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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems

Xiaopeng Bi, Tian Xie, Bin Fan, Wasif Khan, Yue Guo, Wen Li
Optogenetics is a fast growing neuromodulation method, which can remotely manipulate the specific activities of genetically-targeted neural cells and associated biological behaviors with millisecond temporal precision through light illumination. Application of optogenetics in neuroscience studies has created an increased need for the development of light sources and the instruments for light delivery. This paper presents a micro-lens-coupled LED neural stimulator which includes a backside reflector and a frontside microlens for light collection and collimation...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Jaemyung Lim, Coskun Tekes, F Levent Degertekin, Maysam Ghovanloo
Having intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging capability on guide wires used in cardiovascular interventions may eliminate the need for separate IVUS catheters and expand the use of IVUS in a larger portion of the vasculature. High frequency capacitive micro machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays should be integrated with interface electronics and placed on the guide wire for this purpose. Besides small size, this system-on-a-chip (SoC) front-end should connect to the back-end imaging system with a minimum number of wires to preserve the critical mechanical properties of the guide wire...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Saeed Haghiri, Arash Ahmadi, Mehrdad Saif
Glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia, are non-neuronal cells providing support and protection for neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). They also act as supportive cells in the brain. Among a variety of glial cells, the star-shaped glial cells, i.e., astrocytes, are the largest cell population in the brain. The important role of astrocyte such as neuronal synchronization, synaptic information regulation, feedback to neural activity and extracellular regulation make the astrocytes play a vital role in brain disease...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Miao Meng, Mehdi Kiani
Ultrasound has been recently proposed as an alternative modality for efficient wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. This paper presents the theory and design methodology of ultrasonic WPT links that involve mm-sized receivers (Rx). For given load (RL) and powering distance (d), the optimal geometries of transmitter (Tx) and Rx ultrasonic transducers, including their diameter and thickness, as well as the optimal operation frequency (fc) are found through a recursive design procedure to maximize the power transmission efficiency (PTE)...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Adrian Zurbuchen, Andreas Haeberlin, Alois Pfenniger, Lukas Bereuter, Jakob Schaerer, Frank Jutzi, Christoph Huber, Juerg Fuhrer, Rolf Vogel
Energy harvesting devices are widely discussed as an alternative power source for todays active implantable medical devices. Repeated battery replacement procedures can be avoided by extending the implants life span, which is the goal of energy harvesting concepts. This reduces the risk of complications for the patient and may even reduce device size. The continuous and powerful contractions of a human heart ideally qualify as a battery substitute. In particular, devices in close proximity to the heart such as pacemakers, defibrillators or bio signal (ECG) recorders would benefit from this alternative energy source...
September 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Justice Amoh, Kofi Odame
In this paper, we consider two different approaches of using deep neural networks for cough detection. The cough detection task is cast as a visual recognition problem and as a sequence-to-sequence labeling problem. A convolutional neural network and a recurrent neural network are implemented to address these problems, respectively. We evaluate the performance of the two networks and compare them to other conventional approaches for identifying cough sounds. In addition, we also explore the effect of the network size parameters and the impact of long-term signal dependencies in cough classifier performance...
September 16, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
S Abdollah Mirbozorgi, Yaoyao Jia, Daniel Canales, Maysam Ghovanloo
A new wireless electrophysiology data acquisition system, built around a standard homecage, is presented in this paper, which can power up and communicate with sensors and actuators/stimulators attached to or implanted in small freely behaving animal subjects, such as rodents. Key abilities of the energized homecage (EnerCage) system is enabling longitudinal experiments with minimal operator involvement or interruption, while providing test subjects with an enriched environment closer to their natural habitat, without the burden of being tethered or carrying bulky batteries...
September 16, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Dai Jiang, Dominik Cirmirakis, Matthew Schormans, Timothy A Perkins, Nick Donaldson, Andreas Demosthenous
This paper presents a passive phase-shift keying (PPSK) modulator for uplink data transmission for biomedical implants with simultaneous power and data transmission over a single 13.56 MHz inductive link. The PPSK modulator provides a data rate up to 1.35 Mbps with a modulation index between 3% and 38% for a variation of the coupling coefficient between 0.05 and 0.26. This modulation scheme is particularly suited for biomedical implants that have high power demand and low coupling coefficients. The PPSK modulator operates in conjunction with on-off-keying downlink communication...
September 15, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Maziyar Baran Pouyan, Vasu Jindal, Mehrdad Nourani
Single-cell technologies like flow cytometry (FCM) provide valuable biological data for knowledge discovery in complex cellular systems like tissues and organs. FCM data contains multi-dimensional information about the cellular heterogeneity of intricate cellular systems. It is possible to correlate single-cell markers with phenotypic properties of those systems. Cell population identification and clinical outcome prediction from single-cell measurements are challenging problems in the field of single cell analysis...
September 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Simon Friedmann, Johannes Schemmel, Andreas Grubl, Andreas Hartel, Matthias Hock, Karlheinz Meier
We present results from a new approach to learning and plasticity in neuromorphic hardware systems: to enable flexibility in implementable learning mechanisms while keeping high efficiency associated with neuromorphic implementations, we combine a general-purpose processor with full-custom analog elements. This processor is operating in parallel with a fully parallel neuromorphic system consisting of an array of synapses connected to analog, continuous time neuron circuits. Novel analog correlation sensor circuits process spike events for each synapse in parallel and in real-time...
September 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Rune Kaald, Trym Eggen, Trond Ytterdal
Fully digitized 2D ultrasound transducer arrays require one ADC per channel with a beamforming architecture consuming low power. We give design considerations for per-channel digitization and beamforming, and present the design and measurements of a continuous time delta-sigma modulator (CTDSM) for cardiac ultrasound applications. By integrating a mixer into the modulator frontend, the phase and frequency of the input signal can be shifted, thereby enabling both improved conversion efficiency and narrowband beamforming...
