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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

Bette K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most pituitary region masses are pituitary adenomas; however, when other sellar region masses are encountered by clinicians or pathologists, the differential diagnosis can be broad. This review will focus on updates for pituitary adenomas, as well as briefly discuss some of these other entities: Rathke cleft cyst, hypophysitis, craniopharyngioma, pituicytoma, and spindle cell oncocytoma. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of new immunohistochemical (IHC) tools for assessing transcription factors, pituitary transcription factor-1, steroidogenic factor-1, and the not-yet-widely available Tpit IHC have provided insights into origin particularly of clinically silent and even hormone-negative pituitary adenomas...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Javier Domingo, Juan A Garcia-Velasco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is necessary to clarify the fertility preservation-related points of concern that often frighten patients or physicians when it comes to deciding about oocyte cryopreservation for fertility preservation, which are often perceived as procedure limitations, are sometimes real and often theoretical and may make the prognosis worse. RECENT FINDINGS: Letrozole added to gonadotrophins for controlled ovarian stimulation is safe when applied to hormone-sensitive cancer patients as it avoids associated high estradiol levels...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Kara N Goldman, Jamie A Grifo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Elective oocyte cryopreservation for deferred childbearing has gained popularity worldwide, commensurate with increased knowledge regarding age-related fertility decline. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent data regarding trends in delayed childbearing, review recent findings surrounding age-related fertility decline, acknowledge significant gaps in knowledge among patients and providers regarding fertility decline and review outcomes following elective oocyte cryopreservation...
September 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Vitaly A Kushnir, Norbert Gleicher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Utilization of cryopreserved instead of fresh donor oocytes has rapidly increased in recent years. Whether treatment outcomes are comparable has, however, remained controversial. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 24% of initiated oocyte donation cycles in the USA during 2013-2014 involved previously cryopreserved oocytes. The use of cryopreserved-donated oocytes may simplify logistics and lower costs per treatment cycle. Whether cryopreserved donor oocytes also lower costs per live birth is still undetermined as they result in lower live birth rates in comparison to fresh donor oocyte cycles...
September 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Robert A Adler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bisphosphonates are used widely for the treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of fractures. Although generally well tolerated and effective, bisphosphonates (and denosumab, a newer antiresorptive agent) have been associated with unusual fractures of the femoral shaft. RECENT FINDINGS: New information about the incidence, pathophysiology, and management of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are reviewed. Histomorphometric studies have shown variable amounts of bone turnover suppression, but new studies suggest that healing near bone cracks may not occur in patients with AFF...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Paolo Emanuele Levi-Setti, Pasquale Patrizio, Giulia Scaravelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to determine the efficiency and efficacy of oocyte cryopreservation by slow freezing versus vitrification, recent data collected from the Italian National Assisted Reproductive Technology Register during the period 2009-2014 will be presented and reviewed. The data on oocyte cryopreservation were also compared with the results obtained with embryo cryopreservation and relative IVF with fresh oocytes. RECENT FINDINGS: During the period 2009-2014 preservation of oocytes by vitrification had a significantly higher survival rate, implantation, and pregnancy rate than slow freezing; however, there are still large variations in success rates among centers in relation to the number of procedures performed...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Pasquale Patrizio, Emanuela Molinari, Arthur Caplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the effectiveness and ethical dimensions of oocyte cryopreservation for both medical and social indications. RECENT FINDINGS: As more women are postponing motherhood for a variety of reasons, including lack of partner, for completing career plans and reaching financial stability, they are resorting to oocyte cryopreservation. To make informed choices, women rely on their primary care physicians (PCPs) for initial advice, but PCPs are not always fully prepared to discuss oocyte cryopreservation...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Karen E Hansen, Michael G Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical benefits of vitamin D therapy have received substantial attention over the past decade. Recently, several trials looked to clarify the optimal vitamin D dose or serum level needed to promote human health. The purpose of this review is to highlight selected studies published since January 2015. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent trials challenge whether serum vitamin D levels at least 30 ng/ml promote human health. In postmenopausal women with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels 21 ± 3 ng/ml, high-dose vitamin D for 1 year increased calcium absorption by 1%, without changes in bone mineral density, physical function, or falls when compared with low-dose vitamin D and placebo...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Jasveen Batra, Rupinder Singh Buttar, Pardeep Kaur, Jacqueline Kreimerman, Michal L Melamed
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines associations between fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: FGF-23 is a hormone produced by osteocytes and osteoblasts that aids with phosphate excretion by the kidney and acts as a negative feedback regulator for activated vitamin D synthesis. Recent studies have found associations between elevated FGF-23 levels and a number of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular events and mortality...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Leandro Chambrone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent evidence on the impact of osteoporosis on periodontonlogy and implant dentistry, prevalence of diseases, pathophysiology and treatment outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with osteoporosis should be advised about the importance of returning for periodical periodontal maintenance as inadequate oral care may lead to a faster development of periodontitis. There is no definitive information on the development of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with dental implant therapy...
