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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

Trang N Le
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent developments the role of vitamin D and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in cystic fibrosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Although treatment of low vitamin D levels continues to be important for optimizing bone health in cystic fibrosis, increasing data on the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D are becoming available. Exploratory studies of vitamin D in modulation of respiratory and intestinal microbiomes, and the influence of vitamin D on the metabolomic signature of cystic fibrosis, suggest expanded roles for vitamin D in cystic fibrosis disease and treatment...
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Allen S Ho, Irene Chen, Michelle Melany, Wendy L Sacks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize developments on active surveillance for micropapillary thyroid cancers, with a focus on strategies for optimal risk stratification and caveats that currently limit adoption. RECENT FINDINGS: Observational trials encompassing thousands of active surveillance patients worldwide have increasingly demonstrated the viability of active surveillance for small, low-risk thyroid cancers. Collectively, these data have established that with proper patient selection and strict monitoring, more than 85% of such cases remain indolent no meaningful clinical growth over at least 10 years...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Leonidas H Duntas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the latest developments concerning the role of iodine in the pathophysiology of autoimmune thyroiditis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have provided evidence that in areas with excess iodine intake, increased incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis marked by high titers of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies has occurred. Investigations in the NOD.H2h4 mouse, a strain prone to AIT, showed that they are better adapted to the Wolff-Chaikoff effect...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
M Sara Rosenthal, Peter Angelos, Rebecca E Schweppe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since research ethics dilemmas frequently fall outside the purview of the Institutional Review Board (IRB), we present three unique recent research ethics cases in thyroidology that demonstrate research ethics dilemmas. RECENT FINDINGS: The cases presented raise questions surrounding epistemic/scientific integrity, publication ethics, and professional, and personal integrity. SUMMARY: Research ethics dilemmas that fall outside the purview of the IRB are appropriate for a Research Ethics Consultation, a common service in many large academic medical centers...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Caroline M Apovian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Sherin E Mathews, Rekha B Kumar, Alpana P Shukla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are epidemiologically and pathophysiologically linked disorders. Here, we summarize the effect of obesity on NASH and how it has a cascading effect on cardiovascular dysfunction. We also review the current and emerging treatment options for NASH. RECENT FINDINGS: The link between NASH and cardiac dysfunction has been further delineated in recent studies demonstrating endothelial dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, and increased coronary artery calcification in patients with known NASH...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Kaitlyn M Riffenburg, Nicole L Spartano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The integration of wearable devices and mobile health (mHealth) technology to facilitate behavior change has the potential to transform the efficacy of interventions and implementation programs for weight maintenance. The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the overall utility of wearable devices for assessing and promoting weight maintenance in research and clinical settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent intervention trials using wearable devices have been successful in increasing physical activity and decreasing or maintaining body weight, but complex study designs involving multiple behavioral strategies make it difficult to assess whether wearable devices can independently influence weight status...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Antonio C Bianco, Brian S Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess new findings and clinical implications of deiodinase gene polymorphism. Deiodinases are enzymes that can activate or inactivate thyroid hormone molecules. Whereas the types 1 and 2 deiodinase (D1 and D2) activate thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) via deiodination of T4's outer ring, D1 and D3 inactivate both T4 and T3 and terminate thyroid hormone action via deiodination of T4's inner molecular ring. A number of polymorphisms have been identified in the three deiodinase genes; the most investigated and likely to have clinical relevance is the Thr92 substitution for Ala substitution in DIO2 (Thr92Ala-DIO2)...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Sofia Uribe-Cerda, Eugenia Morselli, Claudio Perez-Leighton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings about the neurobiological control of food reward and discuss their relevance for hedonic food intake and obesity in our current obesogenic environment. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data show new roles for circuits involving neuronal subpopulations within the central amyglada (CeA) and lateral hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding and reward in rodents under free and operant conditions and also in restrain from reward consumption...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Hadiza S Kazaure, Sanziana A Roman, Julie A Sosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patient age at diagnosis is a well established prognostic factor for thyroid cancer survival; it is included in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) thyroid cancer-staging system. This review provides an update on the epidemiology, risk stratification, and staging of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), in the context of patient age. RECENT FINDINGS: In the eighth edition AJCC staging system for DTC, the age cut-point was increased from 45 to 55 years...