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Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051718/the-mistaken-birth-and-adoption-of-lnt-an-abridged-version
#1
Edward J Calabrese
The historical foundations of cancer risk assessment were based on the discovery of X-ray-induced gene mutations by Hermann J. Muller, its transformation into the linear nonthreshold (LNT) single-hit theory, the recommendation of the model by the US National Academy of Sciences, Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation I, Genetics Panel in 1956, and subsequent widespread adoption by regulatory agencies worldwide. This article summarizes substantial recent historical revelations of this history, which profoundly challenge the standard and widely acceptable history of cancer risk assessment, showing multiple significant scientific errors and incorrect interpretations, mixed with deliberate misrepresentation of the scientific record by leading ideologically motivated radiation geneticists...
October 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051717/continuous-low-dose-rate-irradiation-promotes-growth-of-silkworms
#2
Yuta Shibamoto, Yoshiaki Kamei, Koichi Kamei, Takahiro Tsuchiya, Natsuto Aoyama
To investigate the influence of low-dose-rate irradiation on the growth of silkworms, Bombyx mori, eggs of silkworms were randomly divided into 2 groups and were grown on either low-dose-radiation-emitting sheets or control sheets. On the radiation-emitting sheets, the dose rate was measured as 66.0 (4.3) μSv/h (mean [standard deviation]) by a Geiger-Müller counter for α, β, and γ rays and 3.8 (0.3) μSv/h by a survey meter for γ rays. The silkworms became larger when bred on the radiation-emitting sheets, and their body weight was about 25% to 37% heavier on day 42 to 49 after starting the experiment...
October 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051716/assessment-of-the-effects-of-graded-doses-of-polyphenolic-rich-fraction-of-garcinia-kola-seeds-on-pituitary-testicular-axis-of-male-wistar-rats
#3
Mosunmola Busayo Omotola, Isaac O Adeosun, Efere M Obuotor, Rufus O Akomolafe, Olugbenga A Ayannuga
This study evaluated the ameliorative and prophylactic effects of 2 different doses of polyphenolic-rich fraction of Garcinia kola (PPRFGk) seeds on the histology and hormones of pituitary-testicular axis of male Wistar rats. Thirty-five male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each. Groups I and II were given distilled water (0.5 mL/day) for 8 days followed by propylene glycol (0.2 mL/d) and 600 mg/kg of PPRFGk, respectively, for 21 days. Group III received sodium arsenate (8 days), left untreated for 21 days...
October 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932178/response-to-commentary-treating-alzheimer-dementia-with-ct-induced-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-problematic-yet-potential-for-more-precise-inquiry
#4
Jerry M Cuttler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932177/treating-alzheimer-s-dementia-with-ct-induced-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-problematic-yet-potential-for-more-precise-inquiry
#5
Stephanie Raynor, James Giordano
This commentary evaluates a recent single-case study by Cuttler et al that posits that a series of computerized tomographic (CT) scans ameliorated symptoms and signs of advanced Alzheimer's dementia in an elderly female patient. The report proposes that CT scanning delivered low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) that activated adaptive mechanisms in the brain to induce the effects observed and reported. However, the report evidenced methodologic problems that threaten the validity and value of its approach, stated results, and conclusions...
July 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932176/effect-of-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-ugt-1a-polymorphism-rs8330-and-rs10929303-on-glucuronidation-status-of-acetaminophen
#6
Huma Mehboob, Imtiaz Mahmood Tahir, Tahira Iqbal, Sadaf Saleem, Sofia Perveen, Aboubakker Farooqi
Interindividual variability in polymorphic uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) ascribed to genetic diversity is associated with relative glucuronidation level among individuals. The present research was aimed to study the effect of 2 important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs8330 and rs10929303) of UGT1A1 gene on glucuronidation status of acetaminophen in healthy volunteers (n = 109). Among enrolled volunteers, 54.13% were male (n = 59) and 45.87% were female (n = 50). The in vivo activity of UGT1A1 was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-based analysis of glucuronidation status (ie, acetaminophen and acetaminophen glucuronide) in human volunteers after oral intake of a single dose (1000 mg) of acetaminophen...
July 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835748/four-transgenerational-demographic-performance-of-moina-macrocopa-exposed-to-chronic-levels-of-cadmium
#7
José Luis Gama-Flores, María Elena Huidobro-Salas, S S S Sarma, S Nandini
In this study, we quantified intergenerational, demographic variability of Moina macrocopa subjected to cadmium stress. Exposure of M macrocopa to cadmium (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mg/L as CdCl2) through 4 consecutive generations revealed changes in demographic responses not only in survivorship variables but also in reproductive parameters. Long-term demographic responses varied differently, depending on the demographic trait and the concentration of heavy metal in the medium. With the exception of generation time, all life history traits were significantly and adversely influenced due to increase in Cd concentrations...
