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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29965867/pregnancy-as-a-risk-factor-for-thyroid-cancer-progression
#1
Luba Rakhlin, Stephanie Fish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review evaluates the impact of pregnancy on women with thyroid cancer in three different clinical situations: those with newly diagnosed differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), those under active surveillance for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PMCs), and those with previously treated DTC. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent pregnancy is not associated with high-risk pathological features of DTC. In women with known PMCs under active surveillance, pregnancy does not increase the risk of disease progression...
June 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794498/bone-health-in-type-1-diabetes
#2
Viral N Shah, R Dana Carpenter, Virginia L Ferguson, Ann V Schwartz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent publications on the effect of type 1 diabetes (T1D) on fracture risk, bone mineral density (BMD), bone structure, and bone tissue quality. Possible fracture prevention strategies for patients with T1D have also been reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: T1D is associated with substantially elevated fracture risk and modestly low BMD at the femoral neck. However, BMD alone does not explain higher observed fracture risk in T1D. T1D also affects bone macro- and microstructure, characterized by thinner cortices and trabecular bone changes such as thinner and more widely spaced trabeculae...
May 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771751/utility-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-sellar-and-parasellar-mass-lesions
#3
Omar Al-Louzi, Sashank Prasad, Robert M Mallery
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anterior visual pathway compression is a common feature of sellar region masses. We review the visual pathway neuroanatomy pertaining to sellar and parasellar lesions and describe recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging that have provided a novel quantitative perspective in the evaluation and management of such patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Ultrastructural measurements of optic nerve integrity using OCT, namely peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses, have been shown to correlate with visual acuity and visual field deficits on perimetry in patients with compressive sellar region masses...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746308/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-cushing-s-syndrome
#4
Stephanie E E C Bauduin, Nic J A van der Wee, Steven J A van der Werff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alongside various physical symptoms, patients with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome display a wide variety of neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms, which are indicative of involvement of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the structural brain abnormalities that are associated with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome and their relation to behavioral and cognitive symptomatology. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we discuss the gray matter structural abnormalities found in patients with active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome, the reversibility and persistence of these changes and the white matter structural changes related to Cushing's syndrome...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746309/the-current-state-of-long-acting-growth-hormone-preparations-for-growth-hormone-therapy
#5
Kevin C J Yuen, Bradley S Miller, Beverly M K Biller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the rationale of developing long-acting growth hormone (LAGH) preparations, to describe the technologies designed to prolong GH action, and to address key issues regarding efficacy, safety, and monitoring while on treatment. REVIEW FINDINGS: Recombinant human GH is currently approved for daily use and has been shown to restore longitudinal growth, and improve body composition with relatively few side-effects in children and adults with GH deficiency, respectively...
May 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846238/micrornas-markers-of-%C3%AE-cell-stress-and-autoimmunity
#6
Francesco Dotta, Giuliana Ventriglia, Isaac V Snowhite, Alberto Pugliese
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss current knowledge about microRNAs (miRNAs) in type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune disease leading to severe loss of pancreatic β-cells. We describe: the role of cellular miRNAs in regulating immune functions and pathways impacting insulin secretion and β-cell survival; circulating miRNAs as disease biomarkers. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examined miRNAs in experimental models and patients, including analysis of tissues from organ donors, peripheral blood cells, and circulating miRNAs in serum, plasma, and exosomes...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846237/%C3%AE-cell-replacement-improving-on-the-design
#7
Roberto Castro-Gutierrez, Aaron W Michels, Holger A Russ
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we summarize recent advancements in β cell replacement as a therapy for type 1 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: β cell replacement therapy has been proposed as a cure for type 1 diabetes with the introduction of the Edmonton protocol for cadaveric islet transplantation. To allow widespread use of this approach, efforts have focused on establishing an abundant source of insulin-producing β cells, protecting transplanted cells from ischemia-mediated death, immune rejection, and re-occurring autoimmunity...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846236/chelation-therapy-to-prevent-diabetes-associated-cardiovascular-events
#8
Denisse Diaz, Vivian Fonseca, Yamil W Aude, Gervasio A Lamas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For over 60 years, chelation therapy with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, edetate) had been used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite lack of scientific evidence for efficacy and safety. The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) was developed and received funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to ascertain the safety and efficacy of chelation therapy in patients with CVD. RECENT FINDINGS: This pivotal trial demonstrated an improvement in outcomes in postmyocardial infarction (MI) patients...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794497/sglt-inhibition-a-possible-adjunctive-treatment-for-type-1-diabetes
#9
Halis Kaan Akturk, Amanda Rewers, Satish K Garg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify and evaluate the recent trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 and 2 (SGLT1 and SGLT2, respectively) inhibitor use in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). SGLT-2 inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are effectively used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, many studies (phase I-III) have validated their effects beyond improving glycemic control and have shown potential adjunctive use in adult patients with T1D treated with insulin therapy alone...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718004/update-on-diagnosis-and-management-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-21-hydroxylase-deficiency
#10
Perrin C White