September 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Isha Gupta, Alexantrou Serb, Ali Khiat, Themistokalis Prodromakis
Recently a novel neuronal activity sensor exploiting the intrinsic thresholded integrator capabilities of memristor devices has been proposed. Extracellular potentials captured by a standard bio-signal acquisition platform are fed into a memristive device which reacts to the input by changing its resistive state (RS) only when the signal ampitude exceeds a threshold. Thus, significant peaks in the neural signal can be stored as non-volatile changes in memristor resistive state whilst noise is effectively suppressed...
August 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Fu-Yu Beverly Chen, David M Budgett, Yuhui Sun, Simon Malpas, Daniel McCormick, Peter S Freestone
Optogenetics allows control of neuronal activity with unprecedented spatiotemporal precision, and has enabled both significant advances in neuroscience and promising clinical prospects for some neurological, cardiac, and sensory disorders. The ability to chronically stimulate light-sensitive excitable cells is crucial for developing useful research tools and viable long-term treatment strategies. Popular optogenetic stimulation devices often rely on bench-top light-sources tethered via an optical fibre to the research animal, or significant componentry protruding externally from animal...
August 17, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Yoon-Jee Kim, Sung-Eun Cho, Ji-Yong Um, Min-Kyun Chae, Jihoon Bang, Jongkeun Song, Taeho Jeon, Byungsub Kim, Jae-Yoon Sim, Hong-June Park
A 64-channel RX digital beamformer was implemented in a single chip for 3-D ultrasound medical imaging using 2-D phased-array transducers. The RX beamformer chip includes 64 analog front-end branches including 64 non-uniform sampling ADCs, a FIFO/Adder, and an on-chip look-up table (LUT). The LUT stores the information on the rising edge timing of the non-uniform ADC sampling clocks. To include the LUT inside the beamformer chip, the LUT size was reduced by around 240 times by approximating an ADC-sample-time profile w...
August 17, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Junwen Luo, Konstantin Nikolic, Benjamin D Evans, Na Dong, Xiaohan Sun, Peter Andras, Alex Yakovlev, Patrick Degenaar
We present a reconfigurable neural processor for real-time simulation and prediction of opto-neural behaviour. We combined a detailed Hodgkin-Huxley CA3 neuron integrated with a four-state Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) model into reconfigurable silicon hardware. Our architecture consists of a Field Programmable Gated Array (FPGA) with a custom-built computing data-path, a separate data management system and a memory approach based router. Advancements over previous work include the incorporation of short and long-term calcium and light-dependent ion channels in reconfigurable hardware...
August 17, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Mehrdad A Ghanad, Michael M Green, Catherine Dehollain
An implantable local temperature monitoring system for a laboratory mouse is presented. Magnetic coupling is used to remotely power the passive implant. The temperatures of two local points are monitored by thermistors. A low-power readout circuit is implemented by directly amplifying and resolving the sensor response in the time domain. A free-running oscillator operating at 868 MHz transmits the sensor data to the base station. The average power dissipation of the implant is decreased by time interleaving between the sensor readout and the data communication...
August 3, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Zhiyuan Chen, Man-Kay Law, Pui-In Mak, Rui P Martins
In this paper, an ultra-compact single-chip solar energy harvesting IC using on-chip solar cell for biomedical implant applications is presented. By employing an on-chip charge pump with parallel connected photodiodes, a 3.5 × efficiency improvement can be achieved when compared with the conventional stacked photodiode approach to boost the harvested voltage while preserving a single-chip solution. A photodiode-assisted dual startup circuit (PDSC) is also proposed to improve the area efficiency and increase the startup speed by 77%...
August 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Xiaowei Xu, Feng Lin, Aosen Wang, Yu Hu, Ming-Chun Huang, Wenyao Xu
Sleep posture is a key component in sleep quality assessment and pressure ulcer prevention. Currently, body pressure analysis has been a popular method for sleep posture recognition. In this paper, a matching-based approach, Body-Earth Mover's Distance (BEMD), for sleep posture recognition is proposed. BEMD treats pressure images as weighted 2D shapes, and combines EMD and Euclidean distance for similarity measure. Compared with existing work, sleep posture recognition is achieved with posture similarity rather than multiple features for specific postures...
July 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Feng Lin, Yan Zhuang, Chen Song, Aosen Wang, Yiran Li, Changzhan Gu, Changzhi Li, Wenyao Xu
Quality of sleep is an important indicator of health and well being. Recent developments in the field of in-home sleep monitoring have the potential to enhance a person's sleeping experience and contribute to an overall sense of well being. Existing in-home sleep monitoring devices either fail to provide adequate sleep information or are obtrusive to use. To overcome these obstacles, a noncontact and cost-effective sleep monitoring system, named SleepSense, is proposed for continuous recognition of the sleep status, including on-bed movement, bed exit, and breathing section...
July 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Jaeeun Jang, Yongsu Lee, Hyunwoo Cho, Hoi-Jun Yoo
An ultra-low-power duty controlled received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is implemented for human body communication (HBC) in 180 nm CMOS technology under 1.5 V supply. The proposed RSSI adopted 3 following key features for low-power consumption; 1) current reusing technique (CR-RSSI) with replica bias circuit and calibration unit, 2) duty controller, and 3) reconfigurable gm-boosting LNA. The CR-RSSI utilizes stacked amplifier-rectifier-cell (AR-cell) to reuse the supply current of each blocks. As a result, the power consumption becomes 540 [Formula: see text] with +/-2 dB accuracy and 75 dB dynamic range...
August 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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