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Seminars in Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737384/orchestration-of-intestinal-homeostasis-and-tolerance-by-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells
#1
REVIEW
Hugo A Penny, Suzanne H Hodge, Matthew R Hepworth
The gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of exposure to a multitude of microbial, environmental, and dietary challenges. As a result, immune responses in the intestine need to be tightly regulated in order to prevent inappropriate inflammatory responses to exogenous stimuli. Intestinal homeostasis and tolerance are mediated through a multitude of immune mechanisms that act to reinforce barrier integrity, maintain the segregation and balance of commensal microbes, and ensure tissue health and regeneration...
May 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713744/skin-neurogenic-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Jae Eun Choi, Anna Di Nardo
The epidermis closely interacts with nerve endings, and both epidermis and nerves produce substances for mutual sustenance. Neuropeptides, like substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), are produced by sensory nerves in the dermis; they induce mast cells to release vasoactive amines that facilitate infiltration of neutrophils and T cells. Some receptors are more important than others in the generation of itch. The Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (Mrgpr) family as well as transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and protease activated receptor 2(Par2) have important roles in itch and inflammation...
April 30, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663027/molecular-interactions-at-the-surface-of-extracellular-vesicles
#3
REVIEW
Edit I Buzás, Eszter Á Tóth, Barbara W Sódar, Katalin É Szabó-Taylor
Extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and large oncosomes have been shown to participate in a wide variety of biological processes and are currently under intense investigation in many different fields of biomedicine. One of the key features of extracellular vesicles is that they have relatively large surface compared to their volume. Some extracellular vesicle surface molecules are shared with those of the plasma membrane of the releasing cell, while other molecules are characteristic for extracellular vesicular surfaces...
April 16, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616309/a-historical-perspective-on-the-role-of-sensory-nerves-in-neurogenic-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
João Sousa-Valente, Susan D Brain
The term 'neurogenic inflammation' is commonly used, especially with respect to the role of sensory nerves within inflammatory disease. However, despite over a century of research, we remain unclear about the role of these nerves in the vascular biology of inflammation, as compared with their interacting role in pain processing and of their potential for therapeutic manipulation. This chapter attempts to discuss the progress in understanding, from the initial discovery of sensory nerves until the present day...
April 3, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616308/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-when-innate-meets-adaptive
#5
REVIEW
Tom Groot Kormelink, Sanne Mol, Esther C de Jong, Marca H M Wauben
Innate immune cells are recognized for their rapid and critical contribution to the body's first line of defense against invading pathogens and harmful agents. These actions can be further amplified by specific adaptive immune responses adapted to the activating stimulus. Recently, the awareness has grown that virtually all innate immune cells, i.e., mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, basophils, and NK cells, are able to communicate with dendritic cells (DCs) and/or T and B cells, and thereby significantly contribute to the orchestration of adaptive immune responses...
April 3, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616307/extracellular-vesicles-and-their-immunomodulatory-functions-in-pregnancy
#6
REVIEW
Soumyalekshmi Nair, Carlos Salomon
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles released into the extracellular space by almost all types of cells. EVs can cross the physiological barriers, and a variety of biological fluids are enriched in them. EVs are a heterogeneous population of vesicles, including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. The different subpopulations of vesicles can be differentiated by size and origin, in which exosomes (~100 nm and from endocytic origin) are the most studied so far. EVs have essential roles in cell-to-cell communication and are critical modulators of immune response under normal and pathological conditions...
April 3, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594331/extracellular-vesicle-mediated-mhc-cross-dressing-in-immune-homeostasis-transplantation-infectious-diseases-and-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Furong Zeng, Adrian E Morelli
Eukaryotic cells employ different types of extracellular vesicles (EVs) to exchange proteins, mRNAs, non-coding regulatory RNAs, carbohydrates, and lipids. Cells of the immune system, in particular antigen (Ag)-presenting cells (APCs), acquire major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules loaded with antigenic peptides from leukocytes and tissue parenchymal and stromal cells, through a mechanism known as MHC cross-dressing. Increasing evidence indicates that cross-dressing of APCs with pre-formed Ag-peptide/MHC complexes (pMHCs) is mediated via passage of clusters of EVs with characteristics of exosomes...
