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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578414/a-mm-sized-wireless-implantable-device-for-electrical-stimulation-of-peripheral-nerves
#1
Jayant Charthad, Ting Chia Chang, Zhaokai Liu, Ahmed Sawaby, Marcus J Weber, Sam Baker, Felicity Gore, Stephen A Felt, Amin Arbabian
A wireless electrical stimulation implant for peripheral nerves, achieving >10× improvement over state of the art in the depth/volume figure of merit, is presented. The fully integrated implant measures just 2 mm × 3 mm × 6.5 mm (39 mm3 , 78 mg), and operates at a large depth of 10.5 cm in a tissue phantom. The implant is powered using ultrasound and includes a miniaturized piezoelectric receiver (piezo), an IC designed in 180 nm HV BCD process, an off-chip energy storage capacitor, and platinum stimulation electrodes...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570069/a-two-wired-ultra-high-input-impedance-active-electrode
#2
Federico Nicolas Guerrero, Enrique Mario Spinelli
This paper presents a novel two-wired active electrode that achieves ultrahigh input impedance using power supply bootstrapping. The proposed circuit reduces the input capacitance of a buffer amplifier while enabling measurements using leads with only two wires, providing a low-complexity and low-cost solution for interference rejection and artifact reduction in dc-coupled dry-contact biopotential measurements. An implemented prototype shows that, even using standard operational amplifiers, an input capacitance as low as 71 fF can be obtained, maintaining a high impedance in a 0-1 kHz bandwidth, sufficient for ECG, EEG, and EMG measurements...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570068/fully-automatic-three-dimensional-ultrasound-imaging-based-on-conventional-b-scan
#3
Qinghua Huang, Bowen Wu, Jiulong Lan, Xuelong Li
Robotic ultrasound systems have turned into clinical use over the past few decades, increasing precision and quality of medical operations. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic scanning system for three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging. A depth camera was first used to obtain the depth data and color data of the tissue surface. Based on the depth image, the 3-D contour of the tissue was rendered and the scan path of ultrasound probe was automatically planned. Following the scan path, a 3-D translating device drove the probe to move on the tissue surface...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570067/epoxy-chip-in-carrier-integration-and-screen-printed-metalization-for-multichannel-microfluidic-lab-on-cmos-microsystems
#4
Lin Li, Heyu Yin, Andrew J Mason
The integration of biosensors, microfluidics, and CMOS instrumentation provides a compact lab-on-CMOS microsystem well suited for high throughput measurement. This paper describes a new epoxy chip-in-carrier integration process and two planar metalization techniques for lab-on-CMOS that enable on-CMOS electrochemical measurement with multichannel microfluidics. Several design approaches with different fabrication steps and materials were experimentally analyzed to identify an ideal process that can achieve desired capability with high yield and low material and tool cost...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570066/a-high-sensitivity-potentiometric-65-nm-cmos-isfet-sensor-for-rapid-e-coli-screening
#5
Yu Jiang, Xu Liu, Tran Chien Dang, Xiwei Huang, Hao Feng, Qing Zhang, Hao Yu
Foodborne bacteria, inducing outbreaks of infection or poisoning, have posed great threats to food safety. Potentiometric sensors can identify bacteria levels in food by measuring medium's pH changes. However, most of these sensors face the limitation of low sensitivity and high cost. In this paper, we developed a high-sensitivity ion-sensitive field-effect transistor sensor. It is small sized, cost-efficient, and can be massively fabricated in a standard 65-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570065/a-scalable-isfet-sensing-and-memory-array-with-sensor-auto-calibration-for-on-chip-real-time-dna-detection
#6
Nicolas Moser, Jesus Rodriguez-Manzano, Tor Sverre Lande, Pantelis Georgiou
This paper presents a novel CMOS-based system-on-chip with a 78 56 ion-sensitive field-effect transistor array using in-pixel quantization and compensation of sensor nonidealities. The pixel integrates sensing circuitry and memory cells to encode the ion concentration in time and store a calibration value per pixel. Temperature sensing pixels spread throughout the array allow temperature monitoring during the reaction. We describe the integration of the array as part of a lab-on-chip cartridge that plugs into a motherboard for power management, biasing, data acquisition, and temperature regulation...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570064/fast-and-precise-emulation-of-stochastic-biochemical-reaction-networks-with-amplified-thermal-noise-in-silicon-chips
#7
Jaewook Kim, Sung Sik Woo, Rahul Sarpeshkar
The analysis and simulation of complex interacting biochemical reaction pathways in cells is important in all of systems biology and medicine. Yet, the dynamics of even a modest number of noisy or stochastic coupled biochemical reactions is extremely time consuming to simulate. In large part, this is because of the expensive cost of random number and Poisson process generation and the presence of stiff, coupled, nonlinear differential equations. Here, we demonstrate that we can amplify inherent thermal noise in chips to emulate randomness physically, thus alleviating these costs significantly...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570063/a-digitally-programmable-cytomorphic-chip-for-simulation-of-arbitrary-biochemical-reaction-networks