July 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814947/preserving-the-anti-scientific-linear-no-threshold-myth-authority-agnosticism-transparency-and-the-standard-of-care
#8
Bill Sacks, Jeffry A Siegel
The linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption is over 70 years old and holds that all ionizing radiation exposure leaves cumulative effects, all of which are harmful regardless of how low the dose or dose rate is. The claimed harm centers on the risk of future radiogenic cancer. This has been shown countless times to be fallacious, and hundreds of scientific studies-both experimental and observational/epidemiological-demonstrate that at low enough doses and dose rates, ionizing radiation stimulates an evolved adaptive response and therefore is beneficial to health, lowering rather than raising the risk of cancer...
July 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717349/-bad-luck-mutations-dna-mutations-are-not-the-whole-answer-to-understanding-cancer-risk
#9
James E Trosko, Giuseppe Carruba
It has been proposed that many human cancers are generated by intrinsic mechanisms that produce "Bad Luck" mutations by the proliferation of organ-specific adult stem cells. There have been serious challenges to this interpretation, including multiple extrinsic factors thought to be correlated with mutations found in cancers associated with these exposures. While support for both interpretations provides some validity, both interpretations ignore several concepts of the multistage, multimechanism process of carcinogenesis, namely, (1) mutations can be generated by both "errors of DNA repair" and "errors of DNA replication," during the "initiation" process of carcinogenesis; (2) "initiated" stem cells must be clonally amplified by nonmutagenic, intrinsic or extrinsic epigenetic mechanisms; (3) organ-specific stem cell numbers can be modified during in utero development, thereby altering the risk to cancer later in life; and (4) epigenetic tumor promoters are characterized by species, individual genetic-, gender-, developmental state-specificities, and threshold levels to be active; sustained and long-term exposures; and exposures in the absence of antioxidant "antipromoters...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717348/the-synergistic-effect-of-microwave-radiation-and-hypergravity-on-rats-and-the-intervention-effect-of-rana-sylvatica-le-conte-oil
#10
Wei Sun, Yudan Yang, Hongmei Yu, Luowei Wang, Su Pan
AIM: The phenomena of hypergravity and microwave radiation are widespread, which cause more and more concern for the hazards to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of microwave radiation and hypergravity on rats and observe the protective effect of Rana sylvatica Le conte oil. METHODS: Rats were exposed to microwave radiation and hypergravity, and the rat weight, the climbing pole height, serum enzyme activities, blood urea nitrogen concentration, and total antioxidant capacity were detected...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694745/model-averaging-with-aic-weights-for-hypothesis-testing-of-hormesis-at-low-doses
#11
Steven B Kim, Nathan Sanders
For many dose-response studies, large samples are not available. Particularly, when the outcome of interest is binary rather than continuous, a large sample size is required to provide evidence for hormesis at low doses. In a small or moderate sample, we can gain statistical power by the use of a parametric model. It is an efficient approach when it is correctly specified, but it can be misleading otherwise. This research is motivated by the fact that data points at high experimental doses have too much contribution in the hypothesis testing when a parametric model is misspecified...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694744/protective-effects-of-chrysin-against-drugs-and-toxic-agents
#12
REVIEW
Saeed Samarghandian, Tahereh Farkhondeh, Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad
ISSUES: Polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, are known as the most common chemical class of phytochemicals, which possess a multiple range of health-promoting effects. Flavonoids are ubiquitous in nature. They are also present in food, providing an essential link between diet and prevention of several diseases. APPROACH: Chrysin (CH), a natural flavonoid, was commonly found in propolis and honey and traditionally used in herbal medicine. A growing body of scientific evidence has shown that CH possesses protective effects against toxic agents in various animal tissues, including brain, heart, liver, kidney, and lung...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620271/glutamine-ameliorates-mucosal-damage-caused-by-immune-responses-to-duck-plague-virus
#13
Yuanyuan Zhang, Lili Zhao, Yan Zhou, Chenxi Diao, Lingxia Han, Niu Yinjie, Shengwang Liu, Hongyan Chen
The immune-releasing effects of L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation in duck plague virus (DPV)-infected ducklings were evaluated in 120 seven-day-old ducklings that were divided into 8 groups. The ducklings in control and DPV, 0.5Gln and DPV + 0.5Gln, 1.0Gln and DPV + 1.0Gln, and 2.0Gln and DPV + 2.0Gln received 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g of Gln/kg feed/d by gastric perfusion, respectively. Then, the ducklings in control to 2.0Gln were injected with 0.2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline, while those in DPV to DPV + 2...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620270/flucytosine-and-amphotericin-b-coadministration-induces-dose-related-renal-injury
#14
