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Journal of Biological Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046717/designing-of-pla-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-replacement-fabricated-by-ordinary-commercial-3d-printer
#1
Aleš Gregor, Eva Filová, Martin Novák, Jakub Kronek, Hynek Chlup, Matěj Buzgo, Veronika Blahnová, Věra Lukášová, Martin Bartoš, Alois Nečas, Jan Hošek
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of Tissue engineering is a regeneration or replacement of tissues or organs damaged by disease, injury, or congenital anomalies. At present, Tissue engineering repairs damaged tissues and organs with artificial supporting structures called scaffolds. These are used for attachment and subsequent growth of appropriate cells. During the cell growth gradual biodegradation of the scaffold occurs and the final product is a new tissue with the desired shape and properties...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026441/modeling-the-architecture-of-the-regulatory-system-controlling-methylenomycin-production-in-streptomyces-coelicolor
#2
Jack E Bowyer, Emmanuel Lc de Los Santos, Kathryn M Styles, Alex Fullwood, Christophe Corre, Declan G Bates
BACKGROUND: The antibiotic methylenomycin A is produced naturally by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), a model organism for streptomycetes. This compound is of particular interest to synthetic biologists because all of the associated biosynthetic, regulatory and resistance genes are located on a single cluster on the SCP1 plasmid, making the entire module easily transferable between different bacterial strains. Understanding further the regulation and biosynthesis of the methylenomycin producing gene cluster could assist in the identification of motifs that can be exploited in synthetic regulatory systems for the rational engineering of novel natural products and antibiotics...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919925/in-vitro-evaluation-of-polylactic-acid-pla-manufactured-by-fused-deposition-modeling
#3
Matthias C Wurm, Tobias Möst, Bastian Bergauer, Dominik Rietzel, Friedrich Wilhelm Neukam, Sandra C Cifuentes, Cornelius von Wilmowsky
BACKGROUND: With additive manufacturing (AM) individual and biocompatible implants can be generated by using suitable materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of polylactic acid (PLA) manufactured by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) on osteoblasts in vitro according to European Norm / International Organization for Standardization 10,993-5. METHOD: Human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) were seeded onto PLA samples produced by FDM and investigated for cell viability by fluorescence staining after 24 h...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883890/facing-the-challenge-of-sustainable-bioenergy-production-could-halophytes-be-part-of-the-solution
#4
REVIEW
Ahmed Debez, Ikram Belghith, Jan Friesen, Carsten Montzka, Skander Elleuche
Due to steadily growing population and economic transitions in the more populous countries, renewable sources of energy are needed more than ever. Plant biomass as a raw source of bioenergy and biofuel products may meet the demand for sustainable energy; however, such plants typically compete with food crops, which should not be wasted for producing energy and chemicals. Second-generation or advanced biofuels that are based on renewable and non-edible biomass resources are processed to produce cellulosic ethanol, which could be further used for producing energy, but also bio-based chemicals including higher alcohols, organic acids, and bulk chemicals...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878819/construction-of-an-easy-to-use-crispr-cas9-system-by-patching-a-newly-designed-exit-circuit
#5
Qiang Tang, Chunbo Lou, Shuang-Jiang Liu
BACKGROUND: Plasmid-borne genetic editing tools, including the widely used CRISPR-Cas9 system, have greatly facilitated bacterial programming to obtain novel functionalities. However, the lack of effective post-editing plasmid elimination methods impedes follow-up genetic manipulation or application. Conventional strategies including exposure to physical and chemical treatments, or exploiting temperature-sensitive replication origins have several drawbacks (e.g., they are limited for efficiency and are time-consuming)...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835771/nucleotides-upstream-of-the-kozak-sequence-strongly-influence-gene-expression-in-the-yeast-s-cerevisiae
#6
Jing Li, Qiang Liang, Wenjiang Song, Mario Andrea Marchisio
BACKGROUND: In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as in every eukaryotic organism, the mRNA 5(')-untranslated region (UTR) is important for translation initiation. However, the patterns and mechanisms that determine the efficiency with which ribozomes bind mRNA, the elongation of ribosomes through the 5(')-UTR, and the formation of a stable translation initiation complex are not clear. Genes that are highly expressed in S. cerevisiae seem to prefer a 5(')-UTR rich in adenine and poor in guanine, particularly in the Kozak sequence, which occupies roughly the first six nucleotides upstream of the START codon...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785308/three-dimensional-3d-evaluation-of-liquid-distribution-in-shake-flask-using-an-optical-fluorescence-technique
#7
Amizon Azizan, Jochen Büchs
