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Seminars in Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685270/tolerance-and-immunity-to-pathogens-in-early-life-insights-from-hbv-infection
#1
REVIEW
Michelle Hong, Antonio Bertoletti
Immunity is not static but varies with age. The immune system of a newborn infant is not "defective" or "immature." Rather, there are distinct features of innate and adaptive immunity from fetal life to adulthood, which may alter the susceptibility of newborn infants to infections compared to adults. Increased protection to certain infectious diseases during early life may benefit from a dampened immune response as a result of decreased immune pathology. This concept may offer an alternative interpretation of the different pathological manifestations clinically observed in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients during the natural history of infection...
July 6, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555386/molecular-pathogenesis-of-viral-hemorrhagic-fever
#2
REVIEW
Christopher F Basler
The clinical syndrome referred to as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) can be caused by several different families of RNA viruses, including select members of the arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, filoviruses, and flaviviruses. VHF is characterized by malaise, fever, vascular permeability, decreased plasma volume, coagulation abnormalities, and varying degrees of hemorrhage. Study of the filovirus Ebola virus has demonstrated a critical role for suppression of innate antiviral defenses in viral pathogenesis. Additionally, antigen-presenting cells are targets of productive infection and immune dysregulation...
May 29, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555383/new-fronts-emerge-in-the-influenza-cytokine-storm
#3
REVIEW
Xi-Zhi J Guo, Paul G Thomas
Influenza virus is a significant pathogen in humans and animals with the ability to cause extensive morbidity and mortality. Exuberant immune responses induced following infection have been described as a "cytokine storm," associated with excessive levels of proinflammatory cytokines and widespread tissue damage. Recent studies have painted a more complex picture of cytokine networks and their contributions to clinical outcomes. While many cytokines clearly inflict immunopathology, others have non-pathological delimited roles in sending alarm signals, facilitating viral clearance, and promoting tissue repair, such as the IL-33-amphiregulin axis, which plays a key role in resolving some types of lung damage...
May 29, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497351/comment-on-epigenetics-in-the-pathogenesis-of-ra
#4
LETTER
David Gomez-Cabrero, Jesper Tegnér, Tomas J Ekström, Caroline Ospelt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466096/pathogenic-human-coronavirus-infections-causes-and-consequences-of-cytokine-storm-and-immunopathology
#5
REVIEW
Rudragouda Channappanavar, Stanley Perlman
Human coronaviruses (hCoVs) can be divided into low pathogenic and highly pathogenic coronaviruses. The low pathogenic CoVs infect the upper respiratory tract and cause mild, cold-like respiratory illness. In contrast, highly pathogenic hCoVs such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) predominantly infect lower airways and cause fatal pneumonia. Severe pneumonia caused by pathogenic hCoVs is often associated with rapid virus replication, massive inflammatory cell infiltration and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses resulting in acute lung injury (ALI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
May 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466095/survival-of-the-fetus-fetal-b-and-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-development
#6
REVIEW
Erez Rechavi, Raz Somech
A mature and diverse T and B cell receptor repertoire is a prerequisite for immunocompetence. In light of its increased susceptibility to infection, the human fetus has long been considered deficient in this regard. However, data accumulated since the 1990s and in earnest in the past couple of years paints a more complicated picture. As we describe in this review, mechanisms responsible for generating a diverse receptor repertoire, such as somatic recombination, class switch recombination, and somatic hypermutation, are all operational to surprising extents in the growing fetus...
May 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455580/cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
REVIEW
Kim Lauper, Cem Gabay
Substantial epidemiologic data have shown an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Traditional CV risk factors may partly contribute to CV disease in RA; however, current evidence underlines the important role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and amplification of CV risk. Interplays between inflammation and lipid metabolism in the development of atherosclerosis have been established by recent scientific advances. Atherosclerosis is currently viewed as an inflammatory disease, and modifications of lipoproteins during inflammation accelerate atherogenesis...
April 28, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451785/environmental-factors-and-hormones-in-the-development-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
REVIEW
Deshiré Alpízar-Rodríguez, Axel Finckh
The etiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is partially understood. Genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors and their interactions are considered to play an important role on disease development. The relative contribution of environmental factors to RA development is probably larger than previously thought. The aim of this review is to appraise robust evidence about the role of environmental and hormonal risk factors for RA. We will discuss inhaled pollutants, nutritional habits, infectious, hormonal, and reproductive factors...
April 27, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674818/cytokine-storms-in-infectious-diseases
#9
EDITORIAL
John R Teijaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555385/cytokine-storm-and-sepsis-disease-pathogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Benjamin G Chousterman, Filip K Swirski, Georg F Weber
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. Sepsis is a severe clinical syndrome related to the host response to infection. The severity of infections is due to an activation cascade that will lead to an autoamplifying cytokine production: the cytokine storm. Cytokines are a broad category of relatively small proteins (<40 kDa) that are produced and released with the aim of cell signaling. Our understanding of the processes that trigger this tremendous amount of cytokine production has made dramatic progress over the last decades, but unfortunately, these findings could not translate yet into effective treatments; so far, all clinical trials targeting cytokine production or effects failed...
