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Journal of Biological Engineering

P Formentín, Ú Catalán, L Pol, S Fernández-Castillejo, R Solà, L F Marsal
Background: The ability to direct the cellular response by means of biomaterial surface topography is important for biomedical applications. Substrate surface topography has been shown to be an effective cue for the regulation of cellular response. Here, the response of human aortic endothelial cells to nanoporous anodic alumina and macroporous silicon with collagen and fibronectin functionalization has been studied. Methods: Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to analyse the effects of the material and the porosity on the adhesion, morphology, and proliferation of the cells...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Girdhari Rijal, Weimin Li
Human connective tissues are complex physiological microenvironments favorable for optimal survival, function, growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and death of tissue cells. Mimicking native tissue microenvironment using various three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture systems in vitro has been explored for decades, with great advances being achieved recently at material, design and application levels. These achievements are based on improved understandings about the functionalities of various tissue cells, the biocompatibility and biodegradability of scaffolding materials, the biologically functional factors within native tissues, and the pathophysiological conditions of native tissue microenvironments...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Abhishek S Dhoble, Pratik Lahiri, Kaustubh D Bhalerao
Background: Flow cytometry, with its high throughput nature, combined with the ability to measure an increasing number of cell parameters at once can surpass the throughput of prevalent genomic and metagenomic approaches in the study of microbiomes. Novel computational approaches to analyze flow cytometry data will result in greater insights and actionability as compared to traditional tools used in the analysis of microbiomes. This paper is a demonstration of the fruitfulness of machine learning in analyzing microbial flow cytometry data generated in anaerobic microbiome perturbation experiments...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Li Xia Gao, Chunxiang Bian, Yan Wu, Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, Shida Chen, Chang Ming Li, Ling Yu, Ping Ji, Enyi Huang, Julia Li Zhong
Background: Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), triggered by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), is associated with carcinogenesis of the skin. UV irradiation induced superoxide anion (O2•- ) is the key ROS involved in the cellular damage. The cytoprotective efficacy of an unknown anti-oxidant compound can be evaluated by analyzing the production of O2•- from treated cells. Methods: In this study, a glass carbon electrode functionalized with nanotube@DNA-Mn3(PO4)2 composite was applied to quantitative determination of generation of highly unstable O2•- from the melanoma A375 cell line following UVR(UV, UVA and UVB)...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Jose Yeste, Xavi Illa, Mar Alvarez, Rosa Villa
Epithelia and endothelia delineate tissue compartments and control their environments by regulating the passage of ions and solutes. This barrier function is essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, and its dysfunction is associated with numerous human diseases. Recent advances in biomaterials and microfabrication technologies have evolved in vitro approaches for modelling biological barriers. Current microphysiological systems have become more efficient and reliable in mimicking the cell microenvironment...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Sang Hoon Kim, Ee Taek Hwang, Man Bock Gu
Background: Antibiotics, which are the most important medication in human history, have brought global concerns due to their potential risk to human health and environment by accelerating the development of drug-resistant bacteria, and accumulating in the food chain system. Among antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC) is widely used in aquaculture, and its potential risk of toxicity to human by bioaccumulation has been reported. Therefore, the effective removal of OTC is highly needed. Results: In this study, we report bio-hybrid inorganic microparticles (apt-mag-SiCC) for efficient capturing and facile magnet-based separation of oxytetracycline (OTC)...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Mean Ghim, Kuin T Pang, Mehwish Arshad, Xiaomeng Wang, Peter D Weinberg