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Sean M Phelan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent literature examining the relationship between stigma and utilization of surgical treatments for obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: The stigma of obesity and stigma associated with surgical treatments for obesity can affect both healthcare providers' recommendations of these options and patients' likelihood of considering and choosing these treatments. Presurgical requirements of healthcare and insurance organizations and a lack of postsurgical support reflect the stigmatizing attitudes that bariatric/metabolic surgery is an 'easy fix' and 'last resort' for patients too undisciplined to lose weight in other ways...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Candice A Myers, Corby K Martin, John W Apolzan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide current information on interventions that alter food cravings. Specifically, dietary, physical activity, pharmacologic, and bariatric surgery interventions are examined. Lastly, the effects of social determinants and current controversies on food cravings are outlined. RECENT FINDINGS: Dietary, pharmacologic, and bariatric surgery weight loss interventions decrease food cravings. Physical activity interventions also decrease cravings...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Barbara A Gower, Amy M Goss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current approach to weight loss (intentional energy deficit) is difficult to implement and sustain, and rarely leads to successful long-term weight loss maintenance. The aim of this article is to review recent literature on the role of insulin in obesity propensity, and by extension, the effectiveness of carbohydrate restriction in facilitating weight loss, with particular attention to individual variability in patient response. RECENT FINDINGS: A genetic signature for insulin secretion predisposes to elevated BMI...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Luba Rakhlin, Stephanie Fish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review evaluates the impact of pregnancy on women with thyroid cancer in three different clinical situations: those with newly diagnosed differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), those under active surveillance for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PMCs), and those with previously treated DTC. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent pregnancy is not associated with high-risk pathological features of DTC. In women with known PMCs under active surveillance, pregnancy does not increase the risk of disease progression...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Francesco Dotta, Giuliana Ventriglia, Isaac V Snowhite, Alberto Pugliese
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss current knowledge about microRNAs (miRNAs) in type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune disease leading to severe loss of pancreatic β-cells. We describe: the role of cellular miRNAs in regulating immune functions and pathways impacting insulin secretion and β-cell survival; circulating miRNAs as disease biomarkers. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examined miRNAs in experimental models and patients, including analysis of tissues from organ donors, peripheral blood cells, and circulating miRNAs in serum, plasma, and exosomes...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Roberto Castro-Gutierrez, Aaron W Michels, Holger A Russ
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we summarize recent advancements in β cell replacement as a therapy for type 1 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: β cell replacement therapy has been proposed as a cure for type 1 diabetes with the introduction of the Edmonton protocol for cadaveric islet transplantation. To allow widespread use of this approach, efforts have focused on establishing an abundant source of insulin-producing β cells, protecting transplanted cells from ischemia-mediated death, immune rejection, and re-occurring autoimmunity...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Denisse Diaz, Vivian Fonseca, Yamil W Aude, Gervasio A Lamas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For over 60 years, chelation therapy with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, edetate) had been used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite lack of scientific evidence for efficacy and safety. The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) was developed and received funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to ascertain the safety and efficacy of chelation therapy in patients with CVD. RECENT FINDINGS: This pivotal trial demonstrated an improvement in outcomes in postmyocardial infarction (MI) patients...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Viral N Shah, R Dana Carpenter, Virginia L Ferguson, Ann V Schwartz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent publications on the effect of type 1 diabetes (T1D) on fracture risk, bone mineral density (BMD), bone structure, and bone tissue quality. Possible fracture prevention strategies for patients with T1D have also been reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: T1D is associated with substantially elevated fracture risk and modestly low BMD at the femoral neck. However, BMD alone does not explain higher observed fracture risk in T1D. T1D also affects bone macro- and microstructure, characterized by thinner cortices and trabecular bone changes such as thinner and more widely spaced trabeculae...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Halis Kaan Akturk, Amanda Rewers, Satish K Garg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify and evaluate the recent trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 and 2 (SGLT1 and SGLT2, respectively) inhibitor use in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). SGLT-2 inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are effectively used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, many studies (phase I-III) have validated their effects beyond improving glycemic control and have shown potential adjunctive use in adult patients with T1D treated with insulin therapy alone...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Omar Al-Louzi, Sashank Prasad, Robert M Mallery
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anterior visual pathway compression is a common feature of sellar region masses. We review the visual pathway neuroanatomy pertaining to sellar and parasellar lesions and describe recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging that have provided a novel quantitative perspective in the evaluation and management of such patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Ultrastructural measurements of optic nerve integrity using OCT, namely peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses, have been shown to correlate with visual acuity and visual field deficits on perimetry in patients with compressive sellar region masses...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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