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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906711/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-adolescent-girls
#1
Natalie Hecht Baldauff, Selma Feldman Witchel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous disorder that appears to have its origins during the peripubertal years. The diagnostic conundrum is that the typical clinical features, irregular menses and acne, occur during normal female puberty. Understanding the physiologic origins and molecular basis of the dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in PCOS is fundamental to interrupting the distinctive vicious cycle of hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906710/who-s-your-daddy-paternal-inheritance-of-metabolic-disease-risk
#2
Elvira Isganaitis, Harumi Suehiro, Connie Cardona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. RECENT FINDINGS: The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898589/growth-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#3
Deborah M Mitchell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) continues to rise, complications including impairment of childhood growth remain a major concern. This review provides an overview of alterations in growth patterns before and after the onset of T1DM. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances in this field include several prospective investigations of height and weight trajectories in children leading up to the development of islet autoimmunity and T1DM as well as evaluations of larger cohorts of T1DM patients to better assess predictors of altered growth...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898587/maternal-epigenetics-and-fetal-and-neonatal-growth
#5
Sofia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898586/an-update-on-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Daniel S Hsia, Owen Grove, William T Cefalu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are the newest class of oral antihyperglycemic agents that have been approved for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Over the past year, there have been significant developments in both the safety and efficacy of this class of medications that are presented in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Apart from data on the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibitors, other metabolic benefits have been demonstrated for this class of medications...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898585/growth-and-development-in-children-with-classic-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#7
Walter Bonfig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Final height outcome in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has been of interest for many years. With analysis of growth patterns and used glucocorticoid regimens, enhanced treatment strategies have been developed and are still under development. RECENT FINDINGS: Most of the current reports on final height outcome are confirmative of previous results. Final height data is still reported in cohorts that were diagnosed clinically and not by newborn screening...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875419/new-treatment-options-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-predominant-diarrhea
#8
H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder with negative impact on quality of life and it represents a substantial economic burden on healthcare cost. The medical management of IBS remains largely symptomatic. This review provides an update related to the most recently published diagnostic Rome IV criteria for IBS and clinical trial data for novel treatment modalities in IBS targeting the peripheral opioid receptors of the enteric nervous system and the gut microbiota...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875420/molecular-imaging-in-neuroendocrine-tumors-recent-advances-controversies-unresolved-issues-and-roles-in-management
#9
Tetsuhide Ito, Robert T Jensen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review recent advances in molecular imaging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), discuss unresolved issues, and review how these advances are affecting clinical management. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular imaging of NETs underwent a number of important changes in the last few years, leading to some controversies, unresolved issues, and significant changes in clinical management. The most recent changes are reviewed in this article. Particularly important is the rapid replacement in somatostatin receptor scintigraphy of In-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) by Ga-fluorodopa(F-D)PA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-peptide-PET/CT imaging, which is now approved in many countries including the USA...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875418/nonclassic-features-of-pseudohypoparathyroidism-type-1a
#10
Ashley H Shoemaker, Harald J├╝ppner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide readers with a review of contemporary literature describing the evolving understanding of the pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A) phenotype. RECENT FINDINGS: The classic features of PHP1A include multihormone resistance and the Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy phenotype (round facies, short stature, subcutaneous ossifications, brachydactyly, and early-onset obesity. Obesity may be because of a decrease in resting energy expenditure because most patients do not report significant hyperphagia...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870641/growth-metabolism-genetics-and-the-environment-alice-was-not-a-scientist
#11
Lynne L Levitsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870640/gastrointestinal-regulatory-peptides
#12
H Christian Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820704/gastrointestinal-hormones-and-the-gut-connectome
#13
Lihua Ye, Rodger A Liddle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provision of adequate nutrients by the gut is essential for survival and essential behaviors are linked to the proper ingestion and digestion of food. Recently, a new neural connection has been reported between sensory cells of the gut epithelium and the nervous system that mediates signals from the gut to the brain. RECENT FINDINGS: This review describes how the gut senses its environment, relays those signals to the brain, and how the brain influences the gut...
