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Biomarkers in Medicine

Yunjie He, Fei Deng, Sujin Yang, Dandan Wang, Xiu Chen, Shanliang Zhong, Jianhua Zhao, Jinhai Tang
Breast cancer is the most common invasive malignancy among females worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions of targeted mRNAs. Recently, exosomes have been recognized to play critical roles in breast cancer. MiRNAs, as the most important inclusions in exosomes, are stable in the blood and other body fluids, making them ideal candidate biomarkers. In this review, we provide a complex overview of exosomal miRNAs in breast cancer...
November 20, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Luisella Vigna, Cristina Vassalle, Amedea Silvia Tirelli, Francesca Gori, Laura Tomaino, Laura Sabatino, Fabrizia Bamonti
AIM: Evaluation of gender-related differences in uric acid (UA), homocysteine and inflammatory biomarkers as metabolic syndrome (MetS) determinants. PATIENTS & METHODS: Anthropometric and routine data were obtained from 825 obese subjects (591 F, mean age 54 ± 14 years). RESULTS: Hyperuricemia was 24% in both genders. Waist circumference, creatinine, triglycerides, C-reactive protein and γ-glutamyltransferase were identified as UA-independent determinants in females and creatinine and insulin in males...
October 26, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Jin Wang, Jinglei Qu, Zhi Li, Xiaofang Che, Jing Liu, Yuee Teng, Bo Jin, Mingfang Zhao, Lingyun Zhang, Yunpeng Liu, Xiujuan Qu
AIM: The study evaluated the prognostic impact of combination of platelet count and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR) for first-line chemotherapeutic response and survival outcomes in metastatic advanced gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-three patients were categorized into three COP-NLR groups (COP-NLR 0, 1, 2) according to their platelet count and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. RESULTS: The COP-NLR 0 had a significantly higher disease control rate (93%) than the other two groups (p = 0...
October 26, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Anne Smits, Pieter Annaert, Karel Allegaert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Yan Pu, Xuhua Mi, Peng Chen, Bin Zhou, Peng Zhang, Yanyun Wang, Yaping Song, Lin Zhang
AIM: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the association between the polymorphisms in AXIN1 with susceptibility to clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). MATERIALS & METHODS:  A total of 284 ccRCC patients and 439 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Totally three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in AXIN1 gene were genotyped using PCR & restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: Significantly increased ccRCC risk was observed to be associated with the CT/CC genotypes of rs1805105 and AA genotype of rs12921862...
October 20, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Pieranna Chiarella, Damiano Carbonari, Pasquale Capone, Delia Cavallo, Sergio Iavicoli, Antonella Mansi, Renata Sisto, Giovanna Tranfo
AIM: The occupational biomonitoring of exposures to carcinogens is carried out by measuring dose (metabolites) and susceptibility biomarkers (gene polymorphisms) in two biological matrices: urine for metabolite detection and blood for genotyping. Blood is the most common substrate but has some disadvantages including: invasiveness of the harvesting technique; need of specialized staff and equipment; and high infection risk. METHODS & RESULTS: We propose our in-house approach using urine as single sample in 20 volunteers for simultaneous detection of dose and susceptibility biomarkers in order to verify efficacy and feasibility...
October 20, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Liang-Che Chang, Chung-Wei Fan, Wen-Ko Tseng, Hui-Ping Chein, Tsan-Yu Hsieh, Jim-Ray Chen, Cheng-Cheng Hwang, Chung-Ching Hua
AIM: Thioredoxin can reduce the cysteine group of Keap1 which could induce proteasome degradation of Nrf2, PGAM5 and Bcl-xL. Nrf2 regulates redox balance and Bcl-xL is anti-apoptotic and both are important in tumor progression. METHODS: The protein levels of Keap1, thioredoxin, PGAM5 and Bcl-xL in the normal and tumor tissues of 64 subjects with colorectal cancer (CRC) were determined by western blot. RESULTS: The tumor had higher Keap1 but lower PGAM5s and Bcl-xL protein expression than the normal tissue...
October 20, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Kyle J Burghardt, Dana El Masri, Sabrina E Dass, Sara S Shikwana, Linda A Jaber
AIM: To analyze associations between variation in the HP gene and lipid and glucose-related measures in Arab-Americans. Secondary analyses were performed based on sex. PATIENTS & METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from samples obtained from a previous epidemiological study of diabetes in Arab-Americans. The HP 1 and 2 alleles were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis. Associations were analyzed by linear regression. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Associations were identified between the heterozygous haptoglobin 2-1 genotype and insulin resistance, fasting insulin and fasting c-peptide...
October 17, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Nisa Sheriff, Ann I McCormack
Measurement of 24-h urine-free cortisol is frequently employed as a first-line screening and disease-monitoring test in Cushing's syndrome (CS). The quest for 'cortisol specificity' has seen the emergence of mass spectrometry (MS) based assays, particularly liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In contrast to traditional immunoassays, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry 'free cortisol' measurement is less susceptible to 'interference' from cortisol precursors and metabolites. However, detection of these conjugates is important in mild CS and therefore, missed by MS if cortisol alone is measured...
