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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems

Jingna Mao, Huazhong Yang, Yong Lian, Bo Zhao
In wireless body area network, capacitive-coupling body channel communication (CC-BCC) has the potential to attain better energy efficiency over conventional wireless communication schemes. The CC-BCC scheme utilizes the human body as the forward signal transmission medium, reducing the path loss in wireless body-centric communications. However, the backward path is formed by the coupling capacitance between the ground electrodes (GEs) of transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx), which increases the path loss and results in a body posture dependent backward impedance...
June 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Kyle Van Volkinburg, Gregory Washington
This paper reports on a wearable gesture-based controller fabricated using the sensing capabilities of the flexible thin-film piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) which is shown to repeatedly and accurately discern, in real time, between right and left hand gestures. The PVDF is affixed to a compression sleeve worn on the forearm to create a wearable device that is flexible, adaptable, and highly shape conforming. Forearm muscle movements, which drive hand motions, are detected by the PVDF which outputs its voltage signal to a developed microcontroller-based board and processed by an artificial neural network that was trained to recognize the generated voltage profile of right and left hand gestures...
May 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Aya Ibrahim, Pascal A Hager, Andrea Bartolini, Federico Angiolini, Marcel Arditi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Luca Benini, Giovanni De Micheli
Ultrasound imaging is a reference medical diagnostic technique, thanks to its blend of versatility, effectiveness, and moderate cost. The core computation of all ultrasound imaging methods is based on simple formulae, except for those required to calculate acoustic propagation delays with high precision and throughput. Unfortunately, advanced three-dimensional (3-D) systems require the calculation or storage of billions of such delay values per frame, which is a challenge. In 2-D systems, this requirement can be four orders of magnitude lower, but efficient computation is still crucial in view of low-power implementations that can be battery-operated, enabling usage in numerous additional scenarios...
May 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Gang Wang, Michael D Poscente, Simon S Park, Christopher N Andrews, Orly Yadid-Pecht, Martin P Mintchev
This paper presents a wearable microsystem for minimally invasive, autonomous, and pseudo-continuous blood glucose monitoring, addressing a growing demand for replacing tedious fingerpricking tests for diabetic patients. Unlike prevalent solutions which estimate blood glucose levels from interstitial fluids or tears, our design extracts a whole blood sample from a small lanced skin wound using a novel shape memory alloy (SMA)-based microactuator and directly measures the blood glucose level from the sample...
May 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Saam Iranmanesh, Esther Rodriguez-Villegas
This paper describes a full system-on-chip to automatically detect sleep spindle events from scalp EEG signals. These events, which are known to play an important role on memory consolidation during sleep, are also characteristic of a number of neurological diseases. The operation of the system is based on a previously reported algorithm, which used the Teager energy operator, together with the Spectral Edge Frequency (SEF50) achieving more than 70% sensitivity and 98% specificity. The algorithm is now converted into a hardware analog based customized implementation in order to achieve extremely low levels of power...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Jingna Mao, Huazhong Yang, Bo Zhao
Utilizing the body surface as the signal transmission medium, capacitive coupling human body communication (CC-HBC) can achieve a much higher energy efficiency than conventional wireless communications in future wireless body area network (WBAN) applications. Under the CC-HBC scheme, the body surface serves as the forward signal path, whereas the backward path is formed by the capacitive coupling between the ground electrodes (GEs) of transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX). So the type of communication benefits from a low forward loss, while the backward loss depending on the GE coupling strength dominates the total transmission loss...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Xiu Yin Zhang, Hang Wong, Te Mo, Yun Fei Cao
A dual-band dual-mode button antenna for body centric communications is presented. At the lower band, a spiral inverted-F antenna is designed with omnidirectional radiation pattern for on-body communication. At the upper band, the high-order mode of the inverted-F antenna is utilized together with a metal reflector to realize broadside radiation for off-body communication. For demonstration, a prototype is implemented. The measured peak gains on the phantom at the lower and upper bands are -0.6 and 4.3 dBi, respectively...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Yuning Yang, Sam Boling, Andrew J Mason
