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Seminars in Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921148/metabolites-deciphering-the-molecular-language-between-dcs-and-their-environment
#1
REVIEW
Lucía Minarrieta, Peyman Ghorbani, Tim Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
Dendritic cells (DCs) determine the outcome of the immune response based on signals they receive from the environment. Presentation of antigen under various contexts can lead to activation and differentiation of T cells for immunity or dampening of immune responses by establishing tolerance, primarily through the priming of regulatory T cells. Infections, inflammation and normal cellular interactions shape DC responses through direct contact or via cytokine signaling. Although it is widely accepted that DCs sense microbial components through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), increasing evidence advocates for the existence of a set of signals that can profoundly shape DC function via PRR-independent pathways...
December 5, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909880/il-9-producing-cells-in-the-development-of-ige-mediated-food-allergy
#2
REVIEW
Dana Shik, Sunil Tomar, Jee-Boong Lee, Chun-Yu Chen, Andrew Smith, Yui-Hsi Wang
Food allergy is a harmful immune reaction driven by uncontrolled type 2 immune responses. Considerable evidence demonstrates the key roles of mast cells, IgE, and TH2 cytokines in mediating food allergy. However, this evidence provides limited insight into why only some, rather than all, food allergic individuals are prone to develop life-threatening anaphylaxis. Clinical observations suggest that patients sensitized to food through the skin early in life may later develop severe food allergies. Aberrant epidermal thymic stromal lymphopoietin and interleukin (IL) 33 production and genetic predisposition can initiate an allergic immune response mediated by dendritic cells and CD4(+)TH2 cells in inflamed skin...
December 1, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900451/th9-cells-in-immunity-and-immunopathological-diseases
#3
EDITORIAL
Markus F Neurath, Mark H Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900450/il-9-and-th9-in-parasite-immunity
#4
REVIEW
P Licona-Limón, A Arias-Rojas, E Olguín-Martínez
Interleukin-9 is a cytokine classically related to type 2 immune responses whose cellular identity has been recently reevaluated to identify a new specialized T helper subset called Th9 and an innate source referred as innate lymphoid cell type 2. Over the past years, IL-9 has been associated with allergic responses, tumor immunology, and autoimmunity; however, in this review, we will specifically focus on the role of IL-9 and Th9 cells in the context of parasitic infections. We will summarize and discuss all the evidence relating IL-9 expression and function in parasitic infections with a particular emphasis in helminth infections, an important health issue in developing countries; we will also provide a general description and classification of parasites, the immune response and cellular compartments activated in this context, and its implications and future directions towards a complete understanding of this interesting new T helper subset and its potential therapeutic use...
November 29, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896636/tnf-superfamily-cytokines-in-the-promotion-of-th9-differentiation-and-immunopathology
#5
REVIEW
Françoise Meylan, Richard M Siegel
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors and their corresponding cytokine ligands have been implicated in many aspects of the biology of immune functions. TNF receptors have key roles during various stages of T cell homeostasis. Many of them can co-stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Additionally, several TNF cytokines can regulate T cell differentiation, including promoting Th1, Th2, Th17, and more recently the newly described Th9 subset. Four TNF family cytokines have been identified as regulators for IL-9 production by T cells...
November 28, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896635/discovery-and-initial-characterization-of-th9-cells-the-early-years
#6
REVIEW
Edgar Schmitt, Tobias Bopp
The launch of the Th1/Th2 concept represented a decisive breakthrough concerning our understanding of how very diverse immune reactions can be regulated by functionally different T helper subpopulations via the secretion of different panels of cytokines. In this context, IL-9 was identified to be produced by T helper cell lines in addition to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5. Detailed analyses revealed that IL-9 production of mouse CD4(+) T helper cells was dependent on a combination of IL-2, IL-4, and TGF-β. Roughly a decade later, it was found that TGF-β can also induce the development of CD4(+) Treg cells...
