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Seminars in Immunopathology

Arya Biragyn, Maria Aliseychik, Evgeny Rogaev
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes. Two references were given incorrectly (under number 40 and 41).
January 14, 2019: Seminars in Immunopathology
Stephanie Fischinger, Carolyn M Boudreau, Audrey L Butler, Hendrik Streeck, Galit Alter
Vaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in influencing vaccine responsiveness. The significant contribution of sex to modulating vaccine-induced immunity has gained attention over the last years...
December 13, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Nico Buettner, Robert Thimme
The incidence of viral hepatitis B or C (HBV/HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma is higher in male compared to female populations, showing a faster disease progression and results in a worse overall survival. Indeed, women are in general better protected from viral infections and show a lower risk of death from malignant cancer in comparison to men. Females mount stronger innate and adaptive immune responses than males, and therefore, most of the autoimmune diseases occur predominantly in females. Next to occupational and/or behavioral factors, cellular and molecular differences between the two sexes contribute to this observation...
November 29, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Emmett V Schmidt
More than 3000 clinical trials are evaluating the clinical activity of the PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors as monotherapies and in combinations with other cancer therapies [1]. The PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors are remarkable for their clinical activities in shrinking tumors across a wide range of tumor types, in causing durable responses, and in their tolerability. These attributes position them as favorable agents in clinical combinations. Historically, approaches to cancer therapy combinations focused on agents with orthogonal activities to avoid shared resistance mechanisms and shared toxicities...
October 29, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
David Hertz, Bianca Schneider
Tuberculosis is the most prevalent bacterial infectious disease in humans and the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is carried by an estimated two billion people globally and claims more than 1.5 million lives each year. Tuberculosis rates are significantly higher in men than in women, reflected by a male-to-female ratio for worldwide case notifications of 1.7. This phenomenon is not new and has been reported in various countries and settings over the last century...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Isabel Ben-Batalla, María Elena Vargas-Delgado, Lara Meier, Sonja Loges
Cancer represents a leading cause of death with continuously increasing incidence worldwide. Many solid cancer types in non-reproductive organs are significantly more frequent and deadly in males compared to females. This sex-biased difference is also present in hematologic malignancies. In this review, we present an overview about sex differences in cancer with a focus on leukemia. We discuss mechanisms potentially underlying the observed sex-biased imbalance in cancer incidence and outcome including sex hormones, sex chromosomes, and immune responses...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Michelle L Saetersmoen, Quirin Hammer, Bahram Valamehr, Dan S Kaufman, Karl-Johan Malmberg
Cell therapy is emerging as a very promising therapeutic modality against cancer, spearheaded by the clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells for B cell malignancies. Currently, FDA-approved CAR-T cell products are based on engineering of autologous T cells harvested from the patient, typically using a central manufacturing facility for gene editing before the product can be delivered to the clinic and infused to the patients. For a broader implementation of advanced cell therapy and to reduce costs, it would be advantageous to use allogeneic "universal" cell therapy products that can be stored in cell banks and provided upon request, in a manner analogous to biopharmaceutical drug products...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Stefan M Gold, Anne Willing, Frank Leypoldt, Friedemann Paul, Manuel A Friese
Stronger adaptive immune responses in females can be observed in different mammals, resulting in better control of infections compared to males. However, this presumably evolutionary difference likely also drives higher incidence of autoimmune diseases observed in humans. Here, we summarize sex differences in the most common autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and discuss recent advances in the understanding of possible underlying immunological and CNS intrinsic mechanisms. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common inflammatory disease of the CNS, but also in rarer conditions, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or neuronal autoantibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis (AE), sex is one of the top risk factors, with women being more often affected than men...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Julie Sellau, Marie Groneberg, Hannelore Lotter
Parasitic infections modulate the immune system of the host, resulting in either immune tolerance or the induction of pro-inflammatory defense mechanisms against the pathogen. In both cases, sex hormones are involved in the regulation of the immune response, as they are present in the systemic circulation and can act on a wide variety of cell types, including immune cells. Men and women have a different milieu of sex hormones, and these hormones play a role in determining immune responses to parasitic infections...
October 23, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Toru Miyazaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Satoko Arai, Toru Miyazaki
An internal system designed to ward off and remove unnecessary or hazardous materials is intrinsic to animals. In addition to exogenous pathogens, a number of self-molecules, such as apoptotic or necrotic dead cells, their debris, and the oxides or peroxides of their cellular components, are recognized as extraneous substances. It is essential to eliminate these internal pathogens as quickly as possible because their accumulation can cause chronic inflammation as well as autoimmune responses, possibly leading to onset or progression of certain diseases...