August 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Ivy H Gardner, Gerard M Doherty, David McAneny
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Laryngeal nerve injury, resulting in speech and swallowing dysfunction, is a feared complication of thyroid operations. Routine visualization of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) has decreased the likelihood of nerve injury, and intraoperative nerve monitoring has been applied in the hope of further enhancing safety. RECENT FINDINGS: There is conflicting evidence about the value of nerve monitoring during thyroid operations, despite ample research...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Emily J Dhurandhar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has long been known that breakfast skipping is associated with obesity; however, well controlled clinical trials have only recently been conducted to determine a causative relationship. RECENT FINDINGS: Skipping breakfast is likely to be detrimental for insulin sensitivity; however, randomized trials suggest that it does not play a large role in weight gain or weight loss. Specific breakfast strategies such as certain types of breakfast, and consuming more calories in the morning relative to the evening, however, may produce greater weight loss...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Meera Nair, Carel W le Roux, Neil G Docherty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Albuminuria is a biomarker of renal injury commonly used to monitor progression of diabetic kidney disease. The appearance of excess albumin in the urine reflects alterations in the structure and permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. The present article summarizes the clinical evidence base for remission of albuminuria after bariatric surgery. It furthermore focuses on how beneficial impacts on glomerular podocyte structure and function may explain this phenomenon...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Josiane L Broussard, Eve Van Cauter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent developments linking disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms to an increased risk for obesity, and to review novel research on potential countermeasures. RECENT FINDINGS: Effective treatments for obesity are limited, with long-term adherence to lifestyle changes proving difficult to maintain. Identifying new preventive strategies based on modifiable risk factors is therefore imperative in the fight against obesity...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Enrico Papini, Rinaldo Gugliemi, Claudio Maurizio Pacella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The majority of benign thyroid nodules are nearly asymptomatic, remain stable in size, and do not require treatment. However, a minority of patients with growing nodules may complain of local symptoms or have cosmetic concerns, and thus seek surgical consultation. RECENT FINDINGS: The timely use of ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures can change the natural history of benign enlarging thyroid nodules. The procedures produce persistent shrinkage of thyroid nodules and are associated with improvement of local symptoms...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Scott Kahan, Tracy Zvenyach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite much effort, obesity prevalence and disease severity continues to worsen. The purpose of this review is to describe the leading government supported food and nutrition interventions and policies to prevent and address obesity in the USA. The review also summarizes obesity interventions and policies that the government plays a role in, but further development is warranted. RECENT FINDINGS: The government's role in obesity has largely focused on interventions and policies such as national surveillance, obesity education and awareness, grant-based food subsidy programs, zoning for food access, school-based nutrition programs, dietary guidelines, nutrition labeling, and food marketing and pricing policies...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Samar Hafida, Tooraj Mirshahi, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous lines of evidence support the likelihood that inflammation drives the transition from obese/metabolically healthy to obese/type 2 diabetes (T2D). Given the temporal flexibility of inflammation in obesity-associated T2D, investigators have hypothesized that a precipitous drop in diabetogenic cytokines is critical for rapid 'T2D remission' following surgery but prior to significant weight loss. We review the evidence that changes in diabetogenic cytokines play a role in outcomes of bariatric surgery, including improved glycemic control...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Krista A Varady
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the most recent human intervention trials that have examined the impact of meal frequency or meal timing on metabolic disease risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Findings from intervention studies published over the past 12 months indicate that weight loss may be more pronounced with decreased meal frequency (two meals per day) versus increased meal frequency (six meals per day) under hypocaloric conditions...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Flavia Magri, Spyridon Chytiris, Luca Chiovato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Elastography is a novel noninvasive diagnostic tool that is helpful in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the use of elastography in the clinical thyroid setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Initial and subsequent studies show that elastography has both a sensitivity and specificity that approaches 100% for the determination of thyroid cancer within a thyroid nodule. In addition, the technique also has a very high negative predictive value and thus, may also be helpful in identification of thyroid nodules that do not need further diagnostic evaluation, including fine-needle aspiration biopsy...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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