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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems

Mohammad Amin Imani, Arash Ahmadi, Mazdak RadMalekshahi, Saeed Haghiri
The human brain is composed of 1011 neurons with a switching speed of about 1 ms. Studying spiking neural networks, including modeling, simulation and implementation of biological neuron models help to learn about the brain and related diseases or to design more efficient bio-mimic processors and smarter robots. Such applications have made this part of neuromorphic researches very popular. In this paper, Wilson neuron model has been implemented as an approximation of Hodgkin-Huxley biological model that is adjusted for efficient digital realization on the platforms...
September 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Jan Muller, Jens Muller, Fang Chen, Ronald Tetzlaff
An intraoperative imaging system facilitating the localisation and characterisation of functional areas, pathological tissue, or perfusion disorders, could enormously support medical decisions during neurosurgical interventions and, thus, reduce the risk for the patients. To provide both structural and functional information of the brain tissue to the surgeon, a novel multimodal approach based on the measurement of long-wave infrared radiation and visual-light imaging is very promising. In this contribution, we discuss various methods for the registration and fusion of thermographic and visual-light images...
September 5, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Saeed Haghiri, Abdolhamid Zahedi, Ali Naderi, Arash Ahmadi
Fast speed and high accuracy implementation of biological plausible neural networks are vital key objectives to achieve new solutions to model, simulate and cure the brain diseases. Efficient hardware implementation of Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) is a significant approach in biological neural networks. This paper presents a Multiplierless Noisy Izhikevich Neuron (MNIN) model, which is used for digital implementation of biological neural networks in large scale. Simulation results show that the MNIN model reproduces the same operations of the original noisy Izhikevich neuron...
September 4, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Suman Deb, Tarun Vatwani, Anupam Chattopadhyay, Arindam Basu, Xuanyao Fong
Recently, a great deal of scientific endeavour has been devoted to developing spin-based neuromorphic platforms owing to the ultra-low-power benefits offered by spin devices and the inherent correspondence between spintronic phenomena and the desired neuronal, synaptic behavior. Whereas domain wall motion-based threshold activation unit has previously been demonstrated for neuromorphic circuits, it remains well-known that neurons with threshold activation cannot completely learn non-linearly separable functions...
August 27, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
David Tsai, Rafael Yuste, Kenneth L Shepard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Jun Yeon Won, Jae Sung Lee
We propose a new highly integrated FPGA-only signal digitization method for individual signal digitization of time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET). We configured I/O port of the FPGA with a single-ended memory interface (SeMI) input receiver. The SeMI is a single-ended voltage-referenced interface that has a common reference voltage per I/O Bank, such that each SeMI input receiver can serve as a voltage comparator. The FPGA-only digitizer that uses the single-ended input receivers does not require a separate digitizing integrated chip, and can obtain twice as many signals as that using LVDS input receivers...
August 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Sri Harsha Kondapalli, Yarub Alazzawi, Marcin Malinowski, Tomasz Timek, Shantanu Chakrabartty
In this paper we investigate the feasibility of harvesting energy from cardiac valvular perturbations to self-power a wireless sonomicrometry sensor. Compared to the previous studies involving piezoelectric patches or encasings attached to the cardiac or aortic surface, the proposed study explores the use of piezoelectric sutures that can be implanted in proximity to the valvular regions, where non-linear valvular perturbations could be exploited for self-powering. Using an ovine animal model, the magnitude of valvular perturbations are first measured using an array of sonomicrometry crystals implanted around the tricuspid valve...
August 14, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Sen Yan, Guy A E Vandenbosch
A wideband wearable button antenna working around 2.4 GHz is proposed in this paper. The function of the textile antenna ground is analyzed based on characteristic mode theory. By properly locating the button on the ground, the latter can be efficiently excited and operates as a radiator. This is shown to greatly increase the impedance bandwidth. The antenna is analyzed both in free space and on the human body. A prototype is fabricated, and the measured results agree satisfactorily with the simulations. In free space, the bandwidth, the realized gain, and radiation efficiency are 658 MHz, 1...
August 1, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Francesca Stradolini, Abuduwaili Tuoheti, Tugba Kilic, Sofia Lydia Ntella, Nadia Tamburrano, Zijian Huang, Giovanni De Micheli, Danilo Demarchi, Sandro Carrara
In this paper, we present the design, the implementation and the validation of a novel Internet of Things (IoT) drug monitoring system for the online continuous and simultaneous detection of two main anesthetics, e.g., propofol and paracetamol, in undiluted human serum. The described full system consists of a custom-built electronic Raspberry Pi (RPi) based Printed Circuit Board (PCB) that drives and reads out the signal from an electrochemical sensing platform integrated into a fluidic system. Thanks to the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fluidic device, the analyzed sample is automatically fluxed on the sensing site...
July 31, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Frans Widdershoven, Andrea Cossettini, Cecilia Laborde, Andrea Bandiziol, Peter Paul van Swinderen, Serge G Lemay, Luca Selmi
We describe the realization of a fully-electronic label-free temperature-controlled biosensing platform aimed to overcome the Debye screening limit over a wide range of electrolyte salt concentrations. It is based on an improved version of a 90 nm CMOS integrated circuit featuring a nanocapacitor array, readout and A/D conversion circuitry, and an FPGA-based interface board with NIOS II soft processor. We describe the chip's processing, the mounting, the microfluidics, the temperature control system, as well as the calibration and compensation procedures to reduce systematic errors, which altogether make up a complete quantitative sensor platform...
