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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems

Adam E Mendrela, Kanghwan Kim, Daniel English, Sam McKenzie, John P Seymour, Gyorgy Buzsaki, Euisik Yoon
This work presents a fully integrated neural interface system in a small form factor (1.9 g), consisting of a μLED silicon optoelectrode (12 μLEDs and 32 recording sites in a 4-shank configuration), an Intan 32-channel recording chip, and a custom optical stimulation chip for controlling 12 μLEDs. High-resolution optical stimulation with approximately 68.5 nW radiant flux resolution is achieved by a custom LED driver ASIC, which enables individual control of up to 48 channels with a current precision of 1 μA, a maximum current of 1...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Nicholas Miscourides, Ling-Shan Yu, Jesus Rodriguez-Manzano, Pantelis Georgiou
This paper presents a large-scale CMOS chemical-sensing array operating in current mode for real-time ion imaging and detection of DNA amplification. We show that the current-mode operation of ion-sensitive field-effect transistors in velocity saturation devices can be exploited to achieve an almost perfect linearity in their input-output characteristics (pH-current), which are aligned with the continuous scaling trend of transistors in CMOS. The array is implemented in a 0.35-m process and includes 12.8 k sensors configured in a 2T per pixel topology...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Dionisije Sopic, Amin Aminifar, Amir Aminifar, David Atienza
A considerable portion of government health-care spending is allocated to the continuous monitoring of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases, particularly myocardial infarction (MI). Wearable devices present a cost-effective means of monitoring patients' vital signs in ambulatory settings. A major challenge is to design such ultra-low energy devices for long-term patient monitoring. In this paper, we present a real-time event-driven classification technique based on the random forest classification scheme, which uses a confidence-related decision-making process...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Robert James, Jim Garside, Luis A Plana, Andrew Rowley, Steve B Furber
This paper summarizes recent efforts in implementing a model of the ear's inner hair cell and auditory nerve on a neuromorphic hardware platform, the SpiNNaker machine. This exploits the massive parallelism of the target architecture to obtain real-time modeling of a biologically realistic number of human auditory nerve fibres. We show how this model can be integrated with additional modules that simulate previous stages of the early auditory pathway running on the same hardware architecture, thus producing a full-scale spiking auditory nerve output from a single sound stimulus...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
McKay Lindsay, Kevin Bishop, Shaan Sengupta, Megan Co, Michael Cumbie, Chien-Hua Chen, Matthew L Johnston
Direct sensing in liquids using CMOS-integrated optical and electrical sensors is attractive for lab-on-chip applications, where close physical proximity between sample and sensor can obviate optical lenses, enhance electrical sensitivity, and decrease noise due to parasitics. However, controlled delivery of fluid samples to the chip surface presents an ongoing challenge for lab-on-CMOS development, where traditional wire-bond packaging prevents integration of planar microfluidics. In this paper, we present a method for scalable heterogeneous integration of microfluidic channels and silicon-integrated circuit substrates using a commercial fan-out wafer-level packaging approach...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Yusheng Fu, Jinhong Guo
Currently, cardiovascular diseases become one of the major threat to human's life. The early prevention of cardiovascular diseases plays a critical role in the healthcare engineering. Point of care monitoring the blood lipid level is capable of making the positive contribution to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Ubiquitous smartphones paved the way as the flexible and widespread platform for the interaction of various health information. In this manuscript, we report the world's first medical smartphone as an electrochemical analyzer for blood lipid monitoring...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Hanjun Jiang, Yanshu Guo, Zeliang Wu, Chun Zhang, Wen Jia, Zhihua Wang
A wireless intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring system based on the air pressure sensing is proposed in this work. The proposed system is composed of an implantable ICP sensing device and a portable wireless data recorder. The ICP sensing device consists of an air pressure sensor, an ultra-thin air pouch for pressure sensing, and a low-power dedicated system-on-a-chip (SoC) for the data acquisition control and wireless transmission. The SoC consists of a power management unit, a wake-up controller, the sensor interface, a wireless transmitter, and the workflow control logic...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Guoqing Fu, Sameer Sonkusale
This paper presents a novel CMOS image sensor for luminescence imaging with direct lifetime-dependent digital pulse frequency modulated output. Recently reported parasitic insensitive multicycle charge modulation scheme is applied to accumulate photon-generated charges in discrete programmable time windows over multiple exposures. An autoreset pulse serving as the digital output is generated by comparing the multicycle charge integrated output with a reference threshold. The detected luminescence's lifetime is extracted by monitoring the frequency in this digital pulse...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Jie Lin, Jiann-Shiun Yuan
The stochastic neuron is a key for event-based probabilistic neural networks. We propose a stochastic neuron using a metal-oxide resistive random-access memory (ReRAM). The ReRAM's conducting filament with built-in stochasticity is used to mimic the neuron's membrane capacitor, which temporally integrates input spikes. A capacitor-less neuron circuit is designed, laid out, and simulated. The output spiking train of the neuron obeys the Poisson distribution. Using the 65-nm CMOS technology node, the area of the neuron is , which is one ninth the size of a 1-pF capacitor...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Chengzhi Winston Liu, Arshya Feizi, Navid Sarhangnejad, Glenn Gulak, Roman Genov
A low-cost contact scanning microscope is presented which performs optical imaging of millimeter-scale samples with multiple sensory modalities at a spatial resolution better than the pixel size in both x and y dimensions. The 7.5 mm 3.2 mm 0.35 m CMOS image sensor is comprised of 214 scanning lines of 256 pixels, each line horizontally shifted by 300 nm with respect to the adjacent lines. When scanning in the y dimension, this results in a staircase-like staggered-pixels organization with an effective spatial resolution in the x dimension of less than the pixel size, with a theoretical limit of 300 nm, subject to the light diffraction limit and to photodiode size-dependent spatial aliasing...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Mostafa Haghi, Regina Stoll, Kerstin Thurow
A novel hardware approach with four physical layers and several integrated and add-on sensors for a comprehensive physical and chemical environmental parameter (toxic gases, sound level, air pressure, humidity, temperature, and motion tracking) monitoring is introduced in this paper. To provide flexibility, the system is modular and each sensor functions independently. The whole solution is small, compact, light, and wrist worn. It is working in low power consumption mode and operates for several hours. The device has two layers to implement the sensors and one layer for a warning system driver to enable the vibrating motor and beeper in emergency status...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Matthew Schormans, Virgilio Valente, Andreas Demosthenous
Wireless power transfer systems, particularly those based on inductive coupling, provide an increasingly attractive method to safely deliver power to biomedical implants. Although there exists a large body of literature describing the design of inductive links, it generally focuses on single aspects of the design process. There is a variety of approaches, some analytic, some numerical, each with benefits and drawbacks. As a result, undertaking a link design can be a difficult task, particularly for a newcomer to the subject...
