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Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288009/update-on-adrenal-insufficiency-diagnosis-and-management-in-pregnancy
#1
Fabienne Langlois, Dawn S T Lim, Maria Fleseriu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal insufficiency in pregnancy, although relatively rare, has significant clinical implications on both maternal and fetal outcomes. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis dynamics and physiological changes are complex, thus diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency in pregnancy remain challenging. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies consistently demonstrate a rise in total serum cortisol with pregnancy, but less data are available on free cortisol levels...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277342/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity
#2
Laura Patriarca, Greta Magerowski, Miguel Alonso-Alonso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines recent advances in the use of functional neuroimaging to study human obesity, a field that is rapidly expanding and continues to be of paramount importance for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition. With rising levels of obesity worldwide and limited therapeutic options, there is a great need for the development of new solutions that can benefit patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies that utilize functional neuroimaging are beginning to shed light on the nature of behavioral and neurocognitive dysfunctions previously identified in individuals with obesity...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277341/analgesic-use-in-pregnancy-and-male-reproductive-development
#3
Pablo Hurtado-Gonzalez, Rod T Mitchell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Male reproductive disorders are common and increasing in incidence in many countries. Environmental factors (including pharmaceuticals) have been implicated in the development of these disorders. This review aims to summarize the emerging epidemiological and experimental evidence for a potential role of in-utero exposure to analgesics in the development of male reproductive disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between in utero exposure to analgesics and the development of cryptorchidism, although these findings are not consistent across all studies...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277340/update-on-adrenocortical-carcinoma-management-and-future-directions
#4
Jeena Varghese, Mouhammed Amir Habra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present an update on the management of and future directions in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). RECENT FINDINGS: ACC is a rare malignancy with high morbidity and mortality. Surgery remains the mainstay treatment for localized disease, but it is often not feasible in more advanced cases. There is an ongoing controversy about the routine use of adjuvant treatments after surgery. Hormonal overproduction can complicate the management and worsen the prognosis of the disease...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277339/clinical-dilemmas-in-the-management-of-transgender-men
#5
Michael S Irwig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the medical and surgical clinical dilemmas in the management of trans (transgender) men, a growing population receiving more attention than in the past. RECENT FINDINGS: Testosterone therapy is commonly prescribed to trans men for masculinization. Nonetheless, the optimal formulations and doses of testosterone therapy for trans men have not been well established. Testosterone therapy has been associated with increased levels of hemoglobin and triglycerides, as well as diabetes...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248755/testicular-growth-and-development-in-puberty
#6
Jaakko J Koskenniemi, Helena E Virtanen, Jorma Toppari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe pubertal testicular growth in humans, changes in testicular cell populations that result in testicular growth, and the role of testosterone and gonadotrophins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in testicular growth. When human data were not available, studies in nonhuman primates and/or rodents were used as surrogates. RECENT FINDINGS: Testicular growth in puberty follows a sigmoidal growth curve, with a large variation in timing of testicular growth and adult testicular volume...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248754/patterns-of-testosterone-prescription-overuse
#7
Guneet K Jasuja, Shalender Bhasin, Adam J Rose
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been an increase in the prescribing of testosterone therapy in the past decade. There is concern that at least part of this increase is driven by advertising rather than sound medical practice. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent trends in testosterone prescribing, and to examine whether testosterone is being appropriately prescribed as per guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: Both global and U.S. data reflect an overall increase in the use of testosterone in the last decade, although there are early signs of a decline in testosterone sales since 2014...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248753/update-on-the-risks-of-benign-adrenocortical-incidentalomas
#8
Guido Di Dalmazi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies highlighted the association between adrenocortical incidentalomas and several comorbidities. This review summarizes the most recent evidence showing the potential risks related to adrenocortical tumors classified as nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas (NFAIs) or associated with clinically autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS). RECENT FINDINGS: Alterations in glucose metabolism are a common finding in patients with ACS (30% of the cases)...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248752/radiofrequency-ablation-treatment-for-aldosterone-producing-adenomas
#9
Barry A Sacks, Ari C Sacks, Salomao Faintuch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current status of radiofrequency ablation as a primary treatment for hyperfunctioning adrenal nodules, predominantly aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). RECENT FINDINGS: Radiofrequency ablation is an established treatment for focal benign and malignant lesions, including metastatic disease to the adrenal gland. Hyperaldosteronism is the leading cause of secondary hypertension with up to 80% due to APA, statistically the most common functioning adrenal nodule...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234804/malignant-pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma-pathogenesis-tnm-staging-and-current-clinical-trials
#10
Alejandro Roman-Gonzalez, Camilo Jimenez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors. Over the last 15 years, substantial progress has been made toward understanding the clinical aspects and molecular origins of this disease. Nevertheless, predicting and managing malignancy remains the biggest challenge in clinical practice. The natural history of patients with malignant PPGs has not yet been described, and their prognosis varies. Currently, the diagnosis of malignant PPGs relies on the presence of metastases, by which time the disease is usually advanced...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234803/clinical-significance-of-11-oxygenated-androgens
