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Cognitive Neurodynamics

Jianfeng Hu, Jianliang Min
Driver fatigue is increasingly a contributing factor for traffic accidents, so an effective method to automatically detect driver fatigue is urgently needed. In this study, in order to catch the main characteristics of the EEG signals, four types of entropies (based on the EEG signal of a single channel) were calculated as the feature sets, including sample entropy, fuzzy entropy, approximate entropy and spectral entropy. All feature sets were used as the input of a gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT), a fast and highly accurate boosting ensemble method...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Ahammed Sherief Kizhakkethil Youseph, Madhu Chetty, Gour Karmakar
A gene regulatory network (GRN) represents a set of genes and its regulatory interactions. The inference of the regulatory interactions between genes is usually carried out using an appropriate mathematical model and the available gene expression profile. Among the various models proposed for GRN inference, our recently proposed Michaelis-Menten based ODE model provides a good trade-off between the computational complexity and biological relevance. This model, like other known GRN models, also uses an evolutionary algorithm for parameter estimation...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Lijie Hao, Zhuoqin Yang, Pulin Gong, Jinzhi Lei
Experiments have demonstrated that in mice, the PVT strongly projects to the CeL and participates in the formation of fear memories by synaptic potentiation in the amygdala. Herein, we propose a mathematical model based on a positive feedback loop of BDNF expression and signaling to investigate PVT manipulation of synaptic potentiation. The model is validated by comparisons with experimental observations. We find that a high postsynaptic firing frequency after stimulation is induced by presynaptic <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Vito Di Maio, Silvia Santillo, Antonio Sorgente, Paolo Vanacore, Francesco Ventriglia
The activity of the single synapse is the base of information processing and transmission in the brain as well as of important phenomena as the Long Term Potentiation which is the main mechanism for learning and memory. Although usually considered as independent events, the single quantum release gives variable postsynaptic responses which not only depend on the properties of the synapses but can be strongly influenced by the activity of other synapses. In the present paper we show the results of a series of computational experiments where pools of active synapses, in a compatible time window, influence the response of a single synapse of the considered pool...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Fatih Arslan, Serdar Tasdemir, Abdullah Durmaz, Fuat Tosun
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory mucosa of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of nasal obstruction related to chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis on cognitive functions. Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis causing bilateral total or near total nasal obstruction were enrolled in the study. Symptoms of nasal congestion, loss of smell, postnasal drip, headaches, snoring, concentration difficulties and blunted affect were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Dongyong Guo, Jianhui Gan, Tao Tan, Xin Tian, Guolin Wang, Kevin Tak-Pan Ng
Ketamine is one of general anesthetics and has been commonly used in obstetric and pediatric anesthesia. However, effects of exposure to ketamine on neonatal brain are largely unknown. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of neonatal exposure of ketamine on spatial memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of adult rats. One-week-old neonatal rats were separated into ketamine group and control group. Neonatal rats in ketamine group were received intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg (low-dose group, N = 8) or 50 mg/kg ketamine (high-dose group, N = 8)...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Hongtao Wang, Andrei Dragomir, Nida Itrat Abbasi, Junhua Li, Nitish V Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos
Development of techniques for detection of mental fatigue has varied applications in areas where sustaining attention is of critical importance like security and transportation. The objective of this study is to develop a novel real-time driving fatigue detection methodology based on dry Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. The study has employed two methods in the online detection of mental fatigue: power spectrum density ( PSD ) and sample entropy (SE). The wavelet packets transform (WPT) method was utilized to obtain the <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Cansın Özgör, Seray Şenyer Özgör, Adil Deniz Duru, Ümmühan Işoğlu-Alkaç
Time perception is defined as a subjective judgment on the elapsed time of an event. It can change according to both external and internal factors. There are two main paradigms of time perception; retrospective time perception (RTP) and prospective time perception (PTP). Two paradigms differ from each other according to whether the subject has knowledge on the importance of passage of time in the given task. Since RTP paradigm studies are harder to conduct, studies on RTP paradigm is far fewer than studies on PTP...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Mauricio Tejo, Sebastián Niklitschek-Soto, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos
The family of fatigue-life distributions is introduced as an alternative model of reaction time data. This family includes the shifted Wald distribution and a shifted version of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. Although the former has been proposed as a way to model reaction time data, the latter has not. Hence, we provide theoretical, mathematical and practical arguments in support of the shifted Birnbaum-Saunders as a suitable model of simple reaction times and associated cognitive mechanisms.
