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Seminars in Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401256/immune-mediated-cytokine-storm-and-its-role-in-severe-dengue
#1
REVIEW
Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Anuja Mathew, Alan L Rothman
Dengue remains one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases worldwide. Infection with one of the serologically related dengue viruses (DENVs) can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. Severe dengue is characterized by plasma leakage and abnormal bleeding that can lead to shock and death. There is currently no specific treatment for severe dengue due to gaps in understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The transient period of vascular leakage is usually followed by a rapid recovery and is suggestive of the effects of short-lived biological mediators...
April 11, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349194/arthritis-models-usefulness-and-interpretation
#2
REVIEW
Natacha Bessis, Patrice Decker, Eric Assier, Luca Semerano, Marie-Christophe Boissier
Animal models of arthritis are used to better understand pathophysiology of a disease or to seek potential therapeutic targets or strategies. Focusing on models currently used for studying rheumatoid arthritis, we show here in which extent models were invaluable to enlighten different mechanisms such as the role of innate immunity, T and B cells, vessels, or microbiota. Moreover, models were the starting point of in vivo application of cytokine-blocking strategies such as anti-TNF or anti-IL-6 treatments. The most popular models are the different types of collagen-induced arthritis and arthritis in KBN mice...
March 27, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337522/pre-symptomatic-autoimmunity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-when-does-the-disease-start
#3
REVIEW
Alexander Tracy, Christopher D Buckley, Karim Raza
It is well recognised that a state of autoimmunity, in which immunological tolerance is broken, precedes the development of symptoms in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For individuals who will later develop seropositive disease, this manifests as autoantibodies directed against proteins that have undergone specific post-translational modifications. There is evidence that the induction of this autoantibody response occurs at peripheral extra-articular mucosal sites, such as the periodontium and lung...
March 23, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324153/epigenetics-in-the-pathogenesis-of-ra
#4
REVIEW
Caroline Ospelt, Steffen Gay, Kerstin Klein
Epigenetic modifications can stably alter gene expression and have been shown to be important in the maintenance of cell type-specific functions as well as in cell differentiation, e.g., in T and B cell maturation. In RA, alterations in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA expression have been found in immune as well as in stromal cells. These changes in the epigenome in RA patients influence key inflammatory and matrix-degrading pathways and are suspected to play a major role in the pathogenesis of RA...
March 21, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213794/selected-cytokine-pathways-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
REVIEW
Mélissa Noack, Pierre Miossec
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to joint destruction. Cytokines play a key role in its pathogenesis. They contribute to the induction and maintenance of inflammation and thus provide therapeutic targets. Many cytokines are involved in RA, and this review focuses on a few critical ones: tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-17, and GM-CSF. TNF and IL-6 are both well-established targets in RA treatment, and new biologic agents are reaching the market. IL-1 represents a more complex cytokine as results in humans do not reach those in animal models...
February 17, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138787/the-development-of-dendritic-cell-vaccine-based-immunotherapies-for-glioblastoma
#6
REVIEW
David A Reardon, Duane A Mitchell
In this review, we focus on the biologic advantages of dendritic cell-based vaccinations as a therapeutic strategy for cancer as well as preclinical and emerging clinical data associated with such approaches for glioblastoma patients.
January 30, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349248/cancer-and-autoimmunity
#7
REVIEW
Mads Hald Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717961/malignant-inflammation-in-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-a-hostile-takeover
#8
REVIEW
Thorbjørn Krejsgaard, Lise M Lindahl, Nigel P Mongan, Mariusz A Wasik, Ivan V Litvinov, Lars Iversen, Erik Langhoff, Anders Woetmann, Niels Odum
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are characterized by the presence of chronically inflamed skin lesions containing malignant T cells. Early disease presents as limited skin patches or plaques and exhibits an indolent behavior. For many patients, the disease never progresses beyond this stage, but in approximately one third of patients, the disease becomes progressive, and the skin lesions start to expand and evolve. Eventually, overt tumors develop and the malignant T cells may disseminate to the blood, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and visceral organs, often with a fatal outcome...
