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Journal of Biological Engineering

Zhan-Qi Dong, Zhi-Gang Hu, Hai-Qing Li, Ya-Ming Jiang, Ming-Ya Cao, Peng Chen, Cheng Lu, Min-Hui Pan
Background: Silkworm genetic engineering is widely used in gene function, silk engineering and disease-resistant engineering in most of Asia. Some of the earliest promoter elements are used to control the development of silkworm transgenic expression and gene therapy. However, the low expression and specificity of natural promoters limit the applications of genetic engineering. To construct a highly efficient synthetic inducible promoter in the Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), we analyzed the regulatory elements and functional regions of the B...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Maryse Lapierre-Landry, Joseph Carroll, Melissa C Skala
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is essential to the health of the retina and the proper functioning of the photoreceptors. The RPE is rich in melanosomes, which contain the pigment melanin. Changes in RPE pigmentation are seen with normal aging and in diseases such as albinism and age-related macular degeneration. However, most techniques used to this day to detect and quantify ocular melanin are performed ex vivo and are destructive to the tissue. There is a need for in vivo imaging of melanin both at the clinical and pre-clinical level to study how pigmentation changes can inform disease progression...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Daniel Y Lee, Byung-Hyun Cha, Minjin Jung, Angela S Kim, David A Bull, Young-Wook Won
Cell-based therapy has expanded its influence in cancer immunotherapy, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. Due to their secretory functions, differentiation capabilities, specific homing effects through chemotaxis, distinctive therapeutic potentials, and ex vivo expandability, cells have become an attractive reagent for advanced therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the ability to modify cells and manipulate their functions according to intended therapeutic designs has been the central scientific interest in the field of biomedical research...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
M V Gorlenko, E A Chutko, E S Churbanova, N V Minaev, K I Kachesov, L V Lysak, S A Evlashin, V S Cheptsov, A O Rybaltovskiy, V I Yusupov, V S Zhigarkov, G A Davydova, B N Chichkov, V N Bagratashvili
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Chong Shen, Tongmeng Jiang, Bo Zhu, Yiguan Le, Jianwei Liu, Zainen Qin, Haimin Chen, Gang Zhong, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao, Xingdong Zhang
In vitro expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been implicated in loss of multipotency, leading to impaired chondrogenic potential and an eventual therapeutic effect, as reported in our previous study. However, the precise regulatory mechanism is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) were involved in transformation of MSCs induced by in vitro culture based on the comparative profiling of in vitro cultured bone marrow MSCs at passage 3 (P3 BMSCs) vs...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Lauryn G Chan, Joshua L Cohen, Gulustan Ozturk, Marie Hennebelle, Ameer Y Taha, Juliana Maria L N de Moura Bell
Background: Oleaginous fungi are efficient tools to convert agricultural waste streams into valuable components. The filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides was cultivated in whey permeate, a byproduct from cheese production, to produce an oil-rich fungal biomass. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation conditions such as pH and temperature for increased biomass yield and lipid accumulation. Quantification and characterization of the fungal biomass oil was conducted...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Thomas Später, Florian S Frueh, Ruth M Nickels, Michael D Menger, Matthias W Laschke
Background: The seeding of scaffolds with the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a common prevascularization strategy in tissue engineering. Alternatively, adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) may serve as vascularization units. In contrast to SVF single cells, they represent a mixture of intact arteriolar, capillary and venular vessel segments. Therefore, we herein hypothesized that the ad-MVF-based prevascularization of scaffolds is superior to the conventional SVF single cells-based approach...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Kalen P Clifton, Ethan M Jones, Sudip Paudel, John P Marken, Callan E Monette, Andrew D Halleran, Lidia Epp, Margaret S Saha
A primary objective of synthetic biology is the construction of genetic circuits with behaviors that can be predicted based on the properties of the constituent genetic parts from which they are built. However a significant issue in the construction of synthetic genetic circuits is a phenomenon known as context dependence in which the behavior of a given part changes depending on the choice of adjacent or nearby parts. Interactions between parts compromise the modularity of the circuit, impeding the implementation of predictable genetic constructs...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Juan Long, Xiao Zhao, Fei Liang, Nan Liu, Yuying Sun, Yongzhi Xi
Background: Fermentation condition optimization and nutrients screening are of equal importance for efficient production of plasmid DNA vaccines. This directly affects the downstream purification and final quality and yield of plasmid DNA vaccines. The present study aimed to optimize the fermentation conditions for high-throughput production of therapeutic DNA vaccine pcDNA-CCOL2A1 by engineered Escherichia coli DH5α, using the response surface method (RSM). Results: We hypothesized that optimized fermentation conditions significantly increase the yield of pcDNA-CCOL2A1 therapeutic DNA vaccine, a novel DNA vaccine for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
P Formentín, Ú Catalán, L Pol, S Fernández-Castillejo, R Solà, L F Marsal
Background: The ability to direct the cellular response by means of biomaterial surface topography is important for biomedical applications. Substrate surface topography has been shown to be an effective cue for the regulation of cellular response. Here, the response of human aortic endothelial cells to nanoporous anodic alumina and macroporous silicon with collagen and fibronectin functionalization has been studied. Methods: Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to analyse the effects of the material and the porosity on the adhesion, morphology, and proliferation of the cells...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Girdhari Rijal, Weimin Li
