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Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867323/low-dose-rate-irradiation-for-1-hour-induces-protection-against-lethal-radiation-doses-but-does-not-affect-life-span-of-dba-2-mice
#1
Nina Frederike Jeppesen Edin, Čestmír Altaner, Veronika Altanerova, Peter Ebbesen, Erik O Pettersen
Prior findings showed that serum from DBA/2 mice that had been given whole-body irradiation for 1 hour at a low dose rate (LDR) of 30 cGy/h induced protection against radiation in reporter cells by a mechanism depending on transforming growth factor β3 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity. In the present study, the effect of the 1 hour of LDR irradiation on the response of the preirradiated mice to a subsequent lethal dose and on the life span is examined. These DBA/2 mice were prime irradiated for 1 hour at 30 cGy/h...
October 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867322/a-certified-health-physicist-s-reflections-on-a-40-year-career-in-radiation-protection
#2
Mark L Miller
This is a reflection from a certified health physicist regarding his becoming aware, during his 40-year career, that the linear no-threshold (LNT) model and the associated As Low As Reasonably Achievable concept have no scientific basis and make no positive contribution to radiation safety. They should be replaced by an alternative, scientifically based model that includes a threshold, below which there is no harm, and recognition of hormesis and the adaptive response, which reflect the benefits of low-dose and low-dose-rate radiation exposure...
October 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867321/destroying-the-linear-no-threshold-basis-for-radiation-regulation-a-commentary
#3
Carol S Marcus
This article suggests five classes of effort that scientists can undertake to destroy the linear no-threshold hypothesis as the basis of radiation regulation in the United States. These are (1) pressure on regulators such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (2) presidential messages, (3) Congressional pressure, (4) educate physicians about low-dose radiation, and (5) work with journalists and media people.
October 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867320/changes-in-the-dose-response-relationship-of-one-toxicant-under-simultaneous-exposure-to-another-toxicant
#4
B A Katsnelson, V G Panov, A N Varaksin, I A Minigalieva, L I Privalova, M P Sutunkova
We considered, in general form for a 2(2) full factorial experiment, linear approximations of the organism's dose-response relationship for some factors operating alone and modification of this relationship by another factor operating in the background. A typological classification of such modifications is suggested. An analysis of the outcomes obtained in a number of subchronic animal experiments on rats in which this response was assessed by changes in a large number of biomedical indices revealed that all theoretically possible variants (types) of the modification under consideration are actually observed depending on a specific index and specific harmful exposure...
October 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27114721/differential-effects-of-estradiol-and-bisphenol-a-on-set8-and-sirt1-expression-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#5
Laura Hayes, Allison Weening, Lisa M Morey
Exposure to estrogenic compounds has been shown to epigenetically reprogram the female reproductive tract and may contribute to ovarian cancer. The goal of this study was to compare the effect of estradiol or bisphenol A (BPA) on the expression of histone-modifying enzymes (HMEs) in ovarian cancer cells. Using 2 human ovarian cancer cell lines, we examined the expression of SET8, a histone methyltransferase, and SIRT1, a histone deacetylase, after exposure to estrogen or BPA. These experiments were carried out in complete media (fetal bovine serum) that contain natural hormones to understand the impact of additional exposure to estrogen or BPA on HME expression...
April 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103883/treatment-of-alzheimer-disease-with-ct-scans-a-case-report
#6
Jerry M Cuttler, Eugene R Moore, Victor D Hosfeld, David L Nadolski
Alzheimer disease (AD) primarily affects older adults. This neurodegenerative disorder is the most common cause of dementia and is a leading source of their morbidity and mortality. Patient care costs in the United States are about 200 billion dollars and will more than double by 2040. This case report describes the remarkable improvement in a patient with advanced AD in hospice who received 5 computed tomography scans of the brain, about 40 mGy each, over a period of 3 months. The mechanism appears to be radiation-induced upregulation of the patient's adaptive protection systems against AD, which partially restored cognition, memory, speech, movement, and appetite...
April 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099602/the-role-of-mir-34a-in-tritiated-water-toxicity-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#7
Feng Mei Cui, Liang Liu, Lu Lin Zheng, Guang Liang Bao, Yu Tu, Liang Sun, Wei Zhu, Jian Ping Cao, Ping Kun Zhou, Qiu Chen, Yong Ming He
In this work, we investigated the toxic effects of tritiated water (HTO) on the cardiovascular system. We examined the role of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) in DNA damage and repair in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to HTO. Cell proliferation capacity was evaluated by cell counting, and miR-34a expression was detected using quantitative PCR (QT-PCR). The Comet assay and γ-H2AX immunostaining were used to measure DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression level of c-myc messenger RNA (mRNA)...
