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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems

Elahe Rahimian, Soheil Zabihi, Mahmood Amiri, Bernabe Linares-Barranco
It is believed that brain-like computing system can be achieved by the fusion of electronics and neuroscience. In this way, the optimized digital hardware implementation of neurons, primary units of nervous system, play a vital role in neuromorphic applications. Moreover, one of the main features of pyramidal neurons in cortical areas is bursting activities that has a critical role in synaptic plasticity. The Pinsky-Rinzel model is a nonlinear two-compartmental model for CA3 pyramidal cell that is widely used in neuroscience...
October 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Robert Karam, Steve J A Majerus, Dennis J Bourbeau, Margot S Damaser, Swarup Bhunia
Lower urinary tract dysfunctions, such as urinary incontinence and overactive bladder, are conditions that greatly affect the quality of life for millions of individuals worldwide. For those with more complex pathophysiologies, diagnosis of these conditions often requires a urodynamics study, providing physicians with a snapshot view of bladder mechanics. Recent advancements in implantable bladder pressure monitors and advanced data analysis techniques have made diagnosis through chronic monitoring a promising prospect...
October 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Haitao Li, Sina Parsnejad, Ehsan Ashoori, Cort Thompson, Erin K Purcell, Andrew J Mason
High-density on-chip electrochemical biosensor arrays are advancing toward a crucial role in health monitoring and development of new medicines and medical treatments. Nanopore and ion channel based sensors especially have great potential but present demanding resolution/speed/power/area requirements on instrumentation circuits. This paper presents a pixel-level current readout circuit and new group-cluster architecture to address the circuit challenges in high-performance biosensor arrays. Fabricated in 0...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Giuseppe Massobrio, Sergio Martinoia, Paolo Massobrio
In the latest years, several attempts to develop extracellular microtransducers to record electrophysiological activity of excitable cells have been done. In particular, many efforts have been oriented to increase the coupling conditions, and, thus, improving the quality of the recorded signal. Gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes (GMμE) are an example of nano-devices to achieve those requirements. In this study, we developed an equivalent electrical circuit of the neuron-microelectrode system interface to simulate signal recordings from both planar and engulfed micro-nano-electrodes...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Vivek P Jani, Shawn Mailo, Ali Athar, Alfredo Lucas, Alexander T Williams, Pedro Cabrales
In 2013, nearly 15 million units of banked blood were transfused in the United States of America alone. Blood shortages are expected to increase globally. Donated blood is not equal due to differences in quality and deterioration rate. There are no methods to detect time-dependent biochemical and biophysical changes of red blood cells (RBCs) or the deterioration rate of donated RBCs. Nine randomly selected RBC units collected by the San Diego Blood Bank were examined for interdonor variability over six weeks of storage...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Justin K S Tan, Sung-Yong Park, Hwa Liang Leo, Sangho Kim
White blood cells (WBCs) are the only cellular constituent containing genetic materials, and, hence, are candidate biomarkers for a host of diseases. However, conventional methods for WBC separation tend to have low sample purity and separation efficiency, which will have adverse implications on downstream polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. In this study, we introduce a two-stage microfluidic device which harnesses the elastic property of a non-Newtonian fluid for size-based separation of WBCs from whole blood...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Zipeng Li, Kelvin Yi-Tse Lai, Krishnendu Chakrabarty, Tsung-Yi Ho, Chen-Yi Lee
Sample preparation in digital microfluidics refers to the generation of droplets with target concentrations for on-chip biochemical applications. In recent years, digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) have been adopted as a platform for sample preparation. However, there remain two major problems associated with sample preparation on a conventional DMFB. First, only a (1:1) mixing/splitting model can be used, leading to an increase in the number of fluidic operations required for sample preparation. Second, only a limited number of sensors can be integrated on a conventional DMFB; as a result, the latency for error detection during sample preparation is significant...
