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Cognitive Neurodynamics

Mauricio Tejo, Sebastián Niklitschek-Soto
A simple integrate-and-fire mechanism of a single neuron can be compared with a cumulative damage process, where the spiking process is analogous to rupture sequences of a material under cycles of stress. Although in some cases lognormal-like patterns can be recognized in the inter-spike times under a simple integrate-and-fire mechanism, fatigue life models as the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution (which was recently introduced in the neural activity framework) provide theoretical arguments that make them more suitable for the modeling of the resulting inter-spike times...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Chaouki Aouiti
In this article, we consider a class of neutral impulsive shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks with time varying coefficients and leakage delays. We study the existence and the exponential stability of the piecewise differentiable pseudo almost-periodic solutions and establish sufficient conditions for the existence and exponential stability of such solutions. An example is provided to illustrate the theory developed in this work.
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Hongwen Zheng, Rubin Wang, Jingyi Qu
The glucose-excited neurons in brain can sense blood glucose levels and reflect different firing states, which are mainly associated with regulation of blood glucose and energy demand in the brain. In this paper, a new model of glucose-excited neuron in hypothalamus is proposed. The firing properties and energy consumption of this type of neuron under conditions of different glucose levels are simulated and analyzed. The results show that the firing rate and firing duration of the neuron both increase with increasing extracellular glucose levels, but the maximum energy power for an AP is reduced...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
R Manivannan, R Samidurai, Jinde Cao, Ahmed Alsaedi
This paper deals with the problem of delay-interval-dependent stability criteria for switched Hopfield neural networks of neutral type with successive time-varying delay components. A novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii (L-K) functionals with triple integral terms which involves more information on the state vectors of the neural networks and upper bound of the successive time-varying delays is constructed. By using the famous Jensen's inequality, Wirtinger double integral inequality, introducing of some zero equations and using the reciprocal convex combination technique and Finsler's lemma, a novel delay-interval dependent stability criterion is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which can be efficiently solved via standard numerical software...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Tiantian Liu, Shoukuan Mu, Huamin He, Lingcong Zhang, Cong Fan, Jie Ren, Mingming Zhang, Weiqi He, Wenbo Luo
The N170 component is considered a neural marker of face-sensitive processing. In the present study, the face-sensitive N170 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) was investigated with a modified oddball paradigm using a natural face (the standard stimulus), human- and animal-like makeup stimuli, scrambled control images that mixed human- and animal-like makeup pieces, and a grey control image. Nineteen participants were instructed to respond within 1000 ms by pressing the 'F' or 'J' key in response to the standard or deviant stimuli, respectively...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Frédéric Lavigne, Dominique Longrée, Damon Mayaffre, Sylvie Mellet
Neural network models describe semantic priming effects by way of mechanisms of activation of neurons coding for words that rely strongly on synaptic efficacies between pairs of neurons. Biologically inspired Hebbian learning defines efficacy values as a function of the activity of pre- and post-synaptic neurons only. It generates only pair associations between words in the semantic network. However, the statistical analysis of large text databases points to the frequent occurrence not only of pairs of words (e...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Yangsong Zhang, Daqing Guo, Peng Xu, Yu Zhang, Dezhong Yao
Multivariate synchronization index (MSI) has been proved to be an efficient method for frequency recognition in SSVEP-BCI systems. It measures the correlation according to the entropy of the normalized eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of multichannel signals. In the MSI method, the estimation of covariance matrix omits the temporally local structure of samples. In this study, a new spatio-temporal method, termed temporally local MSI (TMSI), was presented. This new method explicitly exploits temporally local information in modelling the covariance matrix...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Mahda Nasrolahzadeh, Zeynab Mohammadpoory, Javad Haddadnia
One main challenge for medical investigators is the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because it provides greater opportunities for patients to be eligible for more clinical trials. In this study, higher order spectra of human speech signals during AD were explored to analyze and compare the quadratic phase coupling of spontaneous speech signals for healthy and AD subjects using bispectrum and bicoherence. The results showed that the quadratic phase couplings of spontaneous speech signal of persons with Alzheimer's were reduced compared to healthy subject...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Xiao-Wei Qiu, Hai-Qing Gong, Pu-Ming Zhang, Pei-Ji Liang
Oscillatory activity of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) has been observed in various species. It was reported such oscillatory activity is raised within large neural network and involved in retinal information coding. In the present research, we found an oscillation-like activity in ON-OFF RGC of bullfrog retina, and studied the mechanisms underlying the ON and OFF activities respectively. Pharmacological experiments revealed that the oscillation-like activity patterns in both ON and OFF pathways were abolished by GABA receptor antagonists, indicating GABAergic inhibition is essential for generating them...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Alireza Mahdizadeh Hakak, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Nimish Biloria, Roy de Kleijn, Fanak Shah-Mohammadi
Perceptions of different environments are different for different people. An abstract designed environment, with a degree of freedom from any visual reference in the physical world requests a completely different perception than a fully or semi-designed environment that has some correlation with the physical world. Maximal evidence on the manner in which the human brain is involved/operates in dealing with such novel perception comes from neuropsychology. Harnessing the tools and techniques involved in the domain of neuropsychology, the paper presents nee evidence on the role of pre-central gyrus in the perception of abstract spatial environments...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Robert Kozma
Walter J. Freeman was a giant of the field of neuroscience whose visionary work contributed various experimental and theoretical breakthroughs to brain research in the past 60 years. He has pioneered a number of Electroencephalogram and Electrocorticogram tools and approaches that shaped the field, while "Freeman Neurodynamics" is a theoretical concept that is widely known, used, and respected among neuroscientists all over the world. His recent death is a profound loss to neuroscience and biomedical engineering...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Bekir Enes Demiryürek, Aslı Aksoy Gündogdu, Bilgehan Atılgan Acar, Aybala Neslihan Alagoz
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is an involuntary and rare neurological disorder emerges at upper extremity. AHS is a disconnection syndrome with the symptoms of losing sense of agency and sense of ownership, and presence of involuntary autonomic motor activity. There are frontal, callosal and posterior types of AHS and each of them occurs depend on the lesions of different of the brain. Posterior variant is a rarely encountered AHS type compared to others. AHS, generally regarded as persistent, but rarely maybe observed as paroxysmal...