July 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Dora Ma, Jesus Rodriguez-Manzano, Sara de Mateo Lopez, Melpomeni Kalofonou, Pantelis Georgiou, Christofer Toumazou
This paper gives an overview of how CMOS design methods can be applied to ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFETs) for pH-based DNA methylation and miRNA detection. Design specifications are fundamentally defined by the choice of analysis. As such, the focus for DNA methylation was on developing front-end analogue circuits to carry out Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) for Point-of-Care applications, and sequencing for detailed analysis. The use of MSP prompted the design of an ISFET weak inversion current mirror topology for differential sensing and reduction of drift and temperature sensitivities...
July 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Aishwarya Natarajan, Jennifer Hasler
We present the experimental silicon results on the dynamics of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron implemented on a reconfigurable platform. The circuit has been inspired by the similarity between biology and silicon, by modeling ion channels and their time constants. Another significant motivation behind this paper is to make the system available to circuit designers as well as users in the neuroscience community. The open-source tool infrastructure and a remote system ease the accessibility of our system to a number of users...
July 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Temesghen Tekeste, Hani Saleh, Baker Mohammad, Ahsan Khandoker, Herbert Jelinek, Mohammed Ismail
This paper presents an electrocardiogram (ECG) processor on chip for full ECG feature extraction and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) classification. Full ECG extraction is performed using absolute value curve length transform (A-CLT) for detection and using low-pass differentiation for other ECG features such as , , Pwave, and Twave. The proposed QRS detector attained a sensitivity of 99.37% and predictivity of 99.38%. The extracted to intervals (RR intervals) along with QT intervals enable CAN severity detection, which is a cardiac arrhythmia usually seen in diabetic patients leading to increased risk of sudden cardiac death...
July 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Sinduja Seshadri, Jonathan Scott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Shunsuke Yoshimoto, Shun Hinatsu, Yoshihiro Kuroda, Osamu Oshiro
This study proposed a novel sensing method of 3-D contact force at a fingertip by using a photoplethysmogram (PPG) device on the proximal part of a finger. The proposed system detects nonpulsatile and pulsatile components of PPG signals from both sides of the proximal part, extracts 16 feature values related to the contact force, and estimates the 3-D force by using a multiple linear regression model. In the validation experiments, the participants wore a PPG device at the proximal parts of their index fingers and applied a contact force at the fingertips for the 11 types of touch actions...
July 3, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Graham Peyton, Behzad Farzaneh, Hamid Soleimani, Martyn G Boutelle, Emmanuel M Drakakis
A quadrature synthetic aperture front-end receiver for B-mode ultrasound imaging is presented. The receiver targets small-scale imaging applications such as capsule endoscopy and low-cost portable devices. System complexity, area, power consumption, and cost are minimized using synthetic aperture beamforming (SAB), whereby signals are processed in a sequential manner using only a single channel. SAB is combined with quadrature (I/Q) sampling, which further reduces the bandwidth and computational load. I/Q demodulation is carried out using a full custom analog front-end (AFE), which comprises a low-noise, variable gain preamplifier, followed by a passive mixer, programmable gain amplifier (PGA) and active lowpass filter...
June 29, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Germain Haessig, Andrew Cassidy, Rodrigo Alvarez, Ryad Benosman, Garrick Orchard
This paper describes a fully spike-based neural network for optical flow estimation from dynamic vision sensor data. A low power embedded implementation of the method, which combines the asynchronous time-based image sensor with IBM's TrueNorth Neurosynaptic System, is presented. The sensor generates spikes with submillisecond resolution in response to scene illumination changes. These spike are processed by a spiking neural network running on TrueNorth with a 1-ms resolution to accurately determine the order and time difference of spikes from neighbouring pixels, and therefore infer the velocity...
June 19, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Sangkuk Jeon, JiYong Lee, Hyunseok Hwang, WonHyoung Ryu, Youngcheol Chae
This paper presents a catheter-based capacitive force sensor interface for cardiovascular diagnosis. The force sensor is implemented on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) substrate with a force-sensitive polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and a force-induced change in a capacitance of the sensor is measured by a precision capacitive sensor interface. To recover the performance degradation caused by the large parasitic capacitance of a long catheter, we present a parasitic insensitive analog front-end (AFE) with active cancellation, which employs a charge amplifier and a negative capacitor at the virtual ground of the charge amplifier...
June 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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