Next-generation brain machine interfaces demand a high-channel-count neural recording system to wirelessly monitor activities of thousands of neurons. A hardware efficient neural signal processor (NSP) is greatly desirable to ease the data bandwidth bottleneck for a fully implantable wireless neural recording system. This paper demonstrates a complete multichannel spike sorting NSP module that incorporates all of the necessary spike detector, feature extractor, and spike classifier blocks. To meet high-channel-count and implantability demands, each block was designed to be highly hardware efficient and scalable while sharing resources efficiently among multiple channels...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Enzo Mastinu, Pascal Doguet, Yohan Botquin, Bo Hakansson, Max Ortiz-Catalan
Despite the technological progress in robotics achieved in the last decades, prosthetic limbs still lack functionality, reliability, and comfort. Recently, an implanted neuromusculoskeletal interface built upon osseointegration was developed and tested in humans, namely the Osseointegrated Human-Machine Gateway. Here, we present an embedded system to exploit the advantages of this technology. Our artificial limb controller allows for bioelectric signals acquisition, processing, decoding of motor intent, prosthetic control, and sensory feedback...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Hassan Aqeel Khan, Amit Gore, Jeffrey Ashe, Shantanu Chakrabartty
Continuous monitoring of respiratory patterns and physical activity levels can be useful for remote health management of patients with conditions such as heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In a clinical setting, spirometers serve as the gold standard for monitoring respiratory patterns such as breathing rate and changes in lung volume. However, direct measurements using a spirometer requires placement of a sensor in the patient's airway and is thus infeasible for continuous monitoring in nonclinical, ambulatory settings...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Dejan Rozgic, Dejan Markovic
In order to use thermoelectric energy harvesters (TEHs) as a truly autonomous energy source for size-limited sensing applications, it is essential to improve the power conversion efficiency and energy density. This study presents a thin-film, array-based TEH with a surface area of 0.83 cm2. The TEH autonomously supplies a power management IC fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology. The IC utilizes a single-inductor topology with integrated analog maximum power point tracking (MPPT), resulting in a 68% peak end-to-end efficiency (92% converter efficiency) and less than 20-ms MPPT...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Andrew M Carek, Omer T Inan
The measurement of aortic pulse transit time (PTT), the time for the arterial pulse wave to travel from the carotid to the femoral artery, can provide valuable insight into cardiovascular health, specifically regarding arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP). To measure aortic PTT, both proximal and distal arterial pulse timings are required. Recently, our group has demonstrated that the ballistocardiogram signal measured on a modified weighing scale can provide an unobtrusive, yet accurate, means of obtaining a proximal timing reference; however, there are no convenient, reliable methods to extract the distal timing from a subject standing on the modified weighing scale...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Zhi Hao Jiang, Zheng Cui, Taiwei Yue, Yong Zhu, Douglas H Werner
A compact and flexible circularly polarized (CP) wearable antenna is introduced for wireless body-area network systems at the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band, which is implemented by employing a low-loss composite of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and silver nanowires (AgNWs). The circularly polarized radiation is enabled by placing a planar linearly polarized loop monopole above a finite anisotropic artificial ground plane. By truncating the anisotropic artificial ground plane to contain only 2 by 2 unit cells, an integrated antenna with a compact form factor of 0...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Yu-Chieh Huang, Po-Tsang Huang, Shang-Lin Wu, Yu-Chen Hu, Yan-Huei You, Jr-Ming Chen, Yan-Yu Huang, Hsiao-Chun Chang, Yen-Han Lin, Jeng-Ren Duann, Tzai-Wen Chiu, Wei Hwang, Kuan-Neng Chen, Ching-Te Chuang, Jin-Chern Chiou
Highly integrated neural sensing microsystems are crucial to capture accurate signals for brain function investigations. In this paper, a 256-channel neural sensing microsystem with a sensing area of 5 × 5 mm2 is presented based on 2.5-D through-silicon-via (TSV) integration. This microsystem composes of dissolvable μ-needles, TSV-embedded μ-probes, 256-channel neural amplifiers, 11-bit area-power-efficient successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters, and serializers. This microsystem can detect 256 electrocorticography and local field potential signals within a small area of 5 mm × 5 mm...
