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Biomarkers in Medicine

Andrew J Krentz, Marcus Hompesch
The clinical utility of diabetes biomarkers can be considered in terms of diagnosis, management and prediction of long-term vascular complications. Glucose satisfies all of these requirements. Thresholds of hyperglycemia diagnostic of diabetes reflect inflections that confer a risk of developing long-term microvascular complications. Degrees of hyperglycemia (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance) that lie below the diagnostic threshold for diabetes identify individuals at risk of progression to diabetes and/or development of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease...
October 13, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Tongzhi Wu, Christopher K Rayner, Michael Horowitz
The GI tract is central to the regulation of postprandial glycemia, with the rate of gastric emptying and the secretion of the incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, being key determinants. Gastric emptying exhibits a large interindividual variation; the latter not only accounts for differences in postprandial glycemia but also determines postprandial incretin profiles. Accordingly, the rate of gastric emptying may affect the glucose-lowering efficacy of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors...
October 13, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Jens F Rehfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Bartosz Hudzik, Janusz Szkodziński, Jarosław Wasilewski, Marek Gierlotka, Andrzej Lekston, Lech Poloński, Mariusz Gąsior
AIM: We investigated prognostic value of novel simplified thrombo-inflammatory score (sTIPS) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 465 patients with diabetes mellitus and STEMI were included in the study. Based on admission cut-off values for predicting in-hospital mortality of white blood cell count (>13.4 × 10(3)/mm(3)) and mean platelet volume-to-platelet count ratio (>0.06), the patients were assigned 0 point for having the lower value of each variable and 1 point for having the upper value of each variable...
October 13, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Armando Orlandi, Carmela Di Dio, Maria Alessandra Calegari, Carlo Barone
Everolimus and exemestane represent a standard treatment for metastatic hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative advanced breast cancer resistant to aromatase inhibitors. CA 15-3 serum levels detect soluble forms of MUC-1, a transmembrane oncoprotein aberrantly overexpressed in breast cancers. In clinical practice, CA 15-3 may be used to indicate treatment failure in the absence of readily measurable disease during cytotoxic therapy. In the targeted therapy era, it is important to note that the C-terminal subunit of MUC-1 interacts with PI3K/AKT pathway, inducting cell growth...
October 13, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Bochao D Lin, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Abdel Abdellaoui, Conor V Dolan, Eco J C de Geus, Cornelis Kluft, Dorret I Boomsma, Gonneke Willemsen
AIM: Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are biomarkers for disease development, for whom little is known about causes of variation in the general population. MATERIALS & METHODS: We estimated the heritability of PLR and NLR and examined their association with gender, demographic, lifestyle and environmental factors in a Dutch nonpatient twin family population (n = 8108). RESULTS: Heritability was estimated at 64% for PLR and 36% for NLR...
October 3, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Kazufumi Honda, Sudhir Srivastava
Given the low incidence of pancreatic cancer in the general population, screening of pancreatic cancer in the general population using invasive modalities is not feasible. Combination of invasive screening with noninvasive biomarkers for pancreatic cancer and its precancerous lesions has the potential to reduce mortality due to pancreatic cancer. In this review, we focus on biomarkers found in the blood that can indicate early-stage pancreatic cancer, and we discuss current strategies for screening for pancreatic cancer...
September 27, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Harald Enzmann, Ralf Meyer, Karl Broich
The new European regulation for in vitro diagnostics (IVD) divides the certification of IVD including companion diagnostics (CDx) by notified bodies (NB) from the market authorization of medicines. With the new regulation, CDx will require conformity assessment which is expected to include clinical evidence by NB. This is a significant change from the current situation: until now most IVD have been certified based on their manufacturers' assessment. For one medicine assessed by the EMA, certification of several different CDx by different NB is possible...
September 23, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Jens P Goetze, David P Sonne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Rune E Kuhre, Jens Pedersen, Filip K Knop, Jens J Holst
The proglucagon-derived peptide hormone, glucagon, comprises 29 amino acids. Its secretion from the pancreatic α cells is regulated by several factors. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels through gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon, hyperglucagonemia, may contribute to diabetes. However, hyperglucagonemia is also observed in other clinical conditions than diabetes, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, glucagon-producing tumors and after gastric bypass surgery...