November 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Somdeb BoseDasgupta, Jean Pieters
Macrophages, being the cornerstone of the immune system, have adapted the ancient nutrient acquisition mechanism of phagocytosis to engulf various infectious organisms thereby helping to orchestrate an appropriate host response. Phagocytosis refers to the process of internalization and degradation of particulate material, damaged and senescent cells and microorganisms by specialized cells, after which the vesicle containing the ingested particle, the phagosome, matures into acidic phagolysosomes upon fusion with hydrolytic enzyme-containing lysosomes...
November 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Thomas A Werfel, Rebecca S Cook
Within the course of a single minute, millions of cells in the human body will undergo programmed cell death in response to physiological or pathological cues. The diminished energetic capacity of an apoptotic cell renders the cell incapable of sustaining plasma membrane integrity. Under these circumstances, intracellular contents that might leak into the surrounding tissue microenvironment, a process referred to as secondary necrosis, could induce inflammation and tissue damage. Remarkably, in most cases of physiologically rendered apoptotic cell death, inflammation is avoided because a mechanism to swiftly remove apoptotic cells from the tissue prior to their secondary necrosis becomes activated...
November 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Juliane Günther, Hans-Martin Seyfert
Epithelial tissues cover most of the external and internal surfaces of the body and its organs. Inevitably, these tissues serve as first line of defence against inorganic, organic, and microbial intruders. Epithelial cells are the main cell type of these tissues. Besides their function as cellular barrier, there is growing evidence that epithelial cells are of particular relevance as initial sensors of danger and also as executers of adequate defence responses. These cells feature various essential functions to maintain tissue integrity in health and disease...
November 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Kristofor Glinton, Matthew DeBerge, Xin-Yi Yeap, Jenny Zhang, Joseph Forbess, Xunrong Luo, Edward B Thorp
Post-transplant immunosuppression has reduced the incidence of T cell-mediated acute rejection, yet long-term cardiac graft survival rates remain a challenge. An important determinant of chronic solid organ allograft complication is accelerated vascular disease of the transplanted graft. In the case of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), the precise cellular etiology remains inadequately understood; however, histologic evidence hints at the accumulation and activation of innate phagocytes as a causal contributing factor...
November 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Ravichandra Vemuri, Kristyn E Sylvia, Sabra L Klein, Samuel C Forster, Magdalena Plebanski, Raj Eri, Katie L Flanagan
Sex differences in immunity are well described in the literature and thought to be mainly driven by sex hormones and sex-linked immune response genes. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the largest immune organs in the body and contains multiple immune cells in the GIT-associated lymphoid tissue, Peyer's patches and elsewhere, which together have profound effects on local and systemic inflammation. The GIT is colonised with microbial communities composed of bacteria, fungi and viruses, collectively known as the GIT microbiota...
October 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Dimitra E Zazara, Petra Clara Arck
The intrauterine environment is an important determinant of immunity later in life of the offspring. An altered prenatal immune development can result in a high postnatal risk for infections, chronic immune diseases, and autoimmunity. Many of these immune diseases show a strong sex bias, such as a high incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergies in adult females or a high risk for infections in males. Here, we comprehensively review established pathways and propose novel concepts modulating the risk for such poor immunity during childhood and throughout life...
October 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Landon G Vom Steeg, Sabra L Klein
Males and females differ in the outcome of influenza A virus (IAV) infections, which depends significantly on age. During a typical seasonal influenza epidemic, young children (< 10 years of age) and aged adults (65+ years of age) are at greatest risk for severe disease, and among these age groups, males tend to suffer a worse outcome from IAV infection than females. Following infection with either pandemic or outbreak strains of IAVs, females of reproductive ages (i.e., 15-49 years of age) experience a worse outcome than their male counterparts...
October 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Dorothee Schwinge, Christoph Schramm
Autoimmune diseases are a broad range of diseases in which the immune system produces an inappropriate response to self-antigens. This results in inflammation, damage, or dysfunction of tissues and/or organs. Many autoimmune diseases are more common in women and differences between female and male immune and autoimmune responses have been well documented. In general, most of the autoimmune diseases seem to affect more females, although there are exceptions. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are considered to be autoimmune liver diseases (AILD)...
October 1, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Anne Rechtien, Marcus Altfeld
Sex-specific differences affecting various aspects of HIV-1 infection have been reported, including differences in susceptibility to infection, course of HIV-1 disease, and establishment of viral reservoirs. Once infected, initial plasma levels of HIV-1 viremia in women are lower compared to men while the rates of progression to AIDS are similar. Factors contributing to these sex differences are poorly understood, and range from anatomical differences and differential expression of sex hormones to differences in immune responses, the microbiome and socio-economic discrepancies, all of which may impact HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression...
October 1, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
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