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Seminars in Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327071/diseases-of-complement-dysregulation-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
Edwin K S Wong, David Kavanagh
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) are prototypical disorders of complement dysregulation. Although complement overactivation is common to all, cell surface alternative pathway dysregulation (aHUS), fluid phase alternative pathway dysregulation (C3G), or terminal pathway dysregulation (PNH) predominates resulting in the very different phenotypes seen in these diseases. The mechanism underlying the dysregulation also varies with predominant acquired autoimmune (C3G), somatic mutations (PNH), or inherited germline mutations (aHUS) predisposing to disease...
January 11, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313086/introduction-to-complement-in-health-and-disease-novel-aspects-and-insights
#2
EDITORIAL
B Paul Morgan, David Kavanagh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222582/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-dietary-control-of-immunometabolism
#3
EDITORIAL
Ludger Scheja, Joerg Heeren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209828/regulation-of-immunometabolism-in-adipose-tissue
#4
REVIEW
Manju Kumari, Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
Adipose tissue has emerged as a major player in driving obesity-related inflammatory response. In obesity, chronic infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue mediates local and systemic inflammation and acts as a key contributor to insulin resistance. In the past few years, adipose tissue plasticity and remodeling capacity has been studied extensively to develop therapeutic targets to combat obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Progress in understanding the potential of adipocytes and contribution of macrophages and other immune cells to control immunometabolism in disease state has provided us new potential intervention targets to explore such as the formation of heat-producing beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue and the polarization of macrophages from an inflammatory toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype...
December 5, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209827/hemostasis-endothelial-stress-inflammation-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Gerald Grandl, Christian Wolfrum
Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) are two of the pressing healthcare problems of our time. The MS is defined as increased abdominal obesity in concert with elevated fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and plasma lipids. It is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and for cardiovascular complications and mortality. Here, we review work demonstrating that various aspects of coagulation and hemostasis, as well as vascular reactivity and function, become impaired progressively during chronic ingestion of a western diet, but also acutely after meals...
December 5, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170801/immunity-and-immunopathology-in-early-human-life
#6
EDITORIAL
Tobias R Kollmann, Arnaud Marchant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170800/early-life-origin-of-type-1-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Mikael Knip, Kristiina Luopajärvi, Taina Härkönen
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is perceived as a chronic immune-mediated disease with a subclinical prodromal period characterized by selective loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets in genetically susceptible subjects. The incidence of T1D has increased manifold in most developed countries after World War II in parallel with a series of other immune-mediated diseases. T1D results from gene-environmental interactions. The appearance of disease-associated autoantibodies into the peripheral circulation is the first detectable sign of the initiation of the disease process leading to clinical T1D...
November 23, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167939/the-properdin-pathway-an-alternative-activation-pathway-or-a-critical-amplification-loop-for-c3-and-c5-activation
#8
REVIEW
Richard A Harrison
This review is not intended to cover in detail all aspects of the discovery and evolution of our understanding of the "alternative pathway" of complement activation, there are many excellent reviews that do this (see Fearon (CRC Crit Rev Immunol 1:1-32, 1979), Pangburn and Müller-Eberhard (Springer Semin Immunopathol 7:163-192, 1984)), but instead to give sufficient background for current concepts to be put in context. The prevailing textbook view, of components having a primary role as an alternative "pathway" for C3 activation, is challenged, with an argument developed for the primary role of the system being that of providing a surface-dependent amplification loop for both C3 and C5 activation...
November 22, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134267/complement-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
B Paul Morgan
The emergence of complement as an important player in normal brain development and pathological remodelling has come as a major surprise to most scientists working in neuroscience and almost all those working in complement. That a system, evolved to protect the host against infection, should have these unanticipated roles has forced a rethink about what complement might be doing in the brain in health and disease, where it is coming from, and whether we can, or indeed should, manipulate complement in the brain to improve function or restore homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124321/vaccine-responses-in-newborns
#10
REVIEW
Anja Saso, Beate Kampmann
Immunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months. Furthermore, the neonatal immunological milieu is polarised towards Th2-type immunity with dampening of Th1-type responses and impaired humoral immunity, resulting in qualitatively and quantitatively poorer antibody responses compared to older infants...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124320/recipe-for-ibd-can-we-use-food-to-control-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
REVIEW
Mario Witkowski, Marco Witkowski, Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
The mucosal immune system and the microbiota in the intestinal tract have recently been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both of these can be influenced by food. Thus, we propose dietary intervention as a therapeutic option for IBD. In this review, we discuss the interaction of the intestinal mucosal immune system and the intestinal microbiota in the context of IBD. In addition, we discuss the impact of food components on immune responses in IBD. Finally, we address the current evidence of how this interaction (i...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110070/dietary-and-metabolic-modulators-of-hepatic-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Antonella Carambia, Johannes Herkel
The liver is the central metabolic organ of the organism and is thus constantly exposed to gut-derived dietary and microbial antigens. The liver maintains homoeostatic tolerance to these mostly harmless antigens. However, the liver also functions as a barrier organ to harmful pathogens and is thus permissive to liver inflammation. The regulation of the delicate balance between liver tolerance and liver inflammation is of vital importance for the organism. In recent years, a general role for dietary components and metabolites as immune mediators has been emerging...
