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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938237/fertility-restoration-with-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#1
Francesca de Michele, Maxime Vermeulen, Christine Wyns
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review evaluates the state of the art in terms of challenges and strategies used to restore fertility with spermatogonial stem cells retrieved from prepubertal boys affected by cancer. Although these boys do not yet produce spermatozoa, the only option to preserve their fertility is cryopreservation of spermatogonial stem cells in the form of testicular cell suspensions or whole tissue pieces. Different techniques have been described to achieve completion of spermatogenesis from human, spermatogonial stem cells but none is yet ready for clinical application...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915134/vitamin-d-in-obesity
#2
Jennifer S Walsh, Simon Bowles, Amy L Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and may also have important functions in immunity and other systems. Vitamin D deficiency is common, and testing and supplementation is increasing. Serum vitamin D is lower in obese people; it is important to understand the mechanism of this effect and whether it indicates clinically significant deficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D is fat soluble, and distributed into fat, muscle, liver, and serum. All of these compartments are increased in volume in obesity, so the lower vitamin D likely reflects a volumetric dilution effect and whole body stores of vitamin D may be adequate...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885275/the-ethics-of-creating-genetically-modified-children-using-genome-editing
#3
Tetsuya Ishii
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding human reproduction involving germline genome editing. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome editing techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9, have facilitated genetic modification in human embryos. The most likely purpose of germline genome editing is the prevention of serious genetic disease in offspring. However, complex issues still remain, including irremediable risks to fetuses and future generations, the role of women, the availability of alternatives, long-term follow-up, health insurance coverage, misuse for human enhancement, and the potential effects on adoption...
September 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863000/osteogenesis-imperfecta-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Telma Palomo, Tatiane Vilaça, Marise Lazaretti-Castro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we summarize the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta, discuss newly discovered genes involved in osteogenesis imperfecta, and review the management of this disease in children and adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutations in the two genes coding for collagen type I, COL1A1 and COL1A2, are the most common cause of osteogenesis imperfecta. In the past 10 years, defects in at least 17 other genes have been identified as responsible for osteogenesis imperfecta phenotypes, with either dominant or recessive transmission...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857847/advances-in-treatment-of-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis
#5
Emory Hsu, Mark Nanes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to summarize monitoring, prevention and treatment options of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis for patients on chronic glucocorticoid therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent meta-analyses highlight the efficacy of bisphosphonate use in improving bone mineral density and in reducing vertebral fractures in the setting of long-term glucocorticoid use. A new study has now shown that alendronate also reduces the risk of hip fracture in glucocorticoid use...
August 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857846/utility-of-trabecular-bone-score-in-the-evaluation-of-osteoporosis
#6
Patrick Martineau, Barbara C Silva, William D Leslie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a lumbar spine dual-energy absorptiometry texture index which provides information on skeletal quality partially independent of bone mineral density (BMD). A body of work has emerged demonstrating the relationship between TBS and fracture risk, with lower TBS values associated with increased risk for osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women and older men. TBS is derived from standard DXA images; however, the information provided by TBS is complementary to that provided by BMD...
August 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857845/epilepsy-and-osteoporosis-risk
#7
Philip M Dussault, Antonio A Lazzari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is well-recognized that individuals with epilepsy have an increased risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures; this increased risk has been described to be secondary to an increased bone fragility and to an increased risk of falls. Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease which has been characterized by microarchitectural deterioration of trabecula and cortical bone mass with a decrease in bone mineral density and bone strength. Specific side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on bone metabolism have been identified; recent research publications further characterized some of the specific side effects of AEDs on bone metabolism...
August 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841634/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-foxo1-in-the-transcriptional-control-of-lipolysis-and-de-novo-lipogenesis
#8
Konstantin V Kandror
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postprandial suppression of lipolysis in adipose tissue and stimulation of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the liver by insulin are essential for the metabolic homeostasis in the mammalian organism. The mechanism of coregulation of lipolysis and DNL is not clear. RECENT FINDINGS: Insulin controls both lipolysis and DNL at the level of transcription via the same mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and FoxO1-mediated signaling pathways...
