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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems

Mostafa Rahimi Azghadi, Bernabe Linares-Barranco, Derek Abbott, Philip H W Leong
Although data processing technology continues to advance at an astonishing rate, computers with brain-like processing capabilities still elude us. It is envisioned that such computers may be achieved by the fusion of neuroscience and nano-electronics to realize a brain-inspired platform. This paper proposes a high-performance nano-scale Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)-memristive circuit, which mimics a number of essential learning properties of biological synapses. The proposed synaptic circuit that is composed of memristors and CMOS transistors, alters its memristance in response to timing differences among its pre- and post-synaptic action potentials, giving rise to a family of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP)...
December 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Xilin Liu, Milin Zhang, Andrew G Richardson, Timothy H Lucas, Jan Van der Spiegel
This paper presents a bidirectional brain machine interface (BMI) microsystem designed for closed-loop neuroscience research, especially experiments in freely behaving animals. The system-on-chip (SoC) consists of 16-channel neural recording front-ends, neural feature extraction units, 16-channel programmable neural stimulator back-ends, in-channel programmable closed-loop controllers, global analog-digital converters (ADC), and peripheral circuits. The proposed neural feature extraction units includes 1) an ultra low-power neural energy extraction unit enabling a 64-step natural logarithmic domain frequency tuning, and 2) a current-mode action potential (AP) detection unit with time-amplitude window discriminator...
December 16, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Ethan K Murphy, Mohammad Takhti, Joseph Skinner, Ryan J Halter, Kofi Odame
In this paper, thorough analysis along with mathematical derivations of the matched filter for a voltmeter used in electrical impedance tomography systems are presented. The effect of the random noise in the system prior to the matched filter, generated by other components, are considered. Employing the presented equations allow system/circuit designers to find the maximum tolerable noise prior to the matched filter that leads to the target signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the voltmeter, without having to over-design internal components...
November 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Tse-An Chen, Wen-Jui Wu, Chia-Ling Wei, Robert B Darling, Bin-Da Liu
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a widely used technique in biomedical and chemical analysis. A novel 10-bit impedance-to-digital converter (IDC), which can measure and directly convert the magnitude and phase of impedance to digital codes, is proposed for the EIS measurement system. The proposed IDC is composed of a magnitude-to-digital converter (MDC) and a phase-to-digital converter (PDC). The proposed IDC was designed and fabricated using a 0.35 [Formula: see text] 2P4M mixed-signal polycide process, and the core area is only 0...
November 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Elliot Greenwald, Ernest So, Qihong Wang, Mohsen Mollazadeh, Christoph Maier, Ralph Etienne-Cummings, Gert Cauwenberghs, Nitish Thakor
We present a bidirectional neural interface with a 4-channel biopotential analog-to-digital converter (bioADC) and a 4-channel current-mode stimulator in 180 nm CMOS. The bioADC directly transduces microvolt biopotentials into a digital representation without a voltage-amplification stage. Each bioADC channel comprises a continuous-time first-order ∆Σ modulator with a chopper-stabilized OTA input and current feedback, followed by a second-order comb-filter decimator with programmable oversampling ratio. Each stimulator channel contains two independent digital-to-analog converters for anodic and cathodic current generation...
November 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Shanshan Dai, Rukshan T Perera, Zi Yang, Jacob K Rosenstein
An integrated current measurement system with ultra wide dynamic range is presented and fabricated in a 180-nm CMOS technology. Its dual-mode design provides concurrent voltage and frequency outputs, without requiring an external clock source. An integrator-differentiator core provides a voltage output with a noise floor of 11.6 fA/[Formula: see text] and a -3 dB cutoff frequency of 1.4 MHz. It is merged with an asynchronous current-to-frequency converter, which generates an output frequency linearly proportional to the input current...
November 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Chacko John Deepu, Chun-Huat Heng, Yong Lian
This paper presents a novel data compression and transmission scheme for power reduction in Internet-of-Things (IoT) enabled wireless sensors. In the proposed scheme, data is compressed with both lossy and lossless techniques, so as to enable hybrid transmission mode, support adaptive data rate selection and save power in wireless transmission. Applying the method to electrocardiogram (ECG), the data is first compressed using a lossy compression technique with a high compression ratio (CR). The residual error between the original data and the decompressed lossy data is preserved using entropy coding, enabling a lossless restoration of the original data when required...
November 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Meng Cao, Ting Feng, Jie Yuan, Guan Xu, Xueding Wang, Paul L Carson
Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) of biological tissue offers potential advantages in distinguishing different structures according to their chemical composition. However, as medical photoacoustic (PA) signals are broad band, which usually cover a 0.2-50 MHz range, current band-limited ultrasound transducers can only receive and present a limited fraction of that range. Besides, the received PA signals are usually of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which further deteriorates the image quality. Therefore, the goal of this work is to recover the out-of-band frequency components in the received PA signals based on a best estimate of the frequency response of the ultrasound transducers, and to improve the PA image quality...
