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Seminars in Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134267/complement-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
B Paul Morgan
The emergence of complement as an important player in normal brain development and pathological remodelling has come as a major surprise to most scientists working in neuroscience and almost all those working in complement. That a system, evolved to protect the host against infection, should have these unanticipated roles has forced a rethink about what complement might be doing in the brain in health and disease, where it is coming from, and whether we can, or indeed should, manipulate complement in the brain to improve function or restore homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124321/vaccine-responses-in-newborns
#2
REVIEW
Anja Saso, Beate Kampmann
Immunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months. Furthermore, the neonatal immunological milieu is polarised towards Th2-type immunity with dampening of Th1-type responses and impaired humoral immunity, resulting in qualitatively and quantitatively poorer antibody responses compared to older infants...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124320/recipe-for-ibd-can-we-use-food-to-control-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
REVIEW
Mario Witkowski, Marco Witkowski, Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
The mucosal immune system and the microbiota in the intestinal tract have recently been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both of these can be influenced by food. Thus, we propose dietary intervention as a therapeutic option for IBD. In this review, we discuss the interaction of the intestinal mucosal immune system and the intestinal microbiota in the context of IBD. In addition, we discuss the impact of food components on immune responses in IBD. Finally, we address the current evidence of how this interaction (i...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110070/dietary-and-metabolic-modulators-of-hepatic-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Antonella Carambia, Johannes Herkel
The liver is the central metabolic organ of the organism and is thus constantly exposed to gut-derived dietary and microbial antigens. The liver maintains homoeostatic tolerance to these mostly harmless antigens. However, the liver also functions as a barrier organ to harmful pathogens and is thus permissive to liver inflammation. The regulation of the delicate balance between liver tolerance and liver inflammation is of vital importance for the organism. In recent years, a general role for dietary components and metabolites as immune mediators has been emerging...
November 6, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098373/newborn-susceptibility-to-infection-vs-disease-depends-on-complex-in-vivo-interactions-of-host-and-pathogen
#5
REVIEW
Byron Brook, Danny Harbeson, Rym Ben-Othman, Dorothee Viemann, Tobias R Kollmann
The burden of newborn infectious disease has long been recognized as the highest across the entire human life span. The precise underlying cause is unfortunately still far from clear. A substantial body of data derived mostly from in vitro experimentation indicates "lower" host immune responses in early vs. adult life and is briefly summarized within this review. However, emerging data derived mostly from in vivo experimentation reveal that the newborn host also exhibits an exuberant immune and inflammatory response following infection when compared to the adult...
November 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071391/immunometabolism-pregnancy-and-nutrition
#6
REVIEW
Kristin Thiele, Lianghui Diao, Petra Clara Arck
The emerging field of immunometabolism has substantially progressed over the last years and provided pivotal insights into distinct metabolic regulators and reprogramming pathways of immune cell populations in various immunological settings. However, insights into immunometabolic reprogramming in the context of reproduction are still enigmatic. During pregnancy, the maternal immune system needs to actively adapt to the presence of the fetal antigens, i.e., by functional modifications of distinct innate immune cell subsets, the generation of regulatory T cells, and the suppression of an anti-fetal effector T cell response...
October 25, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038841/the-maternal-microbiome-during-pregnancy-and-allergic-disease-in-the-offspring
#7
REVIEW
Peter J Vuillermin, Laurence Macia, Ralph Nanan, Mimi Lk Tang, Fiona Collier, Susanne Brix
There is substantial epidemiological and mechanistic evidence that the increase in allergic disease and asthma in many parts of the world in part relates to changes in microbial exposures and diet acting via the composition and metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome. The majority of research in this field has focused on the gut microbiome during infancy, but it is increasingly clear that the maternal microbiome during pregnancy also has a key role in preventing an allergy-prone immune phenotype in the offspring...
October 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986638/expanding-horizons-in-complement-drug-discovery-challenges-and-emerging-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Claire L Harris
The complement system is best known for its role in innate immunity, providing a first line of defence against infection, maintaining tissue homeostasis by flagging apoptotic cells and debris for removal, and orchestrating crosstalk between adaptive and innate immunity. In a growing number of diseases, complement is known to drive pathogenesis or to contribute as an inflammatory amplifier of a disease trigger. Association of complement with common and devastating diseases has driven an upsurge in complement drug discovery, but despite a wealth of knowledge in the complexities of the cascade, and many decades of effort, very few drugs have progressed to late-stage clinical studies...
October 6, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971272/monocyte-and-macrophage-immunometabolism-in-atherosclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Laszlo Groh, Samuel T Keating, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Niels P Riksen
Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic low grade inflammation of arteries that results in the development of lipid dense plaques. Chronic inflammation induced by Western-type diet is associated with the risk of developing atherosclerosis, and new insights shed light on the importance of metabolic and functional reprogramming in monocytes and macrophages for progression of atherosclerosis. This review aims to provide an overview of our current understanding into how the metabolic reprogramming of glucose, cholesterol, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in macrophages contributes to inflammation during atherosclerosis...
October 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971246/transfer-of-maternal-immunity-and-programming-of-the-newborn-immune-system
#10
REVIEW
Madeleine F Jennewein, Bahaa Abu-Raya, Yiwei Jiang, Galit Alter, Arnaud Marchant
As placental mammals, the pregnant women and the fetus have intense and prolonged interactions during gestation. There is increasing evidence that multiple molecular as well as cellular components originating in pregnant women are transferred to the fetus. The transfer of maternal antibodies has long been recognized as a central component of newborn immunity against pathogens. More recent studies indicate that inflammatory mediators, micronutrients, microbial products and maternal cells are transferred in utero and influence the fetal immune system...
