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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems

Jun Wang, Daniel Breen, Abraham Akinin, Frederic Broccard, Henry D I Abarbanel, Gert Cauwenberghs
Representing the biophysics of neuronal dynamics and behavior offers a principled analysis-by-synthesis approach toward understanding mechanisms of nervous system functions. We report on a set of procedures assimilating and emulating neurobiological data on a neuromorphic very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit. The analog VLSI chip, NeuroDyn, features 384 digitally programmable parameters specifying for 4 generalized Hodgkin-Huxley neurons coupled through 12 conductance-based chemical synapses. The parameters also describe reversal potentials, maximal conductances, and spline regressed kinetic functions for ion channel gating variables...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Qin Wang, Yue Xu, Shiliang Zuo, Hailong Yao, Tsung-Yi Ho, Bing Li, Ulf Schlichtmann, Yici Cai
Flow-based microfluidic biochips are attracting increasing attention with successful biomedical applications. One critical issue with flow-based microfluidic biochips is the large number of microvalves that require peripheral control pins. Even using the broadcasting addressing scheme, i.e., one control pin controls multiple microvalves simultaneously, thousands of microvalves would still require hundreds of control prins, which is unrealistic. To address this critical challenge in control scalability, the control-layer multiplexer is introduced to effectively reduce the number of control pins into log scale of the number of microvalves...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Richard Piffer Soares de Campos, Camila Dalben Madeira Campos, Gabriela Brito Almeida, Jose Alberto Fracassi da Silva
In this paper, we further investigate the properties of off-stoichiometry thiol-ene polymers (OSTE) aiming its application in microchip electrophoresis for bioanalytical applications. The proportion of 1.3:1 (allyl:thiol) and 1:2.5 (allyl:thiol) presented the best results in terms of sealing. Raman imaging mapping of the polymers surfaces revealed an outstanding homogeneity. Water contact angle were measured as 68° ± 6° and 71° ± 5° for 1.3:1 allyl and 1:2.5 thiol, respectively. Substrates prepared with OSTE demonstrated to be less prone to sorption of nonpolar compounds...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Ida Laila Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan Ahmad, Masaru Takeuchi, Masahiro Nakajima, Yasuhisa Hasegawa
Recent advances in microfluidic technologies have created a demand for a simple and efficient separation intended for various applications such as food industries, biological preparation, and medical diagnostic. In this paper, we report a tapered microfluidic device for passive continuous separation of microparticles by using hydrodynamic separation. By exploiting the hydrodynamic properties of the fluid flow and physical characteristics of micro particles, effective size based separation is demonstrated. The tapered microfluidic device has widening geometries with respect to specific taper angle which amplify the sedimentation effect experienced by particles of different sizes...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Pyungwoo Yeon, S Abdollah Mirbozorgi, Jaemyung Lim, Maysam Ghovanloo
This paper presents a feasibility study of wireless power and data transmission through an inductive link to a 1-mm 2 implant, to be used as a free-floating neural probe, distributed across a brain area of interest. The proposed structure utilizes a four-coil inductive link for back telemetry, shared with a three-coil link for wireless power transmission. We propose a design procedure for geometrical optimization of the inductive link in terms of power transmission efficiency (PTE) considering specific absorption rate and data rate...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Yan Liu, Song Luan, Ian Williams, Adrien Rapeaux, Timothy G Constandinou
Modern microtechnology is enabling the channel count of neural recording integrated circuits to scale exponentially. However, the raw data bandwidth of these systems is increasing proportionately, presenting major challenges in terms of power consumption and data transmission (especially for wireless systems). This paper presents a system that exploits the sparse nature of neural signals to address these challenges and provides a reconfigurable low-bandwidth event-driven output. Specifically, we present a novel 64-channel low-noise (2...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Atsuki Kobayashi, Kei Ikeda, Yudai Ogawa, Hiroyuki Kai, Matsuhiko Nishizawa, Kazuo Nakazato, Kiichi Niitsu