Background: Effects of shear stress on endothelium are important for the normal physiology of blood vessels and are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. They have been extensively studied in vitro. In one paradigm, endothelial cells are cultured in devices that produce spatially varying shear stress profiles, and the local profile is compared with the properties of cells at the same position. A flaw in this class of experiments is that cells exposed to a certain shear profile in one location may release mediators into the medium that alter the behaviour of cells at another location, experiencing different shear, thus obscuring or corrupting the true relation between shear and cell properties...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Chun-Liang Lin, Ting-Yu Kuo, Wei-Xian Li
Background: Synthesis of a variety of biological circuits for specific functional purposes has made a tremendous progress in recent years. The ultimate goal of combining molecular biology and engineering is to realize a functional biocomputer. To address this challenge, all previous efforts work toward building up the bio-computer as the ultimate goal. To this aim, there should be a key module, named control unit (CU), to direct a serious of logic or arithmetic operations within the processor...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Hak Rae Lee, Faith Leslie, Samira M Azarin
Background: While hypoxia has been well-studied in various tumor microenvironments, its role in cancer cell dormancy is poorly understood, in part due to a lack of well-established in vitro and in vivo models. Hypoxic conditions under conventional hypoxia chambers are relatively unstable and cannot be maintained during characterization outside the chamber since normoxic response is quickly established. To address this challenge, we report a robust in vitro cancer dormancy model under a hypoxia-mimicking microenvironment using cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ), a hypoxia-mimetic agent, which stabilizes hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α), a major regulator of hypoxia signaling...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Christopher M Whitford, Saskia Dymek, Denise Kerkhoff, Camilla März, Olga Schmidt, Maximilian Edich, Julian Droste, Boas Pucker, Christian Rückert, Jörn Kalinowski
Background: Biosafety is a key aspect in the international Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition, which offers student teams an amazing opportunity to pursue their own research projects in the field of Synthetic Biology. iGEM projects often involve the creation of genetically engineered bacterial strains. To minimize the risks associated with bacterial release, a variety of biosafety systems were constructed, either to prevent survival of bacteria outside the lab or to hinder horizontal or vertical gene transfer...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Jing Li, Zengliang Xu, Aleksandr Chupalov, Mario Andrea Marchisio
Background: Anti-CRISPR proteins are expressed by phages as a reaction to the bacterial CRISPR-Cas defense system. Recently, the structures of anti-CRISPR proteins have been determined, and their diverse functions have been clarified. Anti-CRISPR proteins such as LmAcrIIA2 and LmAcrIIA4 interact with the SpCas9:gRNA system and occlude the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) recognition site, thereby preventing SpCas9:gRNA from binding to the DNA. Hence, anti-CRISPR proteins represent a powerful means to control and modulate the activity of SpCas9 and its nuclease-deficient version dSpCas9...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Lei Sun, Jia Zeng, Peiwu Cui, Wei Wang, Dayu Yu, Jixun Zhan
Background: Regulatory genes play critical roles in natural product biosynthetic pathways. Chromomycins are promising anticancer natural products from actinomycetes. This study is aimed to create an efficient strain for production of these molecules by manipulating the regulatory genes. Results: A putative but silent chromomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was discovered in Streptomyces reseiscleroticus . Heterologous expression of the ketosynthase, chain length factor, and acyl carrier protein in Streptomyces lividans confirmed that they are responsible for the assembly of a decaketide...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Mahmood Derakhshan, Mojtaba Fazeli
Background: Petrochemical wastewaters are highly polluting due to having various destructive materials such as aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metal ions. Therefore, they need to be treated before disposal to the environment. However, due to low biodegradability, applying common treatment methods such as activated sludge is not feasible for these wastewaters. Methods: Photo-Fenton is an advanced oxidation process which was applied to promote the biodegradability of hardly-decomposable petrochemical wastewaters...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Josefine Liljeruhm, Saskia K Funk, Sandra Tietscher, Anders D Edlund, Sabri Jamal, Pikkei Wistrand-Yuen, Karl Dyrhage, Arvid Gynnå, Katarina Ivermark, Jessica Lövgren, Viktor Törnblom, Anders Virtanen, Erik R Lundin, Erik Wistrand-Yuen, Anthony C Forster