October 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948331/the-eye-as-a-complement-dysregulation-hotspot
#11
REVIEW
Simon J Clark, Paul N Bishop
Complement turnover is tightly regulated throughout the human body in order to prevent over-activation and subsequent damage from inflammation. In the eye, low-level complement activation is maintained to provide immune tolerance in this immune privileged organ. Conversely, the complement system is suppressed in the cornea to protect it from continuous immunological insult. Over-activation of the complement cascade has been implicated in the disease progression of glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy and is now known to be a central driver in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
September 25, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900758/in-utero-development-of-memory-t-cells
#12
REVIEW
Dania Zhivaki, Richard Lo-Man
Pathogen-specific immune memory develops subsequent to primary exposure to antigen, mainly in the context of infection or vaccination to provide protection. Although a safe fetal life requires a tolerogenic environment in order to circumvent unnecessary inflammatory responses, it needs to be prepared in utero to face the microbial environment outside the womb. The possibility of immune memory generation in the fetus would help such transition providing protection in early life. This requires fetal T cell exposure to foreign antigens presented by dendritic cells...
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900713/complement-activation-a-threat-to-pregnancy
#13
REVIEW
Guillermina Girardi
Pregnancy poses a challenge for the immune systems of placental mammals. As fetal tissues are semi-allogeneic and alloantibodies that commonly develop in the mother, the fetus and the placenta might be subject to complement-mediated immune attack with the potential risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here, I describe how the use of animal models was pivotal in demonstrating that complement inhibition at the fetomaternal interface is essential for a successful pregnancy. Studies in animals also helped the identification of uncontrolled complement activation as a crucial effector in the pathogenesis of recurrent miscarriages, intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, and preterm birth...
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900700/auxiliary-activation-of-the-complement-system-and-its-importance-for-the-pathophysiology-of-clinical-conditions
#14
REVIEW
Markus Huber-Lang, Kristina N Ekdahl, Rebecca Wiegner, Karin Fromell, Bo Nilsson
Activation and regulation of the cascade systems of the blood (the complement system, the coagulation/contact activation/kallikrein system, and the fibrinolytic system) occurs via activation of zymogen molecules to specific active proteolytic enzymes. Despite the fact that the generated proteases are all present together in the blood, under physiological conditions, the activity of the generated proteases is controlled by endogenous protease inhibitors. Consequently, there is remarkable little crosstalk between the different systems in the fluid phase...
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894935/tissue-compartmentalization-of-t-cell-responses-during-early-life
#15
REVIEW
Kyra D Zens, Thomas Connors, Donna L Farber
The immune system in early life is tasked with transitioning from a relatively protected environment to one in which it encounters a wide variety of innocuous antigens and dangerous pathogens. The immaturity of the developing immune system, and particularly the distinct functionality of T lymphocytes in early life, has been implicated in increased susceptibility to infection. Previous work has demonstrated that immune responses in early life are skewed toward limited inflammation and atopy; however, there is mounting evidence that such responses are context- and tissue-dependent...
September 11, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894916/structural-and-functional-diversity-of-collectins-and-ficolins-and-their-relationship-to-disease
#16
REVIEW
Mark Howard, Conrad A Farrar, Steven H Sacks
Pattern recognition molecules are sensors for the innate immune system and trigger a number of pathophysiological functions after interaction with the corresponding ligands on microorganisms or altered mammalian cells. Of those pattern recognition molecules used by the complement system, collagen-like lectins (collectins) are an important subcomponent. Whereas the best known of these collectins, mannose-binding lectin, largely occurs as a circulating protein following production by hepatocytes, the most recently described collectins exhibit strong local biosynthesis...
September 11, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842749/complement-as-a-regulator-of-adaptive-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Justin Killick, Gregoire Morisse, Dirk Sieger, Anne L Astier
The complement system is an ancient and evolutionarily conserved effector system comprising in mammals over 50 circulating and membrane bound proteins. Complement has long been described as belonging to the innate immune system; however, a number of recent studies have demonstrated its key role in the modulation of the adaptive immune response. This review does not set out to be an exhaustive list of the numerous interactions of the many complement components with adaptive immunity; rather, we will focus more precisely on the role of some complement molecules in the regulation of antigen presenting cells, as well as on their direct effect on the activation of the core adaptive immune cells, B and T lymphocytes...
August 25, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808775/how-novel-structures-inform-understanding-of-complement-function
#18
REVIEW
Elena Goicoechea de Jorge, Hugo Yebenes, Marina Serna, Agustín Tortajada, Oscar Llorca, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba
During the last decade, the complement field has experienced outstanding advancements in the mechanistic understanding of how complement activators are recognized, what C3 activation means, how protein complexes like the C3 convertases and the membrane attack complex are assembled, and how positive and negative complement regulators perform their function. All of this has been made possible mostly because of the contributions of structural biology to the study of the complement components. The wealth of novel structural data has frequently provided support to previously held knowledge, but often has added alternative and unexpected insights into complement function...
August 14, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685270/tolerance-and-immunity-to-pathogens-in-early-life-insights-from-hbv-infection
#19
REVIEW
Michelle Hong, Antonio Bertoletti
Immunity is not static but varies with age. The immune system of a newborn infant is not "defective" or "immature." Rather, there are distinct features of innate and adaptive immunity from fetal life to adulthood, which may alter the susceptibility of newborn infants to infections compared to adults. Increased protection to certain infectious diseases during early life may benefit from a dampened immune response as a result of decreased immune pathology. This concept may offer an alternative interpretation of the different pathological manifestations clinically observed in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients during the natural history of infection...
July 6, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674818/cytokine-storms-in-infectious-diseases
#20
EDITORIAL
John R Teijaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
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