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Journal of Biological Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599821/disposable-microfluidic-micromixers-for-effective-capture-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-oocysts-from-water-samples
#1
L Diéguez, M Winter, S Molan, P Monis, B King, B Thierry
Background: Protecting drinking water supplies from pathogens such as Cryptosporidium parvum is a major concern for water utilities worldwide. The sensitivity and specificity of current detection methods are largely determined by the effectiveness of the concentration and separation methods used. The purpose of this study is to develop micromixers able to specifically isolate and concentrate Cryptosporidium , while allowing in situ analysis. Results: In this study, disposable microfluidic micromixers were fabricated to effectively isolate Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from water samples, while allowing direct observation and enabling quantification of oocysts captured in the device using high quality immunofluorescence microscopy...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568327/synthetic-pathways-and-processes-for-effective-production-of-5-hydroxytryptophan-and-serotonin-from-glucose-in-escherichia-coli
#2
José-Aníbal Mora-Villalobos, An-Ping Zeng
Background: Tryptophan derivatives such as 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) and serotonin are valuable molecules with pharmaceutical interest. 5HTP is presently mainly obtained by extraction from the plant Griffonia simplicifolia and serotonin is produced by chemical synthesis. A simple biotechnological method for the production of these compounds is desired. Results: In a first attempt to synthesize serotonin from glucose, we used a single engineered Escherichia coli strain and observed a low production of maximal 0...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344085/synthesis-secretion-function-metabolism-and-application-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-heart-failure
#3
REVIEW
Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Fengqi Wang, Leiming Luo
As a family of hormones with pleiotropic effects, natriuretic peptide (NP) system includes atrial NP (ANP), B-type NP (BNP), C-type NP (CNP), dendroaspis NP and urodilatin, with NP receptor-A (guanylate cyclase-A), NP receptor-B (guanylate cyclase-B) and NP receptor-C (clearance receptor). These peptides are genetically distinct, but structurally and functionally related for regulating circulatory homeostasis in vertebrates. In humans, ANP and BNP are encoded by NP precursor A (NPPA) and NPPB genes on chromosome 1, whereas CNP is encoded by NPPC on chromosome 2...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339972/evaluation-of-green-tea-extract-as-a-safe-personal-hygiene-against-viral-infections
#4
Yun Ha Lee, Yo Han Jang, Young-Seok Kim, Jinku Kim, Baik Lin Seong
Background: Viral infections often pose tremendous public health concerns as well as economic burdens. Despite the availability of vaccines or antiviral drugs, personal hygiene is considered as effective means as the first-hand measure against viral infections. The green tea catechins, in particular, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are known to exert potent antiviral activity. In this study, we evaluated the green tea extract as a safe personal hygiene against viral infections. Results: Using the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) as a model, we examined the duration of the viral inactivating activity of green tea extract (GTE) under prolonged storage at various temperature conditions...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255481/re-using-biological-devices-a-model-aided-analysis-of-interconnected-transcriptional-cascades-designed-from-the-bottom-up
#5
Lorenzo Pasotti, Massimo Bellato, Michela Casanova, Susanna Zucca, Maria Gabriella Cusella De Angelis, Paolo Magni
Background: The study of simplified, ad-hoc constructed model systems can help to elucidate if quantitatively characterized biological parts can be effectively re-used in composite circuits to yield predictable functions. Synthetic systems designed from the bottom-up can enable the building of complex interconnected devices via rational approach, supported by mathematical modelling. However, such process is affected by different, usually non-modelled, unpredictability sources, like cell burden...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255480/immunological-challenges-associated-with-artificial-skin-grafts-available-solutions-and-stem-cells-in-future-design-of-synthetic-skin
#6
REVIEW
Saurabh Dixit, Dieudonné R Baganizi, Rajnish Sahu, Ejowke Dosunmu, Atul Chaudhari, Komal Vig, Shreekumar R Pillai, Shree R Singh, Vida A Dennis
The repair or replacement of damaged skins is still an important, challenging public health problem. Immune acceptance and long-term survival of skin grafts represent the major problem to overcome in grafting given that in most situations autografts cannot be used. The emergence of artificial skin substitutes provides alternative treatment with the capacity to reduce the dependency on the increasing demand of cadaver skin grafts. Over the years, considerable research efforts have focused on strategies for skin repair or permanent skin graft transplantations...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255479/insights-into-the-mechanism-of-a-novel-shockwave-assisted-needle-free-drug-delivery-device-driven-by-in-situ-generated-oxyhydrogen-mixture-which-provides-efficient-protection-against-mycobacterial-infections
