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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems

Ethan K Murphy, Mohammad Takhti, Joseph Skinner, Ryan J Halter, Kofi Odame
In this paper, thorough analysis along with mathematical derivations of the matched filter for a voltmeter used in electrical impedance tomography systems are presented. The effect of the random noise in the system prior to the matched filter, generated by other components, are considered. Employing the presented equations allow system/circuit designers to find the maximum tolerable noise prior to the matched filter that leads to the target signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the voltmeter, without having to over-design internal components...
November 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Tse-An Chen, Wen-Jui Wu, Chia-Ling Wei, Robert B Darling, Bin-Da Liu
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a widely used technique in biomedical and chemical analysis. A novel 10-bit impedance-to-digital converter (IDC), which can measure and directly convert the magnitude and phase of impedance to digital codes, is proposed for the EIS measurement system. The proposed IDC is composed of a magnitude-to-digital converter (MDC) and a phase-to-digital converter (PDC). The proposed IDC was designed and fabricated using a 0.35 [Formula: see text] 2P4M mixed-signal polycide process, and the core area is only 0...
November 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Elliot Greenwald, Ernest So, Qihong Wang, Mohsen Mollazadeh, Christoph Maier, Ralph Etienne-Cummings, Gert Cauwenberghs, Nitish Thakor
We present a bidirectional neural interface with a 4-channel biopotential analog-to-digital converter (bioADC) and a 4-channel current-mode stimulator in 180 nm CMOS. The bioADC directly transduces microvolt biopotentials into a digital representation without a voltage-amplification stage. Each bioADC channel comprises a continuous-time first-order ∆Σ modulator with a chopper-stabilized OTA input and current feedback, followed by a second-order comb-filter decimator with programmable oversampling ratio. Each stimulator channel contains two independent digital-to-analog converters for anodic and cathodic current generation...
November 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Shanshan Dai, Rukshan T Perera, Zi Yang, Jacob K Rosenstein
An integrated current measurement system with ultra wide dynamic range is presented and fabricated in a 180-nm CMOS technology. Its dual-mode design provides concurrent voltage and frequency outputs, without requiring an external clock source. An integrator-differentiator core provides a voltage output with a noise floor of 11.6 fA/[Formula: see text] and a -3 dB cutoff frequency of 1.4 MHz. It is merged with an asynchronous current-to-frequency converter, which generates an output frequency linearly proportional to the input current...
November 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Chacko John Deepu, Chun-Huat Heng, Yong Lian
This paper presents a novel data compression and transmission scheme for power reduction in Internet-of-Things (IoT) enabled wireless sensors. In the proposed scheme, data is compressed with both lossy and lossless techniques, so as to enable hybrid transmission mode, support adaptive data rate selection and save power in wireless transmission. Applying the method to electrocardiogram (ECG), the data is first compressed using a lossy compression technique with a high compression ratio (CR). The residual error between the original data and the decompressed lossy data is preserved using entropy coding, enabling a lossless restoration of the original data when required...
November 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Meng Cao, Ting Feng, Jie Yuan, Guan Xu, Xueding Wang, Paul L Carson
Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) of biological tissue offers potential advantages in distinguishing different structures according to their chemical composition. However, as medical photoacoustic (PA) signals are broad band, which usually cover a 0.2-50 MHz range, current band-limited ultrasound transducers can only receive and present a limited fraction of that range. Besides, the received PA signals are usually of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which further deteriorates the image quality. Therefore, the goal of this work is to recover the out-of-band frequency components in the received PA signals based on a best estimate of the frequency response of the ultrasound transducers, and to improve the PA image quality...
November 4, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Xiaopeng Bi, Tian Xie, Bin Fan, Wasif Khan, Yue Guo, Wen Li
Optogenetics is a fast growing neuromodulation method, which can remotely manipulate the specific activities of genetically-targeted neural cells and associated biological behaviors with millisecond temporal precision through light illumination. Application of optogenetics in neuroscience studies has created an increased need for the development of light sources and the instruments for light delivery. This paper presents a micro-lens-coupled LED neural stimulator which includes a backside reflector and a frontside microlens for light collection and collimation...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Jaemyung Lim, Coskun Tekes, F Levent Degertekin, Maysam Ghovanloo
Having intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging capability on guide wires used in cardiovascular interventions may eliminate the need for separate IVUS catheters and expand the use of IVUS in a larger portion of the vasculature. High frequency capacitive micro machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays should be integrated with interface electronics and placed on the guide wire for this purpose. Besides small size, this system-on-a-chip (SoC) front-end should connect to the back-end imaging system with a minimum number of wires to preserve the critical mechanical properties of the guide wire...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Saeed Haghiri, Arash Ahmadi, Mehrdad Saif
Glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia, are non-neuronal cells providing support and protection for neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). They also act as supportive cells in the brain. Among a variety of glial cells, the star-shaped glial cells, i.e., astrocytes, are the largest cell population in the brain. The important role of astrocyte such as neuronal synchronization, synaptic information regulation, feedback to neural activity and extracellular regulation make the astrocytes play a vital role in brain disease...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Miao Meng, Mehdi Kiani
Ultrasound has been recently proposed as an alternative modality for efficient wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. This paper presents the theory and design methodology of ultrasonic WPT links that involve mm-sized receivers (Rx). For given load (RL) and powering distance (d), the optimal geometries of transmitter (Tx) and Rx ultrasonic transducers, including their diameter and thickness, as well as the optimal operation frequency (fc) are found through a recursive design procedure to maximize the power transmission efficiency (PTE)...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Adrian Zurbuchen, Andreas Haeberlin, Alois Pfenniger, Lukas Bereuter, Jakob Schaerer, Frank Jutzi, Christoph Huber, Juerg Fuhrer, Rolf Vogel
Energy harvesting devices are widely discussed as an alternative power source for todays active implantable medical devices. Repeated battery replacement procedures can be avoided by extending the implants life span, which is the goal of energy harvesting concepts. This reduces the risk of complications for the patient and may even reduce device size. The continuous and powerful contractions of a human heart ideally qualify as a battery substitute. In particular, devices in close proximity to the heart such as pacemakers, defibrillators or bio signal (ECG) recorders would benefit from this alternative energy source...