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a relatively common inherited disorder of cortisol biosynthesis that can be fatal if untreated. RECENT FINDINGS: The basic biochemistry and genetics of CAH have been known for decades but continue to be refined by the discoveries of an alternative 'backdoor' metabolic pathway for adrenal androgen synthesis and the secretion of 11-hydroxy and 11-keto analogs of known androgens, by the elucidation of hundreds of new mutations, and by the application of high-throughput sequencing techniques to noninvasive prenatal diagnosis...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629943/primary-aldosteronism-in-the-primary-care-setting
#11
Fabrizio Buffolo, Silvia Monticone, Martina Tetti, Paolo Mulatero
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the present manuscript is to provide an overview of the most updated studies on the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in primary care and to compare these figures with the actual rate of diagnosis in clinical practice and with the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in specific subgroup of patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last 20 years the clinical spectrum of low renin hypertension and primary aldosteronism has changed dramatically...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570470/the-marketing-of-testosterone-treatments-for-age-related-low-testosterone-or-low-t
#12
Barbara Mintzes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the research evidence on promotion of testosterone for 'Low T', or age-related hypogonadism. RECENT FINDINGS: Marketing of testosterone for 'Low T' has relied on strategies that are inadequately regulated to prevent off-label promotion, such as unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising campaigns targeting the general public, sponsored continuing medical education (CME) and ghostwriting. A recent US analysis of television advertising exposure levels versus insurance claims found that both unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising and branded ads were associated with increased rates of testosterone testing, treatment initiation, and treatment without prior testing...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521660/update-in-adrenal-venous-sampling-for-primary-aldosteronism
#13
Gian Paolo Rossi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current guidelines recommend adrenal venous sampling (AVS) to identify the surgically curable causes of hyperaldosteronism. In contrast with this recommendation, AVS remains markedly underutilized in clinical practice, which leads to deny curative adrenalectomy, to many patients with primary aldosteronism. The purpose of this review is to challenge the views that AVS is a technically challenging, invasive and risky procedure, which moreover, is difficult to interpret...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465427/dihydrotestosterone-and-cancer-risk
#14
Yi X Chan, Bu B Yeap
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Androgens have been implicated in prostate growth; however, the role of androgens in prostate cancer development is not clear. Furthermore, studies suggest a role for androgens in female-hormone-dependent cancers and common nonhormone dependent cancers. This study aims to review key studies and more recent studies of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological studies are reassuring as they have not associated endogenous androgens with prostate cancer risk...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432258/overview-of-aldosterone-related-genetic-syndromes-and-recent-advances
#15
Maria-Christina Zennaro, Fabio L Fernandes-Rosa, Sheerazed Boulkroun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary aldosteronism is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to cure of hypertension and prevention of cardiovascular complications. Recent genetic discoveries have improved our understanding on the pathophysiology of aldosterone production and triggered the development of new diagnostic procedures and targeted treatments for primary aldosteronism. RECENT FINDINGS: Different inherited genetic abnormalities distinguish specific forms of familial hyperaldosteronism...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389675/recovery-of-reproductive-function-following-androgen-abuse
#16
Maria A Christou, Stelios Tigas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent data on the adverse reproductive consequences of androgen abuse, focusing on the recovery of reproductive function following androgen discontinuation. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence is mostly based on case reports and observational studies. Androgen abuse leads to a state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with impaired spermatogenesis, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia as well as menstrual irregularities, virilization and subfertility...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373482/rare-monogenic-causes-of-primary-adrenal-insufficiency
#17
Satoshi Narumi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monogenic disorders play significant roles in the pathogenesis of childhood-onset primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). The most common form of PAI is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which includes the enzymatic defects of the steroidogenic pathway. This review focuses on less common forms of monogenic PAI (i.e. non-CAH monogenic PAI) with particular attention on their cause, clinical phenotypes and genetic epidemiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-CAH monogenic PAI can be classified into three major categories: first, adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance, second, impaired adrenal redox homeostasis and third, defective organogenesis of the adrenal glands...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373481/hepatic-actions-of-androgens-in-the-regulation-of-metabolism
#18
Vita Birzniece
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on hepatic actions of androgens in the regulation of protein, lipid and glucose metabolism. The rationale for liver-targeted testosterone use will be provided. RECENT FINDINGS: Liver-targeted testosterone administration, via the oral route, induces protein anabolic effect by reducing the rate of protein oxidation to a similar extent to that of systemic testosterone administration. Recent evidence indicates that testosterone exerts whole-body anabolic effect through inhibition of nitrogen loss via the hepatic urea cycle...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369918/public-health-impact-of-androgens
#19
Gen Kanayama, Marc J Kaufman, Harrison G Pope
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings regarding the public health impact of androgen abuse. RECENT FINDINGS: Abuse of androgens (also called 'anabolic-androgenic steroids') has grown into a major worldwide substance abuse problem involving tens of millions of individuals, of whom about 98% are men. Most androgen abusers are still under age 50 today, and thus, the long-term effects of these drugs are only beginning to be understood. Recent studies confirm that long-term supraphysiologic androgen exposure produces cardiovascular toxicity, characterized especially by cardiomyopathy and atherosclerotic disease...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369917/androgen-abuse-epidemiology
#20
Dominic Sagoe, Ståle Pallesen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To systematically review current epidemiological literature on androgen abuse. Estimates from 32 empirical epidemiological articles were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Generally, androgen abuse epidemiology and prevalence is higher in Europe, the Middle East, North America (the USA), Oceania (Australia and New Zealand), and South America (Brazil) and lower in Africa and Asia. In contrast to the general population, androgen abuse epidemiology and prevalence is higher among athletes, injection drug users, recreational sportspeople, and sexual and gender minorities...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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