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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

Michael Camilleri
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review examines the hormonal regulation of gastric emptying, a topic of increasing relevance, given the fact that medications that are analogs of some of these hormones or act as agonists at the hormonal receptors, are used in clinical practice for optimizing metabolic control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and in obesity. FINDINGS: The major effects on gastric emptying result from actions of incretins, particularly gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, the duodenal and pancreatic hormones, motilin, glucagon, and amylin, and the gastric orexigenic hormones, ghrelin and motilin...
November 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Kirsteen N Browning, R Alberto Travagli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the organization and structure of vagal neurocircuits controlling the upper gastrointestinal tract, and more recent studies investigating their role in the regulation of gastric motility under physiological, as well as pathophysiological, conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Vagal neurocircuits regulating gastric functions are highly plastic, and open to modulation by a variety of inputs, both peripheral and central. Recent research in the fields of obesity, development, stress, and neurological disorders highlight the importance of central inputs onto these brainstem neurocircuits in the regulation of gastric motility...
November 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
David Pépin, Mary E Sabatini, Patricia K Donahoe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The nascent field of oncofertility is quickly gaining traction as novel experimental treatments are being developed, driving a renewed interest in Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) as an ovarian fertoprotectant. RECENT FINDINGS: MIS is unique in its mechanisms of ovarian protection by virtue of acting directly on granulosa cells of primordial follicles and for being a benign reproductive hormone, with few side effects. We will explore in this review how it may be utilized to protect the ovary from chemotherapy, or to enhance ovarian tissue cryopreservation therapy...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Sumeet Jain, Pauline Camacho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoporosis is a common public health problem that is often undertreated and underdiagnosed. The clinical management of osteoporosis is often reactionary to devastating fracture events. Bone turnover markers may improve the ease and rapidity at which osteoporosis is monitored and treated. Bone turnover markers are biochemical byproducts of bone formation or bone resorption. The clinical use of bone turnover markers is limited by significant preanalytical variability...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Lindsay Merlotti, Wendy Kuohung, John Rinehart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Determine if literature supports the use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a useful biomarker of reproductive potential when cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) per retrieval are used as the outcome variable. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in technology used in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) permit the use of single embryo transfer to achieve expected pregnancy success rates. Many IVF cycles result in the creation of more than a single embryo suitable for transfer per oocyte retrieval...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Queenie Ho Yan Wong, Richard A Anderson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Iatrogenic ovarian damage can occur after chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery for cancer as well as for non-malignant conditions. This review describes the effects of such treatment on antimullerian hormone (AMH) and the implications of the fall in AMH in relation to ovarian function and fertility, especially in the era of improved fertility preservation strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The risk of gonadotoxicity differs between chemotherapy regimens...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Agathe Dumont, Geoffroy Robin, Didier Dewailly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism in young women and represents a true public health concern and an economic burden. RECENT FINDINGS: The pathophysiology of PCOS is still not fully understood, but progresses have been made and the relationships between anti mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, E2 and androgens have been explored. The follicle excess plays a central role in the syndrome and AMH is definitively a major component of this phenomena...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Leah Hawkins Bressler, Anne Steiner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian reserve, declines over a woman's reproductive lifespan. AMH is highly correlated with a woman's age and number of primordial ovarian follicles, and has been shown to predict time to menopause in women in their 40s. For these reasons, it was assumed that AMH levels could predict a woman's reproductive potential or serve as a 'fertility test'. Recently, studies have sought to determine the association between AMH and fertility...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Trang N Le
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent developments the role of vitamin D and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in cystic fibrosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Although treatment of low vitamin D levels continues to be important for optimizing bone health in cystic fibrosis, increasing data on the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D are becoming available. Exploratory studies of vitamin D in modulation of respiratory and intestinal microbiomes, and the influence of vitamin D on the metabolomic signature of cystic fibrosis, suggest expanded roles for vitamin D in cystic fibrosis disease and treatment...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Allen S Ho, Irene Chen, Michelle Melany, Wendy L Sacks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize developments on active surveillance for micropapillary thyroid cancers, with a focus on strategies for optimal risk stratification and caveats that currently limit adoption. RECENT FINDINGS: Observational trials encompassing thousands of active surveillance patients worldwide have increasingly demonstrated the viability of active surveillance for small, low-risk thyroid cancers. Collectively, these data have established that with proper patient selection and strict monitoring, more than 85% of such cases remain indolent no meaningful clinical growth over at least 10 years...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Leonidas H Duntas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the latest developments concerning the role of iodine in the pathophysiology of autoimmune thyroiditis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have provided evidence that in areas with excess iodine intake, increased incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis marked by high titers of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies has occurred. Investigations in the NOD.H2h4 mouse, a strain prone to AIT, showed that they are better adapted to the Wolff-Chaikoff effect...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
