic, Charles W Tran, Matthew J Gold, Ali Vedadi, Trevor D Mckee, Pamela S Ohashi, Christine Allen, David A Jaffray
Nanomedicine drug delivery systems are capable of transporting significant payloads to solid tumors. However, only a modest increase in antitumor efficacy relative to the standard of care has been observed. In this study, we demonstrate that a single dose of radiation or mild hyperthermia can substantially improve tumor uptake and distribution of nanotherapeutics, resulting in improved treatment efficacy. The delivery of nanomedicine was driven by a reduction in interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and small perturbation of steady-state fluid flow...
July 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Lian Duan, Levent Yobas
We introduce an integrated array of glass nanopores on a silicon microchip fabricated in a batch process through low-resolution photolithography and standard semiconductor processing tools. By functionalizing each nanopore against a distinct target, we further demonstrate ultrasensitive, label-free, multiplexed electrical detection of cancer-marker proteins in real time through charge-dependent ionic current rectification. As nanofluidic diode biosensors, the nanopores return rapid results with a limit of detection reaching concentrations as low as attomolars in assay buffer and femtomolars in undiluted untreated human serum, a rare achievement for this class of nanosensors...
July 19, 2018: ACS Nano
Yong Jin Jeong, Dong-Jin Yun, Sung Hoon Noh, Chan Eon Park, Jaeyoung Jang
Photo-responsive transistor memories that can be erased using light-only bias are of significant interest owing to their convenient elimination of stored data for information delivery. Herein, we suggest a strategy to improve light-erasable organic transistor memories, which enables fast "photo-induced recovery" under low-intensity light. CdSe quantum dots (QDs) whose surfaces are covered with three different organic molecules, are introduced as photoactive floating-gate interlayers in organic transistor memories...
July 19, 2018: ACS Nano
Noah Kastelowitz, Valeria Molinero
Nanoscale confinement has a strong effect on the phase behavior of water. Studies of the last two decades have revealed a wealth of novel crystalline and quasicrystalline structures for water confined in nanoslits. Less is known, however, about the nature of ice-liquid coexistence in extremely nanoconfined systems. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the ice-liquid equilibrium for water confined between two nanoscopic disks. We find that the nature of ice-liquid phase coexistence in nanoconfined water is different from coexistence in both bulk water and extended nanoslits...
July 19, 2018: ACS Nano
Chunshuang Yan, Zhiwei Fang, Chade Lv, Xin Zhou, Gang Chen, Guihua Yu
Layered hydroxides (LHs) have emerged as an important class of functional materials owing to their unusual physicochemical properties induced by various intercalated species. While both the electrochemistry and interlayer engineering of the materials have been reported, the role of interlayer engineering in improving the Li-ion storage of these materials remains unclear. Here, we rationally introduce pillar ions with conjugated anion dicarboxylate groups, cobalt oxalate ions ([CoOx2 ]2- ), into the interlayers of Co(OH)2 nanosheets [denoted as I-Co(OH)2 NSs]...
July 19, 2018: ACS Nano
Ikjot Singh Sohal, Young Kwan Cho, Kevin S O'Fallon, Peter Gaines, Philip Demokritou, Dhimiter Bello
Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are extensively used as food additives in numerous food products and at present, little is known about the fate of ingested ENM (iENM) in the gastrointestinal (GI) environment. Here, we investigated the dissolution behavior, biodurability and persistence of 4 major iENM (TiO2 , SiO2 , ZnO and two Fe2 O3 ) in individual simulated GI fluids (saliva, gastric and intestinal) and a physiologically relevant digestion cascade (saliva  gastric  intestinal) in the fasted state over physiologically relevant time frames...
July 18, 2018: ACS Nano
Houman Bahmani Jalali, Mohammad Mohammadi Aria, Ugur Meric Dikbas, Sadra Sadeghi, Baskaran Ganesh Kumar, Mehmet Sahin, Ibrahim Halil Kavakli, Cleva W Ow-Yang, Sedat Nizamoğlu
Light-induced stimulation of neurons via photoactive surfaces offers rich opportunities for the development of therapeutic methods and high-resolution retinal prosthetic devices. Quantum dots serve as an attractive building block for such surfaces, as they can be easily functionalized to match the biocompatibility and charge transport requirements of cell stimulation. Although indium-based colloidal quantum dots with Type-I band alignment have attracted significant attention as a non-toxic alternative to cadmium-based ones, little attention has been paid to their photovoltaic potential as Type-II heterostructures...