March 28, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623414/ilc2s-in-infectious-diseases-and-organ-specific-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Markus Kindermann, Lisa Knipfer, Imke Atreya, Stefan Wirtz
Type 2 immune responses evolved to provide host protection against parasitic infections and to support the repair of infection-induced tissue injury. However, persistent chronic organ damage can result in dysregulated production of critical type 2 cytokines supporting tissue remodeling and fibrosis development. Recently, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were newly described as central innate mediators of type 2 responses. In particular, by secretion of the cytokines IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 and the growth factor amphiregulin in response to the release of tissue-derived alarmins, ILC2s have been shown to substantially contribute to both the dismissal of metazoan parasites and the repair of infection-dependent or sterile tissue damage...
March 26, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582112/role-of-neurogenic-inflammation-in-local-communication-in-the-visceral-mucosa
#9
REVIEW
Lori A Birder, F Aura Kullmann
Intense research has focused on the involvement of the nervous system in regard to cellular mechanisms underlying neurogenic inflammation in the pelvic viscera. Evidence supports the neural release of inflammatory factors, trophic factors, and neuropeptides in the initiation of inflammation. However, more recently, non-neuronal cells including epithelia, endothelial, mast cells, and paraneurons are likely important participants in nervous system functions. For example, the urinary bladder urothelial cells are emerging as key elements in the detection and transmission of both physiological and nociceptive stimuli in the lower urinary tract...
March 26, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568973/neurogenic-inflammation-and-its-role-in-migraine
#10
REVIEW
Roshni Ramachandran
The etiology of migraine pain involves sensitized meningeal afferents that densely innervate the dural vasculature. These afferents, with their cell bodies located in the trigeminal ganglion, project to the nucleus caudalis, which in turn transmits signals to higher brain centers. Factors such as chronic stress, diet, hormonal fluctuations, or events like cortical spreading depression can generate a state of "sterile inflammation" in the intracranial meninges resulting in the sensitization and activation of trigeminal meningeal nociceptors...
March 22, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568972/innate-lymphoid-cells-in-autoimmunity-and-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Tingting Xiong, Jan-Eric Turner
Abnormal activation of the innate immune system is a common feature of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Since their identification as a separate family of leukocytes, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as important effector cells of the innate immune system. Alterations in ILC function and subtype distribution have been observed in a variety of immune-mediated diseases in humans and evidence from experimental models suggests a subtype specific role of ILCs in the pathophysiology of autoimmune inflammation...
March 22, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556959/neurogenic-inflammation-in-fibromyalgia
#12
REVIEW
Geoffrey Littlejohn, Emma Guymer
Fibromyalgia is a high impact chronic pain disorder with a well-defined and robust clinical phenotype. Key features include widespread pain and tenderness, high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and emotional distress. Abnormal processing of pain and other sensory input occurs in the brain, spinal cord and periphery and is related to the processes of central and peripheral sensitization. As such, fibromyalgia is deemed to be one of the central sensitivity syndromes. There is increasing evidence of neurogenically derived inflammatory mechanisms occurring in the peripheral tissues, spinal cord and brain in fibromyalgia...
March 19, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549404/antidromic-neurogenic-activity-and-cutaneous-bacterial-flora
#13
REVIEW
Marc G J Feuilloley
By its size and diversity, the cutaneous microbial flora is the second of the human body and there is a growing body of research showing its key role in cutaneous homeostasis. However, skin is also the first neuroendocrine organ and it is now demonstrated that bacteria can sense a multitude of human hormones and neurotransmitters. Then, besides of the intrinsic effect of their virulence factors on cutaneous neurogenic activity, recent data demonstrate that the virulence, invasion potential, and biofilm formation activity of some of the principal species of the cutaneous bacteria flora are directly controlled by neuropeptides released by sensory nerve endings including substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide...
