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Seminars in Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242450/anti-cancer-immunotherapy-breakthroughs-and-future-strategies
#1
EDITORIAL
Mads Hald Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242449/correction-to-complement-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
B Paul Morgan
The presentation of Fig. 2 was incorrect.
September 21, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218212/iga-nephropathy-clearance-kinetics-of-iga-containing-immune-complexes
#3
REVIEW
Ann Chen, Sung-Sen Yang, Tsai-Jung Lin, Shuk-Man Ka
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is associated predominantly IgA deposition in the affected glomeruli and has been shown to be the most common glomerular disorder among young people in the world. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism underlying IgAN remains largely unknown, circulating IgA-containing immune complexes (IgA ICs) is considered to play a major role in initiating the development and evolution of the renal disorder. In this review article, we discuss the fundamental mechanisms of clearance kinetics of IgA ICs and related issues, covering the following: (1) role of circulating IgA ICs in the pathogenesis of IgAN and (2) elimination of IgA ICs from the body, with emphasis of the role of the liver and Fc receptors in immune cells...
September 14, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209547/extracellular-vesicles-in-cancer-immune-responses-roles-of-purinergic-receptors
#4
REVIEW
Michael W Graner
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano- to micro-scale membrane-enclosed vesicles that are released from presumably all cell types. Tumor cells and immune cells are prodigious generators of EVs often with competing phenotypes in terms of immune suppression versus immune stimulation. Purinergic receptors, proteins that bind diverse purine nucleotides and nucleosides (ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine), are widely expressed across tissues and cell types, and are prominent players in immune and tumor cell nucleotide metabolism...
September 12, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209546/picket-fences-in-the-plasma-membrane-functions-in-immune-cells-and-phagocytosis
#5
REVIEW
Sivakami M Mylvaganam, Sergio Grinstein, Spencer A Freeman
Recent studies of molecular mobility in the plasma membrane have revealed that diffusion is restricted by cytoskeletal networks or fences. Transmembrane protein "pickets" that reversibly associate with the membrane-associated skeleton and with the pericellular coat impede the movement of unattached bystander molecules. While membrane picket-fences were originally described as barriers to free diffusion in more passive cell types such as fibroblasts, they have particularly important functions in the more dynamic immune cells...
September 12, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206661/pivotal-role-of-innate-myeloid-cells-in-cerebral-post-ischemic-sterile-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Jun Tsuyama, Akari Nakamura, Hiroaki Ooboshi, Akihiko Yoshimura, Takashi Shichita
Inflammatory responses play a multifaceted role in regulating both disability and recovery after ischemic brain injury. In the acute phase of ischemic stroke, resident microglia elicit rapid inflammatory responses by the ischemic milieu. After disruption of the blood-brain barrier, peripheral-derived neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes infiltrate into the ischemic brain. These infiltrating myeloid cells are activated by the endogenous alarming molecules released from dying brain cells. Inflammation after ischemic stroke thus typically consists of sterile inflammation triggered by innate immunity, which exacerbates the pathologies of ischemic stroke and worsens neurological prognosis...
September 11, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203227/inhibiting-ido-pathways-to-treat-cancer-lessons-from-the-echo-301-trial-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Alexander J Muller, Mark G Manfredi, Yousef Zakharia, George C Prendergast
With immunotherapy enjoying a rapid resurgence based on the achievement of durable remissions in some patients with agents that derepress immune function, commonly referred to as "checkpoint inhibitors," enormous attention developed around the IDO1 enzyme as a metabolic mediator of immune escape in cancer. In particular, outcomes of multiple phase 1/2 trials encouraged the idea that small molecule inhibitors of IDO1 may improve patient responses to anti-PD1 immune checkpoint therapy. However, recent results from ECHO-301, the first large phase 3 trial to evaluate an IDO1-selective enzyme inhibitor (epacadostat) in combination with an anti-PD1 antibody (pembrolizumab) in advanced melanoma, showed no indication that epacadostat provided an increased benefit...