July 18, 2018: ACS Nano
Lihua Luo, Chunqi Zhu, Hang Yin, Mengshi Jiang, Junlei Zhang, Bing Qin, Zhenyu Luo, Xiaoling Yuan, Jie Yang, Wei Li, Yongzhong Du, Jian You
A convenient and feasible therapeutic strategy for malignant and metastatic tumor was constructed here by combining photothermal ablation (PTA) based laser immunotherapy with perdurable PD-1 blockade immunotherapy. Hollow gold nanoshell (HAuNS, a photothermal agent) and AUNP12 (an anti PD-1 peptide, APP) were co- encapsulated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. Unlike monoclonal PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies, PD-1 peptide inhibitor shows lower cost and immunotoxicity, but needs frequent administration due to its rapid clearance in vivo...
July 18, 2018: ACS Nano
Jehad K El-Demellawi, Sergei Lopatin, Jun Yin, Omar F Mohammed, Husam N Alshareef
2D Ti3 C2 Tx MXene was recently shown to exhibit intense surface plasmon (SP) excitations, however, their spatial variation over individual Ti3 C2 Tx flakes remains undiscovered. Here, we use scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with ultra-high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to investigate the spatial and energy distribution of SPs (both optically-active and -forbidden modes) in mono- and multi-layered Ti3 C2 Tx flakes. With STEM-EELS mapping, the inherent inter-band transition in addition to a variety of transversal and longitudinal SP modes (ranging from visible down to 0...
July 18, 2018: ACS Nano
Huan Wang, K Hima Nagamanasa, Ye-Jin Kim, Oh-Hoon Kwon, Steve Granick
Use of electron-based microscopy in aqueous media has been held back because aqueous samples tend to suffer from water radiolysis and other chemical degradation caused by the high energy of incident electrons. Here we show that aqueous liquid pockets in graphene liquid cells at room temperature display significantly improved stability when using deuterated water, D2 O. Reporting transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments based on common imaging conditions, we conclude that use of D2 O outperforms adding radical scavengers to H2 O regardless of imaging details; it increases the lifetime of dissolved organic macromolecules by a factor of 2-5, and it delays by even longer the appearance of radiolysis-induced bubbles, by a factor of time up to 10...
July 18, 2018: ACS Nano
Emily Mihalko, Ke Huang, Erin Sproul, Ke Cheng, Ashley C Brown
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, affects millions of people worldwide and results in significant death and disabilities. A major cause of MI is fibrin-rich thrombus formation that occludes the coronary arteries, blocking blood flow to the heart and causing fibrin deposition. In treating MI, reestablishing blood flow is critical. However, ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury itself can also occur and contributes to cardiac fibrosis. Fibrin-specific poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanogels (FSNs) comprised of a core-shell colloidal hydrogel architecture are utilized in this study to design a dual-delivery system that simultaneously addresses the need to 1) reestablish blood flow and 2) inhibit cardiac fibrosis following I/R injury...
July 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Kalina Paunovska, Carmen J Gil, Melissa P Lokugamage, Cory D Sago, Manaka Sato, Gwyn N Lando, Marielena Gamboa Castro, Anton V Bryksin, James E Dahlman
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are formulated using unmodified cholesterol. However, cholesterol is naturally esterified and oxidized in vivo, and these cholesterol variants are differentially trafficked in vivo via lipoproteins including LDL and VLDL. We hypothesized that incorporating the same cholesterol variants into LNPs - which can be structurally similar to LDL and VLDL - would alter nanoparticle targeting in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we quantified how >100 LNPs made with 6 cholesterol variants delivered DNA barcodes to 18 cell types in wildtype, LDL R-/-, and VLDLR-/- mice that were both age-matched and female...
July 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Martin Dahlqvist, Andrejs Petruhins, Jun Lu, Lars Hultman, Johanna Rosen
With increased chemical diversity and structural complexity comes the opportunities for innovative materials possessing advantageous properties. Herein, we combine predictive first-principles calculations with experimental synthesis, to explore the origin of formation of the atomically laminated i-MAX phases. By probing (Mo2/3 M2 1/3 )2 AC (where M2 = Sc, Y, and A = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, In), we predict seven stable i-MAX phases, five of which should have a retained stability at high temperatures. (Mo2/3 Sc1/3 )2 GaC and (Mo2/3 Y1/3 )2 GaC were experimentally verified, displaying the characteristic in-plane chemical order of Mo and Sc/Y and Kagomé-like ordering of the A-element...