September 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Juan P Dominguez-Morales, Angel F Jimenez-Fernandez, Manuel J Dominguez-Morales, Gabriel Jimenez-Moreno
Auscultation is one of the most used techniques for detecting cardiovascular diseases, which is one of the main causes of death in the world. Heart murmurs are the most common abnormal finding when a patient visits the physician for auscultation. These heart sounds can either be innocent, which are harmless, or abnormal, which may be a sign of a more serious heart condition. However, the accuracy rate of primary care physicians and expert cardiologists when auscultating is not good enough to avoid most of both type-I (healthy patients are sent for echocardiogram) and type-II (pathological patients are sent home without medication or treatment) errors made...
September 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Marco Carminati, Giorgio Ferrari, Michael D Vahey, Joel Voldman, Marco Sampietro
A dual-channel credit-card-sized impedance cell counter featuring a throughput of 2000 cell/s and detection of single yeast cells (5 μm) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB is presented. Its compactness is achieved by a CMOS ASIC combining a lock-in impedance demodulator with an oversampling 20-bit ΣΔ ADC and real-time peak detection embedded in field-programmable gate array. The module is coupled to a dielectrophoretic cell-sorting microfluidic device, offering compact and label-free electrical readout that replaces the need for a fluorescence microscope and, thus, is suitable for point-of-care diagnostics...
September 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Min-Woong Seo, Shoji Kawahito
A large full well capacity (FWC) for wide signal detection range and low temporal random noise for high sensitivity lock-in pixel CMOS image sensor (CIS) embedded with two in-pixel storage diodes (SDs) has been developed and presented in this paper. For fast charge transfer from photodiode to SDs, a lateral electric field charge modulator (LEFM) is used for the developed lock-in pixel. As a result, the time-resolved CIS achieves a very large SD-FWC of approximately 7ke-, low temporal random noise of 1.2e-rms at 20 fps with true correlated double sampling operation and fast intrinsic response less than 500 ps at 635 nm...
September 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Fabio Pareschi, Mauro Mangia, Daniele Bortolotti, Andrea Bartolini, Luca Benini, Riccardo Rovatti, Gianluca Setti
In recent years, compressed sensing (CS) has proved to be effective in lowering the power consumption of sensing nodes in biomedical signal processing devices. This is due to the fact the CS is capable of reducing the amount of data to be transmitted to ensure correct reconstruction of the acquired waveforms. Rakeness-based CS has been introduced to further reduce the amount of transmitted data by exploiting the uneven distribution to the sensed signal energy. Yet, so far no thorough analysis exists on the impact of its adoption on CS decoder performance...
September 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Debnath Maji, Michael A Suster, Erdem Kucukal, Ujjal D S Sekhon, Anirban Sen Gupta, Umut A Gurkan, Evi X Stavrou, Pedram Mohseni
This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfluidic sensor for dielectric spectroscopy of human whole blood during coagulation. The sensor, termed ClotChip, employs a three-dimensional, parallel-plate, capacitive sensing structure with a floating electrode integrated into a microfluidic channel. Interfaced with an impedance analyzer, the ClotChip measures the complex relative dielectric permittivity, ϵ Tr, of human whole blood in the frequency range of 40 Hz to 100 MHz. The temporal variation in the real part of the blood dielectric permittivity at 1 MHz features a time to reach a permittivity peak, Tpeak, as well as a maximum change in permittivity after the peak, ∆εr,max, as two distinct parameters of ClotChip readout...