Alexandra Folk, Cornel Balta, Hildegard Herman, Alexandra Ivan, Oana Maria Boldura, Lucian Paiusan, Aurel Ardelean, Anca Hermenean
Invasive fungal infections remain an important clinical problem, and despite recent approaches, they bring high morbidity and mortality. Combination therapies are the most effective; however, adverse effects need to be considered. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the nephrotoxicity induced by combined therapy of flucytosine (FL) and amphotericin B (AMF) at 3 different doses administered to mice for 14 days: 300 μg/kg AMF+50 mg/kg FL; 600 μg/kg AMF+100 mg/kg FL; 900 μg/kg AMF+150 mg/kg FL. Antifungal coadministration triggered nuclear translocation of NF-κB and upregulated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells subunit p65 (NF-κB p65) messenger RNA mRNA level in dose-dependent manner...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588428/umbelliprenin-mediates-its-apoptotic-effect-by-hormesis-a-commentary
#15
Omid Gholami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566983/the-radioprotective-effect-of-resveratrol-against-genotoxicity-induced-by-%C3%AE-irradiation-in-mice-blood-lymphocytes
#16
Farideh Koohian, Ahmad Shanei, Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Seyed Hossein Hejazi, Mohammad-Taghi Moradi
In this study, we evaluated whether the protective potential of resveratrol (RSV; 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) against γ-radiation caused damages in peripheral blood lymphocyte of mice. Resveratrol as a polyphenolic compound scavenges free radicals. Various doses of RSV were administered intraperitoneally 2 hours to adult male mice before a single dose of whole-body γ-irradiation (2 Gy). To assess the protective ability of RSV, the alkaline comet assay in blood lymphocyte of mice was performed and the total comet score was evaluated...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529467/radiotherapy-for-pertussis-an-historical-assessment
#17
Edward J Calabrese, Gaurav Dhawan, Rachna Kapoor
X-ray therapy was used to treat pertussis/whooping cough during a 13-year period from 1923 to 1936 in North America and Europe. Twenty studies from clinicians in the United States reported that approximately 1500 cases of pertussis were treated by X-ray therapy usually with less than 0.5 erythema dose. Young children (<3 years) comprised about 70% to 80% of the cases, with the age of cases ranging from as young as 1 month to 50 years. In general, symptoms of severe coughing, vomiting episodes, and spasms were significantly relieved in about 85% of cases following up to 3 treatments, while about 15% of the cases showed nearly full relief after only 1 treatment...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515676/low-dose-dose-response-for-in-vitro-nrf2-are-activation-in-human-hepg2-cells
#18
Kenneth T Bogen
Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and the antioxidant response element (ARE) are interacting components of a master regulatory signaling pathway that coordinates redox homeostasis, cytoprotective responses, and shifts in stem cell state. This study reexamined detailed dose-response (DR) data reported for in vitro Nrf2-ARE activation in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cell lines containing either a ARE-bla or ARE-luc reporter at 12 different concentrations of each of 15 chemicals...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507463/radiotherapy-induced-skin-reactions-induce-fibrosis-mediated-by-tgf-%C3%AE-1-cytokine
#19
Cherley Borba Vieira de Andrade, Isalira Peroba Rezende Ramos, Alan César Nunes de Moraes, Ana Lúcia Rosa do Nascimento, Camila Salata, Regina Coeli Dos Santos Goldenberg, Jorge José de Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo Veloso de Almeida
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate radiation-induced lesions on the skin in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: Cutaneous wounds were induced in Wistar rats by 4 MeV energy electron beam irradiation, using a dose rate of 240 cGy/min, for 3 different doses (10 Gy, 40 Gy, and 60 Gy). The skin was observed 5, 10, and 25 days (D) after ionizing radiation exposition. RESULTS: Infiltrate inflammatory process was observed in D5 and D10, for the 40 Gy and 60 Gy groups, and a progressive increase of transforming growth factor β1 is associated with this process...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491012/are-alpha-2d-adrenoceptor-subtypes-involved-in-rat-mydriasis-evoked-by-new-imidazoline-derivatives-marsanidine-and-7-methylmarsanidine
#20
Joanna Raczak-Gutknecht, Teresa Frąckowiak, Antoni Nasal, Anita Kornicka, Franciszek Sączewski, Roman Kaliszan
The imidazoline compounds may produce mydriasis after systemic administration to some species (rats, cats, and mice). In mydriatic activity of imidazolines, α2D-adrenoceptors subtype(s) seems to be involved. In this study, the pupil dilatory effect evoked by 2 newly synthesized imidazoline derivatives-α2-adrenoceptor agonists: marsanidine and 7-methylmarsanidine-was compared. The compounds were tested alone as well as in the presence of α2-adrenoceptor antagonists (nonselective, yohimbine, and selective toward the following α2-adrenoceptor subtypes-α2A-2-[(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-1H-isoindole maleate (BRL44408), α2B-2-[2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl]-4,4-dimethyl-1,3-(2H,4H)-isoquinolindione dihydrochloride (ARC239), α2C-JP1302, α2D-2-(2,3-dihydro-2-methoxy-1,4-benzodioxin-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole hydrochloride [RX821002])...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
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