November 4, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Timir Datta-Chaudhuri, Elisabeth Smela, Pamela A Abshire
CMOS chips are increasingly used for direct sensing and interfacing with fluidic and biological systems. While many biosensing systems have successfully combined CMOS chips for readout and signal processing with passive sensing arrays, systems that co-locate sensing with active circuits on a single chip offer significant advantages in size and performance but increase the complexity of multi-domain design and heterogeneous integration. This emerging class of lab-on-CMOS systems also poses distinct and vexing technical challenges that arise from the disparate requirements of biosensors and integrated circuits (ICs)...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Ahmed Ibrahim, Mehdi Kiani
Power transmission efficiency (PTE) has been the key parameter for wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. It has been suggested that for mm-sized implants increasing the power carrier frequency (fp) of the WPT link to hundreds of MHz improves PTE. However, increasing fp significantly reduces the maximum allowable power that can be transmitted under the specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints. This paper presents a new figure-of-merit (FoM) and a design methodology for optimal WPT to mm-sized implants via inductive coupling by striking a balance between PTE and maximum delivered power under SAR constraints (PL,SAR)...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Damiano Patron, William Mongan, Timothy P Kurzweg, Adam Fontecchio, Genevieve Dion, Endla K Anday, Kapil R Dandekar
Recent advancements in conductive yarns and fabrication technologies offer exciting opportunities to design and knit seamless garments equipped with sensors for biomedical applications. In this paper, we discuss the design and application of a wearable strain sensor, which can be used for biomedical monitoring such as contraction, respiration, or limb movements. The system takes advantage of the intensity variations of the backscattered power (RSSI) from an inductively-coupled RFID tag under physical stretching...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Jack Bowyer, Jia Zhao, Pakpoom Subsoontorn, Wilson Wong, Susan Rosser, Declan Bates
Many of the most important applications predicted to arise from Synthetic Biology will require engineered cellular memory with the capability to store data in a rewritable and reversible manner upon induction by transient stimuli. DNA recombination provides an ideal platform for cellular data storage and has allowed the development of a rewritable recombinase addressable data (RAD) module, capable of efficient data storage within a chromosome. Here, we develop the first detailed mechanistic model of DNA recombination, and validate it against a new set of in vitro data on recombination efficiencies across a range of different concentrations of integrase and gp3...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Zhijun Zhou, Paul A Warr
Within neural monitoring systems, the front-end amplifier forms the critical element for signal detection and pre-processing, which determines not only the fidelity of the biosignal, but also impacts power consumption and detector size. In this paper, a novel combined feedback loop-controlled approach is proposed to compensate for input leakage currents generated by low noise amplifiers when in integrated circuit form alongside signal leakage into the input bias network. This loop topology ensures the Front-End Amplifier (FEA) maintains a high input impedance across all manufacturing and operational variations...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Abhronil Sengupta, Yong Shim, Kaushik Roy
Non-Boolean computing based on emerging post-CMOS technologies can potentially pave the way for low-power neural computing platforms. However, existing work on such emerging neuromorphic architectures have either focused on solely mimicking the neuron, or the synapse functionality. While memristive devices have been proposed to emulate biological synapses, spintronic devices have proved to be efficient at performing the thresholding operation of the neuron at ultra-low currents. In this work, we propose an All-Spin Artificial Neural Network where a single spintronic device acts as the basic building block of the system...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Liang Zhou, Adam C Abraham, Simon Y Tang, Shantanu Chakrabartty
Piezoelectricity-driven hot-electron injectors (p-HEI) are used for self-powered monitoring of mechanical activity in biomechanical implants and structures. Previously reported p-HEI devices operate by harvesting energy from a piezoelectric transducer to generate current and voltage references which are then used for initiating and controlling the process of hot-electron injection. As a result, the minimum energy required to activate the device is limited by the power requirements of the reference circuits...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Vega Pradana Rachim, Wan-Young Chung
One of the best ways to obtain health information is from an electrocardiogram (ECG). Through an ECG, characteristics such as patients' heartbeats, heart conditions, and heart disease can be analyzed. Unfortunately, most available healthcare devices do not provide clinical data such as information regarding patients' heart activities. Many researchers have tried to solve this problem by inventing wearable heart monitoring systems with a chest strap or wristband, but their performances were not feasible for practical applications...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Ermis Koutsos, Vlad Cretu, Pantelis Georgiou
Electromyography analysis can provide information about a muscle's fatigue state by estimating Muscle Fibre Conduction Velocity (MFCV), a measure of the travelling speed of Motor Unit Action Potentials (MUAPs) in muscle tissue. MFCV better represents the physical manifestations of muscle fatigue, compared to the progressive compression of the myoelectic Power Spectral Density, hence it is more suitable for a muscle fatigue tracking system. This paper presents a novel algorithm for the estimation of MFCV using single threshold bit-stream conversion and a dedicated application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) for its implementation, suitable for a compact, wearable and easy to use muscle fatigue monitor...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Bruno G Do Valle, Sydney S Cash, Charles G Sodini
EEG remains the mainstay test for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. Unfortunately, ambulatory EEG systems are far from ideal for patients who have infrequent seizures. These systems only last up to 3 days and if a seizure is not captured during the recordings, a definite diagnosis of the patient's condition cannot be given. This work aims to address this need by proposing a subdermal implantable, eight-channel EEG recorder and seizure detector that has two modes of operation: diagnosis and seizure counting...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
William A Smith, Brian J Mogen, Eberhard E Fetz, Visvesh S Sathe, Brian P Otis
Electrocorticography (ECoG) is an important area of research for Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) development. ECoG, along with some other biopotentials, has spectral characteristics that can be exploited for more optimal front-end performance than is achievable with conventional techniques. This paper optimizes noise performance of such a system and discusses an equalization technique that reduces the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) dynamic range requirements and eliminates the need for a variable gain amplifier (VGA)...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Krishna Naishadham, Jean E Piou, Lingyun Ren, Aly E Fathy
Ultra wideband (UWB) Doppler radar has many biomedical applications, including remote diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, triage and real-time personnel tracking in rescue missions. It uses narrow pulses to probe the human body and detect tiny cardiopulmonary movements by spectral analysis of the backscattered electromagnetic (EM) field. With the help of super-resolution spectral algorithms, UWB radar is capable of increased accuracy for estimating vital signs such as heart and respiration rates in adverse signal-to-noise conditions...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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