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Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109722/sleep-insomnia-and-hypertension-current-findings-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
S Justin Thomas, David Calhoun
Blood pressure (BP) varies over 24 hours. During normal sleep, BP typically decreases by 10% or more. Research suggests that disordered sleep, particularly sleep deprivation and obstructive sleep apnea, is associated with increased BP and risk of hypertension. Less is known about the relationship between insomnia and hypertension. Population-based studies have reported an association between insomnia symptoms and both prevalent and incident hypertension, particularly in the context of short sleep duration...
December 29, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117274/schisandrin-b-displays-a-protective-role-against-primary-pulmonary-hypertension-by-targeting-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1
#2
Jianjun Wu, Jing Jia, Li Liu, Fan Yang, Yuhua Fan, Sen Zhang, Dongxia Yan, Rui Bu, Guangnan Li, Yanhui Gao, Yanjun Chen
Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in the medial layer of the vessel wall are involved in vessel homeostasis, but also for pathologic vascular remodeling in diverse diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH results in vascular disorders, but its underlying molecular mechanisms are still not to be fully disclosed. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in human PASMC cultured under the condition of hypoxia and elucidated the effect of schisandra chinensis and its active ingredients on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis in human PASMCs...
December 28, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063813/assessment-of-vascular-function-in-low-socioeconomic-status-preschool-children-a-pilot-study
#3
Lama Ghazi, Tanja Dudenbostel, Daisy Xing, Deborah Ejem, Anne Turner-Henson, Cynthia Irwin Joiner, Olivia Affuso, Andres Azuero, Suzanne Oparil, David A Calhoun, Marti Rice, Fadi G Hage
Elevated brachial blood pressure (BP) in childhood tracks into adulthood. Central BP and measures of arterial stiffness, such as aortic augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), have been associated with future cardiovascular disease. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of noninvasively measuring these parameters in preschool children and explored factors that may be associated with elevated BP in this age group. Brachial BP was measured using an electronic oscillometric unit (Dinamap PRO 100) and defined as elevated when systolic BP (SBP) and/or diastolic BP (DBP) was ≥ the 90th percentile for age, gender, and height...
December 24, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089902/olmesartan-with-azelnidipine-versus-with-trichlormethiazide-on-home-blood-pressure-variability-in-patients-with-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Emi Ushigome, Shinobu Matsumoto, Chikako Oyabu, Hidetaka Ushigome, Isao Yokota, Goji Hasegawa, Naoto Nakamura, Muhei Tanaka, Masahiro Yamazaki, Michiaki Fukui
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of olmesartan combined with azelnidipine versus olmesartan combined with trichlormethiazide, on home blood pressure (BP) and pressure variability in type II diabetes mellitus patients using home BP telemonitoring system. We performed an open-label cross-over pilot study of 28 patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Patients received combination treatment with either olmesartan 20 mg plus azelnidipine 16 mg or olmesartan 20 mg plus trichlormethiazide 1 mg for more than 6 weeks each in a cross-over method...
December 22, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089109/a-cross-sectional-study-of-physical-activity-and-arterial-compliance-the-effects-of-age-and-artery-size
#5
A Maleah Holland, Jeffrey S Martin, Christopher D Mattson, Keith R Lohse, Peter R Finn, Joel M Stager
Our study examined the relationship between habitual high levels of vigorous physical activity on large and small artery compliance via radial artery pulse wave analysis. Eighty-three healthy men (n = 44) and women (n = 39), aged 18-78 years, were recruited as habitually less active (light-to-moderate exercise ≤3 times/wk) or habitually highly active (vigorous exercise ≥5 times/wk). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction of age and activity level; habitual vigorous activity was associated with greater compliance in large and small arteries in older adults (40-78 years) and younger adults (18-22 years)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087333/nicotinamide-nucleotide-transhydrogenase-activity-impacts-mitochondrial-redox-balance-and-the-development-of-hypertension-in-mice
#6
Igor Leskov, Amber Neville, Xinggui Shen, Sibile Pardue, Christopher G Kevil, D Neil Granger, David M Krzywanski
Oxidant stress contributes to the initiation and progression of hypertension (HTN) by enhancing endothelial dysfunction and/or causing perturbations in nitric oxide homeostasis. Differences in mitochondrial function may augment this process and provide insight into why age of onset and clinical outcomes differ among individuals from distinct ethnic groups. We have previously demonstrated that variation in normal mitochondrial function and oxidant production exists in endothelial cells from individuals of Caucasian and African-American ethnicity and that this variation contributes to endothelial dysfunction...