#8
Sung Sik Woo, Jaewook Kim, Rahul Sarpeshkar
Prior work has shown that compact analog circuits can faithfully represent and model fundamental biomolecular circuits via efficient log-domain cytomorphic transistor equivalents. Such circuits have emphasized basis functions that are dominant in genetic transcription and translation networks and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-protein binding. Here, we report a system featuring digitally programmable 0.35 μm BiCMOS analog cytomorphic chips that enable arbitrary biochemical reaction networks to be exactly represented thus enabling compact and easy composition of protein networks as well...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570062/sub-100-nw-volatile-nano-metal-oxide-memristor-as-synaptic-like-encoder-of-neuronal-spikes
#9
Isha Gupta, Alexantrou Serb, Ali Khiat, Ralf Zeitler, Stefano Vassanelli, Themistoklis Prodromakis
Advanced neural interfaces mediate a bioelectronic link between the nervous system and microelectronic devices, bearing great potential as innovative therapy for various diseases. Spikes from a large number of neurons are recorded leading to creation of big data that require online processing under most stringent conditions, such as minimal power dissipation and on-chip space occupancy. Here, we present a new concept where the inherent volatile properties of a nano-scale memristive device are used to detect and compress information on neural spikes as recorded by a multielectrode array...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570061/high-voltage-multiphasic-nanosecond-pulses-to-modulate-cellular-responses
#10
Hollie A Ryan, Shinji Hirakawa, Enbo Yang, Chunrong Zhou, Shu Xiao
Nanosecond electric pulses are an effective power source in plasma medicine and biological stimulation, in which biophysical responses are governed by peak power and not energy. While uniphasic nanosecond pulse generators are widely available, the recent discovery that biological effects can be uniquely modulated by reversing the polarity of nanosecond duration pulses calls for the development of a multimodal pulse generator. This paper describes a method to generate nanosecond multiphasic pulses for biomedical use, and specifically demonstrates its ability to cancel or enhance cell swelling and blebbing...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570060/a-real-time-reconfigurable-multichip-architecture-for-large-scale-biophysically-accurate-neuron-simulation
#11
Amir Zjajo, Jaco Hofmann, Gerrit Jan Christiaanse, Martijn van Eijk, Georgios Smaragdos, Christos Strydis, Alexander de Graaf, Carlo Galuzzi, Rene van Leuken
Simulation of brain neurons in real-time using biophysically meaningful models is a prerequisite for comprehensive understanding of how neurons process information and communicate with each other, in effect efficiently complementing in-vivo experiments. State-of-the-art neuron simulators are, however, capable of simulating at most few tens/hundreds of biophysically accurate neurons in real-time due to the exponential growth in the interneuron communication costs with the number of simulated neurons. In this paper, we propose a real-time, reconfigurable, multichip system architecture based on localized communication, which effectively reduces the communication cost to a linear growth...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570059/an-extreme-learning-machine-based-neuromorphic-tactile-sensing-system-for-texture-recognition
#12
Mahdi Rasouli, Yi Chen, Arindam Basu, Sunil L Kukreja, Nitish V Thakor
Despite significant advances in computational algorithms and development of tactile sensors, artificial tactile sensing is strikingly less efficient and capable than the human tactile perception. Inspired by efficiency of biological systems, we aim to develop a neuromorphic system for tactile pattern recognition. We particularly target texture recognition as it is one of the most necessary and challenging tasks for artificial sensory systems. Our system consists of a piezoresistive fabric material as the sensor to emulate skin, an interface that produces spike patterns to mimic neural signals from mechanoreceptors, and an extreme learning machine (ELM) chip to analyze spiking activity...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570058/a-five-tissue-layer-human-body-communication-circuit-model-tunable-to-individual-characteristics
#13
Jingna Mao, Huazhong Yang, Yong Lian, Bo Zhao
Human body communication (HBC) has several advantages over traditional wireless communications due to the high conductivity of human body. An accurate body channel model plays a vital role in optimizing the performance and power of HBC transceivers. In this paper, we present a body channel model with three distinct features. First, it takes into account all five body tissue layers resulting better accuracy; second, it adapts to different individuals with the proposed layer thickness estimation technique; third, it counts in the variation of backward coupling capacitance versus different postures...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570057/vital-sign-monitoring-through-the-back-using-an-uwb-impulse-radar-with-body-coupled-antennas
#14
Elliott Schires, Pantelis Georgiou, Tor Sverre Lande