Human connective tissues are complex physiological microenvironments favorable for optimal survival, function, growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and death of tissue cells. Mimicking native tissue microenvironment using various three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture systems in vitro has been explored for decades, with great advances being achieved recently at material, design and application levels. These achievements are based on improved understandings about the functionalities of various tissue cells, the biocompatibility and biodegradability of scaffolding materials, the biologically functional factors within native tissues, and the pathophysiological conditions of native tissue microenvironments...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Abhishek S Dhoble, Pratik Lahiri, Kaustubh D Bhalerao
Background: Flow cytometry, with its high throughput nature, combined with the ability to measure an increasing number of cell parameters at once can surpass the throughput of prevalent genomic and metagenomic approaches in the study of microbiomes. Novel computational approaches to analyze flow cytometry data will result in greater insights and actionability as compared to traditional tools used in the analysis of microbiomes. This paper is a demonstration of the fruitfulness of machine learning in analyzing microbial flow cytometry data generated in anaerobic microbiome perturbation experiments...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Li Xia Gao, Chunxiang Bian, Yan Wu, Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, Shida Chen, Chang Ming Li, Ling Yu, Ping Ji, Enyi Huang, Julia Li Zhong
Background: Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), triggered by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), is associated with carcinogenesis of the skin. UV irradiation induced superoxide anion (O2•- ) is the key ROS involved in the cellular damage. The cytoprotective efficacy of an unknown anti-oxidant compound can be evaluated by analyzing the production of O2•- from treated cells. Methods: In this study, a glass carbon electrode functionalized with nanotube@DNA-Mn3(PO4)2 composite was applied to quantitative determination of generation of highly unstable O2•- from the melanoma A375 cell line following UVR(UV, UVA and UVB)...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Jose Yeste, Xavi Illa, Mar Alvarez, Rosa Villa
Epithelia and endothelia delineate tissue compartments and control their environments by regulating the passage of ions and solutes. This barrier function is essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, and its dysfunction is associated with numerous human diseases. Recent advances in biomaterials and microfabrication technologies have evolved in vitro approaches for modelling biological barriers. Current microphysiological systems have become more efficient and reliable in mimicking the cell microenvironment...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Sang Hoon Kim, Ee Taek Hwang, Man Bock Gu
Background: Antibiotics, which are the most important medication in human history, have brought global concerns due to their potential risk to human health and environment by accelerating the development of drug-resistant bacteria, and accumulating in the food chain system. Among antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC) is widely used in aquaculture, and its potential risk of toxicity to human by bioaccumulation has been reported. Therefore, the effective removal of OTC is highly needed. Results: In this study, we report bio-hybrid inorganic microparticles (apt-mag-SiCC) for efficient capturing and facile magnet-based separation of oxytetracycline (OTC)...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Mean Ghim, Kuin T Pang, Mehwish Arshad, Xiaomeng Wang, Peter D Weinberg
Background: Effects of shear stress on endothelium are important for the normal physiology of blood vessels and are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. They have been extensively studied in vitro. In one paradigm, endothelial cells are cultured in devices that produce spatially varying shear stress profiles, and the local profile is compared with the properties of cells at the same position. A flaw in this class of experiments is that cells exposed to a certain shear profile in one location may release mediators into the medium that alter the behaviour of cells at another location, experiencing different shear, thus obscuring or corrupting the true relation between shear and cell properties...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Chun-Liang Lin, Ting-Yu Kuo, Wei-Xian Li
Background: Synthesis of a variety of biological circuits for specific functional purposes has made a tremendous progress in recent years. The ultimate goal of combining molecular biology and engineering is to realize a functional biocomputer. To address this challenge, all previous efforts work toward building up the bio-computer as the ultimate goal. To this aim, there should be a key module, named control unit (CU), to direct a serious of logic or arithmetic operations within the processor...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Hak Rae Lee, Faith Leslie, Samira M Azarin
Background: While hypoxia has been well-studied in various tumor microenvironments, its role in cancer cell dormancy is poorly understood, in part due to a lack of well-established in vitro and in vivo models. Hypoxic conditions under conventional hypoxia chambers are relatively unstable and cannot be maintained during characterization outside the chamber since normoxic response is quickly established. To address this challenge, we report a robust in vitro cancer dormancy model under a hypoxia-mimicking microenvironment using cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ), a hypoxia-mimetic agent, which stabilizes hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α), a major regulator of hypoxia signaling...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Christopher M Whitford, Saskia Dymek, Denise Kerkhoff, Camilla März, Olga Schmidt, Maximilian Edich, Julian Droste, Boas Pucker, Christian Rückert, Jörn Kalinowski
Background: Biosafety is a key aspect in the international Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition, which offers student teams an amazing opportunity to pursue their own research projects in the field of Synthetic Biology. iGEM projects often involve the creation of genetically engineered bacterial strains. To minimize the risks associated with bacterial release, a variety of biosafety systems were constructed, either to prevent survival of bacteria outside the lab or to hinder horizontal or vertical gene transfer...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Jing Li, Zengliang Xu, Aleksandr Chupalov, Mario Andrea Marchisio
Background: Anti-CRISPR proteins are expressed by phages as a reaction to the bacterial CRISPR-Cas defense system. Recently, the structures of anti-CRISPR proteins have been determined, and their diverse functions have been clarified. Anti-CRISPR proteins such as LmAcrIIA2 and LmAcrIIA4 interact with the SpCas9:gRNA system and occlude the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) recognition site, thereby preventing SpCas9:gRNA from binding to the DNA. Hence, anti-CRISPR proteins represent a powerful means to control and modulate the activity of SpCas9 and its nuclease-deficient version dSpCas9...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
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