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
R Rakkiyappan, S Premalatha, A Chandrasekar, Jinde Cao
This paper is concerned with the problem of stability and pinning synchronization of a class of inertial memristive neural networks with time delay. In contrast to general inertial neural networks, inertial memristive neural networks is applied to exhibit the synchronization and stability behaviors due to the physical properties of memristors and the differential inclusion theory. By choosing an appropriate variable transmission, the original system can be transformed into first order differential equations...
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Bo Zhou, Xiaofeng Liao, Tingwen Huang
In this paper, we consider exponential synchronization of complex networks. The information diffusions between nodes are driven by properly defined events. By employing the M-matrix theory, algebraic graph theory and the Lyapunov method, two kinds of distributed event-triggering laws are designed, which avoid continuous communications between nodes. Then, several criteria that ensure the event-based exponential synchronization are presented, and the exponential convergence rates are obtained as well. Furthermore, we prove that Zeno behavior of the event-triggering laws can be excluded before synchronization being achieved, that is, the lower bounds of inter-event times are strictly positive...
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Xiumin Li, Qing Chen, Fangzheng Xue
Burst firings are functionally important behaviors displayed by neural circuits, which plays a primary role in reliable transmission of electrical signals for neuronal communication. However, with respect to the computational capability of neural networks, most of relevant studies are based on the spiking dynamics of individual neurons, while burst firing is seldom considered. In this paper, we carry out a comprehensive study to compare the performance of spiking and bursting dynamics on the capability of liquid computing, which is an effective approach for intelligent computation of neural networks...
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Mengmeng Du, Jiajia Li, Rong Wang, Ying Wu
Experiments on hippocampal slices have recorded that a novel pattern of epileptic seizures with alternating excitatory and inhibitory activities in the CA1 region can be induced by an elevated potassium ion (K(+)) concentration in the extracellular space between neurons and astrocytes (ECS-NA). To explore the intrinsic effects of the factors (such as glial K(+) uptake, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, the K(+) concentration of the bath solution, and K(+) lateral diffusion) influencing K(+) concentration in the ECS-NA on the epileptic seizures recorded in previous experiments, we present a coupled model composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and glia in the CA1 region...
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Elie Bertrand Megam Ngouonkadi, Hilaire Bertrand Fotsin, Martial Kabong Nono, Patrick Herve Louodop Fotso
In this paper, we report on the synchronization of a pacemaker neuronal ensemble constituted of an AB neuron electrically coupled to two PD neurons. By the virtue of this electrical coupling, they can fire synchronous bursts of action potential. An external master neuron is used to induce to the whole system the desired dynamics, via a nonlinear controller. Such controller is obtained by a combination of sliding mode and feedback control. The proposed controller is able to offset uncertainties in the synchronized systems...
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Jianhua Zhang, Zhong Yin, Shaozeng Yang, Rubin Wang
This paper proposed a max-min-entropy-based fuzzy partition method for fuzzy model based estimation of human operator functional state (OFS). The optimal number of fuzzy partitions for each I/O variable of fuzzy model is determined by using the entropy criterion. The fuzzy models were constructed by using Wang-Mendel method. The OFS estimation results showed the practical usefulness of the proposed fuzzy modeling approach.
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Jiangbo Pu, Hanhui Xu, Yazhou Wang, Hongyan Cui, Yong Hu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a high-cost disability and may cause permanent loss of movement and sensation below the injury location. The chance of cure in human after SCI is extremely limited. Instead, neural regeneration could have been seen in animals after SCI, and such regeneration could be retarded by blocking neural plasticity pathways, showing the importance of neural plasticity in functional recovery. As an indicator of nonlinear dynamics in the brain, sample entropy was used here in combination with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and Kolmogorov complexity to quantify functional plasticity changes in spontaneous EEG recordings of rats before and after SCI...
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Vesna Vuksanović, Philipp Hövel
Brain imaging methods allow a non-invasive assessment of both structural and functional connectivity. However, the mechanism of how functional connectivity arises in a structured network of interacting neural populations is as yet poorly understood. Here we use a modeling approach to explore the way in which functional correlations arise from underlying structural connections taking into account inhomogeneities in the interactions between the brain regions of interest. The local dynamics of a neural population is assumed to be of phase-oscillator type...
August 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
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