Radar devices can be used in nonintrusive situations to monitor vital sign, through clothes or behind walls. By detecting and extracting body motion linked to physiological activity, accurate simultaneous estimations of both heart rate (HR) and respiration rate (RR) is possible. However, most research to date has focused on front monitoring of superficial motion of the chest. In this paper, body penetration of electromagnetic (EM) wave is investigated to perform back monitoring of human subjects. Using body-coupled antennas and an ultra-wideband (UWB) pulsed radar, in-body monitoring of lungs and heart motion was achieved...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570056/ultracompact-implantable-design-with-integrated-wireless-power-transfer-and-rf-transmission-capabilities
#15
Guilin Sun, Badar Muneer, Ying Li, Qi Zhu
This paper presents an ultracompact design of biomedical implantable devices with integrated wireless power transfer (WPT) and RF transmission capabilities for implantable medical applications. By reusing the spiral coil in an implantable device, both RF transmission and WPT are realized without the performance degradation of both functions in ultracompact size. The complete theory of WPT based on magnetic resonant coupling is discussed and the design methodology of an integrated structure is presented in detail, which can guide the design effectively...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570055/a-low-power-current-reuse-analog-front-end-for-high-density-neural-recording-implants
#16
Masoud Rezaei, Esmaeel Maghsoudloo, Cyril Bories, Yves De Koninck, Benoit Gosselin
Studying brain activity in vivo requires collecting bioelectrical signals from several microelectrodes simultaneously in order to capture neuron interactions. In this work, we present a new current-reuse analog front-end (AFE), which is scalable to very large numbers of recording channels, thanks to its small implementation silicon area and its low-power consumption. This current-reuse AFE, which is including a low-noise amplifier (LNA) and a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), employs a new fully differential current-mirror topology using fewer transistors, and improving several design parameters, such as power consumption and noise, over previous current-reuse amplifier circuit implementations...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377812/on-chip-neural-data-compression-based-on-compressed-sensing-with-sparse-sensing-matrices
#17
Wenfeng Zhao, Biao Sun, Tong Wu, Zhi Yang
On-chip neural data compression is an enabling technique for wireless neural interfaces that suffer from insufficient bandwidth and power budgets to transmit the raw data. The data compression algorithm and its implementation should be power and area efficient and functionally reliable over different datasets. Compressed sensing is an emerging technique that has been applied to compress various neurophysiological data. However, the state-of-the-art compressed sensing (CS) encoders leverage random but dense binary measurement matrices, which incur substantial implementation costs on both power and area that could offset the benefits from the reduced wireless data rate...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377811/wireless-eeg-system-achieving-high-throughput-and-reduced-energy-consumption-through-lossless-and-near-lossless-compression
#18
Guillermo Dufort Y Alvarez, Federico Favaro, Federico Lecumberry, Alvaro Martin, Juan P Oliver, Julian Oreggioni, Ignacio Ramirez, Gadiel Seroussi, Leonardo Steinfeld
This work presents a wireless multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system featuring lossless and near-lossless compression of the digitized EEG signal. Two novel, low-complexity, efficient compression algorithms were developed and tested in a low-power platform. The algorithms were tested on six public EEG databases comparing favorably with the best compression rates reported up to date in the literature. In its lossless mode, the platform is capable of encoding and transmitting 59-channel EEG signals, sampled at 500 Hz and 16 bits per sample, at a current consumption of 337 A per channel; this comes with a guarantee that the decompressed signal is identical to the sampled one...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377810/a-10-mhz-read-out-chain-for-electrical-impedance-tomography
#19
Mohammad Takhti, Yueh-Ching Teng, Kofi Odame
This paper presents the design and implementation of a read-out chain for electrical impedance tomography (EIT) imaging. The EIT imaging approach can be incorporated to take spectral images of the tissue under study, offering an affordable, portable device for home health monitoring. A fast read-out channel covering a wide range of frequencies is a must for such applications. The proposed read-out channel comprising a programmable gain instrumentation amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and an ADC driver is designed and fabricated in a 0...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377809/a-1-55-%C3%AE-w-bio-impedance-measurement-system-for-implantable-cardiac-pacemakers-in-0-18-%C3%AE-m-cmos
#20
Milad Zamani, Yasser Rezaeiyan, Omid Shoaei, Wouter A Serdijn
This paper presents an implantable bio-impedance measurement system for cardiac pacemakers. The fully integrated system features a low power analog front-end and pulse width modulated output. The bio-impedance readout benefits from voltage to time conversion to achieve a very low power consumption for wirelessly transmitting the data outside the body. The proposed IC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and is capable of measuring the bio-impedance at 2 kHz over a wide dynamic range from to with accuracy and maximum current injection while consuming just from a 1 V supply...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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