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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194047/editorial-overview-gastrointestinal-regulatory-peptides
#1
H Christian Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194046/updates-on-the-biology-of-serotonin-and-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#2
Tara Swami, H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the most recent findings relevant to the biology of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in human gastrointestinal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Serotonin is synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract where it is secreted from enteroendocrine cells. Its biosynthesis is regulated by two isoforms of the enzyme TPH of which TPH1 is localized predominantly in gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140830/aspects-of-growth-and-development-endocrine-and-nonendocrine-paradigms
#3
Lynne L Levitsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135489/endocrine-disrupters-and-pubertal-timing
#4
Louise C Greenspan, Mary M Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes recent epidemiologic data demonstrating the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on the timing of puberty and highlights the complexity of understanding the interplay of environmental and genetic factors on pubertal timing. RECENT FINDINGS: In girls, there have been mixed results, with some exposures being associated with earlier timing of puberty, and some with later puberty. In boys, prepubertal exposures to nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls accelerate puberty, whereas levels of insecticides, dioxin-like compounds, organochlorine pesticides, and lead delay puberty...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135488/endocrine-manifestations-of-down-syndrome
#5
Rachel Whooten, Jessica Schmitt, Alison Schwartz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent developments in endocrine disorders associated with Down syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Current research regarding bone health and Down syndrome continues to show an increased prevalence of low bone mass and highlights the importance of considering short stature when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The underlying cause of low bone density is an area of active research and will shape treatment and preventive measures...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135487/update-on-endocrine-aspects-of-childhood-obesity
#6
Charumathi Baskaran, Nurgun Kandemir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although childhood obesity has leveled off in the last decade, 'severe obesity' continues to be on the rise. Various genetic, environmental and hormonal factors contribute to obesity. This article reviews the most current understanding of obesity's multifactorial origin and recent recommendations for its management in childhood and adolescence. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetics plays a key role in transmitting obesity risk to offspring. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms at genetic loci for adipokines and their receptors are associated with obesity...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120926/recent-insights-into-biological-functions-of-mammalian-bombesin-like-peptides-and-their-receptors
#7
Xiangping Qu, Hui Wang, Rujiao Liu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights recent advances in physiological and pharmacological researches in biology of mammalian bombesin-like peptides (BLPs). RECENT FINDINGS: BLPs and their receptors were found to have regulatory roles in many biological processes in central nervous system. Two BLPs, neuromedin B and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and their receptors are required for regulation of basal and induced sighing activity in rodents. This is the first study demonstrating central pathways involved in regulation of sighing activity...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120925/noonan-syndrome-an-update-on-growth-and-development
#8
Armelle Yart, Thomas Edouard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on recent developments on Noonan syndrome with a special focus on endocrinology, bone, and metabolism aspects. The key issues still to be resolved and the future therapeutic perspectives will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The discovery of the molecular genetic causes of Noonan syndrome and Noonan-syndrome-related disorders has permitted us to better understand the mechanisms underlying the different symptoms of these diseases and to establish genotype-phenotype correlations (in growth patterns for example)...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120924/potential-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery-on-eating-behaviour
#9
Roxanna Zakeri, Rachel L Batterham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reduced energy intake, resulting from favourable changes in eating behaviour, is the predominant driver of weight loss following bariatric surgery. Here we review the most recent studies examining the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy, the two most common bariatric procedures, upon eating behaviour and the suggested underlying biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Following RYGB or sleeve gastrectomy, most people report subjective changes in appetite, taste and food preference, with decreased high-fat preference most commonly reported...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120923/carcinoid-syndrome-recent-advances-current-status-and-controversies
#10
Tetsuhide Ito, Lingaku Lee, Robert T Jensen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances and controversies in all aspects of carcinoid-syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last few years there have been a number of advances in all aspects of carcinoid syndrome as well as new therapies. These include new studies on its epidemiology which demonstrate it is increasing in frequency; increasing insights into the pathogenesis of its various clinical manifestations and into its natural history: definition of prognostic factors; new methods to verify its presence; the development of new drugs to treat its various manifestations, both initially and in somatostatin-refractory cases; and an increased understanding of the pathogenesis, natural history and management of carcinoid heart disease...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120922/gender-dysphoria-in-youth-a-review-of-recent-literature
#11
