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Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling

Moises Freitas-Andrade, Jennifer She, John Bechberger, Christian C Naus, Wun Chey Sin
Connexin43 (Cx43) gap junctions expressed in astrocytes can significantly impact neuronal survival in stroke. However, little is known regarding Cx43 spatial and temporal expression during the initial stages of brain ischemia. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, we examined Cx43 spatial and temporal expression as a function of neuronal injury within the first 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in Cx43 protein expression in the core ischemic area at 2 and 3 h after pMCAO...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Christopher Tacke, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Miriam Rehfeldt, Veronica Murahovschi, Mariya Markova, Margrit Kemper, Silke Hornemann, Ulrike Kaiser, Caroline Honig, Christiana Gerbracht, Stefan Kabisch, Tina Hörbelt, D Margriet Ouwens, Martin O Weickert, Heiner Boeing, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Olga Pivovarova, Natalia Rudovich
WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP-1/CCN4) is a novel adipokine, which is upregulated in obesity, and induces a pro-inflammatory response in macrophages in-vitro. Preclinical observations suggested WISP-1/CCN4 as a potential candidate for novel obesity therapy targeting adipose tissue inflammation. Whether circulating levels of WISP-1/CCN4 in humans are altered in obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and in the postprandial state, however, is unknown. This study assessed circulating WISP-1/CCN4 levels in a) paired liquid meal tests and hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic clamps (cohort I, n = 26), b) healthy individuals (cohort II, n = 207) and c) individuals with different stages of obesity and glucose tolerance (cohort III, n = 253)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Sho Akashi, Takashi Nishida, Abdellatif El-Seoudi, Masaharu Takigawa, Seiji Iida, Satoshi Kubota
The CCN family consists of 6 genes in the mammalian genome and produces multifunctional proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. Recent reports indicate the profound roles of CCN2 in energy metabolism in chondrocytes, and Ccn2 deficiency is known to alter the expression of 2 other family members including Ccn3. However, almost nothing is known concerning the regulation of the CCN family genes by energy metabolism. In order to gain insight into this critical issue, we initially and comprehensively evaluated the effect of inhibition of glycolysis on the expression of all of the CCN family genes in chondrocytic cells...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Lisa J Crawford, Cliona K Johnston, Alexandra E Irvine
Post-translational modification of proteins with ubiquitin plays a central role in regulating numerous cellular processes. E3 ligases determine the specificity of ubiquitination by mediating the transfer of ubiquitin to substrate proteins. The family of tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins make up one of the largest subfamilies of E3 ligases. Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of TRIM proteins is associated with a variety of diseases. In this review we focus on the involvement of TRIM proteins in blood cancers...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
James Hutchenreuther, Andrew Leask
Melanoma metastasis is fatal. Melanoma cells are often characterized by an activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway downstream of mutations in BRAF. Therapies targeting these BRAF mutations are useful for a while; however, patients ultimately develop resistance to these therapies. Recent evidence suggests that this resistance occurs when tumor cells leave their microenvironment and migrate on a stiff, activated tumor stroma; that is, this resistance is linked to the presence of an extracellular matrix reminiscent of a fibrotic micronvironment...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Tadashi Yamamoto, Yuki Ugawa, Mari Kawamura, Keisuke Yamashiro, Shinsuke Kochi, Hidetaka Ideguchi, Shogo Takashiba
Cells behave in a variety of ways when they perceive changes in their microenvironment; the behavior of cells is guided by their coordinated interactions with growth factors, niche cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM). Modulation of the microenvironment affects the cell morphology and multiple gene expressions. Rho/Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) signaling is one of the key regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and actively and/or passively determines the cell fate, such as proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis, by reciprocal communication with the microenvironment...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Gary Fisher, Laure Rittié