September 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Jun Zhang, Dan Yuan, Ronald Sluyter, Sheng Yan, Qianbin Zhao, Huanming Xia, Say Hwa Tan, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Weihua Li
White blood cells (WBCs) constitute only about 0.1% of human blood cells, yet contain rich information about the immune status of the body; thus, separation of WBCs from the whole blood is an indispensable and critical sample preparation step in many scientific, clinical, and diagnostic applications. In this paper, we developed a continuous and high-throughput microfluidic WBC separation platform utilizing the differential inertial focusing of particles in serpentine microchannels. First, separation performance of the proposed method is characterized and evaluated using polystyrene beads in the serpentine channel...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Xiwei Huang, Umar Farooq, Jin Chen, Yakun Ge, Haijun Gao, Jiangtao Su, Xiang Wang, Shurong Dong, Ji-Kui Luo
The future point-of-care diagnostics requires miniaturizing the existing bulky and expensive bioanalysis instruments, where lab-on-CMOS-chip-based technology can provide a promising solution. In this paper, we presented a surface acoustic wave (SAW) pumped lensless microfluidic imaging system for flowing cell detection and counting. Different from the previous lensless systems, which employ external bulky syringe pump for cell driven, the developed system directly integrates the SAW pump on the CMOS image sensor chip to drive the cell-containing microfluid...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Peng Li, Xu Zhang, Ming Liu, Xiaohui Hu, Bo Pang, Zhaolin Yao, Hanjun Jiang, Hongda Chen
This paper proposes a low power and efficient QRS processor for real-time and continuous mobile ECG monitoring. The QRS detector contains the wavelet transform (WT), the modulus maxima pair identification (MMPI), and the R position modification (RPM). In order to reduce power consumption, we choose the Haar function as the mother wavelet of WT. It is implemented by an optimized FIR filter structure where none of the multiplier is used. The MMPI processes the wavelet coefficients at scale 2 (4) and provides candidate R peak positions for the RPM...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Zhidong Miao, Dake Liu, Chen Gong
Inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) is a promising power technology for implantable biomedical devices, where the power consumption is low and the efficiency is the most important consideration. In this paper, we propose an optimization method of impedance matching networks (IMN) to maximize the IWPT efficiency. The IMN at the load side is designed to achieve the optimal load, and the IMN at the source side is designed to deliver the required amount of power (no-more-no-less) from the power source to the load...
October 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Tiago Costa, Filipe A Cardoso, Jose Germano, Paulo P Freitas, Moises S Piedade
The development of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors has demonstrated significant advantages in nanomedicine, particularly for ultrasensitive point-of-care diagnostics. To this end, the detection system is required to be compact, portable, and low power consuming at the same time that a maximum signal to noise ratio is maintained. This paper reports a CMOS front-end with integrated magnetoresistive sensors for biomolecular recognition detection applications. Based on the characterization of the GMR sensor's signal and noise, CMOS building blocks (i...
October 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Sara S Ghoreishizadeh, Irene Taurino, Giovanni De Micheli, Sandro Carrara, Pantelis Georgiou
A monolithic biosensing platform is presented for miniaturized amperometric electrochemical sensing in CMOS. The system consists of a fully integrated current readout circuit for differential current measurement as well as on-die sensors developed by growing platinum nanostructures (Pt-nanoS) on top of electrodes implemented with the top metal layer. The circuit is based on the switch-capacitor technique and includes pseudodifferential integrators for concurrent sampling of the differential sensor currents...
October 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Nabeel P M, Jayaraj Joseph, Mohanasankar Sivaprakasam
OBJECTIVE: We present the design and experimental validation of an arterial compliance probe with dual magnetic plethysmograph (MPG) transducers for local pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement. The MPG transducers (positioned at 23 mm distance apart) utilizes Hall-effect sensors and permanent magnets for arterial blood pulse detection. METHODS: The MPG probe was initially validated on an arterial flow phantom using a reference method. Further, 20 normotensive subjects (14 males, age = 24 ± 3...
October 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Fa Wang, Xuan Zhang, Mehdi Shokoueinejad, Bermans J Iskandar, Joshua E Medow, John G Webster
We present a wide frequency range, low cost, wireless intracranial pressure monitoring system, which includes an implantable passive sensor and an external reader. The passive sensor consists of two spiral coils and transduces the pressure change to a resonant frequency shift. The external portable reader reads out the sensor's resonant frequency over a wide frequency range (35 MHz-2.7 GHz). We propose a novel circuit topology, which tracks the system's impedance and phase change at a high frequency with low-cost components...
October 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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