July 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Qin Dai, Stefan Wilhelm, Ding Ding, Abdullah Muhammad Syed, Shrey Sindhwani, Yuwei Zhang, Yih Yang Chen, Presley MacMillan, Warren C W Chan
Coating the nanoparticle surface with cancer cell recognizing ligands is expected to facilitate specific delivery of nanoparticles to diseased cells in vivo. While this targeting strategy is appealing, no nanoparticle-based active targeting formulation for solid tumour treatment had made it past Phase III clinical trials. Here we quantified the cancer cell-targeting efficiencies of Trastuzumab and folic-acid coated gold and silica nanoparticles in multiple mouse tumour models. Surprisingly, we showed that less than 14 out of 1 million intravenously administrated nanoparticles interacted with the cancer cells, and that only 2 out of 100 cancer cells interacted with the nanoparticles...
July 17, 2018: ACS Nano
LiangLiang Cai, Xin Yu, Mengxi Liu, Qiang Sun, Meiling Bao, Zeqi Zha, Jinliang Pan, Honghong Ma, Huanxin Ju, Shanwei Hu, Liang Xu, Jiacheng Zou, Chunxue Yuan, Timo Jacob, Jonas Björk, Junfa Zhu, Xiaohui Qiu, Wei Xu
Conductive polymers are of great importance in a variety of chemistry related disciplines and applications. The recently developed bottom-up on-surface synthesis strategy provides us with opportunities in the bottom-up fabrication of various nanostructures in a flexible and facile manner, which could be investigated by high-resolution microscopic techniques in real space. Herein, we designed and synthesized molecular precursors functionalized with benzal gem-dibromomethyl groups. A combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, high resolution synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations demonstrated that it is feasible to achieve the direct formation of C-C double bonded structural motifs via on-surface dehalogenative homocoupling reactions on the Au(111) surface...
July 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Qi Liu, Fengqian Chen, Lin Hou, Limei Shen, Xueqiong Zhang, Degeng Wang, Leaf Huang
In desmoplastic melanoma, tumor cells and tumor-associated fibroblasts are the major dominators playing a critical role in the fibrosis morphology as well as the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), compromising the efficacy of therapeutic options. To overcome this therapeutic hurdle, we developed an innovative chemo-immuno strategy based on targeted delivery of mitoxantrone (MIT) and celastrol (CEL), two potent medicines screened and selected with the best anti-cancer and anti-fibrosis potentials...
July 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Kimmo Aleksi Mustonen, Aqeel Hussain, Christoph Hofer, Mohammad Reza Ahmadpour Monazam, Rasim Mirzayev, Kenan Elibol, Patrik Laiho, Clemens Mangler, Hua Jiang, Toma Susi, Esko I Kauppinen, Jani Kotakoski, Jannik C Meyer
Molecular self-assembly due to chemical interactions is the basis of bottom-up nanofabrication, whereas weaker intermolecular forces dominate on the scale of macromolecules. Recent advances in synthesis and characterization have brought increasing attention to two- and mixed-dimensional heterostructures and it has been recognized that van der Waals (vdW) forces within the structure may have a significant impact on their morphology. Here, we suspend single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on graphene to create a model system for the study of a 1D-2D molecular interface through atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy observations...
July 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Lionel Lopez, Yoonseob Kim, Loic Jierry, Joseph Hemmerle, Fouzia Boulmedais, Pierre Schaaf, Sergey Pronkin, Nicholas A Kotov
Stretchable nanocomposite conductors are essential for engineering of bio-inspired deformable electronics, human-machine interface and deformable energy storage devices. While the effect of strain on conductivity for stretchable conductors has been thoroughly investigated, the strain dependence of multiple other electrical transport processes and parameters that determine the functionalities and biocompatibility of deformable electrodes has received little attention. The constancy of electrochemical parameters at electrode-fluid interface such as redox potentials, impedances, and charge transfer rate constants on strain is often tacitly assumed...
July 17, 2018: ACS Nano
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