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Cognitive Neurodynamics

Motoki Yamada, Yoshio Sakurai
Observational learning, which modulates one's own behavior by observing the adaptive behavior of others, is crucial for behaving efficiently in social communities. Although many behavioral experiments have reported observational learning in monkeys and humans, its neural mechanisms are still unknown. In order to conduct neuroscientific researches with recording neural activities, we developed an observational learning task for rats. We designed the task using Barnes circular maze and then tested whether rats (observers) could actually improve their learning by observing the behavior of other rats (models) that had already acquired the task...
October 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Yingmei Qin, Chunxiao Han, Yanqiu Che, Jia Zhao
A randomly connected network is constructed with similar characteristics (e.g., the ratio of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, the connection probability between neurons, and the axonal conduction delays) as that in the mammalian neocortex and the effects of high-frequency electrical field on the response of the network to a subthreshold low-frequency electrical field are studied in detail. It is found that both the amplitude and frequency of the high-frequency electrical field can modulate the response of the network to the low-frequency electric field...
October 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Mehmet Niyazi Çankaya
A two-dimensional shadow may encompass more information than its corresponding three-dimensional object. Indeed, if we rotate the object, we achieve a pool of observed shadows from different angulations, gradients, shapes and variable length contours that make it possible for us to increase our available information. Starting from this simple observation, we show how informational entropies might turn out to be useful in the evaluation of scale-free dynamics in the brain. Indeed, brain activity exhibits a scale-free distribution that leads to the variations in the power law exponent typical of different functional neurophysiological states...
October 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
A Ravishankar Rao
Since the world consists of objects that stimulate multiple senses, it is advantageous for a vertebrate to integrate all the sensory information available. However, the precise mechanisms governing the temporal dynamics of multisensory processing are not well understood. We develop a computational modeling approach to investigate these mechanisms. We present an oscillatory neural network model for multisensory learning based on sparse spatio-temporal encoding. Recently published results in cognitive science show that multisensory integration produces greater and more efficient learning...
October 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Deniz Yerlikaya, Derya Durusu Emek-Savaş, Behice Bircan Kurşun, İbrahim Öztura, Görsev G Yener
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep disorder characterized with upper airway obstructions. Some studies showed cognitive and electrophysiological changes in patients with OSAS; however, contradictory results were also reported. The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate cognitive changes in severe OSAS patients by using neuropsychological tests and electrophysiological methods together, (2) to investigate influence of hypoxemia levels on cognition. Fifty-four severe OSAS patients and 34 age-, gender- and education matched healthy subjects were participated...
October 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Qing Zhang, Guoqiang Hu, Lili Tian, Tapani Ristaniemi, Huili Wang, Hongjun Chen, Jianlin Wu, Fengyu Cong
Independent component analysis (ICA) on group-level voxel-based morphometry (VBM) produces the coefficient matrix and the component matrix. The former contains variability among multiple subjects for further statistical analysis, and the latter reveals spatial maps common for all subjects. ICA algorithms converge to local optimization points in practice and the mostly applied stability investigation approach examines the stability of the extracted components. We found that the practically stable components do not guarantee to produce the practically stable coefficients of ICA decomposition for the further statistical analysis...
October 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Helmut Schöller, Kathrin Viol, Wolfgang Aichhorn, Marc-Thorsten Hütt, Günter Schiepek
Theoretical models of psychotherapy not only try to predict outcome but also intend to explain patterns of change. Studies showed that psychotherapeutic change processes are characterized by nonlinearity, complexity, and discontinuous transitions. By this, theoretical models of psychotherapy should be able to reproduce these dynamic features. Using time series derived from daily measures through internet-based real-time monitoring as empirical reference, we earlier presented a model of psychotherapy which includes five state variables and four trait variables...