July 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451786/the-meteorology-of-cytokine-storms-and-the-clinical-usefulness-of-this-knowledge
#11
REVIEW
Ian A Clark, Bryce Vissel
The term cytokine storm has become a popular descriptor of the dramatic harmful consequences of the rapid release of polypeptide mediators, or cytokines, that generate inflammatory responses. This occurs throughout the body in both non-infectious and infectious disease states, including the central nervous system. In infectious disease it has become a useful concept through which to appreciate that most infectious disease is not caused directly by a pathogen, but by an overexuberant innate immune response by the host to its presence...
July 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401256/immune-mediated-cytokine-storm-and-its-role-in-severe-dengue
#12
REVIEW
Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Anuja Mathew, Alan L Rothman
Dengue remains one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases worldwide. Infection with one of the serologically related dengue viruses (DENVs) can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. Severe dengue is characterized by plasma leakage and abnormal bleeding that can lead to shock and death. There is currently no specific treatment for severe dengue due to gaps in understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The transient period of vascular leakage is usually followed by a rapid recovery and is suggestive of the effects of short-lived biological mediators...
July 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639062/rheumatoid-arthritis-from-basic-findings-and-clinical-manifestations-to-future-therapies
#13
EDITORIAL
Paul Hasler, Cem Gabay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597065/cellular-and-molecular-pathways-of-structural-damage-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
REVIEW
Ulrike Harre, Georg Schett
Structural damage of cartilage and bone tissue is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The resulting joint destruction constitutes one of the major disease consequences for patients and creates a significant burden for the society. The main cells executing bone and cartilage degradation are osteoclasts and fibroblast-like synoviocytes, respectively. The function of both cell types is heavily influenced by the immune system. In the last decades, research has identified several mediators of structural damage, ranging from infiltrating immune cells and inflammatory cytokines to autoantibodies...
June 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555384/genetics-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-susceptibility-severity-and-treatment-response
#15
REVIEW
Sebastien Viatte, Anne Barton
A decade after the first genome-wide association study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a plethora of genetic association studies have been published on RA and its clinical or serological subtypes. We review the major milestones in the study of the genetic architecture of RA susceptibility, severity, and response to treatment. We set the scientific context necessary for non-geneticists to understand the potential clinical applications of human genetics and its significance for a stratified approach to the management of RA in the future...
June 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508153/cellular-and-molecular-perspectives-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
REVIEW
Douglas J Veale, Carl Orr, Ursula Fearon
Synovial immunopathology in rheumatoid arthritis is complex involving both resident and infiltrating cells. The synovial tissue undergoes significant neovascularization, facilitating an influx of lymphocytes and monocytes that transform a typically acellular loose areolar membrane into an invasive tumour-like pannus. The microvasculature proliferates to form straight regularly-branching vessels; however, they are highly dysfunctional resulting in reduced oxygen supply and a hypoxic microenvironment. Autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies are found at an early stage, often before arthritis has developed, and they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA...
June 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497350/synovial-cellular-and-molecular-markers-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
REVIEW
M Asif Amin, David A Fox, Jeffrey H Ruth
The profound alterations in the structure, cellular composition, and function of synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are the basis for the persistent inflammation and cumulative joint destruction that are hallmarks of this disease. In RA, the synovium develops characteristics of a tertiary lymphoid organ, with extensive infiltration of lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Concurrently, the fibroblast-like synoviocytes undergo massive hyperplasia and acquire a tissue-invasive phenotype. In this review, we summarize key components of these processes, focusing on recently-described roles of selected molecular markers of these cellular components of RA synovitis...
June 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451788/the-role-of-autoantibodies-in-the-pathophysiology-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
REVIEW
V F A M Derksen, T W J Huizinga, D van der Woude
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation. The presence of autoantibodies in the sera of RA patients has provided many clues to the underlying disease pathophysiology. Based on the presence of several autoantibodies like rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP), and more recently anti-acetylated protein antibodies RA can be subdivided into seropositive and seronegative disease. The formation of these autoantibodies is associated with both genetic and environmental risk factors for RA, like specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and smoking...
June 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451787/future-therapeutic-targets-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
REVIEW
Tommy Tsang Cheung, Iain B McInnes
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by persistent joint inflammation. Without adequate treatment, patients with RA will develop joint deformity and progressive functional impairment. With the implementation of treat-to-target strategies and availability of biologic therapies, the outcomes for patients with RA have significantly improved. However, the unmet need in the treatment of RA remains high as some patients do not respond sufficiently to the currently available agents, remission is not always achieved and refractory disease is not uncommon...
June 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337522/pre-symptomatic-autoimmunity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-when-does-the-disease-start
#20
REVIEW
Alexander Tracy, Christopher D Buckley, Karim Raza
It is well recognised that a state of autoimmunity, in which immunological tolerance is broken, precedes the development of symptoms in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For individuals who will later develop seropositive disease, this manifests as autoantibodies directed against proteins that have undergone specific post-translational modifications. There is evidence that the induction of this autoantibody response occurs at peripheral extra-articular mucosal sites, such as the periodontium and lung...
June 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
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