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Seminars in Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006739/cancer-immune-therapy-for-lymphoid-malignancies-recent-advances
#1
REVIEW
Uffe Klausen, Nicolai Grønne Dahlager Jørgensen, Jacob Handlos Grauslund, Morten Orebo Holmström, Mads Hald Andersen
Immunotherapy has played an important part in improving the life of patients with lymphoproliferative diseases especially since the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy in the CD20-positive neoplasms in the 1990s. While this field of passive immunotherapy is continuously evolving, several breakthroughs will expand the treatment modalities to include more active immunotherapy. With the approval of immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies for Hodgkin lymphoma and bispecific antibodies for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), activation of endogenous T cells already plays a role in several lymphoid malignancies...
July 13, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006738/does-patient-age-influence-anti-cancer-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Graham Pawelec
Geriatric oncology, important for the ever-increasing numbers of elderly cancer patients, has thus far focused primarily on tolerance to chemotherapy. With the advent of breakthrough immunomodulatory antibody treatments relying on the patient's own immune system to control the tumor, the issue of immunosenescence becomes extremely important. There is increasingly a valid concern that anti-cancer immunity may be compromised in the elderly due to (i) their low amounts of naïve T cells (potentially leading to holes in the repertoire for neoantigens), (ii) "exhaustion" of potentially tumor-specific memory T cells, and (iii) higher amounts of suppressive cells...
July 13, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987478/cancer-immune-therapy-for-myeloid-malignancies-present-and-future
#3
REVIEW
Morten Orebo Holmström, Hans Carl Hasselbalch
The myelodysplastic syndromes, the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, and the acute myeloid leukemia are malignancies of the myeloid hematopoietic stem cells of the bone marrow. The diseases are characterized by a dysregulation of the immune system as both the cytokine milieu, immune phenotype, immune regulation, and expression of genes related to immune cell functions are deregulated. Several treatment strategies try to circumvent this deregulation, and several clinical and preclinical trials have shown promising results, albeit not in the same scale as chimeric antigen receptor T cells have had in the treatment of refractory lymphoid malignancies...
July 9, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978248/therapeutic-cancer-vaccine-building-the-future-from-lessons-of-the-past
#4
REVIEW
T Tran, C Blanc, C Granier, A Saldmann, C Tanchot, Eric Tartour
Anti-cancer vaccines have raised many hopes from the start of immunotherapy but have not yet been clinically successful. The few positive results of anti-cancer vaccines have been observed in clinical situations of low tumor burden or preneoplastic lesions. Several new concepts and new results reposition this therapeutic approach in the field of immunotherapy. Indeed, cancers that respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 (20-30%) are those that are infiltrated by anti-tumor T cells with an inflammatory infiltrate. However, 70% of cancers do not appear to have an anti-tumor immune reaction in the tumor microenvironment...
July 5, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968045/the-t-win%C3%A2-technology-immune-modulating-vaccines
#5
REVIEW
Mads Hald Andersen
The T-win® technology is an innovative investigational approach designed to activate the body's endogenous anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs) to target regulatory as well as malignant cells. Anti-Tregs are naturally occurring T cells that can directly react against regulatory immune cells because they recognize proteins that these targets express, including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), tryptophan 2,6-dioxygenase, arginase, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). The T-win® technology is characterized by therapeutic vaccination with long peptide epitopes derived from these antigens and therefore offers a novel way to target genetically stable cells with regular human leukocyte antigen expression in the tumor microenvironment...
July 2, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968044/acquired-resistance-to-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Arianna Draghi, Christopher Aled Chamberlain, Andrew Furness, Marco Donia
In recent times, advances in cancer immunotherapy have yielded impressive, durable clinical responses in patients with varied subtypes of cancer. However, a significant proportion of patients who initially demonstrate encouraging tumor regression develop resistance and progress over time. The identification of novel therapeutic approaches to overcome resistance may result in significantly improved clinical outcomes and remains an area of high scientific priority. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of both tumor-intrinsic and tumor-extrinsic factors in the development of resistance to cancer immunotherapy and to discuss current and possible future therapeutic strategies targeting these mechanisms...
July 2, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951906/ahr-signaling-in-the-development-and-function-of-intestinal-immune-cells-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Luisa Cervantes-Barragan, Marco Colonna
The intestinal immune system is challenged daily with the task of recognizing and eliminating pathogens while simultaneously tolerating dietary and commensal antigens. All components must effectively coordinate to differentiate a continual barrage of environmental cues and mount appropriate responses dependent on the nature of the stimuli encountered. Playing a pivotal role, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a chemical sensor that detects both dietary and microbial cues and is important for development, maintenance, and function of several types of intestinal immune cells, particularly innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and T cells...
June 27, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951905/innate-lymphoid-cells-key-players-in-tissue-specific-immunity
#8
EDITORIAL
Jan-Eric Turner, Georg Gasteiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948108/the-roles-for-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-the-human-immune-system
#9
REVIEW
L Mazzurana, A Rao, A Van Acker, J Mjösberg
From constituting a novel and obscure cell population, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are now accepted as a self-evident part of the immune system, contributing with unique and complementary functions to immunity by production of effector cytokines and interaction with other cell types. In this review, we discuss the redundant and complementary roles of the highly plastic human ILCs and their interaction with other immune cells with the ultimate aim of placing ILCs in a wider context within the human immune system...
June 12, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869059/innate-lymphoid-cells-key-immune-integrators-of-overall-body-homeostasis
#10
REVIEW
Fotios Karagiannis, Christoph Wilhelm
The maintenance of the tissue barrier is essential to protect the host from external pathogens, thus ensuring the survival of the organism. This process requires the integration of various physiological signals originating from the digestive, immune, endocrine, and the nervous system as indicators of overall body fitness. Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a group of immune cells equipped for the guarding and maintenance of the tissue barrier against invading pathogens. Extensive research has focused on the regulation of ILC by cytokines derived from immune or non-immune cells, such as the epithelium...