November 28, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896634/th9-cells-in-skin-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Rachael A Clark, Christoph Schlapbach
Interleukin 9 secreting TH9 cells have been proposed as the latest addition to the family of T helper cell subsets. While a growing body of evidence from animal models points to important roles for these cells in allergic inflammation of the lung, autoinflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and tumor immunity, their role in skin immunity and skin immunopathology remains poorly defined. Interestingly, studies of T helper cells from healthy humans suggest that TH9 cells are predominantly skin-homing and skin-resident and that they are involved in protection against extracellular pathogens...
November 28, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888331/the-origin-of-dcs-and-capacity-for-immunologic-tolerance-in-central-and-peripheral-tissues
#8
REVIEW
K Sanjana P Devi, Niroshana Anandasabapathy
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized immune sentinels that play key role in maintaining immune homeostasis by efficiently regulating the delicate balance between protective immunity and tolerance to self. Although DCs respond to maturation signals present in the surrounding milieu, multiple layers of suppression also co-exist that reduce the infringement of tolerance against self-antigens. These tolerance inducing properties of DCs are governed by their origin and a range of other factors including distribution, cytokines, growth factors, and transcriptional programing, that collectively impart suppressive functions to these cells...
November 25, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888330/dendritic-cells-in-central-nervous-system-autoimmunity
#9
REVIEW
Christopher Sie, Thomas Korn
Dendritic cells (DCs) operate at the intersection of the innate and adaptive immune systems. DCs can promote or inhibit adaptive immune responses against neuroantigens. While DC intrinsic properties, i.e., their maturation state or the subset they belong to, are important determinants of the outcome of an autoimmune reaction, tissue-specific cues might also be relevant for the function of DCs. Thus, a better understanding of the performance of distinct DC subsets in specific anatomical niches, not only in lymphoid tissue but also in non-lymphoid tissues such as the meninges, the choroid plexus, and the inflamed CNS parenchyma, will be instrumental for the design of immune intervention strategies to chronic inflammatory diseases that do not put at risk basic surveillance functions of the immune system in the CNS...
November 25, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858144/th9-and-other-il-9-producing-cells-in-allergic-asthma
#10
REVIEW
Sonja Koch, Nina Sopel, Susetta Finotto
Allergic asthma is a worldwide increasing chronic disease of the airways which affects more than 300 million people. It is associated with increased IgE, mast cell activation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), mucus overproduction and remodeling of the airways. Previously, this pathological trait has been associated with T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Recently, different CD4(+) T cell subsets (Th17, Th9) as well as cells of innate immunity, like mast cells and innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2s), which are all capable of producing the rediscovered cytokine IL-9, are known to contribute to this disease...
November 17, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858143/erratum-to-novel-immunoregulatory-role-of-perforin-positive-dendritic-cells
#11
Ran Orgad, Bar Nathansohn-Levi, Sivan Kagan, Yael Zlotnikov Klionsky, Yair Reisner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844107/th9-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-eae-and-multiple-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Wassim Elyaman, Samia J Khoury
Interleukin (IL)-9 producing CD4(+) T helper cells (Th9) are the newest addition to the T helper cell subsets. IL-9 binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of the IL-9 receptor (IL-9R) and a common γ chain also presents in IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, and IL-15 receptor complexes. In addition to Th9 cells, Th17 cells secrete smaller amounts of IL-9. Many functional and regulatory roles associated with Th9 cells are currently not fully understood. IL-9 is a pleiotropic cytokine that affects the activity of multiple cell types in the immune compartment as well as in the central nervous system (CNS)...
November 14, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837255/th9-cells-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Benno Weigmann, Markus F Neurath
Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic, relapsing, immunologically mediated disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Emerging evidence suggests a critical functional role of transcription factors and T cell-related cytokines in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Gut-residing T cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease produce high amounts of IL-9. Experimental models of colitis highlighted that IL-9-producing T cells critically interfered with an intact barrier function of the intestinal epithelium by impacting cellular proliferation and tight junction molecules...