Background: Coral reefs are colored by eukaryotic chromoproteins (CPs) that are homologous to green fluorescent protein. CPs differ from fluorescent proteins (FPs) by intensely absorbing visible light to give strong colors in ambient light. This endows CPs with certain advantages over FPs, such as instrument-free detection uncomplicated by ultra-violet light damage or background fluorescence, efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) quenching, and photoacoustic imaging. Thus, CPs have found utility as genetic markers and in teaching, and are attractive for potential cell biosensor applications in the field...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Fouzia Tabssum, Muhammad Irfan, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir, Javed Iqbal Qazi
Background: Cellulases are enzyme which have potential applications in various industries. Researchers are looking for potential cellulolytic bacterial strains for industrial exploitation. In this investigation, cellulase production of Bacillus cereus was explored while attacking poplar twigs. The bacterium was isolated from the gut of freshwater fish, Labeo rohita and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. Various nutritional conditions were screened and optimized through response surface methodology...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Huajun Yu, Yunzhi Chen, Hongru Kong, Qikuan He, Hongwei Sun, Pravin Avinash Bhugul, Qiyu Zhang, Bicheng Chen, Mengtao Zhou
Background: Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are promising approaches for organ transplantation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) based scaffolds obtained through the decellularization of natural organs have become the preferred platform for organ bioengineering. In the field of pancreas bioengineering, acellular scaffolds from different animals approximate the biochemical, spatial and vascular relationships of the native extracellular matrix and have been proven to be a good platform for recellularization and in vitro culture...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Kelei Zhu, Leqi Dong, Jinbo Wang, Dingyao Li, Mingliang Chen, Cunbin Jiang, Jinfa Wang
Background: Islet transplantation is increasingly used in the diabetic patients to control the blood glucose level. However, the functional output of transplanted islets remains hampered due to the local inflammation, loss of islets, etc. To that end, in this study we explored to enhance the functional output of transplanted islets in diabetic mice by employing a drug-eluting scaffold with a payload of interleukin 4 (IL-4). Results: According to the in vitro studies, the scaffold showed no cytotoxicity, a rapid release of IL-4 within a week and the IL-4 retained its bioactivity...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
L Diéguez, M Winter, S Molan, P Monis, B King, B Thierry
Background: Protecting drinking water supplies from pathogens such as Cryptosporidium parvum is a major concern for water utilities worldwide. The sensitivity and specificity of current detection methods are largely determined by the effectiveness of the concentration and separation methods used. The purpose of this study is to develop micromixers able to specifically isolate and concentrate Cryptosporidium , while allowing in situ analysis. Results: In this study, disposable microfluidic micromixers were fabricated to effectively isolate Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from water samples, while allowing direct observation and enabling quantification of oocysts captured in the device using high quality immunofluorescence microscopy...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
José-Aníbal Mora-Villalobos, An-Ping Zeng
Background: Tryptophan derivatives such as 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) and serotonin are valuable molecules with pharmaceutical interest. 5HTP is presently mainly obtained by extraction from the plant Griffonia simplicifolia and serotonin is produced by chemical synthesis. A simple biotechnological method for the production of these compounds is desired. Results: In a first attempt to synthesize serotonin from glucose, we used a single engineered Escherichia coli strain and observed a low production of maximal 0...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Fengqi Wang, Leiming Luo
As a family of hormones with pleiotropic effects, natriuretic peptide (NP) system includes atrial NP (ANP), B-type NP (BNP), C-type NP (CNP), dendroaspis NP and urodilatin, with NP receptor-A (guanylate cyclase-A), NP receptor-B (guanylate cyclase-B) and NP receptor-C (clearance receptor). These peptides are genetically distinct, but structurally and functionally related for regulating circulatory homeostasis in vertebrates. In humans, ANP and BNP are encoded by NP precursor A (NPPA) and NPPB genes on chromosome 1, whereas CNP is encoded by NPPC on chromosome 2...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
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