April 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093619/dendritic-cells-in-autoimmunity-infections-and-cancer
#9
EDITORIAL
Francisco J Quintana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888331/the-origin-of-dcs-and-capacity-for-immunologic-tolerance-in-central-and-peripheral-tissues
#10
REVIEW
K Sanjana P Devi, Niroshana Anandasabapathy
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized immune sentinels that play key role in maintaining immune homeostasis by efficiently regulating the delicate balance between protective immunity and tolerance to self. Although DCs respond to maturation signals present in the surrounding milieu, multiple layers of suppression also co-exist that reduce the infringement of tolerance against self-antigens. These tolerance inducing properties of DCs are governed by their origin and a range of other factors including distribution, cytokines, growth factors, and transcriptional programing, that collectively impart suppressive functions to these cells...
February 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646959/tolerogenic-dendritic-cells
#11
REVIEW
Maisa C Takenaka, Francisco J Quintana
Deficits in immunological tolerance against self-antigens and antigens provided by the diet and commensal microbiota can result in the development of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal regulators of the immune response, specialized in antigen presentation to drive T cell priming and differentiation. DCs also have a tolerogenic function, participating in the enforcement of central and peripheral tolerance and the resolution of ongoing immune responses. Thus, DCs control effector and regulatory mechanisms relevant to the pathology of autoimmune disorders...
February 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577575/novel-immunoregulatory-role-of-perforin-positive-dendritic-cells
#12
REVIEW
Ran Orgad, Bar Nathansohn-Levi, Sivan Kagan, Yael Zlotnikov Klionsky, Yair Reisner
The recently described generation of a highly defined population of dendritic cells which express perforin and granzyme A (termed "perf-DCs") and their ability to selectively delete cognate CD8+ T cell has raised the possibility that these cells play a role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Using bone marrow transplantation, we generated mice selectively lacking perforin expressing dendritic cells. These mice progressively gain weight and exhibit features resembling metabolic syndrome as well as an enhanced susceptibility to autoimmunity induction...
February 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405866/the-role-of-nlrp3-and-aim2-in-inflammasome-activation-during-brucella-abortus-infection
#13
REVIEW
Fernanda M Marim, Miriam M Costa Franco, Marco Tulio R Gomes, Maria Cruz Miraglia, Guillermo H Giambartolomei, Sergio Costa Oliveira
The innate immune system is essential for the detection and elimination of bacterial pathogens. Upon inflammasome activation, caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to their mature forms IL-1β and IL-18, respectively, and the cell undergoes inflammatory death termed pyroptosis. Here, we reviewed recent findings demonstrating that Brucella abortus ligands activate NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes which lead to control of infection. This protective effect is due to the inflammatory response caused by IL-1β and IL-18 rather than cell death...
February 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093620/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-cancer-response-due-to-anti-ctla-4-is-it-in-the-flora
#14
REVIEW
Franck Carbonnel, Emilie Soularue, Clélia Coutzac, Nathalie Chaput, Christine Mateus, Patricia Lepage, Caroline Robert
Checkpoint inhibitors blocking CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) and PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) have transfigured our cancer treatment paradigm. However, these drugs can induce immune-related adverse events that share clinical and pathological characteristics with immune-mediated diseases. One of the most severe immune-related adverse event observed with anti-CTLA-4 is an enterocolitis that mirrors naturally occurring inflammatory bowel disease. This paper reviews the clinical, immunological, and microbiota data associated with the immune-related enterocolitis induced by the cancer immunotherapy blocking CTLA-4, ipilimumab...
January 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083646/potential-importance-of-b-cells-in-aging-and-aging-associated-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Arya Biragyn, Maria Aliseychik, Evgeny Rogaev
Our understanding of B cells as merely antibody producers is slowly changing. Alone or in concert with antibody, they control outcomes of seemingly different diseases such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. While their role in activation of effector immune cells is beneficial in cancer but bad in autoimmune diseases, their immunosuppressive and regulatory subsets (Bregs) inhibit autoimmune and anticancer responses. These pathogenic and suppressive functions are not static and appear to be regulated by the nature and strength of inflammation...