November 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Kasper Broedbaek, Linda Hilsted
Chromogranin A (CgA) is an established plasma marker of neuroendocrine tumors and has been suggested to also have a role as biomarker in other diseases. Whether CgA has any role as biomarker in diabetes is, however, unresolved, but its widespread distribution in the secretory granules in endocrine tissues including β cells and α cells in pancreas, and the metabolic effects of its peptide fragments suggest that CgA may play a pathophysiological role in diabetes, and thus also be a potential diabetes biomarker...
November 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Nemanja Rajković, Tijana Vujasinović, Ksenija Kanjer, Nebojša T Milošević, Dragica Nikolić-Vukosavljević, Marko Radulovic
AIM: Breast cancer prognosis is in the spotlight owing to its potentially major clinical importance in effective therapeutic management. Following our recent prognostic establishment of the fractal features calculated on binary breast tumor histopathology images, this study aimed to accomplish the first optimization of this methodology by direct comparison of monofractal, multifractal and co-occurrence algorithms in analysis of binary versus grayscale image formats. PATIENTS & METHODS: The study included 93 patients with invasive breast cancer, without systemic treatment and a long median follow-up of 150 months...
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Du Toit Loots
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Alexander Arthur, Phillip J McCall, Lisa Jolly, John Kinsella, Alan Kirk, Ben G Shelley
AIM: We investigated if the serum biomarkers of endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) disruption, heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) and syndecan-1 (SDC1) were elevated following lung resection surgery. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from 16 patients undergoing lobectomy for primary lung cancer. HSPG and SDC1 were measured at five perioperative timepoints. Postoperative oxygenation was recorded. RESULTS: Post-hoc pair wise comparisons showed SDC1 concentration was significantly elevated on postoperative day 2, p < 0...
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Walter P Jeske, Jeanine M Walenga, Bryan Menapace, Jeffrey Schwartz, Mamdouh Bakhos
For heart failure patients unable to undergo cardiac transplantation, mechanical circulatory support with left ventricular assist devices can be utilized. These devices improve quality of life and prolong life expectancy, but they are associated with bleeding and thrombotic complications impacting patient survival. Little is known of the relevant mechanisms of these hemostatic issues, hindering identification of a clinically useful biomarker. However, there is suggestive evidence that blood cell-derived microparticles may fulfill this unmet clinical need...
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Hampig Raphael Kourie, Marianne Paesmans, Jean Klastersky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Kumral Cagli, Derya Tok, Osman Turak, Eren Gunertem, Cagri Yayla, Gokhan Lafci, Mahmut Mustafa Ulas, Kerim Cagli
AIM: To determine the association of monocyte count-to-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol ratio, a recently emerged inflammatory marker, with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) size. PATIENTS & METHODS: A total of 120 asymptomatic AAA subjects (99 male, mean age: 67.1 ± 10.2 years) were enrolled into the study. All data were compared between patients with low and high admission monocyte/HDL ratio. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to study the relationship between different variables and AAA size...
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Edwin Jr van Beek
Multimodality medical imaging offers a key role in disease diagnosis, while providing accurate staging and defining disease extent in many instances. Recent developments are increasingly leading to quantitative assessment of medical images, allowing both definition of disease extent, giving insight into the phenotypes of diseases and offering capabilities of monitoring response to therapy. Combined with other tools, such as genetic profiling, this is a powerful way of improving diagnosis and treatment of patients, enabling a personalized approach to delivering healthcare...
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Justyna Gil, Karolina A Pesz, Maria M Sąsiadek
Autophagy is a catabolic process associated with intracellular self-digestion of damaged organelles or redundant proteins enabling maintenance of cell homeostasis. It is accepted that impaired autophagy is closely linked to cancer development and has been extensively studied in a variety of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC) to elucidate its influence on carcinogenesis, metastasis and antitumor therapy response. CRC remains a great epidemiological problem because of poor 5-year survival and treatment resistance...
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Jun Li, Shilong Wang, Man Li, Hui Xu, Dandan Li, Can Yin, Jin Zhao, Feng Li
AIM: This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to explore the association between SLC52A3 rs13042395 polymorphism and cancer risk. MATERIALS & METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed to confirm the relationship evaluated using STATA 12.0 software. RESULTS: Overall, SLC52A3 rs13042395 C>T polymorphism was associated with cancer risk in two genetic models (TT vs CC: odds ratio: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.80-0.93; p < 0.001, TT vs CC + CT: odds ratio: 0...
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
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