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Seminars in Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374524/developing-combination-strategies-using-pd-1-checkpoint-inhibitors-to-treat-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Emmett V Schmidt
More than 3000 clinical trials are evaluating the clinical activity of the PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors as monotherapies and in combinations with other cancer therapies [1]. The PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors are remarkable for their clinical activities in shrinking tumors across a wide range of tumor types, in causing durable responses, and in their tolerability. These attributes position them as favorable agents in clinical combinations. Historically, approaches to cancer therapy combinations focused on agents with orthogonal activities to avoid shared resistance mechanisms and shared toxicities...
October 29, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361803/sex-differences-in-tuberculosis
#2
REVIEW
David Hertz, Bianca Schneider
Tuberculosis is the most prevalent bacterial infectious disease in humans and the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is carried by an estimated two billion people globally and claims more than 1.5 million lives each year. Tuberculosis rates are significantly higher in men than in women, reflected by a male-to-female ratio for worldwide case notifications of 1.7. This phenomenon is not new and has been reported in various countries and settings over the last century...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361802/sexual-dimorphism-in-solid-and-hematological-malignancies
#3
REVIEW
Isabel Ben-Batalla, María Elena Vargas-Delgado, Lara Meier, Sonja Loges
Cancer represents a leading cause of death with continuously increasing incidence worldwide. Many solid cancer types in non-reproductive organs are significantly more frequent and deadly in males compared to females. This sex-biased difference is also present in hematologic malignancies. In this review, we present an overview about sex differences in cancer with a focus on leukemia. We discuss mechanisms potentially underlying the observed sex-biased imbalance in cancer incidence and outcome including sex hormones, sex chromosomes, and immune responses...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361801/off-the-shelf-cell-therapy-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-natural-killer-cells
#4
REVIEW
Michelle L Saetersmoen, Quirin Hammer, Bahram Valamehr, Dan S Kaufman, Karl-Johan Malmberg
Cell therapy is emerging as a very promising therapeutic modality against cancer, spearheaded by the clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells for B cell malignancies. Currently, FDA-approved CAR-T cell products are based on engineering of autologous T cells harvested from the patient, typically using a central manufacturing facility for gene editing before the product can be delivered to the clinic and infused to the patients. For a broader implementation of advanced cell therapy and to reduce costs, it would be advantageous to use allogeneic "universal" cell therapy products that can be stored in cell banks and provided upon request, in a manner analogous to biopharmaceutical drug products...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361800/sex-differences-in-autoimmune-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Stefan M Gold, Anne Willing, Frank Leypoldt, Friedemann Paul, Manuel A Friese
Stronger adaptive immune responses in females can be observed in different mammals, resulting in better control of infections compared to males. However, this presumably evolutionary difference likely also drives higher incidence of autoimmune diseases observed in humans. Here, we summarize sex differences in the most common autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and discuss recent advances in the understanding of possible underlying immunological and CNS intrinsic mechanisms. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common inflammatory disease of the CNS, but also in rarer conditions, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or neuronal autoantibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis (AE), sex is one of the top risk factors, with women being more often affected than men...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353258/androgen-dependent-immune-modulation-in-parasitic-infection
#6
Julie Sellau, Marie Groneberg, Hannelore Lotter
Parasitic infections modulate the immune system of the host, resulting in either immune tolerance or the induction of pro-inflammatory defense mechanisms against the pathogen. In both cases, sex hormones are involved in the regulation of the immune response, as they are present in the systemic circulation and can act on a wide variety of cell types, including immune cells. Men and women have a different milieu of sex hormones, and these hormones play a role in determining immune responses to parasitic infections...
October 23, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298433/the-microgenderome-revealed-sex-differences-in-bidirectional-interactions-between-the-microbiota-hormones-immunity-and-disease-susceptibility
#7
REVIEW
Ravichandra Vemuri, Kristyn E Sylvia, Sabra L Klein, Samuel C Forster, Magdalena Plebanski, Raj Eri, Katie L Flanagan
Sex differences in immunity are well described in the literature and thought to be mainly driven by sex hormones and sex-linked immune response genes. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the largest immune organs in the body and contains multiple immune cells in the GIT-associated lymphoid tissue, Peyer's patches and elsewhere, which together have profound effects on local and systemic inflammation. The GIT is colonised with microbial communities composed of bacteria, fungi and viruses, collectively known as the GIT microbiota...
