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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771751/utility-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-sellar-and-parasellar-mass-lesions
#1
Omar Al-Louzi, Sashank Prasad, Robert M Mallery
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anterior visual pathway compression is a common feature of sellar region masses. We review the visual pathway neuroanatomy pertaining to sellar and parasellar lesions and describe recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging that have provided a novel quantitative perspective in the evaluation and management of such patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Ultrastructural measurements of optic nerve integrity using OCT, namely peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses, have been shown to correlate with visual acuity and visual field deficits on perimetry in patients with compressive sellar region masses...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746308/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-cushing-s-syndrome
#2
Stephanie E E C Bauduin, Nic J A van der Wee, Steven J A van der Werff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alongside various physical symptoms, patients with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome display a wide variety of neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms, which are indicative of involvement of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the structural brain abnormalities that are associated with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome and their relation to behavioral and cognitive symptomatology. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we discuss the gray matter structural abnormalities found in patients with active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome, the reversibility and persistence of these changes and the white matter structural changes related to Cushing's syndrome...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746309/the-current-state-of-long-acting-growth-hormone-preparations-for-growth-hormone-therapy
#3
Kevin C J Yuen, Bradley S Miller, Beverly M K Biller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the rationale of developing long-acting growth hormone (LAGH) preparations, to describe the technologies designed to prolong GH action, and to address key issues regarding efficacy, safety, and monitoring while on treatment. REVIEW FINDINGS: Recombinant human GH is currently approved for daily use and has been shown to restore longitudinal growth, and improve body composition with relatively few side-effects in children and adults with GH deficiency, respectively...
May 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570470/the-marketing-of-testosterone-treatments-for-age-related-low-testosterone-or-low-t
#4
Barbara Mintzes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the research evidence on promotion of testosterone for 'Low T', or age-related hypogonadism. RECENT FINDINGS: Marketing of testosterone for 'Low T' has relied on strategies that are inadequately regulated to prevent off-label promotion, such as unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising campaigns targeting the general public, sponsored continuing medical education (CME) and ghostwriting. A recent US analysis of television advertising exposure levels versus insurance claims found that both unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising and branded ads were associated with increased rates of testosterone testing, treatment initiation, and treatment without prior testing...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718004/update-on-diagnosis-and-management-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-21-hydroxylase-deficiency
#5
Perrin C White
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a relatively common inherited disorder of cortisol biosynthesis that can be fatal if untreated. RECENT FINDINGS: The basic biochemistry and genetics of CAH have been known for decades but continue to be refined by the discoveries of an alternative 'backdoor' metabolic pathway for adrenal androgen synthesis and the secretion of 11-hydroxy and 11-keto analogs of known androgens, by the elucidation of hundreds of new mutations, and by the application of high-throughput sequencing techniques to noninvasive prenatal diagnosis...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629943/primary-aldosteronism-in-the-primary-care-setting
#6
Fabrizio Buffolo, Silvia Monticone, Martina Tetti, Paolo Mulatero
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the present manuscript is to provide an overview of the most updated studies on the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in primary care and to compare these figures with the actual rate of diagnosis in clinical practice and with the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in specific subgroup of patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last 20 years the clinical spectrum of low renin hypertension and primary aldosteronism has changed dramatically...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521660/update-in-adrenal-venous-sampling-for-primary-aldosteronism
#7
Gian Paolo Rossi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current guidelines recommend adrenal venous sampling (AVS) to identify the surgically curable causes of hyperaldosteronism. In contrast with this recommendation, AVS remains markedly underutilized in clinical practice, which leads to deny curative adrenalectomy, to many patients with primary aldosteronism. The purpose of this review is to challenge the views that AVS is a technically challenging, invasive and risky procedure, which moreover, is difficult to interpret...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465427/dihydrotestosterone-and-cancer-risk
#8
Yi X Chan, Bu B Yeap
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Androgens have been implicated in prostate growth; however, the role of androgens in prostate cancer development is not clear. Furthermore, studies suggest a role for androgens in female-hormone-dependent cancers and common nonhormone dependent cancers. This study aims to review key studies and more recent studies of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological studies are reassuring as they have not associated endogenous androgens with prostate cancer risk...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432258/overview-of-aldosterone-related-genetic-syndromes-and-recent-advances
#9
Maria-Christina Zennaro, Fabio L Fernandes-Rosa, Sheerazed Boulkroun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary aldosteronism is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to cure of hypertension and prevention of cardiovascular complications. Recent genetic discoveries have improved our understanding on the pathophysiology of aldosterone production and triggered the development of new diagnostic procedures and targeted treatments for primary aldosteronism. RECENT FINDINGS: Different inherited genetic abnormalities distinguish specific forms of familial hyperaldosteronism...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373482/rare-monogenic-causes-of-primary-adrenal-insufficiency
#10
