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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432258/overview-of-aldosterone-related-genetic-syndromes-and-recent-advances
#1
Maria-Christina Zennaro, Fabio L Fernandes-Rosa, Sheerazed Boulkroun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary aldosteronism is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to cure of hypertension and prevention of cardiovascular complications. Recent genetic discoveries have improved our understanding on the pathophysiology of aldosterone production and triggered the development of new diagnostic procedures and targeted treatments for primary aldosteronism. RECENT FINDINGS: Different inherited genetic abnormalities distinguish specific forms of familial hyperaldosteronism...
February 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389675/recovery-from-reproductive-impact-of-androgen-abuse
#2
Maria A Christou, Stelios Tigas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent data on the adverse reproductive consequences of androgen abuse, focusing on the recovery of reproductive function following androgen discontinuation. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence is mostly based on case reports and observational studies. Androgen abuse leads to a state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with impaired spermatogenesis, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia as well as menstrual irregularities, virilization and subfertility...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373482/rare-monogenic-causes-of-primary-adrenal-insufficiency
#3
Satoshi Narumi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monogenic disorders play significant roles in the pathogenesis of childhood-onset primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). The most common form of PAI is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which includes the enzymatic defects of the steroidogenic pathway. This review focuses on less common forms of monogenic PAI (i.e. non-CAH monogenic PAI) with particular attention on their cause, clinical phenotypes and genetic epidemiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-CAH monogenic PAI can be classified into three major categories: first, adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance, second, impaired adrenal redox homeostasis and third, defective organogenesis of the adrenal glands...
January 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373481/hepatic-actions-of-androgens-in-the-regulation-of-metabolism
#4
Vita Birzniece
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on hepatic actions of androgens in the regulation of protein, lipid and glucose metabolism. The rationale for liver-targeted testosterone use will be provided. RECENT FINDINGS: Liver-targeted testosterone administration, via the oral route, induces protein anabolic effect by reducing the rate of protein oxidation to a similar extent to that of systemic testosterone administration. Recent evidence indicates that testosterone exerts whole-body anabolic effect through inhibition of nitrogen loss via the hepatic urea cycle...
January 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373480/the-final-word-about-ldl-cholesterol-lowering
#5
Dan Streja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369918/public-health-impact-of-androgens
#6
Gen Kanayama, Marc J Kaufman, Harrison G Pope
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings regarding the public health impact of androgen abuse. RECENT FINDINGS: Abuse of androgens (also called 'anabolic-androgenic steroids') has grown into a major worldwide substance abuse problem involving tens of millions of individuals, of whom about 98% are men. Most androgen abusers are still under age 50 today, and thus, the long-term effects of these drugs are only beginning to be understood. Recent studies confirm that long-term supraphysiologic androgen exposure produces cardiovascular toxicity, characterized especially by cardiomyopathy and atherosclerotic disease...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369917/androgen-abuse-epidemiology
#7
Dominic Sagoe, Ståle Pallesen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To systematically review current epidemiological literature on androgen abuse. Estimates from 32 empirical epidemiological articles were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Generally, androgen abuse epidemiology and prevalence is higher in Europe, the Middle East, North America (the USA), Oceania (Australia and New Zealand), and South America (Brazil) and lower in Africa and Asia. In contrast to the general population, androgen abuse epidemiology and prevalence is higher among athletes, injection drug users, recreational sportspeople, and sexual and gender minorities...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369916/diabetes-medications-and-cardiovascular-disease-at-long-last-progress
#8
Beatrice C Lupsa, Silvio E Inzucchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although intensive control of hyperglycemia has been proven to decrease the risk of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes, it has had little apparent effect on reducing cardiovascular complications - the leading cause of mortality in this disease. We review the cardiovascular effects of various glucose-lowering medications, with a particular focus on the recent studies demonstrating clear benefits from members of several drug categories. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, several randomized controlled studies have revealed significant improvements in cardiovascular outcomes from a thiazolidinedione, two sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and two glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369915/potential-role-of-type-i-interferon-in-the-pathogenic-process-leading-to-type-1-diabetes
#9
Natasha Qaisar, Agata Jurczyk, Jennifer P Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the relationship between viral infections and the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is essential for T1D prevention. Virus-induced innate immune responses, specifically type I interferon (IFN-I) and the IFN gene signature, orchestrate early events of β-cell dysfunction preceding islet autoimmunity. We summarize recent advances in how IFN-I and the IFN gene signature can drive T1D development. RECENT FINDINGS: IFN-I, particularly IFN-α, and the IFN gene signature have been detected in islets and peripheral blood of T1D patients...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356689/the-impact-of-myeloperoxidase-on-hdl-function-in-myocardial-infarction
#10
Uwe J F Tietge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The focus in cardiovascular research is shifting from determining mass HDL cholesterol levels toward investigating HDL functionalities as biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a main effector enzyme of the innate immune system, is increasingly implicated to negatively impact HDL function by various chemical modifications of HDL-associated proteins. This review summarizes recent insights how MPO affects HDL function in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (MI), mainly focusing on human data...