In skin, the basement membrane at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ-BM) is an important structure that tightly binds the epidermis to the dermis, and acts as a permeability barrier that controls exchange of macromolecules. Repair of the DEJ-BM during wound healing is important for restoration of skin functional properties after wounding. Here, we used a CO2 laser to perform partial thickness wounds in human volunteers, and directly compared wound repair in healthy young and aged individuals, focusing on the DEJ-BM...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Baokun Chen, Chao Zeng, Yiwang Ye, Da Wu, Zhimin Mu, Jixian Liu, Yuancai Xie, Hao Wu
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Promoter methylation of transcription factor 21 (TCF21) was frequently observed in the early stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, clinical relevance and molecular functions of TCF21 in NSCLC progression remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the associations between TCF21 expression and clinicopathological features in 100 patients with NSCLC and revealed the underlying molecular mechanisms of TCF21 methylation on cell viability, apoptosis and invasion of H1299 cells...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Philip C Trackman
The lysyl oxidase family of proteins is primarily known for its critical role in catalyzing extracellular oxidative deamination of hydroxylysine and lysine residues in collagens, and lysine residues in elastin required for connective tissue structure and function. Lysyl oxidases have additional important biological functions in health and disease. While the enzyme domains are highly conserved, the propeptide regions are less uniform, and have biological activity, some of which are independent of their respective enzymes...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Akira Kudo, Isao Kii
Periostin is a secretory protein with a multi-domain structure, comprising an amino-terminal cysteine-rich EMI domain, four internal FAS 1 domains, and a carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic domain. These adjacent domains bind to extracellular matrix proteins (type I collagen, fibronectin, tenascin-C, and laminin γ2), and BMP-1 that catalyzes crosslinking of type I collagen, and proteoglycans, which play a role in cell adhesion. The binding sites on periostin have been demonstrated to contribute to the mechanical strength of connective tissues, enhancing intermolecular interactions in close proximity and their assembly into extracellular matrix architectures, where periostin plays further essential roles in physiological maintenance and pathological progression...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Benjamin Y Owusu, Kurt A Zimmerman, Joanne E Murphy-Ullrich
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key factor contributing to fibrotic disease. Although ER stress is a short-term adaptive response, with chronic stimulation, it can activate pathways leading to fibrosis. ER stress can induce TGF-β signaling, a central driver of extracellular matrix production in fibrosis. This review will discuss the role of an ER protein, calreticulin (CRT), which has both chaperone and calcium regulatory functions, in fibrosis. CRT expression is upregulated in multiple different fibrotic diseases...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Masaharu Takigawa
The principal aim of this historical review is to present the processes by which the different aspects of CCN2/CTGF/Hcs24 were discovered by different groups and how much CCN2/CTGF, by being integrated into CCN family, has contributed to the establishment of the basic concepts regarding the role and functions of this new class of proteins. This review should be particularly useful to new investigators who have recently entered this exciting field of study and also provides a good opportunity to acknowledge the input of those individuals who participated in the development of this scientific field...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Li Chen, Ruju Chen, Sherri Kemper, David R Brigstock
Hepatocyte exosomes (Exo(Hep)) are proposed to mediate physiological or pathophysiological signaling in a variety of hepatic target cells. Exo(Hep) were purified from the medium of primary mouse hepatocytes or AML12 cells and characterized as ~100 nm nanovesicles that were positive for proteins commonly found in exosomes (CD9, CD81, flotillin) or hepatocytes (asialoglycoprotein receptor). Ethanol treatment of hepatocytes caused increased Exo(Hep) release and increased cellular mRNA expression of components involved in intracellular vesicle trafficking (Rab 5a,b,c, Rab 7a, Rab 27a,b) or exosome biogenesis via the ESCRT (HGS, Alix, STAM1, TSG101, VTA1, YKT6) or ceramide (nSmase2) pathways...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Elaine Ngan, Alex Kiepas, Claire M Brown, Peter M Siegel