October 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298432/developmental-origin-and-sex-specific-risk-for-infections-and-immune-diseases-later-in-life
#8
REVIEW
Dimitra E Zazara, Petra Clara Arck
The intrauterine environment is an important determinant of immunity later in life of the offspring. An altered prenatal immune development can result in a high postnatal risk for infections, chronic immune diseases, and autoimmunity. Many of these immune diseases show a strong sex bias, such as a high incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergies in adult females or a high risk for infections in males. Here, we comprehensively review established pathways and propose novel concepts modulating the risk for such poor immunity during childhood and throughout life...
October 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298431/sex-and-sex-steroids-impact-influenza-pathogenesis-across-the-life-course
#9
REVIEW
Landon G Vom Steeg, Sabra L Klein
Males and females differ in the outcome of influenza A virus (IAV) infections, which depends significantly on age. During a typical seasonal influenza epidemic, young children (< 10 years of age) and aged adults (65+ years of age) are at greatest risk for severe disease, and among these age groups, males tend to suffer a worse outcome from IAV infection than females. Following infection with either pandemic or outbreak strains of IAVs, females of reproductive ages (i.e., 15-49 years of age) experience a worse outcome than their male counterparts...
October 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276446/sex-related-factors-in-autoimmune-liver-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Dorothee Schwinge, Christoph Schramm
Autoimmune diseases are a broad range of diseases in which the immune system produces an inappropriate response to self-antigens. This results in inflammation, damage, or dysfunction of tissues and/or organs. Many autoimmune diseases are more common in women and differences between female and male immune and autoimmune responses have been well documented. In general, most of the autoimmune diseases seem to affect more females, although there are exceptions. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are considered to be autoimmune liver diseases (AILD)...
October 1, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276445/sexual-dimorphism-in-hiv-1-infection
#11
REVIEW
Anne Rechtien, Marcus Altfeld
Sex-specific differences affecting various aspects of HIV-1 infection have been reported, including differences in susceptibility to infection, course of HIV-1 disease, and establishment of viral reservoirs. Once infected, initial plasma levels of HIV-1 viremia in women are lower compared to men while the rates of progression to AIDS are similar. Factors contributing to these sex differences are poorly understood, and range from anatomical differences and differential expression of sex hormones to differences in immune responses, the microbiome and socio-economic discrepancies, all of which may impact HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression...
October 1, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276444/female-predisposition-to-tlr7-driven-autoimmunity-gene-dosage-and-the-escape-from-x-chromosome-inactivation
#12
REVIEW
Mélanie Souyris, José E Mejía, Julie Chaumeil, Jean-Charles Guéry
Women develop stronger immune responses than men, with positive effects on the resistance to viral or bacterial infections but magnifying also the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In SLE, the dosage of the endosomal Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is crucial. Murine models have shown that TLR7 overexpression suffices to induce spontaneous lupus-like disease. Conversely, suppressing TLR7 in lupus-prone mice abolishes SLE development. TLR7 is encoded by a gene on the X chromosome gene, denoted TLR7 in humans and Tlr7 in the mouse, and expressed in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), monocytes/macrophages, and B cells...
October 1, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242450/anti-cancer-immunotherapy-breakthroughs-and-future-strategies
#13
EDITORIAL
Mads Hald Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218212/iga-nephropathy-clearance-kinetics-of-iga-containing-immune-complexes
#14
REVIEW
Ann Chen, Sung-Sen Yang, Tsai-Jung Lin, Shuk-Man Ka
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is associated predominantly IgA deposition in the affected glomeruli and has been shown to be the most common glomerular disorder among young people in the world. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism underlying IgAN remains largely unknown, circulating IgA-containing immune complexes (IgA ICs) is considered to play a major role in initiating the development and evolution of the renal disorder. In this review article, we discuss the fundamental mechanisms of clearance kinetics of IgA ICs and related issues, covering the following: (1) role of circulating IgA ICs in the pathogenesis of IgAN and (2) elimination of IgA ICs from the body, with emphasis of the role of the liver and Fc receptors in immune cells...