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Yuangen Yao, Jun Ma
Based on the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuron model subjected to sine-Wiener (SW) noise, impacts of SW noise on weak periodic signal detection are investigated by calculating response measure Q for characterizing synchronization between the input signal and the output temporal activities of the neuron. It is numerically demonstrated that the response measure Q can achieve the optimal value under appropriate and moderate intensity or correlation time of SW noise, suggesting the occurrence of SW-noise-induced stochastic resonance...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Sang-Yoon Kim, Woochang Lim
We consider an excitatory population of subthreshold Izhikevich neurons which cannot fire spontaneously without noise. As the coupling strength passes a threshold, individual neurons exhibit noise-induced burstings. This neuronal population has adaptive dynamic synaptic strengths governed by the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). However, STDP was not considered in previous works on stochastic burst synchronization (SBS) between noise-induced burstings of sub-threshold neurons. Here, we study the effect of additive STDP on SBS by varying the noise intensity D in the Barabási-Albert scale-free network (SFN)...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Dongmei Wang, Chenying Wang, Ling Liu, Sanqiang Li
Evodiamine, a major component of  Evodia rutaecarpa , has been reported to possess various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative stress, and neuroprotective effects. Our previous study has shown that the potential effects of evodiamine on the learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanism and therapeutic potential of evodiamine against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic Alzheimer's disease in mice...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Onur Bayazit, Gamze Üngür
Stress and anxiety are states which sportsmen are continuously exposed to. Our study aimed to evaluate neuroelectrical peripheral and central nervous system responses of sportsmen (SPR) and sedentary individuals (SED) during concentration grid test (CGT) employed under time pressure. Forty three SPR and 33 SED participated in the study. Neuroelectrical responses were simultaneously obtained during baseline and CGT. All responses were observed to increase under stress in both SED and SPR. The SPR's stress related peripheral responses were lower than SED's...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Lal Hussain
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder produced due to abnormal excitability of neurons in the brain. The research reveals that brain activity is monitored through electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients suffered from seizure to detect the epileptic seizure. The performance of EEG detection based epilepsy require feature extracting strategies. In this research, we have extracted varying features extracting strategies based on time and frequency domain characteristics, nonlinear, wavelet based entropy and few statistical features...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Ernesto Buiza, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Catarina I Barriga-Paulino, Antonio Arjona, Carlos M Gómez
The possibility that power-to-power (theta-beta) frequency coupling increases during development was analyzed. Three minutes of spontaneous EEG in an open eyes condition were recorded in a sample of 160 subjects ranging from 6 to 26 years old. Theta (4-7 Hz) and beta band (15-20 Hz) power was calculated in a trial-by-trial basis. Inter-electrode power correlations (IPC) were computed in each subject as the correlation between the power of two frequency bands recorded in two electrodes. An increase in theta-beta IPC with age was obtained...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Zahra Rostami, Sajad Jafari
Complex anatomical and physiological structure of an excitable tissue (e.g., cardiac tissue) in the body can represent different electrical activities through normal or abnormal behavior. Abnormalities of the excitable tissue coming from different biological reasons can lead to formation of some defects. Such defects can cause some successive waves that may end up to some additional reorganizing beating behaviors like spiral waves or target waves. In this study, formation of defects and the resulting emitted waves in an excitable tissue are investigated...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Jinjie Zhu, Xianbin Liu
In the present paper, a simple spike timing distance is defined which can be used to measure the degree of synchronization with the information only encoded in the precise timing of the spike trains. Via calculating the spike timing distance defined in this paper, the spike train similarity of uncoupled Hindmarsh-Rose neurons in bursting or spiking states with different initial conditions is investigated and the results are compared with other spike train distance measures. Later, the spike timing distance measure is applied to study the synchronization of coupled or common noise-stimulated neurons...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Mark H Myers, Robert Kozma
Simulations of EEG data provide the understanding of how the limbic system exhibits normal and abnormal states of the electrical activity of the brain. While brain activity exhibits a type of homeostasis of excitatory and inhibitory mesoscopic neuron behavior, abnormal neural firings found in the seizure state exhibits brain instability due to runaway oscillatory entrained neural behavior. We utilize a model of mesoscopic brain activity, the KIV model, where each network represents the areas of the limbic system, i...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Ummuhan Isoglu-Alkac, M Numan Ermutlu, Gökçer Eskikurt, İlker Yücesir, Sernaz Demirel Temel, Tan Temel
Physical exercise and the training effects of repeated practice of skills over an extended period of time may have additive effects on brain networks and functions. Various motor skills and attentional styles can be developed by athletes engaged in different sports. In this study, the effects of fast ball sports and dance training on attention were investigated by event related potentials (ERP). ERP were recorded in auditory and visual tasks in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
T Nimmy John, Subha D Puthankattil, Ramshekhar Menon
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a cognitive disability is analysed using a long range dependence parameter, hurst exponent (HE), calculated based on the time domain analysis of the measured electrical activity of brain. The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of controls and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-AD patients are evaluated under normal resting and mental arithmetic conditions. Simultaneous low pass filtering and total variation denoising algorithm is employed for preprocessing. Larger values of HE observed in the right hemisphere of the brain for AD patients indicated a decrease in irregularity of the EEG signal under cognitive task conditions...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
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