Satoshi Narumi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monogenic disorders play significant roles in the pathogenesis of childhood-onset primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). The most common form of PAI is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which includes the enzymatic defects of the steroidogenic pathway. This review focuses on less common forms of monogenic PAI (i.e. non-CAH monogenic PAI) with particular attention on their cause, clinical phenotypes and genetic epidemiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-CAH monogenic PAI can be classified into three major categories: first, adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance, second, impaired adrenal redox homeostasis and third, defective organogenesis of the adrenal glands...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493554/elevated-triglycerides-and-low-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-level-as-marker-of-very-high-risk-in-type-2-diabetes
#11
Michel P Hermans, Paul Valensi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to describe in diabetic patients the determinants underlying atherogenic dyslipidemia, a complex dyslipidemia defined as the coexistence of fasting hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Atherogenic dyslipidemia is often comorbid with hyperglycemia in patients with the common form of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), namely that associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and the metabolic syndrome phenotype...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493553/postprandial-remnant-lipoproteins-as-targets-for-the-prevention-of-atherosclerosis
#12
Katsuyuki Nakajima, Akira Tanaka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and chylomicron remnants were previously proposed as the most atherogenic lipoproteins for the causal lipoproteins of atherosclerosis. However, there are still controversies on these hypothesizes. Therefore, we have proposed a new hypothesis based on our recent findings of remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) in postprandial plasma. RECENT FINDINGS: Plasma RLP-C and RLP-TG increased significantly after fat load...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373480/the-final-word-about-ldl-cholesterol-lowering
#13
Dan Streja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369916/diabetes-medications-and-cardiovascular-disease-at-long-last-progress
#14
Beatrice C Lupsa, Silvio E Inzucchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although intensive control of hyperglycemia has been proven to decrease the risk of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes, it has had little apparent effect on reducing cardiovascular complications - the leading cause of mortality in this disease. We review the cardiovascular effects of various glucose-lowering medications, with a particular focus on the recent studies demonstrating clear benefits from members of several drug categories. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, several randomized controlled studies have revealed significant improvements in cardiovascular outcomes from a thiazolidinedione, two sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and two glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369915/potential-role-of-type-i-interferon-in-the-pathogenic-process-leading-to-type-1-diabetes
#15
Natasha Qaisar, Agata Jurczyk, Jennifer P Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the relationship between viral infections and the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is essential for T1D prevention. Virus-induced innate immune responses, specifically type I interferon (IFN-I) and the IFN gene signature, orchestrate early events of β-cell dysfunction preceding islet autoimmunity. We summarize recent advances in how IFN-I and the IFN gene signature can drive T1D development. RECENT FINDINGS: IFN-I, particularly IFN-α, and the IFN gene signature have been detected in islets and peripheral blood of T1D patients...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356689/the-impact-of-myeloperoxidase-on-hdl-function-in-myocardial-infarction
#16
Uwe J F Tietge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The focus in cardiovascular research is shifting from determining mass HDL cholesterol levels toward investigating HDL functionalities as biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a main effector enzyme of the innate immune system, is increasingly implicated to negatively impact HDL function by various chemical modifications of HDL-associated proteins. This review summarizes recent insights how MPO affects HDL function in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (MI), mainly focusing on human data...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356688/diabetes-pathogenic-mechanisms-and-potential-new-therapies-based-upon-a-novel-target-called-txnip
#17
Lance Thielen, Anath Shalev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thioredoxin-interacting protein has emerged as a major factor regulating pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death, key processes in the pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence based on basic, preclinical, and retrospective epidemiological research suggests that TXNIP represents a promising therapeutic target for diabetes. The present review is aimed at providing an update regarding these developments. RECENT FINDINGS: TXNIP has been shown to be induced by glucose and increased in diabetes and to promote β-cell apoptosis, whereas TXNIP deletion protected against diabetes...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351110/low-cholesterol-impulsivity-and-violence-revisited
#18
Katrin Tomson-Johanson, Jaanus Harro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent findings on the association of cholesterol levels with impulsivity and violence. RECENT FINDINGS: Several authors have recently highlighted the importance of confounding factors that mask the association between cholesterol and impulsivity or violent behaviour. In particular, demographic factors and presence of psychiatric disorders can play a role in the discrepancies present in literature. Men seem to be more sensitive to low cholesterol levels as the association between low cholesterol levels and aggression is found mostly in men...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337706/cholesterol-efflux-in-the-transplant-patient
#19
Sangita Sudharshan, Ali Javaheri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cholesterol metabolism is increasingly recognized in inflammatory diseases including transplantation. This review discusses the mechanistic underpinnings that tie macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to chronic rejection in transplanted patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies suggest that administration of apolipoprotein A-I, the main protein constituent of HDL, can prevent transplant arteriosclerosis...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337705/how-does-metabolic-surgery-work-its-magic-new-evidence-for-gut-microbiota
#20
Bailey C E Peck, Randy J Seeley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic surgery is recommended for the treatment of type 2 diabetes for its potent ability to improve glycemic control. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery are still under investigation. We provide an updated review of recent studies into the molecular underpinnings of metabolic surgery, focusing in on what is known about the role of gut microbiota. Over the last 7 years several reports have been published on the topic, however the field is expanding rapidly...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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