January 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356688/diabetes-pathogenic-mechanisms-and-potential-new-therapies-based-upon-a-novel-target-called-txnip
#11
Lance Thielen, Anath Shalev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thioredoxin-interacting protein has emerged as a major factor regulating pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death, key processes in the pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence based on basic, preclinical, and retrospective epidemiological research suggests that TXNIP represents a promising therapeutic target for diabetes. The present review is aimed at providing an update regarding these developments. RECENT FINDINGS: TXNIP has been shown to be induced by glucose and increased in diabetes and to promote β-cell apoptosis, whereas TXNIP deletion protected against diabetes...
January 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351110/low-cholesterol-impulsivity-and-violence-revisited
#12
Katrin Tomson-Johanson, Jaanus Harro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent findings on the association of cholesterol levels with impulsivity and violence. RECENT FINDINGS: Several authors have recently highlighted the importance of confounding factors that mask the association between cholesterol and impulsivity or violent behaviour. In particular, demographic factors and presence of psychiatric disorders can play a role in the discrepancies present in literature. Men seem to be more sensitive to low cholesterol levels as the association between low cholesterol levels and aggression is found mostly in men...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337706/cholesterol-efflux-in-the-transplant-patient
#13
Sangita Sudharshan, Ali Javaheri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cholesterol metabolism is increasingly recognized in inflammatory diseases including transplantation. This review discusses the mechanistic underpinnings that tie macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to chronic rejection in transplanted patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies suggest that administration of apolipoprotein A-I, the main protein constituent of HDL, can prevent transplant arteriosclerosis...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337705/how-does-metabolic-surgery-work-its-magic-new-evidence-for-gut-microbiota
#14
Bailey C E Peck, Randy J Seeley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic surgery is recommended for the treatment of type 2 diabetes for its potent ability to improve glycemic control. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery are still under investigation. We provide an updated review of recent studies into the molecular underpinnings of metabolic surgery, focusing in on what is known about the role of gut microbiota. Over the last 7 years several reports have been published on the topic, however the field is expanding rapidly...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324459/discordance-between-lipoprotein-particle-number-and-cholesterol-content-an-update
#15
Eric P Cantey, John T Wilkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cholesterol content within atherogenic apolipoprotein-B (apoB) containing lipid particles is the center of consensus guidelines and clinicians' focus whenever evaluating a patient's risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The pathobiology of atherosclerosis requires the retention of lipoprotein particles within the vascular intima over time followed by maladaptive inflammation resulting in plaque formation and rupture in some. The cholesterol content is widely variable within each particle creating either cholesterol-deplete or cholesterol-enriched particles...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194047/editorial-overview-gastrointestinal-regulatory-peptides
#16
H Christian Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194046/updates-on-the-biology-of-serotonin-and-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#17
Tara Swami, H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the most recent findings relevant to the biology of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in human gastrointestinal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Serotonin is synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract where it is secreted from enteroendocrine cells. Its biosynthesis is regulated by two isoforms of the enzyme TPH of which TPH1 is localized predominantly in gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140830/aspects-of-growth-and-development-endocrine-and-nonendocrine-paradigms
#18
Lynne L Levitsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135489/endocrine-disrupters-and-pubertal-timing
#19
Louise C Greenspan, Mary M Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes recent epidemiologic data demonstrating the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on the timing of puberty and highlights the complexity of understanding the interplay of environmental and genetic factors on pubertal timing. RECENT FINDINGS: In girls, there have been mixed results, with some exposures being associated with earlier timing of puberty, and some with later puberty. In boys, prepubertal exposures to nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls accelerate puberty, whereas levels of insecticides, dioxin-like compounds, organochlorine pesticides, and lead delay puberty...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135488/endocrine-manifestations-of-down-syndrome
#20
Rachel Whooten, Jessica Schmitt, Alison Schwartz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent developments in endocrine disorders associated with Down syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Current research regarding bone health and Down syndrome continues to show an increased prevalence of low bone mass and highlights the importance of considering short stature when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The underlying cause of low bone density is an area of active research and will shape treatment and preventive measures...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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