December 16, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065708/an-exploratory-propensity-score-matched-comparison-of-second-generation-and-first-generation-baroreflex-activation-therapy-systems
#7
Rolf Wachter, Marcel Halbach, George L Bakris, John D Bisognano, Hermann Haller, Joachim Beige, Abraham A Kroon, Mitra K Nadim, Eric G Lovett, Jill E Schafer, Peter W de Leeuw
Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) is a device-based therapy for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. In a randomized, controlled trial, the first-generation system significantly reduced blood pressure (BP) versus sham. Although an open-label validation study of the second-generation system demonstrated similar BP reductions, controlled data are not presently available. Therefore, this investigation compares results of first- and second-generation BAT systems. Two cohorts of first-generation BAT system patients were generated with propensity matching to compare against the validation group of 30 second-generation subjects...
December 16, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038989/increased-plasma-rbp4-concentration-in-older-hypertensives-is-related-to-the-decreased-kidney-function-and-the-number-of-antihypertensive-drugs-results-from-the-polsenior-substudy
#8
Marcin Majerczyk, Piotr Choręza, Maria Bożentowicz-Wikarek, Aniceta Brzozowska, Habibullah Arabzada, Aleksander Owczarek, Małgorzata Mossakowska, Tomasz Grodzicki, Tomasz Zdrojewski, Andrzej Więcek, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Jerzy Chudek
Increased plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a novel adipokine, has been associated in previous studies with obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension (HT), atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between HT occurrence and its treatment, and plasma RBP4 concentrations in the older polish population. The study sample consisted of 1728 (890 men and 838 women) PolSenior study participants aged 65 years and older with available plasma samples and NT-proBNP values below 2000 pg/mL...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057444/redefining-beta-blocker-use-in-hypertension-selecting-the-right-beta-blocker-and-the-right-patient
#9
REVIEW
Samuel J Mann
Randomized controlled trials have concluded that the cardiovascular outcome of first-step treatment of hypertension with traditional vasoconstricting beta-blockers is inferior to treatment with other antihypertensive drug classes. Beta-blocker use is also associated with undesirable side effects. Consequently, some recent guidelines consider beta-blockers an inferior option for first-step treatment of hypertension. Despite this, beta-blockers are still widely prescribed, and likely overused, in the management of hypertension...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040405/extended-consensus-on-blood-pressure-variability-beyond-blood-pressure-for-management-of-hypertension
#10
EDITORIAL
Ram B Singh, Krasimira Hristova, Geir Bjørklund, Jan Fedacko, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Daniel Pella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938855/management-of-severe-asymptomatic-hypertension-in-the-hospitalized-patient
#11
REVIEW
Sheryl Vondracek, Sarah Scoular, Toral Patel
Hypertension is common in the hospital setting. While the epidemiology, management, and outcomes of chronic hypertension are well defined, data and clinical guidance on the management of severe blood pressure elevations in the hospitalized patient are lacking. This article aims to review the literature related to the risks and benefits of managing severe asymptomatic hypertension in the hospitalized patient, summarize the concerns regarding managing severe asymptomatic hypertension with as-needed antihypertensive medication, and suggest alternative management strategies...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938854/the-influence-of-time-point-of-blood-pressure-measurement-on-the-outcome-in-hemodialysis-patients
#12
REVIEW
Yu-Chen Han, Bi-Cheng Liu
The blood pressure (BP) behaviors of hemodialysis (HD) population presented a unique pattern much different from that of the general population. This pattern is composed of chronic BP burden over interdialytic period and acute BP fluctuation during dialysis sessions. Peridialysis, interdialysis, and intradialysis are three routinely used time points to capture this complex BP behavior. However, BP at each time point was measured in various forms and conveyed different prognostic information. The measurement and interpretation of the tide-like BP behavior in HD population posed great challenge...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938853/opposing-effects-of-sodium-intake-on-uric-acid-and-blood-pressure-and-their-causal-implication
#13
Stephen P Juraschek, Hyon K Choi, Olive Tang, Lawrence J Appel, Edgar R Miller
Reducing uric acid is hypothesized to lower blood pressure, although evidence is inconsistent. In this ancillary of the DASH-Sodium trial, we examined whether sodium-induced changes in serum uric acid (SUA) were associated with changes in blood pressure. One hundred and three adults with prestage or stage 1 hypertension were randomly assigned to receive either the DASH diet or a control diet (typical of the average American diet) and were fed each of the three sodium levels (low, medium, and high) for 30 days in random order...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938852/electrocardiographic-measures-of-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-in-the-antihypertensive-and-lipid-lowering-treatment-to-prevent-heart-attack-trial