LIM domain containing proteins are important regulators of diverse cellular processes, and play pivotal roles in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Lipoma Preferred Partner (LPP) is a member of the zyxin family of LIM proteins that has long been characterized as a promoter of mesenchymal/fibroblast cell migration. More recently, LPP has emerged as a critical inducer of tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. LPP is thought to contribute to these malignant phenotypes by virtue of its ability to shuttle into the nucleus, localize to adhesions and, most recently, to promote invadopodia formation...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Shigeyuki Kon, Toshimitsu Uede
Adhesion of cells to extracellular matrix proteins through integrins expressed on the cell surface is important for cell adhesion/motility, survival, and differentiation. Recently, α9β1 integrin was reported to be important for the development of autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and their murine models. In addition, ligands for α9β1 integrin, such as osteopontin and tenascin-C, are well established as key regulators of autoimmune diseases. Therefore, this review focused on the role of interactions between α9β1 integrin and its ligands in the development of autoimmune diseases...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Atul Kumar, Trishna Anand, Jina Bhattacharyya, Amit Sharma, Bithiah Grace Jaganathan
Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment plays an important role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. As a consequence of interaction with the leukemic cells, the stromal cells of the bone marrow become deregulated in their normal function and gene expression. In our study, we found that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from BM of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients have defective osteogenic differentiation and on interaction with K562 CML cells, the normal MSC showed reduced osteogenic differentiation. On interaction with K562 cells or its secreted factors, MSC acquired phenotypic abnormalities and secreted high levels of IL6 through NFκB activation...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Marion Flum, Michael Kleemann, Helga Schneider, Benjamin Weis, Simon Fischer, René Handrick, Kerstin Otte
Apoptosis is a genetically directed process of programmed cell death. A variety of microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides in length have been shown to be involved in the regulation of the intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic pathways. There is increasing evidence that the aberrant expression of miRNAs plays a causal role in the development of diseases such as cancer. This makes miRNAs promising candidate molecules as therapeutic targets or agents. MicroRNA (miR)-217-5p has been implicated in carcinogenesis of various cancer entities, including colorectal cancer...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Chunji Quan, Yan Yan, Zhaoping Qin, Zhenhua Lin, Taihao Quan
Ezrin acts as a dynamic linkage between plasma membrane and cytoskeleton, and thus involved in many fundamental cellular functions. Yet, its potential role in human skin is virtually unknown. Here we investigate the role of Ezrin in primary skin fibroblasts, the major cells responsible extracellular matrix (ECM) production. We report that Ezrin play an important role in the maintenance of skin fibroblast size/mechanical properties and proliferation. siRNA-mediated Ezrin knockdown decreased fibroblast size and mechanical properties, and thus impaired the nuclear translocation of YAP, a protein commonly response to cell size and mechanical force...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
María Gabriela Morales, María José Acuña, Daniel Cabrera, Roel Goldschmeding, Enrique Brandan
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) has strong inflammatory and profibrotic activities. Its expression is enhanced in skeletal muscular dystrophies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a myopathy characterized by exacerbated inflammation and fibrosis. In dystrophic tissue, necrotic-regenerative foci, myofibroblasts, newly-regenerated muscle fibers and necrosis all occur simultaneously. To determine if CCN2 is involved in the appearance of the foci, we studied their presence and characteristics in mdx mice (DMD mouse model) compared to mdx mice hemizygous for CCN2 (mdx-Ccn2+/-)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
J A Willson, C A Muir, C L Evered, M A Cepeda, S Damjanovski
The membrane bound matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP plays roles in modulating cell movement, independent of its abilities to remodel the extracellular matrix. Unlike many MMPs, MT1-MMP is activated in the Golgi prior to secretion by a pro-protein convertase, primarily furin. Regulation of the activation of pro-MT1-MMP has been methodically investigated, as altering the level of the active protein has broad implications in both activating other pro-MMPs, including pro-MMP-2, and many subsequent remodelling events...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
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