In this paper, we present a self-powered bio-sensing system with the capability of proximity inductive-coupling communication for supply sensing and temperature monitoring. The proposed bio-sensing system includes a biofuel cell as a power source and a sensing frontend that is associated with the CMOS integrated supply-sensing sensor. The sensor consists of a digital-based gate leakage timer, a supply-insensitive time-domain temperature sensor, and a current-driven inductive-coupling transmitter and achieves low-voltage operation...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Ning Qiao, Chiara Bartolozzi, Giacomo Indiveri
Homeostatic plasticity is a stabilizing mechanism commonly observed in real neural systems that allows neurons to maintain their activity around a functional operating point. This phenomenon can be used in neuromorphic systems to compensate for slowly changing conditions or chronic shifts in the system configuration. However, to avoid interference with other adaptation or learning processes active in the neuromorphic system, it is important that the homeostatic plasticity mechanism operates on time scales that are much longer than conventional synaptic plasticity ones...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Benjamin Sporrer, Lianbo Wu, Luca Bettini, Christian Vogt, Jonas Reber, Josip Marjanovic, Thomas Burger, David O Brunner, Klaas P Pruessmann, Gerhard Troster, Qiuting Huang
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is among the most important medical imaging modalities. Coil arrays and receivers with high channel counts (16 and more) have to be deployed to obtain the image quality and acquisition speed required by modern clinical protocols. In this paper, we report the theoretical analysis, the system-level design, and the circuit implementation of the first receiver IC (RXIC) for clinical MRI fully integrated in a modern CMOS technology. The dual-channel RXIC sits directly on the sensor coil, thus eliminating any RF cable otherwise required to transport the information out of the magnetic field...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Minyoung Song, Chuang Lu, Ao Ba, Xiaoyan Wang, Yao-Hong Liu, Kenichi Shibata, Christian Bachmann, Kathleen Philips
A low-power impedance detection method using a hybrid transformer and its analysis are presented. A balun is reused for the hybrid transformer to achieve area-efficiency. The complex impedance detection enables faster optimization on a tunable matching network and its calibration technique increases the detection accuracy. The proposed impedance detection method fabricated in a 40-nm CMOS process consumes only 0.83 mW and demonstrates the accuracy of less than 18° and 0.1 on the Γ detection up to of 0.5 in ISM2...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Xiaosen Liu, Adrian I Colli-Menchi, Edgar Sanchez-Sinencio
The first monolithic state-of-the-art controller was proposed and implemented for an electric scalpel system. A piezoelectric transducer (PT) is driven in ultrasonic resonant frequency to generate electromechanical power for thermal sealing and cold dissection operations. The band-pass filter based oscillator was developed to automatically track the PT's optimal longitudinal resonance. However, under heavy loading conditions, the PT will lock to other unwanted transverse resonant modes and deliver no usable power to the surgical tip...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Yi-Chung Wu, Chia-Hua Chang, Jui-Hung Hung, Chia-Hsiang Yang
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) enables high-throughput sequencing, in which short DNA fragments can be sequenced in a massively parallel fashion. However, the essential algorithm behind the succeeding NGS data analysis, DNA mapping, is still excessively time consuming. DNA mapping can be partitioned into two parts: suffix array (SA) sorting and backward searching. Dedicated hardware designs for the less-complex backward searching have been proposed, but feasible hardware for the most complicated part, SA sorting, has never been explored...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Hansraj Bhamra, Jui-Wei Tsai, Yu-Wen Huang, Quan Yuan, Jay V Shah, Pedro Irazoqui
We present a sub-mm3, fully wireless, implantable intraocular pressure monitor microsystem (IMM) that comprises a powering coil, an antenna, a piezoresistive micro-electro-mechanical system pressure sensor, and a pressure sensing IC. The system provides a 24-h intraocular pressure monitoring, which is not possible with currently used tonometric measurements. The IMM volume is limited to 0.38 mm3 (4 × smaller than previous state-of-the-art) for the studies on laboratory rodents prior to human use. A cavity resonator magnetic coupling delivers the wireless power to the chip with 4...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Bayan Nasri, Ting Wu, Abdullah Alharbi, Kae-Dyi You, Mayank Gupta, Sunit P Sebastian, Roozbeh Kiani, Davood Shahrjerdi