#14
Michael E Ernst, Barry R Davis, Elsayed Z Soliman, Ronald J Prineas, Peter M Okin, Alokananda Ghosh, William C Cushman, Paula T Einhorn, Suzanne Oparil, Richard H Grimm
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. We analyzed baseline/follow-up electrocardiographies in 26,376 Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial participants randomized to amlodipine (A), lisinopril (L), or chlorthalidone (C). Prevalent/incident LVH was examined using continuous and categorical classifications of Cornell voltage. At 2 and 4 years, prevalence of LVH in the C group (5.57%; 6.14%) was not statistically different from A group (2 years: 5...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938851/from-the-editor
#15
EDITORIAL
Daniel Levy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865824/effect-of-placebo-groups-on-blood-pressure-in-hypertension-a-meta-analysis-of-beta-blocker-trials
#16
Marcel Wilhelm, Alexander Winkler, Winfried Rief, Bettina K Doering
Hypertension is often treated pharmacologically. Since there is evidence that the cardiovascular system is sensitive to placebo mechanisms, our aim was to conduct an effect size analysis of placebo groups in double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group drug trials using beta-blockers to treat hypertensive patients. A comprehensive literature search via PubMed, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, PQDT OPEN, OpenGREY, ISI Web of Knowledge, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform provided the basis of our meta-analysis...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865823/gut-hormones-and-gut-microbiota-implications-for-kidney-function-and-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Baris Afsar, Nosratola D Vaziri, Gamze Aslan, Kayhan Tarim, Mehmet Kanbay
Increased blood pressure (BP) and chronic kidney disease are two leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Increased sodium intake is one of the most important risk factors for development of hypertension. Recent data have shown that gut influences kidney function and BP by variety of mechanisms. Various hormones and peptides secreted from gut such as gastrin, glucocorticoids, Glucagon-like peptide-1 impact on kidney function and BP especially influencing sodium absorption from gut. These findings stimulate scientist to find new therapeutic options such as tenapanor for treatment of hypertension by blocking sodium absorption from gut...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865822/ambulatory-blood-pressure-in-hypertensive-patients-with-inclusion-criteria-for-the-sprint-trial
#18
Alejandro de la Sierra, José R Banegas, Juan A Divisón, Manuel Gorostidi, Ernest Vinyoles, Juan J de la Cruz, Julián Segura, Luis M Ruilope
We aimed to characterize 24-hour blood pressure (BP) values and categories in patients with inclusion/exclusion criteria of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention (SPRINT) trial from the Spanish ABPM Registry. We selected patients older than 50 years, with office systolic BP (SBP) above 130 mm Hg and at high cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, previous stroke, or symptomatic heart failure. Ambulatory BP was compared among BP categories. A total of 39,132 patients (34%) fulfilled inclusion criteria of SPRINT trial...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863819/unfounded-concerns-about-the-use-of-automated-office-blood-pressure-measurement-in-sprint
#19
EDITORIAL
Martin G Myers, Norm R C Campbell
SPRINT reported significantly fewer cardiovascular events when patients with a higher cardiovascular risk were treated to a target systolic blood pressure (BP) of <120 versus <140 mm Hg. In SPRINT, BP was recorded using the automated office BP (AOBP) method, with multiple readings being taken automatically with the patient resting alone. This technique for BP measurement eliminates the white-coat effect and gives lower BP readings than conventional manual office BP. Critics have questioned if the readings were actually taken with the subject alone and have expressed concerns about the time taken to obtain the readings and the cost of automated sphygmomanometers...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856202/total-antihypertensive-therapeutic-intensity-score-and-its-relationship-to-blood-pressure-reduction
#20
Phillip D Levy, Robina Josiah Willock, Michael Burla, Aaron Brody, James Mahn, Alexander Marinica, Samar A Nasser, John M Flack
Predicting blood pressure (BP) response to antihypertensive therapy is challenging. The therapeutic intensity score (TIS) is a summary measure that accounts for the number of medications and the relative doses a patient received, but its relationship to BP change and its utility as a method to project dosing equivalence has not been reported. We conducted a prospective, single center, randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of Joint National Committee (JNC) 7 compliant treatment with more intensive (<120/80 mm Hg) BP goals on left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive patients with echocardiographically determined subclinical heart disease who were treated over a 12-month period...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
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