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Head and Neck Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616786/laryngotracheal-involvement-in-systemic-light-chain-amyloidosis
#1
Daniel T Ginat, Jefree Schulte, Louis Portugal, Nicole A Cipriani
Laryngotracheal amyloid deposition is an uncommon manifestation of systemic light chain amyloidosis. Diagnostic imaging, such as CT, is useful for suggesting the possibility of amyloidosis and delineating the extent of the lesions for surgical management; however, the diagnosis is confirmed with the histologic finding of amorphous eosinophilic material which stains positively for Congo red and may show apple green birefringence on polarization. These features are exemplified in this sine qua non radiology-pathology correlation article...
June 14, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616785/usefulness-of-nkx2-2-immunohistochemistry-for-distinguishing-ewing-sarcoma-from-other-sinonasal-small-round-blue-cell-tumors
#2
Austin McCuiston, Justin A Bishop
NKX2.2 is a new immunohistochemical marker that has been reported to be sensitive and specific for Ewing sarcoma (ES). It has not, however, been investigated specifically in the sinonasal small round blue cell tumor (SRBCT) differential diagnosis which includes many tumors specific to that site. It has also not been investigated in the newly recognized "adamantinoma-like" variant of ES. Immunohistochemistry for NKX2.2 was performed on 170 poorly differentiated sinonasal neoplasms: 73 squamous cell carcinomas (67 poorly differentiated, non-keratinizing, or basaloid types and 6 nasopharyngeal carcinomas), 46 olfactory neuroblastomas, 8 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (SNUCs), 6 melanomas, 7 Ewing sarcomas, 6 SMARCB1-deficient carcinomas, 6 teratocarcinosarcomas, 5 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, 4 solid adenoid cystic carcinomas, 4 NK/T cell lymphomas, 3 NUT carcinomas, and 2 small cell carcinomas...
June 14, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597210/multiple-desmoplastic-cellular-neurothekeomas-in-child-report-of-the-first-oral-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Tatiana Fernandes Araújo Almeida, Flaviana Dornela Verli, Cássio Roberto Rocha Dos Santos, Saulo Gabriel Moreira Falci, Luciana Yamamoto Almeida, Lana Kei Yamamoto Almeida, Ana Terezinha Marques Mesquita, Jorge Esquiche León
Cellular neurothekeomas (CNs) are distinctive benign tumors of uncertain histogenesis, with predilection for the skin of the head and neck region. We describe the first case of multiple desmoplastic CNs (DCNs) affecting the oral cavity in a 9-year-old girl. Histopathologic evaluation showed a proliferation of spindle and epithelioid cells, forming nests and bundles, supported by exuberant fibrous stroma, as well as scattered multinucleated floret-like giant cells. The tumor cells were immunopositive for vimentin, CD63, CD56, whereas AE1/AE3, S100, CD34, α-SMA, GFAP, EMA, CD57 and NSE were negative...
June 8, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589437/low-grade-carcinoma-ex-pleomorphic-adenoma-diagnosis-and-diagnostic-challenges-caused-by-fine-needle-aspiration-report-of-three-cases-and-review-of-literature
#4
Michael Covinsky, Zhenjian Cai, Manju Ambelil, Jing Liu, Hui Zhu
Low grade carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (LG CXPA) is a rare low grade malignant neoplasm arising from preexisting pleomorphic adenoma (PA). LG CXPA demonstrates no overt cytological atypia, and can be difficult to distinguish from cellular PA. Invasive growth is one of the hallmarks of LG CXPA, e.g., tumor extends beyond the capsule and into adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. However, it is known that capsular and vascular invasion, as well as the presence of stroma-rich PA in soft tissue without a capsule (pseudopodia) can be seen in PA...
June 6, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589436/angioleiomyoma-vascular-leiomyoma-of-the-oral-cavity
#5
Swati Y Rawal, Yeshwant B Rawal
A 70-year-old male presented with a slow growing, dome shaped and painless mass of the hard palate. The mass was excised. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a angioleiomyoma (vascular leiomyoma). A leiomyoma is an uncommon benign tumor of smooth muscle differentiation. True leiomyomas of the oral cavity are rare and most oral tumors are derived from the smooth muscle of walls of blood vessels. Therefore, they are called vascular leiomyomas or angioleiomyomas. Clinically, they may resemble a myriad other conditions both benign and malignant...
