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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639967/ras-positive-thyroid-nodules
#1
Trevor E Angell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review focuses on the uncertainty regarding the management of rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog RAS-positive thyroid nodules. The application of oncogene testing has been heralded for improving risk assessment for indeterminate cytology thyroid nodules and has grown in clinical use. RAS mutations are historically considered oncogenic. However, RAS mutation detection in thyroid nodules has proven problematic, as these mutations are found in benign and malignant lesions...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639966/risk-of-embryopathies-with-use-of-antithyroidal-medications
#2
Stine L Andersen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperthyroidism in pregnant women should be adequately treated to prevent maternal and fetal complications. The treatment of choice in pregnancy is antithyroidal medications (ATDs). The risk of embryopathies associated with the use of Methimazole (MMI) and Propylthiouracil (PTU) in early pregnancy is a matter of clinical attention and concern. This review describes current evidence and how scientific findings are reflected in current clinical guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: Embryopathies after the use of ATDs were previously mainly described in case reports and considered rare...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639965/is-selenium-supplementation-in-autoimmune-thyroid-diseases-justified
#3
Kristian H Winther, Steen Bonnema, Laszlo Hegedüs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632526/persistent-hypothyroid-symptoms-in-a-patient-with-a-normal-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-level
#4
Jacqueline Jonklaas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A subset of patients being treated for hypothyroidism do not feel well while taking levothyroxine (LT4) replacement therapy, despite having a normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone level. Pursuing a relative triiodothyronine deficiency as a potential explanation for patient dissatisfaction, has led to trials of combination therapy with liothyronine (LT3), with largely negative outcomes. This review attempts to reconcile these diverse findings, consider potential explanations, and identify areas for future research...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590323/oxytocin-and-potential-benefits-for-obesity-treatment
#5
Pawel K Olszewski, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Laboratory animal experiments have consistently shown that oxytocin causes early termination of food intake, thereby promoting a decrease in body weight in a long term. Recent studies have also assessed some of oxytocin's effects on appetite and energy balance in humans. The present study examines the findings of the key basic research and of the few clinical studies published thus far in the context of potential benefits and challenges stemming from the use of oxytocin in obese patients...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520591/stem-cell-therapy-and-its-potential-role-in-pituitary-disorders
#6
Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Oluwaseun O Akinduro, Ronald Reimer, Whitney W Woodmansee, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pituitary gland is one of the key components of the endocrine system. Congenital or acquired alterations can mediate destruction of cells in the gland leading to hormonal dysfunction. Even though pharmacological treatment for pituitary disorders is available, exogenous hormone replacement is neither curative nor sustainable. Thus, alternative therapies to optimize management and improve quality of life are desired. RECENT FINDINGS: An alternative modality to re-establish pituitary function is to promote endocrine cell regeneration through stem cells that can be obtained from the pituitary parenchyma or pluripotent cells...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520590/role-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-pituitary-tumours-from-bench-to-bedside
#7
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Odelia Cooper
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of aggressive pituitary tumours often yields suboptimal control of the tumour and confers significant morbidity. Lactotroph and corticotroph-derived tumours express ErbB receptors and ligands, and mutations in ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8), which alters epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation, have been implicated in Cushing disease pathogenesis. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has emerged as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with aggressive prolactinomas and Cushing disease...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509691/development-of-glucose-responsive-smart-insulin-systems
#8
Nischay K Rege, Nelson F B Phillips, Michael A Weiss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The complexity of modern insulin-based therapy for type I and type II diabetes mellitus and the risks associated with excursions in blood-glucose concentration (hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia) have motivated the development of 'smart insulin' technologies (glucose-responsive insulin, GRI). Such analogs or delivery systems are entities that provide insulin activity proportional to the glycemic state of the patient without external monitoring by the patient or healthcare provider...
May 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509690/genetics-and-its-potential-to-improve-type-1-diabetes-care
#9
Stephen S Rich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The genetic basis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is being characterized through DNA sequence variation and cell type specificity. This review discusses the current understanding of the genes and variants implicated in risk of T1D and how genetic information can be used in prediction, intervention and components of clinical care. RECENT FINDINGS: Fine mapping and functional studies has provided resolution of the heritable basis of T1D risk, incorporating novel insights on the dominant role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes as well as the lesser impact of non-HLA genes...