October 17, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Laneke Luies, Ilse du Preez, Du Toit Loots
Despite the fact that tuberculosis (TB) is a curable disease, it still results in approximately 1.8 million deaths annually. Various inadequacies in the current TB treatment strategies are major contributors to this high disease prevalence, including the long duration of therapy, the severe side effects associated with TB drugs, treatment failure due to drug resistance, post-treatment disease relapse, and HIV co-infection. In this review, we describe how metabolomics has contributed toward better explaining/elucidating the mechanisms of drug action/metabolism, drug toxicity and microbial drug resistance, and how metabolite biomarkers may serve as prognostic indicators for predicting treatment outcome as well as for the development of new TB drugs...
October 17, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Christoph Sinning, Dirk Westermann, Peter Clemmensen
Oxidative stress remains a major contributor to myocardial injury after ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) as the reperfusion of the myocardial infarction (MI) area inevitably leads to a cascade of I/R injury. This review focused on concepts of the antioxidative defense system and elucidates recent research using antioxidants like vitamin C, E and β-carotene or essential trace elements to activate compounds of antioxidative pathways in the circulation. In this context, important defense mechanisms like superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase will be described...
October 17, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Zeyuan Fan, Hanhua Ji, Yang Li, Xinwen Jian, Li Li, Tao Liu
AIM: To investigate the relationship between monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and plaque vulnerability assessed by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in patients with stable angina. METHODS: 133 patients with stable angina were enrolled. RESULTS: MLR was found to be an independent risk factor of thin cap fibrous atheroma (OR: 2.61; p = 0.025). MLR could differentiate thin cap fibrous atheroma with a sensitivity of 73.7% and a specificity of 61...
September 11, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Shiva Kalantari, Mohsen Nafar
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is relatively major cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults which is recognized as an organ-specific autoimmune disease. The etiology of most cases is idiopathic, whereas the secondary MN is caused by systemic autoimmune diseases, infections, medications and malignancies. The idiopathic disease is developed by the formation of sub-epithelial immune complex deposits most likely due to binding the circulating auto-antibodies to intrinsic antigen on podocytes. The major auto antibody is the anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R), however, it is not enough sensitive...
September 11, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Keith Fluegge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Theodore P Beauchaine, John N Constantino
In psychopathology research, endophenotypes are a subset of biomarkers that indicate genetic vulnerability independent of clinical state. To date, an explicit expectation is that endophenotypes be specific to single disorders. We evaluate this expectation considering recent advances in psychiatric genetics, recognition that transdiagnostic vulnerability traits are often more useful than clinical diagnoses in psychiatric genetics, and appreciation for etiological complexity across genetic, neural, hormonal and environmental levels of analysis...
September 11, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Xiaoying Ye, Songwen Ju, Houquan Duan, Yongliang Yao, Jianfen Wu, Shao Zhong, Lei Chen, ShaSha Cao, Yongfang Xu, Xiaocui Zheng, Haiyan Wang, Yan Ge, Songguang Ju
AIM: Accumulating evidence suggested that challenge of the maternal-fetal interaction during pregnancy might cause the impairment of immunological hemostasis and lead to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pathological process. Immune checkpoint molecule PD-1 is one of the critical molecule balancing immune response and immunological tolerance. METHODS: PD-1 expressions on T-cell subsets of GDM patients and control groups were measured via flow cytometric analysis and followed up...
September 11, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Yu Zhang, Wenteng Hu, Liwei Wang, Biao Han, Ruijiang Lin, Ning Wei
AIM: We investigated the role of GOLPH2 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We analyzed the relationship between the expression of GOLPH2 and the clinical pathological characteristics of patients with NSCLC. The function of GOLPH2 in NSCLC cell lines was also explored through overexpression and knockdown studies. RESULTS: The positive expression rate of GOLPH2 protein in NSCLC tissue was higher than that of normal lung tissue...
September 7, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Peter Wostyn, Peter Paul De Deyn
A significant proportion of the astronauts who spend extended periods in microgravity develop ophthalmic abnormalities. Understanding this syndrome, called visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP), has become a high priority for National Aeronautics and Space Administration, especially in view of future long-duration missions (e.g., Mars missions). Moreover, to ensure selection of astronaut candidates who will be able to complete long-duration missions with low risk of the VIIP syndrome, it is imperative to identify biomarkers for VIIP risk prediction...
September 4, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Margery A Connelly, James D Otvos, Qianyi Zhang, Shuyu Zhang, Caryl J Antalis, Annette M Chang, Byron J Hoogwerf
AIM: To characterize the effects of hepato-preferential basal insulin peglispro (BIL) and insulin glargine on insulin resistance (lipoprotein insulin resistance index [LP-IR]) and inflammation (GlycA), and to explore the biological implications. METHODS: This substudy included 847 patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) or Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in four cohorts of the BIL development program. LP-IR and GlycA were measured before and after insulin treatment. Correlations between LP-IR, GlycA, clinical parameters and liver biomarkers were assessed...
November 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Khalil Saleh, Nadine Khalife-Saleh, Elias El Haddad, Hampig Raphael Kourie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
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