#11
Adina F Turcu, Richard J Auchus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The adrenal gland is considered a source of weak androgens, such as dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androstenedione. Emerging evidence proposes a set of 11-oxygenated 19-carbon (11oxC19) adrenal-derived steroids as clinically important androgens. Such steroids include 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione, 11-ketoandrostenedione, 11β-hydroxytestosterone, and 11-ketotestosterone. The present review will discuss the synthesis, androgenic activity, and clinical implications of the 11oxC19 steroids...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234802/diagnosis-of-a-malignant-adrenal-mass-the-role-of-urinary-steroid-metabolite-profiling
#12
Irina Bancos, Wiebke Arlt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal masses are highly prevalent, found in 5% of the population. Differentiation of benign adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma is currently hampered by the poor specificity and limited evidence base of imaging tests. This review summarizes the results of studies published to date on urine steroid metabolite profiling for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses. RECENT FINDINGS: Three studies have described cohorts of at least 100 patients with adrenal tumors showing significant differences between urinary steroid metabolite excretions according to the nature of the underlying lesion, suggesting significant value of steroid metabolite profiling as a highly accurate diagnostic test...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234801/androgens-and-athletic-performance-of-elite-female-athletes
#13
Stéphane Bermon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: During the last decades androgens have been used illicitly by athletes of both genders. Because of some obvious ethical limitations, mechanisms underlying the performance-enhancing effects of these hormone or drugs, as well as the magnitude of their effects, have been poorly addressed. This review aims to combine findings from field and from the laboratory to provide new insights into the ergogenic properties of endogenous or exogenous androgens on female athletes. RECENT FINDINGS: Results obtained from recent neuropsychological studies indicated that testosterone, and not the sex chromosomes, is responsible for the sexual differentiation of visuospatial neural activation...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107248/how-mice-are-indispensable-for-understanding-obesity-and-diabetes-genetics
#14
Alan D Attie, Gary A Churchill, Joseph H Nadeau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The task of cataloging human genetic variation and its relation to disease is rapidly approaching completion. The new challenge is to discover the function of disease-associated genes and to understand the pathways that lead to human disease. We propose that achieving this new level of understanding will increasingly rely on the use of model organisms. We discuss the advantages of the mouse as a model organism. RECENT FINDINGS: The collection of available mouse strains represents as much genetic and phenotype variation as is found in the human population...
January 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107247/plaque-burden-microstructures-and-compositions-underachieving-very-low-ldl-c-levels
#15
Yu Kataoka, Jordan Andrews, Rishi Puri, Peter J Psaltis, Stephen J Nicholls
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the impact of lowering LDL-C on plaque progression, microstructures and compositions. RECENT FINDINGS: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major therapeutic target to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Intravascular imaging has elucidated antiatherosclerotic effects of lowering LDL-C in vivo. Intensive control of LDL-C with a statin has been shown to slow plaque progression and induce its regression if very low LDL-C level is achieved...
January 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099208/the-upside-down-world-of-diabetes-care-medical-economics-and-what-we-might-do-to-improve-it
#16
David M Harlan, Irl B Hirsch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasingly over the past generation, the American healthcare delivery system has received consistently poor marks with regard to public health outcomes and costs. This review by two seasoned diabetes care providers is intended to shed light on the fundamental flaws we believe to underlie that poor performance, and suggest options for better outcomes and cost efficiencies. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite major advances in diabetes management medications and tools, overall public health with regard to diabetes outcomes remains poor...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099207/could-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-predict-increased-cardiovascular-risk
#17
Tae Ik Chang, Elani Streja, Hamid Moradi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is considered to be protective against cardiovascular disease. However, there is emerging evidence that under certain conditions the HDL molecule can become dysfunctional and proinflammatory, paradoxically leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review will provide a brief outline of the potential mechanisms by which HDL can become atherogenic and summarize some of the clinical evidence on this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: HDL metabolism, structure, and function in addition to its level can be profoundly altered under conditions of marked oxidative stress and chronic inflammation...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099205/the-hdl-cholesterol-apolipoprotein-a-i-ratio-an-indicator-of-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Eun-Jung Rhee, Christopher D Byrne, Ki-Chul Sung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In multiple studies, the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration has been shown to be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk. Based on this observation, increasing the plasma HDL-C concentration is thought to be a desirable strategy, in the 21st century, for decreasing the burden of CVD. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that powerful HDL-C concentration-increasing drugs are ineffective for decreasing CVD. Increasing evidence now shows that HDL is an unstable and heterogeneous particle, and that 'HDL particle functionality' is far more important in atheroprotection than is the HDL-C level, alone...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098595/editorial
#19
David M Harlan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098593/familial-dysbetalipoproteinemia-an-underdiagnosed-lipid-disorder
#20
Charlotte Koopal, A David Marais, Frank L J Visseren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review pathophysiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of familial dysbetalipoproteinemia; a model disease for remnant metabolism and remnant-associated cardiovascular risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia is characterized by remnant accumulation caused by impaired remnant clearance, and premature cardiovascular disease. Most familial dysbetalipoproteinemia patients are homozygous for apolipoprotein ε2, which is associated with decreased binding of apolipoprotein E to the LDL receptor...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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