BACKGROUND: Biotechnological development in shake flask necessitates vital engineering parameters e.g. volumetric power input, mixing time, gas liquid mass transfer coefficient, hydromechanical stress and effective shear rate. Determination and optimization of these parameters through experiments are labor-intensive and time-consuming. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides the ability to predict and validate these parameters in bioprocess engineering. This work provides ample experimental data which are easily accessible for future validations to represent the hydrodynamics of the fluid flow in the shake flask...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785307/flow-dependent-fluorescence-of-ccvj
#8
Markus J Schmidt, David Sauter, Thomas Rösgen
BACKGROUND: The molecular rotor 9-(2-Carboxy-2-cyanovinyl)julolidine (CCVJ) is presumed to have a sensitivity towards velocity or shear which is supposed to result in a change in fluorescence quantum yield. Furthermore, a previously reported photoisomeric behavior may contribute to the measured fluorescence intensity changes. The goal of this research was to examine the hypothesized behavior theoretically and experimentally from the perspective of fluid dynamics. RESULTS: A correlation between stirring rate and intensity could not be established in the present experiments with a completely illuminated sample in contrast to previously reported experiments in spectrofluorometers...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702080/investigation-of-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-production-via-online-determination-of-viscosity-and-oxygen-transfer-rate-in-shake-flasks
#9
Lena Regestein Née Meissner, Julia Arndt, Thomas G Palmen, Tim Jestel, Hitoshi Mitsunaga, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Jochen Büchs
BACKGROUND: Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) is a biopolymer with many useful properties making it applicable for instance in food and skin care industries, in wastewater treatment, in biodegradable plastics or in the pharmaceutical industry. γ-PGA is usually produced microbially by different Bacillus spp. The produced γ-PGA increases the viscosity of the fermentation broth. In case of shake flask fermentations, this results in an increase of the volumetric power input. The power input in shake flasks can be determined by measuring the torque of an orbitally rotating lab shaker...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680477/human-pluripotent-stem-cell-differentiation-to-functional-pancreatic-cells-for-diabetes-therapies-innovations-challenges-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Elena F Jacobson, Emmanuel S Tzanakakis
Recent advances in the expansion and directed pancreatogenic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have intensified efforts to generate functional pancreatic islet cells, especially insulin-secreting β-cells, for cell therapies against diabetes. However, the consistent generation of glucose-responsive insulin-releasing cells remains challenging. In this article, we first present basic concepts of pancreatic organogenesis, which frequently serves as a basis for engineering differentiation regimens...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680476/prediction-of-escherichia-coli-expression-performance-in-microtiter-plates-by-analyzing-only-the-temporal-development-of-scattered-light-during-culture
#11
Tobias Ladner, Martina Mühlmann, Andreas Schulte, Georg Wandrey, Jochen Büchs
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is often used for recombinant protein production. The expression of recombinant proteins negatively affects the microbial growth, thus, a balance between protein expression and biomass formation is preferable to reach high product- and space-time-yield. Already in screening experiments, suboptimal conditions causing too weak or too strong induction must be avoided. High-throughput screening devices such as the BioLector are often applied for screening experiments...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670340/delivery-of-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1%C3%AE-for-in-situ-tissue-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
Wen Zhao, Kaixiang Jin, Jiaojiao Li, Xuefeng Qiu, Song Li
In situ tissue regeneration approach aims to exploit the body's own biological resources and reparative capability and recruit host cells by utilizing cell-instructive biomaterials. In order to immobilize and release bioactive factors in biomaterials, it is important to engineer the load effectiveness, release kinetics and cell recruiting capabilities of bioactive molecules by using suitable bonding strategies. Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) is one of the most potent chemokines for stem cell recruitment, and SDF-1α-loaded scaffolds have been used for the regeneration of many types of tissues...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592992/streamlining-recombination-mediated-genetic-engineering-by-validating-three-neutral-integration-sites-in-synechococcus-sp-pcc-7002
#13
Anne Ilse Maria Vogel, Rahmi Lale, Martin Frank Hohmann-Marriott
BACKGROUND: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 (henceforth Synechococcus) is developing into a powerful synthetic biology chassis. In order to streamline the integration of genes into the Synechococcus chromosome, validation of neutral integration sites with optimization of the DNA transformation protocol parameters is necessary. Availability of BioBrick-compatible integration modules is desirable to further simplifying chromosomal integrations. RESULTS: We designed three BioBrick-compatible genetic modules, each targeting a separate neutral integration site, A2842, A0935, and A0159, with varying length of homologous region, spanning from 100 to 800 nt...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592991/aav-based-dual-reporter-circuit-for-monitoring-cell-signaling-in-living-human-cells
#14
Zhiwen Zhang, Zachary Stickney, Natalie Duong, Kevin Curley, Biao Lu