April 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099601/hormetic-effect-of-h2o2-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-involvement-of-tor-and-glutathione-reductase
#8
Halyna M Semchyshyn, Bohdana V Valishkevych
In this study, we investigated the relationship between target of rapamycin (TOR) and H2O2-induced hormetic response in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose or fructose. In general, our data suggest that: (1) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces hormesis in a TOR-dependent manner; (2) the H2O2-induced hormetic dose-response in yeast depends on the type of carbohydrate in growth medium; (3) the concentration-dependent effect of H2O2 on yeast colony growth positively correlates with the activity of glutathione reductase that suggests the enzyme involvement in the H2O2-induced hormetic response; and (4) both TOR1 and TOR2 are involved in the reciprocal regulation of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxalase 1...
April 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069440/intervention-engagement-moderates-the-dose-response-relationships-in-a-dietary-intervention
#9
Sonia Lippke, Jana M Corbet, Daniela Lange, Linda Parschau, Ralf Schwarzer
Behavioral interventions could lead to changes in behavior through changes in a mediator. This dose-response relationship might only hold true for those participants who are actively engaged in interventions. This Internet study investigated the role of engagement in a planning intervention to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in addition to testing the intervention effect on planning and behavior. A sample of 701 adults (mean = 38.71 years, 81% women) were randomly assigned either to a planning intervention (experimental group) or to one of 2 control conditions (untreated waiting list control group or placebo active control group)...
January 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977139/salt-dependent-aggregation-and-assembly-of-e-coli-expressed-ferritin
#10
Wei Sun, Chengfeng Jiao, Yue Xiao, Luowei Wang, Cheng Yu, Jialin Liu, Yongli Yu, Liying Wang
Ferritin, with the primary function of iron storage, is a nearly ubiquitous protein found in most living organisms. Our recent investigations suggest that ferritin can assemble nanoparticles. So we use ferritin as a novel type of delivery vehicle for recombinant epitope vaccines. And, we found that ferritin form nonnative aggregates depended sensitively on NaCl concentrations. Here, we report that ferritin is an ion-sensitive protein and has the attribute of salt-dependent aggregation. Our results indicate that recombinant ferritin can be released as a soluble form from Escherichia coli at low NaCl concentrations (≤50 mmol/L)...
January 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924952/determine-the-dose-distribution-using-ultrasound-parameters-in-magic-f-polymer-gels
#11
Hossein Masoumi, Manijhe Mokhtari-Dizaji, Azim Arbabi, Mohsen Bakhshandeh
In this study, using methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper (MAGIC-f) polymer gel after megavoltage energy exposure, the sensitivity of the ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient dose-dependent parameters was evaluated. The MAGIC-f polymer gel was irradiated under 1.25 MeV cobalt-60, ranging from 0 to 60 Gy in 2-Gy steps, and received dose uniformity and accuracy of ±2%. After calibration of the ultrasonic systems with a frequency of 500 kHz, the parameters of ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient of the irradiated gel samples were measured...
January 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26788033/effects-of-extreme-dilutions-of-apis-mellifica-preparations-on-gene-expression-profiles-of-human-cells
#12
Elisabetta Bigagli, Cristina Luceri, Andrea Dei, Simonetta Bernardini, Piero Dolara
Gene expression analysis has been employed in the past to test the effects of high dilutions on cell systems. However, most of the previous studies were restricted to the investigation of few dilutions, making it difficult to explore underlying mechanisms of action. Using whole-genome transcriptomic analysis, we investigated the effects of a wide range of Apis mellifica dilutions on gene expression profiles of human cells. RWPE-1 cells, a nonneoplastic adult human epithelial prostate cell line, were exposed to Apis mellifica preparations (3C, 5C, 7C, 9C, 12C, 15C, and 30C) or to the reference solvent solutions for 24 hours; nonexposed cells were also checked for gene expression variations...
January 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26788032/low-dose-radiation-induces-cell-proliferation-in-human-embryonic-lung-fibroblasts-but-not-in-lung-cancer-cells-importance-of-erk1-2-and-akt-signaling-pathways
#13
Xinyue Liang, Junlian Gu, Dehai Yu, Guanjun Wang, Lei Zhou, Xiaoying Zhang, Yuguang Zhao, Xiao Chen, Shirong Zheng, Qiang Liu, Lu Cai, Jiuwei Cui, Wei Li
Hormesis and adaptive responses are 2 important biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation (LDR). In normal tissue, LDR induces hormesis as evinced by increased cell proliferation; however, whether LDR also increases tumor cell proliferation needs to be investigated. In this study, cell proliferation was assayed by total cell numbers and the Cell Counting Kit 8 assay. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt (PI3K/AKT) phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis...