September 14, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209547/extracellular-vesicles-in-cancer-immune-responses-roles-of-purinergic-receptors
#15
REVIEW
Michael W Graner
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano- to micro-scale membrane-enclosed vesicles that are released from presumably all cell types. Tumor cells and immune cells are prodigious generators of EVs often with competing phenotypes in terms of immune suppression versus immune stimulation. Purinergic receptors, proteins that bind diverse purine nucleotides and nucleosides (ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine), are widely expressed across tissues and cell types, and are prominent players in immune and tumor cell nucleotide metabolism...
September 12, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209546/picket-fences-in-the-plasma-membrane-functions-in-immune-cells-and-phagocytosis
#16
REVIEW
Sivakami M Mylvaganam, Sergio Grinstein, Spencer A Freeman
Recent studies of molecular mobility in the plasma membrane have revealed that diffusion is restricted by cytoskeletal networks or fences. Transmembrane protein "pickets" that reversibly associate with the membrane-associated skeleton and with the pericellular coat impede the movement of unattached bystander molecules. While membrane picket-fences were originally described as barriers to free diffusion in more passive cell types such as fibroblasts, they have particularly important functions in the more dynamic immune cells...
September 12, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206661/pivotal-role-of-innate-myeloid-cells-in-cerebral-post-ischemic-sterile-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Jun Tsuyama, Akari Nakamura, Hiroaki Ooboshi, Akihiko Yoshimura, Takashi Shichita
Inflammatory responses play a multifaceted role in regulating both disability and recovery after ischemic brain injury. In the acute phase of ischemic stroke, resident microglia elicit rapid inflammatory responses by the ischemic milieu. After disruption of the blood-brain barrier, peripheral-derived neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes infiltrate into the ischemic brain. These infiltrating myeloid cells are activated by the endogenous alarming molecules released from dying brain cells. Inflammation after ischemic stroke thus typically consists of sterile inflammation triggered by innate immunity, which exacerbates the pathologies of ischemic stroke and worsens neurological prognosis...
September 11, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203227/inhibiting-ido-pathways-to-treat-cancer-lessons-from-the-echo-301-trial-and-beyond
#18
REVIEW
Alexander J Muller, Mark G Manfredi, Yousef Zakharia, George C Prendergast
With immunotherapy enjoying a rapid resurgence based on the achievement of durable remissions in some patients with agents that derepress immune function, commonly referred to as "checkpoint inhibitors," enormous attention developed around the IDO1 enzyme as a metabolic mediator of immune escape in cancer. In particular, outcomes of multiple phase 1/2 trials encouraged the idea that small molecule inhibitors of IDO1 may improve patient responses to anti-PD1 immune checkpoint therapy. However, recent results from ECHO-301, the first large phase 3 trial to evaluate an IDO1-selective enzyme inhibitor (epacadostat) in combination with an anti-PD1 antibody (pembrolizumab) in advanced melanoma, showed no indication that epacadostat provided an increased benefit...
September 10, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203226/perspectives-on-interferon-alpha-in-the-treatment-of-polycythemia-vera-and-related-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-minimal-residual-disease-and-cure
#19
REVIEW
Hans Carl Hasselbalch, Morten Orebo Holmström
The first clinical trials of the safety and efficacy of interferon-alpha2 (IFN-alpha2) were performed about 30 years ago. Since then, several single-arm studies have convincingly demonstrated that IFN-alpha2 is a highly potent anti-cancer agent in several cancer types but unfortunately not being explored sufficiently due to a high toxicity profile when using non-pegylated IFN-alpha2 or high dosages or due to competitive drugs, that for clinicians at first glance might look more attractive. Within the hematological malignancies, IFN-alpha2 has only recently been revived in patients with the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms-essential thrombocytosis, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis (MPNs)-and in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors...
September 10, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187086/principles-of-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-in-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Özcan Met, Kasper Mølgaard Jensen, Christopher Aled Chamberlain, Marco Donia, Inge Marie Svane
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) utilizing either tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-derived T cells or T cells genetically engineered to express tumor recognizing receptors has emerged as a powerful and potentially curative therapy for several cancers. Many ACT-based therapies have recently entered late-phase clinical testing, with several T cell therapies already achieving regulatory approval for the treatment of patients with B cell malignancies. In this review, we briefly outline the principles of adoptively transferred T cells for the treatment of cancer...
September 5, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
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