August 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841635/perspectives-on-the-global-obesity-epidemic
#9
Caroline M Apovian, Kaitlyn M Riffenburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723705/dietary-guidelines-in-type-2-diabetes-the-nordic-diet-or-the-ketogenic-diet
#10
Ola K Magnusdottir, Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir, Bryndís E Birgisdóttir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent developments in research regarding nutrition therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with a focus on the different approaches of the Nordic diet and the ketogenic diet. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent short-term studies have revealed that similar beneficial outcomes are seen after different dietary treatments for T2DM, with different approaches resulting in comparable weight loss and impacts on metabolic factors. SUMMARY: More individualized approaches in nutrition therapy should be considered for T2DM patients and clinical guidelines should reflect this...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639967/ras-positive-thyroid-nodules
#11
Trevor E Angell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review focuses on the uncertainty regarding the management of rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog RAS-positive thyroid nodules. The application of oncogene testing has been heralded for improving risk assessment for indeterminate cytology thyroid nodules and has grown in clinical use. RAS mutations are historically considered oncogenic. However, RAS mutation detection in thyroid nodules has proven problematic, as these mutations are found in benign and malignant lesions...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520591/stem-cell-therapy-and-its-potential-role-in-pituitary-disorders
#12
Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Oluwaseun O Akinduro, Ronald Reimer, Whitney W Woodmansee, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pituitary gland is one of the key components of the endocrine system. Congenital or acquired alterations can mediate destruction of cells in the gland leading to hormonal dysfunction. Even though pharmacological treatment for pituitary disorders is available, exogenous hormone replacement is neither curative nor sustainable. Thus, alternative therapies to optimize management and improve quality of life are desired. RECENT FINDINGS: An alternative modality to re-establish pituitary function is to promote endocrine cell regeneration through stem cells that can be obtained from the pituitary parenchyma or pluripotent cells...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520590/role-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-pituitary-tumours-from-bench-to-bedside
#13
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Odelia Cooper
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of aggressive pituitary tumours often yields suboptimal control of the tumour and confers significant morbidity. Lactotroph and corticotroph-derived tumours express ErbB receptors and ligands, and mutations in ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8), which alters epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation, have been implicated in Cushing disease pathogenesis. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has emerged as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with aggressive prolactinomas and Cushing disease...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509692/t1d-autoantibodies-room-for-improvement
#14
Liping Yu, Zhiyuan Zhao, Andrea K Steck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is now predictable by measuring major islet autoantibodies (IAbs) against insulin and other pancreatic β cells proteins including GAD65 (GADA), islet antigen 2 (IA-2A), and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A). The assay technology for IAbs has made great progress; however, several important aspects still need to be addressed and improved. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently a radio-binding assay has been well established as the 'gold' standard assay for all four IAbs...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509691/development-of-glucose-responsive-smart-insulin-systems
#15
Nischay K Rege, Nelson F B Phillips, Michael A Weiss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The complexity of modern insulin-based therapy for type I and type II diabetes mellitus and the risks associated with excursions in blood-glucose concentration (hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia) have motivated the development of 'smart insulin' technologies (glucose-responsive insulin, GRI). Such analogs or delivery systems are entities that provide insulin activity proportional to the glycemic state of the patient without external monitoring by the patient or healthcare provider...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509690/genetics-and-its-potential-to-improve-type-1-diabetes-care
#16
Stephen S Rich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The genetic basis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is being characterized through DNA sequence variation and cell type specificity. This review discusses the current understanding of the genes and variants implicated in risk of T1D and how genetic information can be used in prediction, intervention and components of clinical care. RECENT FINDINGS: Fine mapping and functional studies has provided resolution of the heritable basis of T1D risk, incorporating novel insights on the dominant role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes as well as the lesser impact of non-HLA genes...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639966/risk-of-embryopathies-with-use-of-antithyroidal-medications
#17
Stine L Andersen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperthyroidism in pregnant women should be adequately treated to prevent maternal and fetal complications. The treatment of choice in pregnancy is antithyroidal medications (ATDs). The risk of embryopathies associated with the use of Methimazole (MMI) and Propylthiouracil (PTU) in early pregnancy is a matter of clinical attention and concern. This review describes current evidence and how scientific findings are reflected in current clinical guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: Embryopathies after the use of ATDs were previously mainly described in case reports and considered rare...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639965/is-selenium-supplementation-in-autoimmune-thyroid-diseases-justified
#18
Kristian H Winther, Steen Bonnema, Laszlo Hegedüs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696961/current-body-composition-measurement-techniques
#19
Thaisa Lemos, Dympna Gallagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews the most innovative and precise, available methods for quantification of in-vivo human body composition. RECENT FINDINGS: Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected. Ongoing efforts involve multisegmental and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, quantitative magnetic resonance for total body water, fat, and lean tissue measurements, imaging to further define ectopic fat depots...
July 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692457/the-thyroid-cancer-epidemic-2017-perspective
#20
Benjamin R Roman, Luc G Morris, Louise Davies
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thyroid cancer incidence and mortality trends have been identified as being consistent with overdiagnosis, and several recent efforts have been made to mitigate this problem. RECENT FINDINGS: Major guidelines for thyroid nodule management recommend against general biopsy of nodules less than 1 cm in size. Data supporting the safety of active surveillance of low-risk thyroid cancers is now recognized. Tumors previously labeled as encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid cancers are now recommended to be called noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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