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Journal of Addiction Medicine

Jay J Shen, Guogen Shan, Pearl C Kim, Ji Won Yoo, Carolee Dodge-Francis, Yong-Jae Lee
OBJECTIVES: To examine national trends and contributing factors of cannabis-associated emergency department visits in the United States. METHODS: This pooled serial cross-sectional study used a hierarchical multivariable analysis on emergency department visit adjusting for year, patient and hospital characteristics. We analyzed 2006 to 2014 National Emergency Department Sample data that identified cannabis-associated emergency department visits among patients aged 12 years or older (n = 265,128)...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Bhanu Prakash Kolla, Guillermo Leoz Callizo, Terry D Schneekloth
OBJECTIVE: Data examining usefulness of urine drug testing in addiction settings for accurately establishing diagnoses and informing treatment is limited. In this retrospective-cohort study we examined the utility of performing urine drug testing in patients presenting for an outpatient addiction assessment. METHODS: Urine drug testing and patient-reported substance use history were obtained from the medical record of patients who presented for an outpatient addiction evaluation...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Jennifer D Ellis, Molly Cairncross, Cara A Struble, Meagan M Carr, David M Ledgerwood, Leslie H Lundahl
OBJECTIVES: The postpartum period is a particularly challenging time for women in methadone treatment. Unfortunately, this is also the time when women are vulnerable to treatment discontinuation and opioid misuse. The purpose of the present exploratory study was to examine demographic, treatment, and delivery factors that may be associated with postbirth retention in treatment and opioid misuse. METHODS: A chart review was conducted among postpartum women (n = 81) receiving opioid agonist treatment during pregnancy...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Yih-Ing Hser, Andrew J Saxon, Larissa J Mooney, Karen Miotto, Yuhui Zhu, Caroline K Yoo, Di Liang, David Huang, Douglas S Bell
OBJECTIVE: Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) are intended to help reduce prescription drug misuse and opioid overdose, yet little is known about the longitudinal patterns of opioid prescribing that may be associated with mortality. This study investigated longitudinal opioid prescribing patterns among patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) and without OUD in relation to mortality using PDMP data. METHODS: Growth modeling was used to examine opioid prescription data from the California PDMP for a 4-year period before death or a comparable period ending in 2014 for those remaining from a sample of 7728 patients (2576 with OUD, and 5152 matched non-OUD controls) treated in a large healthcare system...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Amy S B Bohnert, Marc R Larochelle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
LaTrice Montgomery, Samantha Schiavon, Karen Cropsey
OBJECTIVES: Due to the elevated rates of cigarette use and marijuana use within the criminal justice system, it is critical to develop a stronger understanding of tobacco and marijuana co-use among this population to inform future interventions. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of baseline data from a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial of adults (n = 500) in a community correction program. Participants were classified as using cigarettes only or both cigarettes and marijuana through either self-report or positive urine drug screening...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Lauren K MacAfee, Vanessa Dalton, Mishka Terplan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate pregnancy intention, risk perception, and contraceptive utilization among women reporting substance use during pregnancy. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2009 to 2011 Tennessee Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), an annual cross-sectional survey which assesses behaviors before, during and after pregnancy. Substance use during pregnancy and contraceptive use at the time of conception and after delivery were captured by self-report in the postpartum period...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Anouk M J van Esch, Antine Fest, Britt S Hoffland, Joost G E Janzing, Stefan C A Steens, Rianne A J Esselink, Arnt F A Schellekens
INTRODUCTION: Catatonia is a syndrome that can present in different forms and can occur in multiple psychiatric and somatic conditions. This case report describes lethal catatonia caused by delayed toxic leukoencephalopathy after excessive use of cocaine and methadone. The characteristic radiographic imaging and biphasic course are discussed. CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old woman was presented unconsciously at the emergency department after intoxication with methadone and cocaine...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Lee A Wolfrum, Aimee S Nordmeyer, Christopher W Racine, Stephanie D Nichols
: This case report describes a patient with opioid use disorder who developed cardiac toxicity secondary to non-medical use of loperamide. At recommended doses, loperamide remains in the periphery to treat diarrhea. At high doses, loperamide causes central nervous system (CNS) opioid agonism. Complications of high-dose loperamide have been documented, including cardiotoxicity, and death. This is particularly important in light of the ongoing opioid epidemic. This case presents a patient with sequela of high-dose loperamide as an illicit opioid replacement and the subsequent loperamide toxicity, including significant QTc prolongation...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Chloe Lanyon, Dhanya Nambiar, Peter Higgs, Paul Dietze, Brendan Quinn
OBJECTIVES: Investigate patterns of methamphetamine use over time, specifically factors associated with remission from dependent and harmful patterns of use; and examine drug treatment and health/support service utilization pathways among people who use methamphetamine. METHODS: People who regularly use methamphetamine were recruited from nontreatment settings in Melbourne, Australia, in 2010, and followed up twice over 5 years. Trajectories of past-month methamphetamine use and methamphetamine dependence were mapped...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Jessica Gray, Kelley Saia, Alexander Y Walley