September 10, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203226/perspectives-on-interferon-alpha-in-the-treatment-of-polycythemia-vera-and-related-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-minimal-residual-disease-and-cure
#8
REVIEW
Hans Carl Hasselbalch, Morten Orebo Holmström
The first clinical trials of the safety and efficacy of interferon-alpha2 (IFN-alpha2) were performed about 30 years ago. Since then, several single-arm studies have convincingly demonstrated that IFN-alpha2 is a highly potent anti-cancer agent in several cancer types but unfortunately not being explored sufficiently due to a high toxicity profile when using non-pegylated IFN-alpha2 or high dosages or due to competitive drugs, that for clinicians at first glance might look more attractive. Within the hematological malignancies, IFN-alpha2 has only recently been revived in patients with the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms-essential thrombocytosis, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis (MPNs)-and in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors...
September 10, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187086/principles-of-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Özcan Met, Kasper Mølgaard Jensen, Christopher Aled Chamberlain, Marco Donia, Inge Marie Svane
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) utilizing either tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-derived T cells or T cells genetically engineered to express tumor recognizing receptors has emerged as a powerful and potentially curative therapy for several cancers. Many ACT-based therapies have recently entered late-phase clinical testing, with several T cell therapies already achieving regulatory approval for the treatment of patients with B cell malignancies. In this review, we briefly outline the principles of adoptively transferred T cells for the treatment of cancer...
September 5, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187085/efferocytosis-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#10
REVIEW
Thomas A Werfel, Rebecca S Cook
Within the course of a single minute, millions of cells in the human body will undergo programmed cell death in response to physiological or pathological cues. The diminished energetic capacity of an apoptotic cell renders the cell incapable of sustaining plasma membrane integrity. Under these circumstances, intracellular contents that might leak into the surrounding tissue microenvironment, a process referred to as secondary necrosis, could induce inflammation and tissue damage. Remarkably, in most cases of physiologically rendered apoptotic cell death, inflammation is avoided because a mechanism to swiftly remove apoptotic cells from the tissue prior to their secondary necrosis becomes activated...
September 5, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182191/the-first-line-of-defence-insights-into-mechanisms-and-relevance-of-phagocytosis-in-epithelial-cells
#11
REVIEW
Juliane Günther, Hans-Martin Seyfert
Epithelial tissues cover most of the external and internal surfaces of the body and its organs. Inevitably, these tissues serve as first line of defence against inorganic, organic, and microbial intruders. Epithelial cells are the main cell type of these tissues. Besides their function as cellular barrier, there is growing evidence that epithelial cells are of particular relevance as initial sensors of danger and also as executers of adequate defence responses. These cells feature various essential functions to maintain tissue integrity in health and disease...
September 4, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141073/acute-and-chronic-phagocyte-determinants-of-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy
#12
REVIEW
Kristofor Glinton, Matthew DeBerge, Xin-Yi Yeap, Jenny Zhang, Joseph Forbess, Xunrong Luo, Edward B Thorp
Post-transplant immunosuppression has reduced the incidence of T cell-mediated acute rejection, yet long-term cardiac graft survival rates remain a challenge. An important determinant of chronic solid organ allograft complication is accelerated vascular disease of the transplanted graft. In the case of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), the precise cellular etiology remains inadequately understood; however, histologic evidence hints at the accumulation and activation of innate phagocytes as a causal contributing factor...
August 23, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006739/cancer-immune-therapy-for-lymphoid-malignancies-recent-advances
#13
REVIEW
Uffe Klausen, Nicolai Grønne Dahlager Jørgensen, Jacob Handlos Grauslund, Morten Orebo Holmström, Mads Hald Andersen
Immunotherapy has played an important part in improving the life of patients with lymphoproliferative diseases especially since the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy in the CD20-positive neoplasms in the 1990s. While this field of passive immunotherapy is continuously evolving, several breakthroughs will expand the treatment modalities to include more active immunotherapy. With the approval of immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies for Hodgkin lymphoma and bispecific antibodies for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), activation of endogenous T cells already plays a role in several lymphoid malignancies...