November 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672731/fresh-versus-cryopreserved-oocyte-donation
#14
Vitaly A Kushnir, Norbert Gleicher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Utilization of cryopreserved instead of fresh donor oocytes has rapidly increased in recent years. Whether treatment outcomes are comparable has, however, remained controversial. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 24% of initiated oocyte donation cycles in the USA during 2013-2014 involved previously cryopreserved oocytes. The use of cryopreserved-donated oocytes may simplify logistics and lower costs per treatment cycle. Whether cryopreserved donor oocytes also lower costs per live birth is still undetermined as they result in lower live birth rates in comparison to fresh donor oocyte cycles...
September 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653002/evolution-of-human-oocyte-cryopreservation-slow-freezing-versus-vitrification
#15
Paolo Emanuele Levi-Setti, Pasquale Patrizio, Giulia Scaravelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to determine the efficiency and efficacy of oocyte cryopreservation by slow freezing versus vitrification, recent data collected from the Italian National Assisted Reproductive Technology Register during the period 2009-2014 will be presented and reviewed. The data on oocyte cryopreservation were also compared with the results obtained with embryo cryopreservation and relative IVF with fresh oocytes. RECENT FINDINGS: During the period 2009-2014 preservation of oocytes by vitrification had a significantly higher survival rate, implantation, and pregnancy rate than slow freezing; however, there are still large variations in success rates among centers in relation to the number of procedures performed...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653001/ethics-of-medical-and-nonmedical-oocyte-cryopreservation
#16
Pasquale Patrizio, Emanuela Molinari, Arthur Caplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the effectiveness and ethical dimensions of oocyte cryopreservation for both medical and social indications. RECENT FINDINGS: As more women are postponing motherhood for a variety of reasons, including lack of partner, for completing career plans and reaching financial stability, they are resorting to oocyte cryopreservation. To make informed choices, women rely on their primary care physicians (PCPs) for initial advice, but PCPs are not always fully prepared to discuss oocyte cryopreservation...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652999/fgf-23-and-cardiovascular-disease-review-of-literature
#17
Jasveen Batra, Rupinder Singh Buttar, Pardeep Kaur, Jacqueline Kreimerman, Michal L Melamed
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines associations between fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: FGF-23 is a hormone produced by osteocytes and osteoblasts that aids with phosphate excretion by the kidney and acts as a negative feedback regulator for activated vitamin D synthesis. Recent studies have found associations between elevated FGF-23 levels and a number of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular events and mortality...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779516/editorial-introductions
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763894/histological-features-of-pituitary-adenomas-and-sellar-region-masses
#19
Bette K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most pituitary region masses are pituitary adenomas; however, when other sellar region masses are encountered by clinicians or pathologists, the differential diagnosis can be broad. This review will focus on updates for pituitary adenomas, as well as briefly discuss some of these other entities: Rathke cleft cyst, hypophysitis, craniopharyngioma, pituicytoma, and spindle cell oncocytoma. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of new immunohistochemical (IHC) tools for assessing transcription factors, pituitary transcription factor-1, steroidogenic factor-1, and the not-yet-widely available Tpit IHC have provided insights into origin particularly of clinically silent and even hormone-negative pituitary adenomas...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685935/oocyte-cryopreservation-for-fertility-preservation-in-women-with-cancer
#20
Javier Domingo, Juan A Garcia-Velasco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is necessary to clarify the fertility preservation-related points of concern that often frighten patients or physicians when it comes to deciding about oocyte cryopreservation for fertility preservation, which are often perceived as procedure limitations, are sometimes real and often theoretical and may make the prognosis worse. RECENT FINDINGS: Letrozole added to gonadotrophins for controlled ovarian stimulation is safe when applied to hormone-sensitive cancer patients as it avoids associated high estradiol levels...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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