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) in pregnancy reduces overdose risk, drug use, increases prenatal care engagement, and improves birth outcomes. Yet many pregnant women lack access to adequate treatment. OAT, while incarcerated, reduces subsequent overdose risk, improves continuation to treatment on release, and reduces recidivism. Yet most correction facilities do not follow evidence-based guidelines for treatment, resulting in destabilization and overdose. This case is unique in illustrating 1 example of a patient who is justice-involved during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and highlighting an area of advocacy that is under-reported in the medical literature...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Junaid A Bhatti, Deva Thiruchelvam, Donald A Redelmeier
BACKGROUND: To compare the risks of a road traffic injury (RTI) crash among adults who were involved in high-risk gambling and those who did not gamble. METHODS: We conducted a linked longitudinal cohort analysis of adult persons in large population survey conducted during 2007 and 2008 in Ontario, Canada. We used responses to Problem Gambling Severity Index to distinguish persons as nongamblers, no-risk, low-risk, or high-risk gamblers. All persons were subsequently monitored for a subsequent RTI crash as a driver, pedestrian, or bicyclist up to March 31, 2014, through health insurance databases...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Fred Leland McClure, Justin K Niles, Harvey W Kaufman, Jeffrey Gudin
OBJECTIVES: Two epidemics in the United States are related: opioid drug injection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study quantifies the relationship between illicit/prescription drug misuse and HCV infection in 3 population generations: baby boomers (born 1945-1965, inclusive), pre-baby boomers, and post-baby boomers. METHODS: This retrospective study included prescription drug consistency (March-December 2015) and HCV (2011-2015) patient test results performed at a large national clinical reference laboratory...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Hendrée E Jones, Karol Kaltenbach, Tara Benjamin, Elisha M Wachman, Kevin E O'Grady
: The opioid epidemic has brought with it an increasing focus on the incidence of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) (also known as Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome) in neonates prenatally exposed to opioids, and recently, in the putative long-term effects of NAS on child development. The purpose of the present paper is three-fold: (1) outline shortcomings regarding the current research relating NAS to child development; (2) propose solutions to minimize these shortcomings; and (3) recommend an alternative conceptual framework to understanding developmental problems in later childhood presumed to be a result of NAS...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Joanna G Katzman, Nina H Greenberg, Mikiko Y Takeda, Monica Moya Balasch
OBJECTIVE: The primary outcome of this study is to identify characteristics of study participants in a large opioid treatment program (OTP) for opioid use disorder (OUD) who used take-home naloxone to perform 1 or more opioid overdose (OD) reversal(s) in the community. METHODS: This 6-month prospective cohort study provided take-home naloxone and opioid OD education for 287 study participants with OUD. Characteristics associated with use of the take-home naloxone were determined from among 16 variables using multivariable logistic regression...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
David A Gilder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Kelsey N Serier, Kamilla L Venner, Ruth E Sarafin
OBJECTIVE: Despite high rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and alcohol-induced deaths among Native Americans, there has been limited study of the construct validity of the AUD diagnostic criteria. The purpose of the current study was to examine the validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) AUD criteria in a treatment-seeking group of Native Americans. METHODS: As part of a larger study, 79 Native Americans concerned about their alcohol or drug use were recruited from a substance use treatment agency located on a reservation in the southwestern United States...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
William G Shadel, Rachana Seelam, Layla Parast, Lisa S Meredith, Elizabeth J D'Amico
OBJECTIVES: This paper evaluated whether a 2-item assessment of alcohol use risk, developed by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA SG), prospectively predicted smoking status among a sample of adolescents visiting their primary care physician. METHODS: We analyzed a sample of 651 adolescents (57.80% female; 56.53% Hispanic, 22.73% African American, 14.44% White, 6.30% other) who completed the NIAAA SG at a baseline appointment and were assessed for future smoking risk...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Amy L Lembeck, Deborah Tuttle, Robert Locke, Laura Lawler, Pamela Jimenez, Amy Mackley, David A Paul
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to determine length of stay and length of treatment in infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) compared to those in the pediatric floor. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of infants ≥34 weeks gestation admitted with diagnosis of NAS at a single regional perinatal referral center from July 2014 to October 2015. A standardized NAS protocol for both the NICU and pediatric floor, which included guidelines for the initiation of oral morphine, escalation, and weaning, was followed...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Crystal Jicha, David Saxon, Michelle R Lofwall, Laura C Fanucchi
OBJECTIVES: Persons with injection drug use (IDU) have high healthcare utilization. Consequently, healthcare providers have opportunities to identify and treat underlying substance use disorders (SUD) that drive these hospitalizations. The study purpose was to characterize current SUD evaluation and treatment practices by primary and consulting services during hospitalization for severe infections related to IDU. METHODS: This study is a retrospective chart review of inpatient admissions to an academic medical center...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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