March 30, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Alireza Chamanzar, Mahdi Shabany, Alireza Malekmohammadi, Sara Mohammadinejad
The brain-computer interfacing (BCI), a platform to extract features and classify different motor movement tasks from noisy and highly correlated electroencephalogram signals, is limited mostly by the complex and power-hungry algorithms. Among different techniques recently devised to tackle this issue, real-time onset detection, due to its negligible delay and minimal power overhead, is the most efficient one. Here, we propose a novel algorithm that outperforms the state-of-the-art design by sixfold in terms of speed, without sacrificing the accuracy for a real-time, hand movement intention detection based on the adaptive wavelet transform with only 1 s detection delay and maximum sensitivity of 88% and selectivity of 78% (only 7% loss of sensitivity)...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
S Abdollah Mirbozorgi, Pyungwoo Yeon, Maysam Ghovanloo
This paper presents an inductive link for wireless power transmission (WPT) to mm-sized free-floating implants (FFIs) distributed in a large three-dimensional space in the neural tissue that is insensitive to the exact location of the receiver (Rx). The proposed structure utilizes a high-Q resonator on the target wirelessly powered plane that encompasses randomly positioned multiple FFIs, all powered by a large external transmitter (Tx). Based on resonant WPT fundamentals, we have devised a detailed method for optimization of the FFIs and explored design strategies and safety concerns, such as coil segmentation and specific absorption rate limits using realistic finite element simulation models in HFSS including head tissue layers, respectively...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Yi-Kai Lo, Yen-Cheng Kuan, Stanislav Culaclii, Brian Kim, Po-Min Wang, Chih-Wei Chang, Jonathan A Massachi, Minji Zhu, Kuanfu Chen, Parag Gad, V Reggie Edgerton, Wentai Liu
This paper presents a wirelessly powered, fully integrated system-on-a-chip (SoC) supporting 160-channel stimulation, 16-channel recording, and 48-channel bio-impedance characterization to enable partial motor function recovery through epidural spinal cord electrical stimulation. A wireless transceiver is designed to support quasi full-duplex data telemetry at a data rate of 2 Mb/s. Furthermore, a unique in situ bio-impedance characterization scheme based on time-domain analysis is implemented to derive the Randles cell electrode model of the electrode-electrolyte interface...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Haipeng Peng, Ye Tian, Jurgen Kurths, Lixiang Li, Yixian Yang, Daoshun Wang
Applications of wireless body area networks (WBANs) are extended from remote health care to military, sports, disaster relief, etc. With the network scale expanding, nodes increasing, and links complicated, a WBAN evolves to a body-to-body network. Along with the development, energy saving and data security problems are highlighted. In this paper, chaotic compressive sensing (CCS) is proposed to solve these two crucial problems, simultaneously. Compared with the traditional compressive sensing, CCS can save vast storage space by only storing the matrix generation parameters...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Yuki Hayashida, Yuka Kudo, Ryoya Ishida, Hirotsugu Okuno, Tetsuya Yagi
To gain insights on how visual information of the real world is filtered, compressed, and encoded by the vertebrate retinas, emulating in silico the spatiotemporal patterns of the graded and action potentials of neuronal responses to natural visual scenes on biological time scale is a feasible approach. As a basic platform for such an emulation, we here developed a compact hardware system comprising an analog silicon retina and a field-programmable gate array module. With utilizing the Izhikevich formalism, a retinal circuit model that emulates spiking of ganglion cells was implemented in this system...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Venkata Rajesh Pamula, Jose Manuel Valero-Sarmiento, Long Yan, Alper Bozkurt, Chris Van Hoof, Nick Van Helleputte, Refet Firat Yazicioglu, Marian Verhelst
A compressive sampling (CS) photoplethysmographic (PPG) readout with embedded feature extraction to estimate heart rate (HR) directly from compressively sampled data is presented. It integrates a low-power analog front end together with a digital back end to perform feature extraction to estimate the average HR over a 4 s interval directly from compressively sampled PPG data. The application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) supports uniform sampling mode (1x compression) as well as CS modes with compression ratios of 8x, 10x, and 30x...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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