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Cognitive Neurodynamics

Mauricio Tejo, Sebastián Niklitschek-Soto, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos
The family of fatigue-life distributions is introduced as an alternative model of reaction time data. This family includes the shifted Wald distribution and a shifted version of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. Although the former has been proposed as a way to model reaction time data, the latter has not. Hence, we provide theoretical, mathematical and practical arguments in support of the shifted Birnbaum-Saunders as a suitable model of simple reaction times and associated cognitive mechanisms.
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Yuangen Yao, Jun Ma
Based on the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuron model subjected to sine-Wiener (SW) noise, impacts of SW noise on weak periodic signal detection are investigated by calculating response measure Q for characterizing synchronization between the input signal and the output temporal activities of the neuron. It is numerically demonstrated that the response measure Q can achieve the optimal value under appropriate and moderate intensity or correlation time of SW noise, suggesting the occurrence of SW-noise-induced stochastic resonance...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Sang-Yoon Kim, Woochang Lim
We consider an excitatory population of subthreshold Izhikevich neurons which cannot fire spontaneously without noise. As the coupling strength passes a threshold, individual neurons exhibit noise-induced burstings. This neuronal population has adaptive dynamic synaptic strengths governed by the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). However, STDP was not considered in previous works on stochastic burst synchronization (SBS) between noise-induced burstings of sub-threshold neurons. Here, we study the effect of additive STDP on SBS by varying the noise intensity D in the Barabási-Albert scale-free network (SFN)...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Dongmei Wang, Chenying Wang, Ling Liu, Sanqiang Li
Evodiamine, a major component of  Evodia rutaecarpa , has been reported to possess various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative stress, and neuroprotective effects. Our previous study has shown that the potential effects of evodiamine on the learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanism and therapeutic potential of evodiamine against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic Alzheimer's disease in mice...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Onur Bayazit, Gamze Üngür
Stress and anxiety are states which sportsmen are continuously exposed to. Our study aimed to evaluate neuroelectrical peripheral and central nervous system responses of sportsmen (SPR) and sedentary individuals (SED) during concentration grid test (CGT) employed under time pressure. Forty three SPR and 33 SED participated in the study. Neuroelectrical responses were simultaneously obtained during baseline and CGT. All responses were observed to increase under stress in both SED and SPR. The SPR's stress related peripheral responses were lower than SED's...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Lal Hussain
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder produced due to abnormal excitability of neurons in the brain. The research reveals that brain activity is monitored through electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients suffered from seizure to detect the epileptic seizure. The performance of EEG detection based epilepsy require feature extracting strategies. In this research, we have extracted varying features extracting strategies based on time and frequency domain characteristics, nonlinear, wavelet based entropy and few statistical features...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Ernesto Buiza, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Catarina I Barriga-Paulino, Antonio Arjona, Carlos M Gómez
The possibility that power-to-power (theta-beta) frequency coupling increases during development was analyzed. Three minutes of spontaneous EEG in an open eyes condition were recorded in a sample of 160 subjects ranging from 6 to 26 years old. Theta (4-7 Hz) and beta band (15-20 Hz) power was calculated in a trial-by-trial basis. Inter-electrode power correlations (IPC) were computed in each subject as the correlation between the power of two frequency bands recorded in two electrodes. An increase in theta-beta IPC with age was obtained...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Zahra Rostami, Sajad Jafari
Complex anatomical and physiological structure of an excitable tissue (e.g., cardiac tissue) in the body can represent different electrical activities through normal or abnormal behavior. Abnormalities of the excitable tissue coming from different biological reasons can lead to formation of some defects. Such defects can cause some successive waves that may end up to some additional reorganizing beating behaviors like spiral waves or target waves. In this study, formation of defects and the resulting emitted waves in an excitable tissue are investigated...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Jinjie Zhu, Xianbin Liu
In the present paper, a simple spike timing distance is defined which can be used to measure the degree of synchronization with the information only encoded in the precise timing of the spike trains. Via calculating the spike timing distance defined in this paper, the spike train similarity of uncoupled Hindmarsh-Rose neurons in bursting or spiking states with different initial conditions is investigated and the results are compared with other spike train distance measures. Later, the spike timing distance measure is applied to study the synchronization of coupled or common noise-stimulated neurons...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Mark H Myers, Robert Kozma
Simulations of EEG data provide the understanding of how the limbic system exhibits normal and abnormal states of the electrical activity of the brain. While brain activity exhibits a type of homeostasis of excitatory and inhibitory mesoscopic neuron behavior, abnormal neural firings found in the seizure state exhibits brain instability due to runaway oscillatory entrained neural behavior. We utilize a model of mesoscopic brain activity, the KIV model, where each network represents the areas of the limbic system, i...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Ummuhan Isoglu-Alkac, M Numan Ermutlu, Gökçer Eskikurt, İlker Yücesir, Sernaz Demirel Temel, Tan Temel