November 11, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837254/the-transcription-factor-network-in-th9-cells
#14
REVIEW
Mark H Kaplan
The development of T helper cell subsets requires activated T cells that respond to a polarizing cytokine environment resulting in the activation and expression of transcription factors. The subset-specific transcription factors bind and induce the production of specific effector cytokines. Th9 cells express IL-9 and develop in the presence of TGFβ, IL-4, and IL-2. Each of these cytokines activates signaling pathways that are required for Th9 differentiation and IL-9 production. In this review, I summarize what is currently understood about the signaling pathways and transcription factors that promote the Th9 genetic program, providing some perspective for the integration of the signals in regulating the Il9 gene and dictating the expression of other Th9-associated genes...
November 11, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832300/th9-cells-in-anti-tumor-immunity
#15
REVIEW
Thaiz Rivera Vargas, Etienne Humblin, Frédérique Végran, François Ghiringhelli, Lionel Apetoh
IL-9 was initially identified as a T cell growth factor with a potential oncogenic activity. Accordingly, IL-9 drives tumor growth in most hematological cancers. However, the links between IL-9 and cancer progression have been recently revisited following the discovery of TH9 cells. TH9 cells, which have been characterized in 2008 as a proinflammatory CD4 T cell subset that promotes protection against parasites and drives tissue inflammation in colitis, actually harbor potent IL-9-dependent anti-cancer properties in solid tumors and especially melanoma...
November 10, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800584/neuroimmune-interactions-dendritic-cell-modulation-by-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Maisa C Takenaka, Marcia G Guereschi, Alexandre S Basso
Dendritic cells are of paramount importance bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Depending on the context, after sensing environmental antigens, commensal microorganisms, pathogenic agents, or antigens from the diet, dendritic cells may drive either different effector adaptive immune responses or tolerance, avoiding tissue damage. Although the plasticity of the immune response and the capacity to regulate itself are considered essential to orchestrate appropriate physiological responses, it is known that the nervous system plays a relevant role controlling immune cell function...
October 31, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787613/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-and-tumor-escape-from-immune-surveillance
#17
REVIEW
Viktor Umansky, Carolin Blattner, Viktor Fleming, Xiaoying Hu, Christoffer Gebhardt, Peter Altevogt, Jochen Utikal
Tumor progression is known to be supported by chronic inflammatory conditions developed in the tumor microenvironment. It is characterized by the long-term secretion of various inflammatory soluble factors (including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, prostaglandins, etc.) and strong leukocyte infiltration. Among leukocytes infiltrating tumors, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent one of the most important players mediating immunosuppression and supporting tumor escape...
October 27, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730287/cancer-immunotherapy-in-patients-with-preexisting-autoimmune-disorders
#18
Marco Donia, Magnus Pedersen, Inge Marie Svane
Patients with preexisting active autoimmune disorders were excluded from clinical trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, patients with autoimmune disorders are diagnosed with cancer at least as frequently as the global population, and clinicians treating patients outside clinical trials have generally been reluctant to offer cancer immunotherapy to this patient group. In this brief article, we review the most recent literature on the efficacy and safety of CTLA-4- and PD-1-blocking antibodies in patients with preexisting autoimmune disorders...
October 11, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717961/malignant-inflammation-in-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-a-hostile-takeover
#19
Thorbjørn Krejsgaard, Lise M Lindahl, Nigel P Mongan, Mariusz A Wasik, Ivan V Litvinov, Lars Iversen, Erik Langhoff, Anders Woetmann, Niels Odum
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are characterized by the presence of chronically inflamed skin lesions containing malignant T cells. Early disease presents as limited skin patches or plaques and exhibits an indolent behavior. For many patients, the disease never progresses beyond this stage, but in approximately one third of patients, the disease becomes progressive, and the skin lesions start to expand and evolve. Eventually, overt tumors develop and the malignant T cells may disseminate to the blood, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and visceral organs, often with a fatal outcome...
October 7, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677755/anti-regulatory-t-cells
#20
Mads Hald Andersen
Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells-termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)-that target immune-suppressive cells...
September 27, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
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