June 6, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547732/metastasizing-pleomorphic-adenoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Rana Alshagroud, Amandip Kamoh, Saurin R Popat, Margaret Brandwein-Weber, Alfredo Aguirre
Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is by far the most common salivary gland tumor. It is well known that PA can undergo malignant transformation. However, in rare occasions it can metastasize preserving its benign phenotype. Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma (MPA) constitutes an extremely rare tumor. Here we are reporting an unusual MPA affecting the mandible that was preceded by a submandibular gland pleomorphic adenoma.
May 25, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536894/can-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-arise-in-thyroglossal-duct-cysts-a-search-for-parafollicular-c-cells-in-41-resected-cases
#7
Tracy Stein, Paari Murugan, Faqian Li, Mohamed I El Hag
Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs) are present in ~7% of adults and develop from the midline migratory tract between the foramen cecum and anatomic location of the thyroid. Thyroid tissue can be identified in 2/3 of TGDCs, and up to 1% develop associated malignancy, 90% of which are papillary thyroid carcinoma. Cases of follicular and anaplastic carcinoma have been documented, but there are no reports of medullary thyroid carcinoma arising in a TGDC. This is presumably due to the distinct embryologic origin of parafollicular C-cells, from which medullary carcinoma arises...
May 23, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528398/squamous-and-neuroendocrine-specific-immunohistochemical-markers-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-tissue-microarray-study
#8
J S Lewis, R D Chernock, J A Bishop
The performance characteristics of neuroendocrine-specific and squamous-specific immunohistochemical markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), in particular in oropharyngeal tumors in this era of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cases, are not well-established. The differential diagnosis for poorly differentiated SCCs, for nonkeratinizing oropharyngeal SCCs, and for other specific SCC variants such as basaloid SCC and undifferentiated (or lymphoepithelial-like) carcinomas includes neuroendocrine carcinomas...
May 20, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516348/sclerosing-mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-of-the-submandibular-gland-presenting-as-chronic-sialadenitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
L Heptinstall, C Carroll, J Siddiqi, D Kamel, M Petkar
Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland (SMEC) is a rare subtype of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), first described in 1987 by Chan and Saw. As far as we are aware, only 30 cases have been published since then. Most cases were located in the parotid gland with some cases described in the submandibular and minor salivary glands. SMEC typically presents as a long-standing mass, with a non-specific enhancing appearance on imaging and is often non-diagnostic on fine needle aspiration, making pre-operative diagnosis very difficult...
May 17, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509953/hyalinizing-clear-cell-carcinoma-of-the-tonsil-a-case-report
#10
Bridget Burgess, Vijayalakshmi Ananthanarayanan, Steven Charous
Hyalinzing clear cell carcinoma is a rare tumor of the oral cavity and is even more rarely located in the tonsil. Here, we present a case report of a pedunculated tonsillar mass in a nearly asymptomatic patient that was present for 2 years prior to removal. Complete surgical excision was achieved and no adjuvant therapy was recommended. We include a discussion of this rare pathology and its typical clinical presentation and course.
May 16, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508997/fibromyxoma-of-the-jaw-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Thabet Alhousami, Amarpreet Sabharwal, Shivane Gupta, Alfredo Aguirre, Etern Park, Jill M Kramer
We report a case of fibromyxoma of the mandible, a rare benign odontogenic tumor. Our patient presented in the first trimester of pregnancy with a large mass in the right body of the mandible exhibiting displacement of teeth and destruction of an extensive area of the mandibular bone. The mass was biopsied and diagnosed as a fibromyxoma. The large size of the tumor dictated a wide mandibular resection. We will review the clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of fibromyxoma and discuss its differential diagnoses...