We introduce a hybrid CMOS-graphene sensor array for subsecond measurement of dopamine via fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). The prototype chip has four independent CMOS readout channels, fabricated in a 65-nm process. Using planar multilayer graphene as biologically compatible sensing material enables integration of miniaturized sensing electrodes directly above the readout channels. Taking advantage of the chemical specificity of FSCV, we introduce a region of interest technique, which subtracts a large portion of the background current using a programmable low-noise constant current at about the redox potentials...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Lingyu Hong, Kaushik Sengupta
Optical spectrometry in the visible and near-infrared range has a wide range of applications in healthcare, sensing, imaging, and diagnostics. This paper presents the first fully integrated optical spectrometer in standard bulk CMOS process without custom fabrication, postprocessing, or any external optical passive structure such as lenses, gratings, collimators, or mirrors. The architecture exploits metal interconnect layers available in CMOS processes with subwavelength feature sizes to guide, manipulate, control, diffract light, integrated photodetector, and read-out circuitry to detect dispersed light, and then back-end signal processing for robust spectral estimation...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Elahe Rahimian, Soheil Zabihi, Mahmood Amiri, Bernabe Linares-Barranco
It is believed that brain-like computing system can be achieved by the fusion of electronics and neuroscience. In this way, the optimized digital hardware implementation of neurons, primary units of nervous system, play a vital role in neuromorphic applications. Moreover, one of the main features of pyramidal neurons in cortical areas is bursting activities that has a critical role in synaptic plasticity. The Pinsky-Rinzel model is a nonlinear two-compartmental model for CA3 pyramidal cell that is widely used in neuroscience...
October 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Robert Karam, Steve J A Majerus, Dennis J Bourbeau, Margot S Damaser, Swarup Bhunia
Lower urinary tract dysfunctions, such as urinary incontinence and overactive bladder, are conditions that greatly affect the quality of life for millions of individuals worldwide. For those with more complex pathophysiologies, diagnosis of these conditions often requires a urodynamics study, providing physicians with a snapshot view of bladder mechanics. Recent advancements in implantable bladder pressure monitors and advanced data analysis techniques have made diagnosis through chronic monitoring a promising prospect...
October 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Haitao Li, Sina Parsnejad, Ehsan Ashoori, Cort Thompson, Erin K Purcell, Andrew J Mason
High-density on-chip electrochemical biosensor arrays are advancing toward a crucial role in health monitoring and development of new medicines and medical treatments. Nanopore and ion channel based sensors especially have great potential but present demanding resolution/speed/power/area requirements on instrumentation circuits. This paper presents a pixel-level current readout circuit and new group-cluster architecture to address the circuit challenges in high-performance biosensor arrays. Fabricated in 0...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Giuseppe Massobrio, Sergio Martinoia, Paolo Massobrio
In the latest years, several attempts to develop extracellular microtransducers to record electrophysiological activity of excitable cells have been done. In particular, many efforts have been oriented to increase the coupling conditions, and, thus, improving the quality of the recorded signal. Gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes (GMμE) are an example of nano-devices to achieve those requirements. In this study, we developed an equivalent electrical circuit of the neuron-microelectrode system interface to simulate signal recordings from both planar and engulfed micro-nano-electrodes...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Vivek P Jani, Shawn Mailo, Ali Athar, Alfredo Lucas, Alexander T Williams, Pedro Cabrales
In 2013, nearly 15 million units of banked blood were transfused in the United States of America alone. Blood shortages are expected to increase globally. Donated blood is not equal due to differences in quality and deterioration rate. There are no methods to detect time-dependent biochemical and biophysical changes of red blood cells (RBCs) or the deterioration rate of donated RBCs. Nine randomly selected RBC units collected by the San Diego Blood Bank were examined for interdonor variability over six weeks of storage...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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