Julia Cartaya, Ximena Lopez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transgender individuals including pubertal young people require hormonal therapy, in conjunction with mental health support. These youths are a unique population, with specific and individual desires and needs as they move through the physical and mental transition to the gender with which they identify. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of transgender youth presenting for treatment is increasing rapidly. They continue to have a high prevalence of mental health disorders, though not when supported in their sex identities by family in younger age...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938237/fertility-restoration-with-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#12
Francesca de Michele, Maxime Vermeulen, Christine Wyns
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review evaluates the state of the art in terms of challenges and strategies used to restore fertility with spermatogonial stem cells retrieved from prepubertal boys affected by cancer. Although these boys do not yet produce spermatozoa, the only option to preserve their fertility is cryopreservation of spermatogonial stem cells in the form of testicular cell suspensions or whole tissue pieces. Different techniques have been described to achieve completion of spermatogenesis from human, spermatogonial stem cells but none is yet ready for clinical application...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915134/vitamin-d-in-obesity
#13
Jennifer S Walsh, Simon Bowles, Amy L Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and may also have important functions in immunity and other systems. Vitamin D deficiency is common, and testing and supplementation is increasing. Serum vitamin D is lower in obese people; it is important to understand the mechanism of this effect and whether it indicates clinically significant deficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D is fat soluble, and distributed into fat, muscle, liver, and serum. All of these compartments are increased in volume in obesity, so the lower vitamin D likely reflects a volumetric dilution effect and whole body stores of vitamin D may be adequate...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885275/the-ethics-of-creating-genetically-modified-children-using-genome-editing
#14
Tetsuya Ishii
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding human reproduction involving germline genome editing. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome editing techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9, have facilitated genetic modification in human embryos. The most likely purpose of germline genome editing is the prevention of serious genetic disease in offspring. However, complex issues still remain, including irremediable risks to fetuses and future generations, the role of women, the availability of alternatives, long-term follow-up, health insurance coverage, misuse for human enhancement, and the potential effects on adoption...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863000/osteogenesis-imperfecta-diagnosis-and-treatment
#15
Telma Palomo, Tatiane Vila├ža, Marise Lazaretti-Castro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we summarize the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta, discuss newly discovered genes involved in osteogenesis imperfecta, and review the management of this disease in children and adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutations in the two genes coding for collagen type I, COL1A1 and COL1A2, are the most common cause of osteogenesis imperfecta. In the past 10 years, defects in at least 17 other genes have been identified as responsible for osteogenesis imperfecta phenotypes, with either dominant or recessive transmission...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857847/advances-in-treatment-of-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis
#16
Emory Hsu, Mark Nanes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to summarize monitoring, prevention and treatment options of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis for patients on chronic glucocorticoid therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent meta-analyses highlight the efficacy of bisphosphonate use in improving bone mineral density and in reducing vertebral fractures in the setting of long-term glucocorticoid use. A new study has now shown that alendronate also reduces the risk of hip fracture in glucocorticoid use...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857846/utility-of-trabecular-bone-score-in-the-evaluation-of-osteoporosis
#17
Patrick Martineau, Barbara C Silva, William D Leslie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a lumbar spine dual-energy absorptiometry texture index which provides information on skeletal quality partially independent of bone mineral density (BMD). A body of work has emerged demonstrating the relationship between TBS and fracture risk, with lower TBS values associated with increased risk for osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women and older men. TBS is derived from standard DXA images; however, the information provided by TBS is complementary to that provided by BMD...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857845/epilepsy-and-osteoporosis-risk
#18
Philip M Dussault, Antonio A Lazzari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is well-recognized that individuals with epilepsy have an increased risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures; this increased risk has been described to be secondary to an increased bone fragility and to an increased risk of falls. Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease which has been characterized by microarchitectural deterioration of trabecula and cortical bone mass with a decrease in bone mineral density and bone strength. Specific side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on bone metabolism have been identified; recent research publications further characterized some of the specific side effects of AEDs on bone metabolism...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841635/perspectives-on-the-global-obesity-epidemic
#19
Caroline M Apovian, Kaitlyn M Riffenburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841634/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-foxo1-in-the-transcriptional-control-of-lipolysis-and-de-novo-lipogenesis
#20
Konstantin V Kandror
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postprandial suppression of lipolysis in adipose tissue and stimulation of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the liver by insulin are essential for the metabolic homeostasis in the mammalian organism. The mechanism of coregulation of lipolysis and DNL is not clear. RECENT FINDINGS: Insulin controls both lipolysis and DNL at the level of transcription via the same mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and FoxO1-mediated signaling pathways...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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