January 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074285/t-cell-receptor-repertoire-usage-in-cancer-as-a-surrogate-marker-for-immune-responses
#16
REVIEW
David Schrama, Cathrin Ritter, Jürgen C Becker
Characterizing the interaction of cancer cells with the host adaptive immune system is critical for understanding tumor immunology and the modus operandi of immunotherapeutic interventions to treat cancer. As the key cellular effectors of adaptive immunity, T cells are endowed with specialized receptors (the T cell receptor; TCR), to recognize and to eliminate cancer cells. The diversity of the TCR repertoire results from specialized genetic diversification mechanisms that generate an incredible variability allowing recognizing extensive collections of antigens...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909880/il-9-producing-cells-in-the-development-of-ige-mediated-food-allergy
#17
REVIEW
Dana Shik, Sunil Tomar, Jee-Boong Lee, Chun-Yu Chen, Andrew Smith, Yui-Hsi Wang
Food allergy is a harmful immune reaction driven by uncontrolled type 2 immune responses. Considerable evidence demonstrates the key roles of mast cells, IgE, and TH2 cytokines in mediating food allergy. However, this evidence provides limited insight into why only some, rather than all, food allergic individuals are prone to develop life-threatening anaphylaxis. Clinical observations suggest that patients sensitized to food through the skin early in life may later develop severe food allergies. Aberrant epidermal thymic stromal lymphopoietin and interleukin (IL) 33 production and genetic predisposition can initiate an allergic immune response mediated by dendritic cells and CD4(+)TH2 cells in inflamed skin...
January 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900450/il-9-and-th9-in-parasite-immunity
#18
REVIEW
P Licona-Limón, A Arias-Rojas, E Olguín-Martínez
Interleukin-9 is a cytokine classically related to type 2 immune responses whose cellular identity has been recently reevaluated to identify a new specialized T helper subset called Th9 and an innate source referred as innate lymphoid cell type 2. Over the past years, IL-9 has been associated with allergic responses, tumor immunology, and autoimmunity; however, in this review, we will specifically focus on the role of IL-9 and Th9 cells in the context of parasitic infections. We will summarize and discuss all the evidence relating IL-9 expression and function in parasitic infections with a particular emphasis in helminth infections, an important health issue in developing countries; we will also provide a general description and classification of parasites, the immune response and cellular compartments activated in this context, and its implications and future directions towards a complete understanding of this interesting new T helper subset and its potential therapeutic use...
January 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896634/th9-cells-in-skin-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Rachael A Clark, Christoph Schlapbach
Interleukin 9 secreting TH9 cells have been proposed as the latest addition to the family of T helper cell subsets. While a growing body of evidence from animal models points to important roles for these cells in allergic inflammation of the lung, autoinflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and tumor immunity, their role in skin immunity and skin immunopathology remains poorly defined. Interestingly, studies of T helper cells from healthy humans suggest that TH9 cells are predominantly skin-homing and skin-resident and that they are involved in protection against extracellular pathogens...
January 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837254/the-transcription-factor-network-in-th9-cells
#20
REVIEW
Mark H Kaplan
The development of T helper cell subsets requires activated T cells that respond to a polarizing cytokine environment resulting in the activation and expression of transcription factors. The subset-specific transcription factors bind and induce the production of specific effector cytokines. Th9 cells express IL-9 and develop in the presence of TGFβ, IL-4, and IL-2. Each of these cytokines activates signaling pathways that are required for Th9 differentiation and IL-9 production. In this review, I summarize what is currently understood about the signaling pathways and transcription factors that promote the Th9 genetic program, providing some perspective for the integration of the signals in regulating the Il9 gene and dictating the expression of other Th9-associated genes...
January 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
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