M Sara Rosenthal, Peter Angelos, Rebecca E Schweppe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since research ethics dilemmas frequently fall outside the purview of the Institutional Review Board (IRB), we present three unique recent research ethics cases in thyroidology that demonstrate research ethics dilemmas. RECENT FINDINGS: The cases presented raise questions surrounding epistemic/scientific integrity, publication ethics, and professional, and personal integrity. SUMMARY: Research ethics dilemmas that fall outside the purview of the IRB are appropriate for a Research Ethics Consultation, a common service in many large academic medical centers...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Caroline M Apovian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Sherin E Mathews, Rekha B Kumar, Alpana P Shukla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are epidemiologically and pathophysiologically linked disorders. Here, we summarize the effect of obesity on NASH and how it has a cascading effect on cardiovascular dysfunction. We also review the current and emerging treatment options for NASH. RECENT FINDINGS: The link between NASH and cardiac dysfunction has been further delineated in recent studies demonstrating endothelial dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, and increased coronary artery calcification in patients with known NASH...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Kaitlyn M Riffenburg, Nicole L Spartano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The integration of wearable devices and mobile health (mHealth) technology to facilitate behavior change has the potential to transform the efficacy of interventions and implementation programs for weight maintenance. The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the overall utility of wearable devices for assessing and promoting weight maintenance in research and clinical settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent intervention trials using wearable devices have been successful in increasing physical activity and decreasing or maintaining body weight, but complex study designs involving multiple behavioral strategies make it difficult to assess whether wearable devices can independently influence weight status...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Antonio C Bianco, Brian S Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess new findings and clinical implications of deiodinase gene polymorphism. Deiodinases are enzymes that can activate or inactivate thyroid hormone molecules. Whereas the types 1 and 2 deiodinase (D1 and D2) activate thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) via deiodination of T4's outer ring, D1 and D3 inactivate both T4 and T3 and terminate thyroid hormone action via deiodination of T4's inner molecular ring. A number of polymorphisms have been identified in the three deiodinase genes; the most investigated and likely to have clinical relevance is the Thr92 substitution for Ala substitution in DIO2 (Thr92Ala-DIO2)...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Sofia Uribe-Cerda, Eugenia Morselli, Claudio Perez-Leighton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings about the neurobiological control of food reward and discuss their relevance for hedonic food intake and obesity in our current obesogenic environment. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data show new roles for circuits involving neuronal subpopulations within the central amyglada (CeA) and lateral hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding and reward in rodents under free and operant conditions and also in restrain from reward consumption...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Hadiza S Kazaure, Sanziana A Roman, Julie A Sosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patient age at diagnosis is a well established prognostic factor for thyroid cancer survival; it is included in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) thyroid cancer-staging system. This review provides an update on the epidemiology, risk stratification, and staging of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), in the context of patient age. RECENT FINDINGS: In the eighth edition AJCC staging system for DTC, the age cut-point was increased from 45 to 55 years...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Sean M Phelan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent literature examining the relationship between stigma and utilization of surgical treatments for obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: The stigma of obesity and stigma associated with surgical treatments for obesity can affect both healthcare providers' recommendations of these options and patients' likelihood of considering and choosing these treatments. Presurgical requirements of healthcare and insurance organizations and a lack of postsurgical support reflect the stigmatizing attitudes that bariatric/metabolic surgery is an 'easy fix' and 'last resort' for patients too undisciplined to lose weight in other ways...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Candice A Myers, Corby K Martin, John W Apolzan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide current information on interventions that alter food cravings. Specifically, dietary, physical activity, pharmacologic, and bariatric surgery interventions are examined. Lastly, the effects of social determinants and current controversies on food cravings are outlined. RECENT FINDINGS: Dietary, pharmacologic, and bariatric surgery weight loss interventions decrease food cravings. Physical activity interventions also decrease cravings...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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