October 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Jianfeng Hu, Jianliang Min
Driver fatigue is increasingly a contributing factor for traffic accidents, so an effective method to automatically detect driver fatigue is urgently needed. In this study, in order to catch the main characteristics of the EEG signals, four types of entropies (based on the EEG signal of a single channel) were calculated as the feature sets, including sample entropy, fuzzy entropy, approximate entropy and spectral entropy. All feature sets were used as the input of a gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT), a fast and highly accurate boosting ensemble method...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Ahammed Sherief Kizhakkethil Youseph, Madhu Chetty, Gour Karmakar
A gene regulatory network (GRN) represents a set of genes and its regulatory interactions. The inference of the regulatory interactions between genes is usually carried out using an appropriate mathematical model and the available gene expression profile. Among the various models proposed for GRN inference, our recently proposed Michaelis-Menten based ODE model provides a good trade-off between the computational complexity and biological relevance. This model, like other known GRN models, also uses an evolutionary algorithm for parameter estimation...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Lijie Hao, Zhuoqin Yang, Pulin Gong, Jinzhi Lei
Experiments have demonstrated that in mice, the PVT strongly projects to the CeL and participates in the formation of fear memories by synaptic potentiation in the amygdala. Herein, we propose a mathematical model based on a positive feedback loop of BDNF expression and signaling to investigate PVT manipulation of synaptic potentiation. The model is validated by comparisons with experimental observations. We find that a high postsynaptic firing frequency after stimulation is induced by presynaptic <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Vito Di Maio, Silvia Santillo, Antonio Sorgente, Paolo Vanacore, Francesco Ventriglia
The activity of the single synapse is the base of information processing and transmission in the brain as well as of important phenomena as the Long Term Potentiation which is the main mechanism for learning and memory. Although usually considered as independent events, the single quantum release gives variable postsynaptic responses which not only depend on the properties of the synapses but can be strongly influenced by the activity of other synapses. In the present paper we show the results of a series of computational experiments where pools of active synapses, in a compatible time window, influence the response of a single synapse of the considered pool...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Fatih Arslan, Serdar Tasdemir, Abdullah Durmaz, Fuat Tosun
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory mucosa of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of nasal obstruction related to chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis on cognitive functions. Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis causing bilateral total or near total nasal obstruction were enrolled in the study. Symptoms of nasal congestion, loss of smell, postnasal drip, headaches, snoring, concentration difficulties and blunted affect were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Dongyong Guo, Jianhui Gan, Tao Tan, Xin Tian, Guolin Wang, Kevin Tak-Pan Ng
Ketamine is one of general anesthetics and has been commonly used in obstetric and pediatric anesthesia. However, effects of exposure to ketamine on neonatal brain are largely unknown. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of neonatal exposure of ketamine on spatial memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of adult rats. One-week-old neonatal rats were separated into ketamine group and control group. Neonatal rats in ketamine group were received intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg (low-dose group, N = 8) or 50 mg/kg ketamine (high-dose group, N = 8)...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Hongtao Wang, Andrei Dragomir, Nida Itrat Abbasi, Junhua Li, Nitish V Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos
Development of techniques for detection of mental fatigue has varied applications in areas where sustaining attention is of critical importance like security and transportation. The objective of this study is to develop a novel real-time driving fatigue detection methodology based on dry Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. The study has employed two methods in the online detection of mental fatigue: power spectrum density ( PSD ) and sample entropy (SE). The wavelet packets transform (WPT) method was utilized to obtain the <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Cansın Özgör, Seray Şenyer Özgör, Adil Deniz Duru, Ümmühan Işoğlu-Alkaç
Time perception is defined as a subjective judgment on the elapsed time of an event. It can change according to both external and internal factors. There are two main paradigms of time perception; retrospective time perception (RTP) and prospective time perception (PTP). Two paradigms differ from each other according to whether the subject has knowledge on the importance of passage of time in the given task. Since RTP paradigm studies are harder to conduct, studies on RTP paradigm is far fewer than studies on PTP...
August 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Mauricio Tejo, Sebastián Niklitschek-Soto, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos
The family of fatigue-life distributions is introduced as an alternative model of reaction time data. This family includes the shifted Wald distribution and a shifted version of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. Although the former has been proposed as a way to model reaction time data, the latter has not. Hence, we provide theoretical, mathematical and practical arguments in support of the shifted Birnbaum-Saunders as a suitable model of simple reaction times and associated cognitive mechanisms.
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Yuangen Yao, Jun Ma
Based on the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuron model subjected to sine-Wiener (SW) noise, impacts of SW noise on weak periodic signal detection are investigated by calculating response measure Q for characterizing synchronization between the input signal and the output temporal activities of the neuron. It is numerically demonstrated that the response measure Q can achieve the optimal value under appropriate and moderate intensity or correlation time of SW noise, suggesting the occurrence of SW-noise-induced stochastic resonance...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Sang-Yoon Kim, Woochang Lim
We consider an excitatory population of subthreshold Izhikevich neurons which cannot fire spontaneously without noise. As the coupling strength passes a threshold, individual neurons exhibit noise-induced burstings. This neuronal population has adaptive dynamic synaptic strengths governed by the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). However, STDP was not considered in previous works on stochastic burst synchronization (SBS) between noise-induced burstings of sub-threshold neurons. Here, we study the effect of additive STDP on SBS by varying the noise intensity D in the Barabási-Albert scale-free network (SFN)...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Dongmei Wang, Chenying Wang, Ling Liu, Sanqiang Li
Evodiamine, a major component of  Evodia rutaecarpa , has been reported to possess various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative stress, and neuroprotective effects. Our previous study has shown that the potential effects of evodiamine on the learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanism and therapeutic potential of evodiamine against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic Alzheimer's disease in mice...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Onur Bayazit, Gamze Üngür
Stress and anxiety are states which sportsmen are continuously exposed to. Our study aimed to evaluate neuroelectrical peripheral and central nervous system responses of sportsmen (SPR) and sedentary individuals (SED) during concentration grid test (CGT) employed under time pressure. Forty three SPR and 33 SED participated in the study. Neuroelectrical responses were simultaneously obtained during baseline and CGT. All responses were observed to increase under stress in both SED and SPR. The SPR's stress related peripheral responses were lower than SED's...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
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