BACKGROUND: High-throughput methods based on molecular reporters have greatly advanced our knowledge of cell signaling in mammalian cells. However, their ability to monitor various types of cells is markedly limited by the inefficiency of reporter gene delivery. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are efficient tools widely used for delivering and expressing transgenes in diverse animal cells in vitro and in vivo. Here we present the design, construction and validation of a novel AAV-based dual-reporter circuit that can be used to monitor and quantify cell signaling in living human cells...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484513/significantly-enhanced-biomass-production-of-a-novel-bio-therapeutic-strain-lactobacillus-plantarum-as-14-by-developing-low-cost-media-cultivation-strategy
#15
Asma Manzoor, Javed Iqbal Qazi, Ikram Ul Haq, Hamid Mukhtar, Akhtar Rasool
BACKGROUND: Probiotic bacteria are becoming an important tool for improving human health, controlling diseases and enhancing immune responses. The availability of a cost effective cultivation conditions has profound effect on the efficiency and role of probiotic bacteria. Therefore the current study was conducted with an objective to develop a low cost growth medium for enhancing the biomass production of a bio-therapeutic bacterial strain Lactobacillus plantarum AS-14. In this work the isolation of Lactobacillus plantarum AS-14 bacterial strain was carried out from brinjal using cheese whey as a main carbon source...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469703/application-of-denitrifying-wood-chip-bioreactors-for-management-of-residential-non-point-sources-of-nitrogen
#16
REVIEW
E V Lopez-Ponnada, T J Lynn, M Peterson, S J Ergas, J R Mihelcic
Two important and large non-point sources of nitrogen in residential areas that adversely affect water quality are stormwater runoff and effluent from on-site treatment systems. These sources are challenging to control due to their variable flow rates and nitrogen concentrations. Denitrifying bioreactors that employ a lignocellulosic wood chip medium contained within a saturated (anoxic) zone are relatively new technology that can be implemented at the local level to manage residential non-point nitrogen sources...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396694/synthesis-of-umbelliferone-derivatives-in-escherichia-coli-and-their-biological-activities
#17
Luan Luong Chu, Ramesh Prasad Pandey, Haet Nim Lim, Hye Jin Jung, Nguyen Huy Thuan, Tae-Su Kim, Jae Kyung Sohng
BACKGROUND: Umbelliferone, also known as 7-hydroxycoumarin, is a phenolic metabolite found in many familiar plants. Its derivatives have been shown to have various pharmacological and chemo-preventive effects on human health. A uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase YjiC from Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13, a cytochrome P450BM3 (CYP450 BM3) variant namely mutant 13 (M13) from Bacillus megaterium, and an O-methyltransferase from Streptomyces avermitilis (SaOMT2) were used for modifications of umbelliferone...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392831/directing-three-dimensional-multicellular-morphogenesis-by-self-organization-of-vascular-mesenchymal-cells-in-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogels
#18
Xiaolu Zhu, Shiva Gojgini, Ting-Hsuan Chen, Peng Fei, Siyan Dong, Chih-Ming Ho, Tatiana Segura
BACKGROUND: Physical scaffolds are useful for supporting cells to form three-dimensional (3D) tissue. However, it is non-trivial to develop a scheme that can robustly guide cells to self-organize into a tissue with the desired 3D spatial structures. To achieve this goal, the rational regulation of cellular self-organization in 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) such as hydrogel is needed. RESULTS: In this study, we integrated the Turing reaction-diffusion mechanism with the self-organization process of cells and produced multicellular 3D structures with the desired configurations in a rational manner...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360935/portable-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-biosensor-and-assay-for-a-highly-sensitive-and-rapid-detection-of-foodborne-bacteria-in-complex-matrices
#19
Yilun Luo, Evangelyn C Alocilja
BACKGROUND: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is a powerful analytical tool in determining the presence of bacterial contaminants in complex biological samples. In this paper, a portable NMR-based (pNMR) biosensor and assay to detect the foodborne bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7 is reported. It uses antibody-functionalized polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles as proximity biomarker of the bacteria which accelerates NMR resonance signal decay. RESULTS: The pNMR biosensor operates at 0...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344644/strategies-for-using-nanoprobes-to-perceive-and-treat-cancer-activity-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Byunghoon Kang, Aastha Kukreja, Daesub Song, Yong-Min Huh, Seungjoo Haam
Nanomedicine has seen a significant increase in research on stimuli-responsive activatable nanoprobes for tumor-specific delivery and diagnosis. The tumor microenvironment has particular characteristics that can be exploited to implement therapeutic strategies based on disparities between normal tissues and tumor tissues, including differences in pH, oxygenation, enzymatic expression, gene activation/inactivation, and vasculature. The nanocarriers of activatable nanoparticles maintain their structure while circulating in the body and, upon reaching the tumor site, are altered by unique tumoral stimuli, leading to the release of a drug or other agent...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
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