#7
Janardhanraj Subburaj, Akshay Datey, Jagadeesh Gopalan, Dipshikha Chakravortty
Background: Needle-free, painless and localized drug delivery has been a coveted technology in the area of biomedical research. We present an innovative way of trans-dermal vaccine delivery using a miniature detonation-driven shock tube device. This device utilizes~2.5 bar of in situ generated oxyhydrogen mixture to produce a strong shockwave that accelerates liquid jets to velocities of about 94 m/s. Method: Oxyhydrogen driven shock tube was optimized for efficiently delivering vaccines in the intradermal region in vivo...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213305/a-multiplexed-magnetic-tweezer-with-precision-particle-tracking-and-bi-directional-force-control
#8
Keith C Johnson, Emilie Clemmens, Hani Mahmoud, Robin Kirkpatrick, Juan C Vizcarra, Wendy E Thomas
Background: In the past two decades, methods have been developed to measure the mechanical properties of single biomolecules. One of these methods, Magnetic tweezers, is amenable to aquisition of data on many single molecules simultaneously, but to take full advantage of this "multiplexing" ability, it is necessary to simultaneously incorprorate many capabilities that ahve been only demonstrated separately. Methods: Our custom built magnetic tweezer combines high multiplexing, precision bead tracking, and bi-directional force control into a flexible and stable platform for examining single molecule behavior...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213304/engineering-the-human-blood-brain-barrier-in-vitro
#9
REVIEW
John J Jamieson, Peter C Searson, Sharon Gerecht
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the interface between the vasculature and the brain, regulating molecular and cellular transport into the brain. Endothelial cells (ECs) that form the capillary walls constitute the physical barrier but are dependent on interactions with other cell types. In vitro models are widely used in BBB research for mechanistic studies and drug screening. Current models have both biological and technical limitations. Here we review recent advances in stem cell engineering that have been utilized to create innovative platforms to replicate key features of the BBB...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213303/climbing-the-mountain-experimental-design-for-the-efficient-optimization-of-stem-cell-bioprocessing
#10
REVIEW
Derek Toms, Rob Deardon, Mark Ungrin
"To consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination. He can perhaps say what the experiment died of." - R.A. Fisher While this idea is relevant across research scales, its importance becomes critical when dealing with the inherently large, complex and expensive process of preparing material for cell-based therapies (CBTs). Effective and economically viable CBTs will depend on the establishment of optimized protocols for the production of the necessary cell types...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204185/bioengineering-considerations-in-liver-regenerative-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Ogechi Ogoke, Janet Oluwole, Natesh Parashurama
Background: Liver disease contributes significantly to global disease burden and is associated with rising incidence and escalating costs. It is likely that innovative approaches, arising from the emerging field of liver regenerative medicine, will counter these trends. Main body: Liver regenerative medicine is a rapidly expanding field based on a rich history of basic investigations into the nature of liver structure, physiology, development, regeneration, and function...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204184/viral-cre-loxp-tools-aid-genome-engineering-in-mammalian-cells
#12
Ranjita Sengupta, Amy Mendenhall, Nandita Sarkar, Chandreyee Mukherjee, Amirali Afshari, Joseph Huang, Biao Lu
Background: Targeted nucleases have transformed genome editing technology, providing more efficient methods to make targeted changes in mammalian genome. In parallel, there is an increasing demand of Cre-LoxP technology for complex genome manipulation such as large deletion, addition, gene fusion and conditional removal of gene sequences at the target site. However, an efficient and easy-to-use Cre-recombinase delivery system remains lacking. Results: We designed and constructed two sets of expression vectors for Cre-recombinase using two highly efficient viral systems, the integrative lentivirus and non-integrative adeno associated virus...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201140/expression-of-the-entire-polyhydroxybutyrate-operon-of-ralstonia-eutropha-in-plants
#13
Rita Mozes-Koch, Edna Tanne, Alexandra Brodezki, Ran Yehuda, Ofer Gover, Haim D Rabinowitch, Ilan Sela
Background: Previously we demonstrated that an entire bacterial operon (the PRN operon) is expressible in plants when driven by the Tomato -yellow-leaf-curl-virus (TYLCV) -derived universal vector IL-60.Petroleum-derived plastics are not degradable, and are therefore harmful to the environment. Fermentation of bacteria carrying operons for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produces degradable bioplastics which are environmentally friendly. However, bacterial production of bioplastics is not cost-effective, and attention is turning to their production in plants...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201139/structural-properties-of-starch-chitosan-gelatin-foams-and-the-impact-of-gelatin-on-mc3t3-mouse-osteoblast-cell-viability
#14
Gregory E Risser, Brittany L Banik, Justin L Brown, Jeffrey M Catchmark