June 4, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869058/tumor-derived-exosomes-micrornas-and-cancer-immune-suppression
#11
REVIEW
Michael W Graner, Sathya Schnell, Michael R Olin
Originally considered to be part of a cellular waste pathway, expansive research into exosomes has shown that these vesicles possess a vast array of functional utilities. As vital transporters of materials for communications between cells, particular interest has been generated in the ability of cancer cells to use exosomes to induce immune suppression, and to establish a thriving microenvironment, ideal for disease progression. Exosomes carry and transfer many types of cargo, including microRNAs (miRNAs; miRs), which are important modulators of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression...
June 4, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808388/memory-responses-of-innate-lymphocytes-and-parallels-with-t-cells
#12
REVIEW
Moritz Rapp, Gabriela M Wiedemann, Joseph C Sun
Natural killer (NK) cells are classified as innate immune cells, given their ability to rapidly respond and kill transformed or virally infected cells without prior sensitization. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that NK cells also exhibit many characteristics similar to cells of the adaptive immune system. Analogous to T cells, NK cells acquire self-tolerance during development, express antigen-specific receptors, undergo clonal-like expansion, and can become long-lived, self-renewing memory cells with potent effector function providing potent protection against reappearing pathogens...
May 28, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789863/intricate-relationships-between-naked-viruses-and-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-crosstalk-between-pathogen-and-host
#13
REVIEW
Susanne G van der Grein, Kyra A Y Defourny, Erik F J Slot, Esther N M Nolte-'t Hoen
It is a long-standing paradigm in the field of virology that naked viruses cause lysis of infected cells to release progeny virus. However, recent data indicate that naked virus types of the Picornaviridae and Hepeviridae families can also leave cells via an alternative route involving enclosure in fully host-derived lipid bilayers. The resulting particles resemble extracellular vesicles (EV), which are 50 nm-1 μm vesicles released by all cells. These EV contain lipids, proteins, and RNA, and generally serve as vehicles for intercellular communication in various (patho)physiological processes...
May 22, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789862/activating-and-inhibitory-receptors-expressed-on-innate-lymphoid-cells
#14
REVIEW
Sophie Guia, Aurore Fenis, Eric Vivier, Emilie Narni-Mancinelli
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells located in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. They are particularly abundant at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are present in humans and mice: group 1 ILCs (comprising natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s), ILC2s, and ILC3s. ILCs are involved in the maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of immunity. This review focuses on the extensive array of activating and inhibitory receptors expressed by ILCs for communication with other cell types and their environment in health and disease...
May 22, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737384/orchestration-of-intestinal-homeostasis-and-tolerance-by-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells
#15
REVIEW
Hugo A Penny, Suzanne H Hodge, Matthew R Hepworth
The gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of exposure to a multitude of microbial, environmental, and dietary challenges. As a result, immune responses in the intestine need to be tightly regulated in order to prevent inappropriate inflammatory responses to exogenous stimuli. Intestinal homeostasis and tolerance are mediated through a multitude of immune mechanisms that act to reinforce barrier integrity, maintain the segregation and balance of commensal microbes, and ensure tissue health and regeneration...
May 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779134/complexity-of-systems-and-actions-underlying-neurogenic-inflammation
#16
EDITORIAL
Tony L Yaksh, Anna Di Nardo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713744/skin-neurogenic-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Jae Eun Choi, Anna Di Nardo
The epidermis closely interacts with nerve endings, and both epidermis and nerves produce substances for mutual sustenance. Neuropeptides, like substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), are produced by sensory nerves in the dermis; they induce mast cells to release vasoactive amines that facilitate infiltration of neutrophils and T cells. Some receptors are more important than others in the generation of itch. The Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (Mrgpr) family as well as transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and protease activated receptor 2(Par2) have important roles in itch and inflammation...
May 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616309/a-historical-perspective-on-the-role-of-sensory-nerves-in-neurogenic-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
João Sousa-Valente, Susan D Brain
The term 'neurogenic inflammation' is commonly used, especially with respect to the role of sensory nerves within inflammatory disease. However, despite over a century of research, we remain unclear about the role of these nerves in the vascular biology of inflammation, as compared with their interacting role in pain processing and of their potential for therapeutic manipulation. This chapter attempts to discuss the progress in understanding, from the initial discovery of sensory nerves until the present day...
May 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582112/role-of-neurogenic-inflammation-in-local-communication-in-the-visceral-mucosa
#19
REVIEW
Lori A Birder, F Aura Kullmann
Intense research has focused on the involvement of the nervous system in regard to cellular mechanisms underlying neurogenic inflammation in the pelvic viscera. Evidence supports the neural release of inflammatory factors, trophic factors, and neuropeptides in the initiation of inflammation. However, more recently, non-neuronal cells including epithelia, endothelial, mast cells, and paraneurons are likely important participants in nervous system functions. For example, the urinary bladder urothelial cells are emerging as key elements in the detection and transmission of both physiological and nociceptive stimuli in the lower urinary tract...
May 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568973/neurogenic-inflammation-and-its-role-in-migraine
#20
REVIEW
Roshni Ramachandran
The etiology of migraine pain involves sensitized meningeal afferents that densely innervate the dural vasculature. These afferents, with their cell bodies located in the trigeminal ganglion, project to the nucleus caudalis, which in turn transmits signals to higher brain centers. Factors such as chronic stress, diet, hormonal fluctuations, or events like cortical spreading depression can generate a state of "sterile inflammation" in the intracranial meninges resulting in the sensitization and activation of trigeminal meningeal nociceptors...
May 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
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