May 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509692/t1d-autoantibodies-room-for-improvement
#10
Liping Yu, Zhiyuan Zhao, Andrea K Steck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is now predictable by measuring major islet autoantibodies (IAbs) against insulin and other pancreatic β cells proteins including GAD65 (GADA), islet antigen 2 (IA-2A), and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A). The assay technology for IAbs has made great progress; however, several important aspects still need to be addressed and improved. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently a radio-binding assay has been well established as the 'gold' standard assay for all four IAbs...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375882/salivary-cortisol-and-cortisone-in-the-clinical-setting
#11
Joanne Blair, Jo Adaway, Brian Keevil, Richard Ross
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A resurgence of interest in salivary biomarkers has generated evidence for their value in assessing adrenal function. The advantages of salivary measurements include only free hormone is detected, samples can be collected during normal daily routines and stress-induced cortisol release is less likely to occur than during venepuncture. We review the use of salivary biomarkers to diagnose and monitor patients for conditions of cortisol excess and deficiency and discuss the value of measuring salivary cortisone versus salivary cortisol...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288009/update-on-adrenal-insufficiency-diagnosis-and-management-in-pregnancy
#12
Fabienne Langlois, Dawn S T Lim, Maria Fleseriu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal insufficiency in pregnancy, although relatively rare, has significant clinical implications on both maternal and fetal outcomes. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis dynamics and physiological changes are complex, thus diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency in pregnancy remain challenging. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies consistently demonstrate a rise in total serum cortisol with pregnancy, but less data are available on free cortisol levels...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277342/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity
#13
Laura Patriarca, Greta Magerowski, Miguel Alonso-Alonso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines recent advances in the use of functional neuroimaging to study human obesity, a field that is rapidly expanding and continues to be of paramount importance for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition. With rising levels of obesity worldwide and limited therapeutic options, there is a great need for the development of new solutions that can benefit patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies that utilize functional neuroimaging are beginning to shed light on the nature of behavioral and neurocognitive dysfunctions previously identified in individuals with obesity...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277341/analgesic-use-in-pregnancy-and-male-reproductive-development
#14
Pablo Hurtado-Gonzalez, Rod T Mitchell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Male reproductive disorders are common and increasing in incidence in many countries. Environmental factors (including pharmaceuticals) have been implicated in the development of these disorders. This review aims to summarize the emerging epidemiological and experimental evidence for a potential role of in-utero exposure to analgesics in the development of male reproductive disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between in utero exposure to analgesics and the development of cryptorchidism, although these findings are not consistent across all studies...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277340/update-on-adrenocortical-carcinoma-management-and-future-directions
#15
Jeena Varghese, Mouhammed Amir Habra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present an update on the management of and future directions in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). RECENT FINDINGS: ACC is a rare malignancy with high morbidity and mortality. Surgery remains the mainstay treatment for localized disease, but it is often not feasible in more advanced cases. There is an ongoing controversy about the routine use of adjuvant treatments after surgery. Hormonal overproduction can complicate the management and worsen the prognosis of the disease...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277339/clinical-dilemmas-in-the-management-of-transgender-men
#16
Michael S Irwig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the medical and surgical clinical dilemmas in the management of trans (transgender) men, a growing population receiving more attention than in the past. RECENT FINDINGS: Testosterone therapy is commonly prescribed to trans men for masculinization. Nonetheless, the optimal formulations and doses of testosterone therapy for trans men have not been well established. Testosterone therapy has been associated with increased levels of hemoglobin and triglycerides, as well as diabetes...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248755/testicular-growth-and-development-in-puberty
#17
Jaakko J Koskenniemi, Helena E Virtanen, Jorma Toppari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe pubertal testicular growth in humans, changes in testicular cell populations that result in testicular growth, and the role of testosterone and gonadotrophins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in testicular growth. When human data were not available, studies in nonhuman primates and/or rodents were used as surrogates. RECENT FINDINGS: Testicular growth in puberty follows a sigmoidal growth curve, with a large variation in timing of testicular growth and adult testicular volume...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248754/patterns-of-testosterone-prescription-overuse
#18
Guneet K Jasuja, Shalender Bhasin, Adam J Rose
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been an increase in the prescribing of testosterone therapy in the past decade. There is concern that at least part of this increase is driven by advertising rather than sound medical practice. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent trends in testosterone prescribing, and to examine whether testosterone is being appropriately prescribed as per guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: Both global and U.S. data reflect an overall increase in the use of testosterone in the last decade, although there are early signs of a decline in testosterone sales since 2014...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248753/update-on-the-risks-of-benign-adrenocortical-incidentalomas
#19
Guido Di Dalmazi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies highlighted the association between adrenocortical incidentalomas and several comorbidities. This review summarizes the most recent evidence showing the potential risks related to adrenocortical tumors classified as nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas (NFAIs) or associated with clinically autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS). RECENT FINDINGS: Alterations in glucose metabolism are a common finding in patients with ACS (30% of the cases)...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248752/radiofrequency-ablation-treatment-for-aldosterone-producing-adenomas
#20
Barry A Sacks, Ari C Sacks, Salomao Faintuch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current status of radiofrequency ablation as a primary treatment for hyperfunctioning adrenal nodules, predominantly aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). RECENT FINDINGS: Radiofrequency ablation is an established treatment for focal benign and malignant lesions, including metastatic disease to the adrenal gland. Hyperaldosteronism is the leading cause of secondary hypertension with up to 80% due to APA, statistically the most common functioning adrenal nodule...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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