September 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Justice Amoh, Kofi Odame
In this paper, we consider two different approaches of using deep neural networks for cough detection. The cough detection task is cast as a visual recognition problem and as a sequence-to-sequence labeling problem. A convolutional neural network and a recurrent neural network are implemented to address these problems, respectively. We evaluate the performance of the two networks and compare them to other conventional approaches for identifying cough sounds. In addition, we also explore the effect of the network size parameters and the impact of long-term signal dependencies in cough classifier performance...
September 16, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
S Abdollah Mirbozorgi, Yaoyao Jia, Daniel Canales, Maysam Ghovanloo
A new wireless electrophysiology data acquisition system, built around a standard homecage, is presented in this paper, which can power up and communicate with sensors and actuators/stimulators attached to or implanted in small freely behaving animal subjects, such as rodents. Key abilities of the energized homecage (EnerCage) system is enabling longitudinal experiments with minimal operator involvement or interruption, while providing test subjects with an enriched environment closer to their natural habitat, without the burden of being tethered or carrying bulky batteries...
September 16, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Dai Jiang, Dominik Cirmirakis, Matthew Schormans, Timothy A Perkins, Nick Donaldson, Andreas Demosthenous
This paper presents a passive phase-shift keying (PPSK) modulator for uplink data transmission for biomedical implants with simultaneous power and data transmission over a single 13.56 MHz inductive link. The PPSK modulator provides a data rate up to 1.35 Mbps with a modulation index between 3% and 38% for a variation of the coupling coefficient between 0.05 and 0.26. This modulation scheme is particularly suited for biomedical implants that have high power demand and low coupling coefficients. The PPSK modulator operates in conjunction with on-off-keying downlink communication...
September 15, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Maziyar Baran Pouyan, Vasu Jindal, Mehrdad Nourani
Single-cell technologies like flow cytometry (FCM) provide valuable biological data for knowledge discovery in complex cellular systems like tissues and organs. FCM data contains multi-dimensional information about the cellular heterogeneity of intricate cellular systems. It is possible to correlate single-cell markers with phenotypic properties of those systems. Cell population identification and clinical outcome prediction from single-cell measurements are challenging problems in the field of single cell analysis...
September 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Simon Friedmann, Johannes Schemmel, Andreas Grubl, Andreas Hartel, Matthias Hock, Karlheinz Meier
We present results from a new approach to learning and plasticity in neuromorphic hardware systems: to enable flexibility in implementable learning mechanisms while keeping high efficiency associated with neuromorphic implementations, we combine a general-purpose processor with full-custom analog elements. This processor is operating in parallel with a fully parallel neuromorphic system consisting of an array of synapses connected to analog, continuous time neuron circuits. Novel analog correlation sensor circuits process spike events for each synapse in parallel and in real-time...
September 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Rune Kaald, Trym Eggen, Trond Ytterdal
Fully digitized 2D ultrasound transducer arrays require one ADC per channel with a beamforming architecture consuming low power. We give design considerations for per-channel digitization and beamforming, and present the design and measurements of a continuous time delta-sigma modulator (CTDSM) for cardiac ultrasound applications. By integrating a mixer into the modulator frontend, the phase and frequency of the input signal can be shifted, thereby enabling both improved conversion efficiency and narrowband beamforming...
September 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Isha Gupta, Alexantrou Serb, Ali Khiat, Themistokalis Prodromakis
Recently a novel neuronal activity sensor exploiting the intrinsic thresholded integrator capabilities of memristor devices has been proposed. Extracellular potentials captured by a standard bio-signal acquisition platform are fed into a memristive device which reacts to the input by changing its resistive state (RS) only when the signal ampitude exceeds a threshold. Thus, significant peaks in the neural signal can be stored as non-volatile changes in memristor resistive state whilst noise is effectively suppressed...
August 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Fu-Yu Beverly Chen, David M Budgett, Yuhui Sun, Simon Malpas, Daniel McCormick, Peter S Freestone
Optogenetics allows control of neuronal activity with unprecedented spatiotemporal precision, and has enabled both significant advances in neuroscience and promising clinical prospects for some neurological, cardiac, and sensory disorders. The ability to chronically stimulate light-sensitive excitable cells is crucial for developing useful research tools and viable long-term treatment strategies. Popular optogenetic stimulation devices often rely on bench-top light-sources tethered via an optical fibre to the research animal, or significant componentry protruding externally from animal...
August 17, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Yoon-Jee Kim, Sung-Eun Cho, Ji-Yong Um, Min-Kyun Chae, Jihoon Bang, Jongkeun Song, Taeho Jeon, Byungsub Kim, Jae-Yoon Sim, Hong-June Park
A 64-channel RX digital beamformer was implemented in a single chip for 3-D ultrasound medical imaging using 2-D phased-array transducers. The RX beamformer chip includes 64 analog front-end branches including 64 non-uniform sampling ADCs, a FIFO/Adder, and an on-chip look-up table (LUT). The LUT stores the information on the rising edge timing of the non-uniform ADC sampling clocks. To include the LUT inside the beamformer chip, the LUT size was reduced by around 240 times by approximating an ADC-sample-time profile w...
August 17, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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