November 6, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098373/newborn-susceptibility-to-infection-vs-disease-depends-on-complex-in-vivo-interactions-of-host-and-pathogen
#13
REVIEW
Byron Brook, Danny Harbeson, Rym Ben-Othman, Dorothee Viemann, Tobias R Kollmann
The burden of newborn infectious disease has long been recognized as the highest across the entire human life span. The precise underlying cause is unfortunately still far from clear. A substantial body of data derived mostly from in vitro experimentation indicates "lower" host immune responses in early vs. adult life and is briefly summarized within this review. However, emerging data derived mostly from in vivo experimentation reveal that the newborn host also exhibits an exuberant immune and inflammatory response following infection when compared to the adult...
November 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071391/immunometabolism-pregnancy-and-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
Kristin Thiele, Lianghui Diao, Petra Clara Arck
The emerging field of immunometabolism has substantially progressed over the last years and provided pivotal insights into distinct metabolic regulators and reprogramming pathways of immune cell populations in various immunological settings. However, insights into immunometabolic reprogramming in the context of reproduction are still enigmatic. During pregnancy, the maternal immune system needs to actively adapt to the presence of the fetal antigens, i.e., by functional modifications of distinct innate immune cell subsets, the generation of regulatory T cells, and the suppression of an anti-fetal effector T cell response...
October 25, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971246/transfer-of-maternal-immunity-and-programming-of-the-newborn-immune-system
#15
REVIEW
Madeleine F Jennewein, Bahaa Abu-Raya, Yiwei Jiang, Galit Alter, Arnaud Marchant
As placental mammals, the pregnant women and the fetus have intense and prolonged interactions during gestation. There is increasing evidence that multiple molecular as well as cellular components originating in pregnant women are transferred to the fetus. The transfer of maternal antibodies has long been recognized as a central component of newborn immunity against pathogens. More recent studies indicate that inflammatory mediators, micronutrients, microbial products and maternal cells are transferred in utero and influence the fetal immune system...
November 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038841/the-maternal-microbiome-during-pregnancy-and-allergic-disease-in-the-offspring
#16
REVIEW
Peter J Vuillermin, Laurence Macia, Ralph Nanan, Mimi Lk Tang, Fiona Collier, Susanne Brix
There is substantial epidemiological and mechanistic evidence that the increase in allergic disease and asthma in many parts of the world in part relates to changes in microbial exposures and diet acting via the composition and metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome. The majority of research in this field has focused on the gut microbiome during infancy, but it is increasingly clear that the maternal microbiome during pregnancy also has a key role in preventing an allergy-prone immune phenotype in the offspring...
October 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986638/expanding-horizons-in-complement-drug-discovery-challenges-and-emerging-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Claire L Harris
The complement system is best known for its role in innate immunity, providing a first line of defence against infection, maintaining tissue homeostasis by flagging apoptotic cells and debris for removal, and orchestrating crosstalk between adaptive and innate immunity. In a growing number of diseases, complement is known to drive pathogenesis or to contribute as an inflammatory amplifier of a disease trigger. Association of complement with common and devastating diseases has driven an upsurge in complement drug discovery, but despite a wealth of knowledge in the complexities of the cascade, and many decades of effort, very few drugs have progressed to late-stage clinical studies...
October 6, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971272/monocyte-and-macrophage-immunometabolism-in-atherosclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Laszlo Groh, Samuel T Keating, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Niels P Riksen
Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic low grade inflammation of arteries that results in the development of lipid dense plaques. Chronic inflammation induced by Western-type diet is associated with the risk of developing atherosclerosis, and new insights shed light on the importance of metabolic and functional reprogramming in monocytes and macrophages for progression of atherosclerosis. This review aims to provide an overview of our current understanding into how the metabolic reprogramming of glucose, cholesterol, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in macrophages contributes to inflammation during atherosclerosis...
October 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948331/the-eye-as-a-complement-dysregulation-hotspot
#19
REVIEW
Simon J Clark, Paul N Bishop
Complement turnover is tightly regulated throughout the human body in order to prevent over-activation and subsequent damage from inflammation. In the eye, low-level complement activation is maintained to provide immune tolerance in this immune privileged organ. Conversely, the complement system is suppressed in the cornea to protect it from continuous immunological insult. Over-activation of the complement cascade has been implicated in the disease progression of glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy and is now known to be a central driver in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
September 25, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900758/in-utero-development-of-memory-t-cells
#20
REVIEW
Dania Zhivaki, Richard Lo-Man
Pathogen-specific immune memory develops subsequent to primary exposure to antigen, mainly in the context of infection or vaccination to provide protection. Although a safe fetal life requires a tolerogenic environment in order to circumvent unnecessary inflammatory responses, it needs to be prepared in utero to face the microbial environment outside the womb. The possibility of immune memory generation in the fetus would help such transition providing protection in early life. This requires fetal T cell exposure to foreign antigens presented by dendritic cells...
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
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