Background: This study examines the effects of adding gelatin to a starch-chitosan composite foam, focusing on the altered structural and biological properties. The compressive modulus of foams containing different gelatin concentrations was tested in dry, wet, and lyophilized states. MC3T3 mouse osteoblast cells were used to test the composite's ability to support cell growth. The stability of the foams in α-MEM culture media with and without cells was also examined. Results: It was found that for dry foams, the compressive modulus increased with increasing gelatin content...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201138/implementation-and-use-of-cloud-based-electronic-lab-notebook-in-a-bioprocess-engineering-teaching-laboratory
#15
Erin M Riley, Holly Z Hattaway, P Arthur Felse
Background: Electronic lab notebooks (ELNs) are better equipped than paper lab notebooks (PLNs) to handle present-day life science and engineering experiments that generate large data sets and require high levels of data integrity. But limited training and a lack of workforce with ELN knowledge have restricted the use of ELN in academic and industry research laboratories which still rely on cumbersome PLNs for recordkeeping. We used LabArchives, a cloud-based ELN in our bioprocess engineering lab course to train students in electronic record keeping, good documentation practices (GDPs), and data integrity...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177007/a-simplified-microwave-based-motion-detector-for-home-cage-activity-monitoring-in-mice
#16
Andreas Genewsky, Daniel E Heinz, Paul M Kaplick, Kasyoka Kilonzo, Carsten T Wotjak
Background: Locomotor activity of rodents is an important readout to assess well-being and physical health, and is pivotal for behavioral phenotyping. Measuring homecage-activity with standard and cost-effective optical methods in mice has become difficult, as modern housing conditions (e.g. individually ventilated cages, cage enrichment) do not allow constant, unobstructed, visual access. Resolving this issue either makes greater investments necessary, especially if several experiments will be run in parallel, or is at the animals' expense...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177006/tissue-specific-microenvironments-a-key-tool-for-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Patrick C Sachs, Peter A Mollica, Robert D Bruno
The accumulated evidence points to the microenvironment as the primary mediator of cellular fate determination. Comprised of parenchymal cells, stromal cells, structural extracellular matrix proteins, and signaling molecules, the microenvironment is a complex and synergistic edifice that varies tissue to tissue. Furthermore, it has become increasingly clear that the microenvironment plays crucial roles in the establishment and progression of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, cancer, and ageing...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158775/evaluation-of-microbial-globin-promoters-for-oxygen-limited-processes-using-escherichia-coli
#18
Alvaro R Lara, Karim E Jaén, Juan-Carlos Sigala, Lars Regestein, Jochen Büchs
Oxygen-responsive promoters can be useful for synthetic biology applications, however, information on their characteristics is still limited. Here, we characterized a group of heterologous microaerobic globin promoters in Escherichia coli . Globin promoters from Bacillus subtilis , Campylobacter jejuni , Deinococcus radiodurans , Streptomyces coelicolor , Salmonella typhi and Vitreoscilla stercoraria were used to express the FMN-binding fluorescent protein (FbFP), which is a non-oxygen dependent marker. FbFP fluorescence was monitored online in cultures at maximum oxygen transfer capacities (OTRmax ) of 7 and 11 mmol L-1  h-1 ...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151885/treatment-of-old-landfill-leachate-with-high-ammonium-content-using-aerobic-granular-sludge
#19
Yanan Ren, Fernanda Ferraz, Abbass Jafari Kang, Qiuyan Yuan
Background: Aerobic granular sludge has become an attractive alternative to the conventional activated sludge due to its high settling velocity, compact structure, and higher tolerance to toxic substances and adverse conditions. Aerobic granular sludge process has been studied intensively in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater. However, information on leachate treatment using aerobic granular sludge is very limited. Methods: This study investigated the treatment performance of old landfill leachate with different levels of ammonium using two aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBR): an activated sludge SBR (ASBR) and a granular sludge SBR (GSBR)...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142590/birdcage-volume-coils-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-simple-experiment-for-students
#20
Dwight E Vincent, Tianhao Wang, Thalia A K Magyar, Peni I Jacob, Richard Buist, Melanie Martin
Background: This article explains some simple experiments that can be used in undergraduate or graduate physics or biomedical engineering laboratory classes to learn how birdcage volume radiofrequency (RF) coils and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) work. For a clear picture, and to do any quantitative MRI analysis, acquiring images with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is required. With a given MRI system at a given field strength, the only means to change the SNR using hardware is to change the RF coil used to collect the image...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
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