March 16, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779134/complexity-of-systems-and-actions-underlying-neurogenic-inflammation
#14
EDITORIAL
Tony L Yaksh, Anna Di Nardo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423889/origins-of-antidromic-activity-in-sensory-afferent-fibers-and-neurogenic-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Linda S Sorkin, Kelly A Eddinger, Sarah A Woller, Tony L Yaksh
Neurogenic inflammation results from the release of biologically active agents from the peripheral primary afferent terminal. This release reflects the presence of releasable pools of active product and depolarization-exocytotic coupling mechanisms in the distal afferent terminal and serves to alter the physiologic function of innervated organ systems ranging from the skin and meninges to muscle, bone, and viscera. Aside from direct stimulation, this biologically important release from the peripheral afferent terminal can be initiated by antidromic activity arising from five anatomically distinct points of origin: (i) afferent collaterals at the peripheral-target organ level, (ii) afferent collaterals arising proximal to the target organ, (iii) from mid-axon where afferents lacking myelin sheaths (C fibers and others following demyelinating injuries) may display crosstalk and respond to local irritation, (iv) the dorsal root ganglion itself, and (v) the central terminals of the afferent in the dorsal horn where local circuits and bulbospinal projections can initiate the so-called dorsal root reflexes, i...
February 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222582/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-dietary-control-of-immunometabolism
#16
EDITORIAL
Ludger Scheja, Joerg Heeren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209828/regulation-of-immunometabolism-in-adipose-tissue
#17
REVIEW
Manju Kumari, Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
Adipose tissue has emerged as a major player in driving obesity-related inflammatory response. In obesity, chronic infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue mediates local and systemic inflammation and acts as a key contributor to insulin resistance. In the past few years, adipose tissue plasticity and remodeling capacity has been studied extensively to develop therapeutic targets to combat obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Progress in understanding the potential of adipocytes and contribution of macrophages and other immune cells to control immunometabolism in disease state has provided us new potential intervention targets to explore such as the formation of heat-producing beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue and the polarization of macrophages from an inflammatory toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype...
February 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209827/hemostasis-endothelial-stress-inflammation-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Gerald Grandl, Christian Wolfrum
Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) are two of the pressing healthcare problems of our time. The MS is defined as increased abdominal obesity in concert with elevated fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and plasma lipids. It is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and for cardiovascular complications and mortality. Here, we review work demonstrating that various aspects of coagulation and hemostasis, as well as vascular reactivity and function, become impaired progressively during chronic ingestion of a western diet, but also acutely after meals...
February 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124320/recipe-for-ibd-can-we-use-food-to-control-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Mario Witkowski, Marco Witkowski, Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
The mucosal immune system and the microbiota in the intestinal tract have recently been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both of these can be influenced by food. Thus, we propose dietary intervention as a therapeutic option for IBD. In this review, we discuss the interaction of the intestinal mucosal immune system and the intestinal microbiota in the context of IBD. In addition, we discuss the impact of food components on immune responses in IBD. Finally, we address the current evidence of how this interaction (i...
February 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110070/dietary-and-metabolic-modulators-of-hepatic-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Antonella Carambia, Johannes Herkel
The liver is the central metabolic organ of the organism and is thus constantly exposed to gut-derived dietary and microbial antigens. The liver maintains homoeostatic tolerance to these mostly harmless antigens. However, the liver also functions as a barrier organ to harmful pathogens and is thus permissive to liver inflammation. The regulation of the delicate balance between liver tolerance and liver inflammation is of vital importance for the organism. In recent years, a general role for dietary components and metabolites as immune mediators has been emerging...
February 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
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