July 13, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006738/does-patient-age-influence-anti-cancer-immunity
#14
REVIEW
Graham Pawelec
Geriatric oncology, important for the ever-increasing numbers of elderly cancer patients, has thus far focused primarily on tolerance to chemotherapy. With the advent of breakthrough immunomodulatory antibody treatments relying on the patient's own immune system to control the tumor, the issue of immunosenescence becomes extremely important. There is increasingly a valid concern that anti-cancer immunity may be compromised in the elderly due to (i) their low amounts of naïve T cells (potentially leading to holes in the repertoire for neoantigens), (ii) "exhaustion" of potentially tumor-specific memory T cells, and (iii) higher amounts of suppressive cells...
July 13, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987478/cancer-immune-therapy-for-myeloid-malignancies-present-and-future
#15
REVIEW
Morten Orebo Holmström, Hans Carl Hasselbalch
The myelodysplastic syndromes, the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, and the acute myeloid leukemia are malignancies of the myeloid hematopoietic stem cells of the bone marrow. The diseases are characterized by a dysregulation of the immune system as both the cytokine milieu, immune phenotype, immune regulation, and expression of genes related to immune cell functions are deregulated. Several treatment strategies try to circumvent this deregulation, and several clinical and preclinical trials have shown promising results, albeit not in the same scale as chimeric antigen receptor T cells have had in the treatment of refractory lymphoid malignancies...
July 9, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978248/therapeutic-cancer-vaccine-building-the-future-from-lessons-of-the-past
#16
REVIEW
T Tran, C Blanc, C Granier, A Saldmann, C Tanchot, Eric Tartour
Anti-cancer vaccines have raised many hopes from the start of immunotherapy but have not yet been clinically successful. The few positive results of anti-cancer vaccines have been observed in clinical situations of low tumor burden or preneoplastic lesions. Several new concepts and new results reposition this therapeutic approach in the field of immunotherapy. Indeed, cancers that respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 (20-30%) are those that are infiltrated by anti-tumor T cells with an inflammatory infiltrate. However, 70% of cancers do not appear to have an anti-tumor immune reaction in the tumor microenvironment...
July 5, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968045/the-t-win%C3%A2-technology-immune-modulating-vaccines
#17
REVIEW
Mads Hald Andersen
The T-win® technology is an innovative investigational approach designed to activate the body's endogenous anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs) to target regulatory as well as malignant cells. Anti-Tregs are naturally occurring T cells that can directly react against regulatory immune cells because they recognize proteins that these targets express, including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), tryptophan 2,6-dioxygenase, arginase, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). The T-win® technology is characterized by therapeutic vaccination with long peptide epitopes derived from these antigens and therefore offers a novel way to target genetically stable cells with regular human leukocyte antigen expression in the tumor microenvironment...
July 2, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968044/acquired-resistance-to-cancer-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Arianna Draghi, Christopher Aled Chamberlain, Andrew Furness, Marco Donia
In recent times, advances in cancer immunotherapy have yielded impressive, durable clinical responses in patients with varied subtypes of cancer. However, a significant proportion of patients who initially demonstrate encouraging tumor regression develop resistance and progress over time. The identification of novel therapeutic approaches to overcome resistance may result in significantly improved clinical outcomes and remains an area of high scientific priority. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of both tumor-intrinsic and tumor-extrinsic factors in the development of resistance to cancer immunotherapy and to discuss current and possible future therapeutic strategies targeting these mechanisms...
July 2, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951906/ahr-signaling-in-the-development-and-function-of-intestinal-immune-cells-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Luisa Cervantes-Barragan, Marco Colonna
The intestinal immune system is challenged daily with the task of recognizing and eliminating pathogens while simultaneously tolerating dietary and commensal antigens. All components must effectively coordinate to differentiate a continual barrage of environmental cues and mount appropriate responses dependent on the nature of the stimuli encountered. Playing a pivotal role, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a chemical sensor that detects both dietary and microbial cues and is important for development, maintenance, and function of several types of intestinal immune cells, particularly innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and T cells...
July 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951905/innate-lymphoid-cells-key-players-in-tissue-specific-immunity
#20
EDITORIAL
Jan-Eric Turner, Georg Gasteiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
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