January 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740815/model-uncertainty-via-the-integration-of-hormesis-and-lnt-as-the-default-in-cancer-risk-assessment
#14
Edward J Calabrese
On June 23, 2015, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a formal notice in the Federal Register that it would consider whether "it should amend its 'Standards for Protection Against Radiation' regulations from the linear non-threshold (LNT) model of radiation protection to the hormesis model." The present commentary supports this recommendation based on the (1) flawed and deceptive history of the adoption of LNT by the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1956; (2) the documented capacity of hormesis to make more accurate predictions of biological responses for diverse biological end points in the low-dose zone; (3) the occurrence of extensive hormetic data from the peer-reviewed biomedical literature that revealed hormetic responses are highly generalizable, being independent of biological model, end point measured, inducing agent, level of biological organization, and mechanism; and (4) the integration of hormesis and LNT models via a model uncertainty methodology that optimizes public health responses at 10(-4)...
October 2015: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740814/acute-metabolic-effects-of-olanzapine-depend-on-dose-and-injection-site
#15
Candice M Klingerman, Michelle E Stipanovic, Andras Hajnal, Christopher J Lynch
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), such as olanzapine (OLZ), are associated with metabolic side effects, including hyperglycemia. Although a central mechanism of action for the acute effects on glycemia has been suggested, evidence for peripheral versus central effects of AAPs has been mixed and has not been explored for an effect of OLZ on the respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Here, we tested the hypothesis that some inconsistencies in the glycemic responses are likely a result of different doses and central sites of injection...
October 2015: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740813/serotonin-and-histamine-therapy-increases-tetanic-forces-of-myoblasts-reduces-muscle-injury-and-improves-grip-strength-performance-of-dmd-mdx-mice
#16
Volkan Gurel, Jeremy Lins, Kristyn Lambert, Joan Lazauski, James Spaulding, John McMichael
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked fatal disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Although several therapeutic approaches have been studied, none has led to substantial long-term effects in patients. The aim of this study was to test a serotonin and histamine (S&H) combination on human skeletal myoblasts and Dmd(mdx) mice for its effects on muscle strength and injury. Normal human bioartificial muscles (BAMs) were treated, and muscle tetanic forces and muscle injury tests were performed using the MyoForce Analysis System...
October 2015: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740812/threshold-for-radon-induced-lung-cancer-from-inhaled-plutonium-data
#17
Jerry M Cuttler, Charles L Sanders
Cohen's lung cancer mortality data, from his test of the LNT theory, do not extend to the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) above which inhaled radon decay products begin to induce excess lung cancer mortality. Since there is concern about the level of radon in homes, it is important to set the radon limit near the NOAEL to avoid the risk of losing a health benefit. Assuming that dogs model humans, data from a study on inhaled plutonium dioxide particulates in dogs were assessed, and the NOAEL for radon-induced lung tumors was estimated to be about 2100 Bq/m(3)...
October 2015: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740811/chromosome-damage-caused-by-accidental-chronic-whole-body-gamma-radiation-exposure-in-thailand
#18
B A Ulsh, J Dolling, J Lavoie, R E J Mitchel, D R Boreham
In February 2000, a radiation incident involving a medical (60)Co source occurred in a metal scrapyard in Thailand. Several individuals were suspected to have received chronic or fractionated exposures ranging from a few mGy to a several Gy. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization to paint chromosomes, we determined the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 13 people who entered the scrapyard, 3 people who involved in recovering the source, and 9 nearby residents. Aberration frequencies greater than controls were observed in 13 of the donors at 3 months postexposure...
October 2015: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740810/biological-response-of-positron-emission-tomography-scan-exposure-and-adaptive-response-in-humans
#19
Kara Schnarr, Timothy F Carter, Daniel Gillis, Colin Webber, Jennifer A Lemon, Ian Dayes, Joanna A Dolling, Karen Gulenchyn, Douglas R Boreham
The biological effects of exposure to radioactive fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) were investigated in the lymphocytes of patients undergoing positron emission tomography (PET) procedures. Low-dose, radiation-induced cellular responses were measured using 3 different end points: (1) apoptosis; (2) chromosome aberrations; and (3) γH2AX foci formation. The results showed no significant change in lymphocyte apoptosis, or chromosome aberrations, as a result of in vivo (18)F-FDG exposure, and there was no evidence the PET scan modified the apoptotic response of lymphocytes to a subsequent 2 Gy in vitro challenge irradiation...
October 2015: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740809/endocrine-disruptors-improving-regulatory-science-policy
#20
Paolo F Ricci
Law and science combine in the estimation of risks from endocrine disruptors (EDs) and actions for their regulation. For both, dose-response models are the causal link between exposure and probability (or percentage change) of adverse response. The evidence that leads to either regulations or judicial decrees is affected by uncertainty and limited knowledge, raising difficult policy issues that we enumerate and discuss. In the United States, some courts have dealt with EDs, but causation based on animal studies has been a stumbling block for plaintiffs seeking compensation, principally because those courts opt for epidemiological evidence...
October 2015: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
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