July 30, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Kevin A White, Geoffrey Mulberry, Jonhoi Smith, Manfred Lindau, Brad Minch, Kiminobu Sugaya, Brian N Kim
Human neuroblastoma cells, SH-SY5Y, are often used as a neuronal model to study Parkinson's disease and dopamine release in the substantia nigra, a midbrain region that plays an important role in motor control. Using amperometric single-cell recordings of single vesicle release events, we can study molecular manipulations of dopamine release and gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of neurological diseases. However, single-cell analysis of neurotransmitter release using traditional techniques yields results with very low throughput...
July 30, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Syed Ahmed Aamir, Paul Muller, Gerd Kiene, Laura Kriener, Yannik Stradmann, Andreas Grubl, Johannes Schemmel, Karlheinz Meier
Here, we describe a multicompartment neuron circuit based on the adaptive-exponential I&F (AdEx) model, developed for the second-generation BrainScaleS hardware. Based on an existing modular leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) architecture designed in 65-nm CMOS, the circuit features exponential spike generation, neuronal adaptation, intercompartmental connections as well as a conductance-based reset. The design reproduces a diverse set of firing patterns observed in cortical pyramidal neurons. Further, it enables the emulation of sodium and calcium spikes, as well as N-methyl-D-aspartate plateau potentials known from apical and thin dendrites...
July 24, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Hongming Lyu, Jigong Wang, Jun-Ho La, Jin Mo Chung, Aydin Babakhani
In this work, a switched-capacitor-based stimulator circuit that enables efficient energy harvesting for neurostimulation applications is presented, followed by the discussion on the optimization of the inductive coupling front-end through a codesign approach. The stimulator salvages input energy and stores it in a storage capacitor, and, when the voltage reaches a threshold, releases the energy as an output stimulus. The dynamics of the circuit are automatically enabled by a positive feedback, eliminating any stimulation control circuit blocks...
July 23, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Peilong Feng, Pyungwoo Yeon, Yuhua Cheng, Maysam Ghovanloo, Timothy G Constandinou
Next generation implantable neural interfaces are targeting devices with mm-scale form factors that are freely floating and completely wireless. Scalability to more recording (or stimulation) channels will be achieved through distributing multiple devices, instead of the current approach that uses a single centralized implant wired to individual electrodes or arrays. In this way, challenges associated with tethers, micromotion, and reliability of wiring is mitigated. This concept is now being applied to both central and peripheral nervous system interfaces...
July 20, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Adam E Mendrela, Kanghwan Kim, Daniel English, Sam McKenzie, John P Seymour, Gyorgy Buzsaki, Euisik Yoon
This work presents a fully integrated neural interface system in a small form factor (1.9 g), consisting of a μLED silicon optoelectrode (12 μLEDs and 32 recording sites in a 4-shank configuration), an Intan 32-channel recording chip, and a custom optical stimulation chip for controlling 12 μLEDs. High-resolution optical stimulation with approximately 68.5 nW radiant flux resolution is achieved by a custom LED driver ASIC, which enables individual control of up to 48 channels with a current precision of 1 μA, a maximum current of 1...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Nicholas Miscourides, Ling-Shan Yu, Jesus Rodriguez-Manzano, Pantelis Georgiou
This paper presents a large-scale CMOS chemical-sensing array operating in current mode for real-time ion imaging and detection of DNA amplification. We show that the current-mode operation of ion-sensitive field-effect transistors in velocity saturation devices can be exploited to achieve an almost perfect linearity in their input-output characteristics (pH-current), which are aligned with the continuous scaling trend of transistors in CMOS. The array is implemented in a 0.35-m process and includes 12.8 k sensors configured in a 2T per pixel topology...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Dionisije Sopic, Amin Aminifar, Amir Aminifar, David Atienza
A considerable portion of government health-care spending is allocated to the continuous monitoring of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases, particularly myocardial infarction (MI). Wearable devices present a cost-effective means of monitoring patients' vital signs in ambulatory settings. A major challenge is to design such ultra-low energy devices for long-term patient monitoring. In this paper, we present a real-time event-driven classification technique based on the random forest classification scheme, which uses a confidence-related decision-making process...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Robert James, Jim Garside, Luis A Plana, Andrew Rowley, Steve B Furber
This paper summarizes recent efforts in implementing a model of the ear's inner hair cell and auditory nerve on a neuromorphic hardware platform, the SpiNNaker machine. This exploits the massive parallelism of the target architecture to obtain real-time modeling of a biologically realistic number of human auditory nerve fibres. We show how this model can be integrated with additional modules that simulate previous stages of the early auditory pathway running on the same hardware architecture, thus producing a full-scale spiking auditory nerve output from a single sound stimulus...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
McKay Lindsay, Kevin Bishop, Shaan Sengupta, Megan Co, Michael Cumbie, Chien-Hua Chen, Matthew L Johnston
Direct sensing in liquids using CMOS-integrated optical and electrical sensors is attractive for lab-on-chip applications, where close physical proximity between sample and sensor can obviate optical lenses, enhance electrical sensitivity, and decrease noise due to parasitics. However, controlled delivery of fluid samples to the chip surface presents an ongoing challenge for lab-on-CMOS development, where traditional wire-bond packaging prevents integration of planar microfluidics. In this paper, we present a method for scalable heterogeneous integration of microfluidic channels and silicon-integrated circuit substrates using a commercial fan-out wafer-level packaging approach...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Hanjun Jiang, Yanshu Guo, Zeliang Wu, Chun Zhang, Wen Jia, Zhihua Wang
A wireless intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring system based on the air pressure sensing is proposed in this work. The proposed system is composed of an implantable ICP sensing device and a portable wireless data recorder. The ICP sensing device consists of an air pressure sensor, an ultra-thin air pouch for pressure sensing, and a low-power dedicated system-on-a-chip (SoC) for the data acquisition control and wireless transmission. The SoC consists of a power management unit, a wake-up controller, the sensor interface, a wireless transmitter, and the workflow control logic...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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