Physical exercise and the training effects of repeated practice of skills over an extended period of time may have additive effects on brain networks and functions. Various motor skills and attentional styles can be developed by athletes engaged in different sports. In this study, the effects of fast ball sports and dance training on attention were investigated by event related potentials (ERP). ERP were recorded in auditory and visual tasks in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
T Nimmy John, Subha D Puthankattil, Ramshekhar Menon
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a cognitive disability is analysed using a long range dependence parameter, hurst exponent (HE), calculated based on the time domain analysis of the measured electrical activity of brain. The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of controls and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-AD patients are evaluated under normal resting and mental arithmetic conditions. Simultaneous low pass filtering and total variation denoising algorithm is employed for preprocessing. Larger values of HE observed in the right hemisphere of the brain for AD patients indicated a decrease in irregularity of the EEG signal under cognitive task conditions...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Noha Mohsen Zommara, Muneyoshi Takahashi, Kajornvut Ounjai, Johan Lauwereyns
Researchers have used eye-tracking methods to infer cognitive processes during decision making in choice tasks involving visual materials. Gaze likelihood analysis has shown a cascading effect, suggestive of a causal role for the gaze in preference formation during evaluative decision making. According to the gaze bias hypothesis, the gaze serves to build commitment gradually towards a choice. Here, we applied gaze likelihood analysis in a two-choice version of the well-known Iowa Gambling Task. This task requires active learning of the value of different choice options...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Behdad Parhizi, Mohammad Reza Daliri, Mehdi Behroozi
The present paper concentrates on the impact of visual attention task on structure of the brain functional and effective connectivity networks using coherence and Granger causality methods. Since most studies used correlation method and resting-state functional connectivity, the task-based approach was selected for this experiment to boost our knowledge of spatial and feature-based attention. In the present study, the whole brain was divided into 82 sub-regions based on Brodmann areas. The coherence and Granger causality were applied to construct functional and effective connectivity matrices...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Wajid Mumtaz, Pham Lam Vuong, Aamir Saeed Malik, Rusdi Bin Abd Rashid
The screening test for alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients has been of subjective nature and could be misleading in particular cases such as a misreporting the actual quantity of alcohol intake. Although the neuroimaging modality such as electroencephalography (EEG) has shown promising research results in achieving objectivity during the screening and diagnosis of AUD patients. However, the translation of these findings for clinical applications has been largely understudied and hence less clear. This study advocates the use of EEG as a diagnostic and screening tool for AUD patients that may help the clinicians during clinical decision making...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Emmanuelle Tognoli, Guillaume Dumas, J A Scott Kelso
To complement experimental efforts toward understanding human social interactions at both neural and behavioral levels, two computational approaches are presented: (1) a fully parameterizable mathematical model of a social partner, the Human Dynamic Clamp which, by virtue of experimentally controlled interactions between Virtual Partners and real people, allows for emergent behaviors to be studied; and (2) a multiscale neurocomputational model of social coordination that enables exploration of social self-organization at all levels-from neuronal patterns to people interacting with each other...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Ruoyu Wei, Jinde Cao, Ahmed Alsaedi
This paper investigates the finite-time synchronization and fixed-time synchronization problems of inertial memristive neural networks with time-varying delays. By utilizing the Filippov discontinuous theory and Lyapunov stability theory, several sufficient conditions are derived to ensure finite-time synchronization of inertial memristive neural networks. Then, for the purpose of making the setting time independent of initial condition, we consider the fixed-time synchronization. A novel criterion guaranteeing the fixed-time synchronization of inertial memristive neural networks is derived...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Bing Hu, Yu Guo, Xiaoqiang Zou, Jing Dong, Long Pan, Min Yu, Zhejia Yang, Chaowei Zhou, Zhang Cheng, Wanyue Tang, Haochen Sun
Based on a classical model of the basal ganglia thalamocortical network, in this paper, we employed a type of the deep brain stimulus voltage on the subthalamic nucleus to study the control mechanism of absence epilepsy seizures. We found that the seizure can be well controlled by turning the period and the duration of current stimulation into suitable ranges. It is the very interesting bidirectional periodic adjustment phenomenon. These parameters are easily regulated in clinical practice, therefore, the results obtained in this paper may further help us to understand the treatment mechanism of the epilepsy seizure...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Adil Deniz Duru, Moataz Assem
Neural efficiency is proposed as one of the neural mechanisms underlying elite athletic performances. Previous sports studies examined neural efficiency using tasks that involve motor functions. In this study we investigate the extent of neural efficiency beyond motor tasks by using a mental subtraction task. A group of elite karate athletes are compared to a matched group of non-athletes. Electroencephalogram is used to measure cognitive dynamics during resting and increased mental workload periods. Mainly posterior alpha band power of the karate players was found to be higher than control subjects under both tasks...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Minqiang Huang, Jing Jin, Yu Zhang, Dewen Hu, Xingyu Wang
Recently, many auditory BCIs are using beeps as auditory stimuli, while beeps sound unnatural and unpleasant for some people. It is proved that natural sounds make people feel comfortable, decrease fatigue, and improve the performance of auditory BCI systems. Drip drop is a kind of natural sounds that makes humans feel relaxed and comfortable. In this work, three kinds of drip drops were used as stimuli in an auditory-based BCI system to improve the user-friendness of the system. This study explored whether drip drops could be used as stimuli in the auditory BCI system...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
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