May 16, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508996/hyalinizing-clear-cell-carcinoma-of-the-bronchus
#12
Maryam Shahi, Michelle Dolan, Paari Murugan
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is an uncommon low-grade minor salivary gland neoplasm that usually arises in the head and neck region. We report a 55-year-old man who presented with a 2.5 cm lung mass that was partially obstructing the right bronchus intermedius. The tumor consisted of cords and nests of clear and eosinophilic cells in a hyalinized stromal background. The neoplastic cells expressed cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK 5/6, high-molecular weight cytokeratin (34BE12), p63 and p40, while TTF-1, napsin A, CK20, S100, smooth muscle actin, synaptophysin and chromogranin were negative...
May 16, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508272/nasopharyngeal-angiofibroma-a-clinical-histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-42-cases-with-emphasis-on-stromal-features
#13
Celeste Sánchez-Romero, Roman Carlos, Juan Pablo Díaz Molina, Lester D R Thompson, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Alicia Rumayor Piña
Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign but aggressive tumor of unknown etiology, typically occurring in adolescent males. It is described as a rare neoplasm; however, the prevalence seems to have geographic differences. All cases referred to our head and neck clinical and pathology service were reviewed. Most of the patients presented at an advanced stage. The clinical and radiographic features are presented and discussed. Histologically, the tumor shows a highly vascular fibrous proliferation with characteristic plump, angulated and stellate cells, categorized as fibroblasts...
May 15, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474294/influence-of-deviated-nasal-septum-on-nasal-epithelium-an-analysis
#14
Lakshit Kumar, Basavaraj P Belaldavar, Hema Bannur
Nasal obstruction is one of the most common complaint that ENT surgeon faces in his day to day practice. Deviated nasal septum is the most common cause for the nasal obstruction. It causes altered airflow dynamics which leads to various histopathological changes in nasal mucosa.Histopathological changes like lymphocytic infiltration and squamous metaplasia were studied and comparison was done between convex and concave side. A prospective randomized study conducted on 42 patients of deviated nasal septum from January 2015 to December 2015 selected from inpatient department of Otorhinolaryngology, KLES Dr...
May 4, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466407/rhabdomyosarcoma-spindle-cell-sclerosing-variant-a-clinical-and-histopathological-examination-of-this-rare-variant-with-three-new-cases-from-the-oral-cavity
#15
Molly Housley Smith, Daniel Atherton, John D Reith, Nadim M Islam, Indraneel Bhattacharyya, Donald M Cohen
Spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (S-ScRMS) was recently recognized in 2013 by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a stand-alone entity (Parham et al., WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone, IARC Press, Lyon, 2013). Historically, the spindle cell and sclerosing variants were subcategorized under embryonal type rhabdomyosarcoma. Current data supports that certain S-ScRMS cases have a more aggressive clinical course with reduction of long-term survival, and those found in the head and neck region often exhibit extensive local recurrence...
May 2, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439689/divergent-schwannoma-like-phenotype-in-a-pleomorphic-adenoma
#16
Srinivasa R Chandra, Farah Karim, Yeshwant B Rawal
The schwannoma-like pleomorphic adenoma is a rare histopathological variant of the pleomorphic adenoma. Five previous reports with seven cases exist in English language literature. These tumors present in the parotid gland most commonly. Intraparotid schwannomas of the facial nerve and schwannomas with glandular differentiation have also been reported. A 60-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic swelling over the left angle of the mandible. The swelling had been present for about 12 years with a recent increase in size...
April 24, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401439/primary-extracranial-meningioma-a-rare-location
#17
Inara Carneiro Costa Rege, Robson Rodrigues Garcia, Elismauro Francisco Mendonça
Meningiomas are benign extraaxial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Extracranial meningiomas are extremely rare (2%) and can develop as a direct extension from a primary intracranial meningioma or as true primary extracranial meningioma originating from ectopic arachnoid cells. Only eight cases of primary meningioma in the jaw have been reported to date. Extracranial meningiomas are frequently misdiagnosed, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. The aim of this article was to describe the case of a man with an asymptomatic swelling in the right retromolar area over a period of 2 months...
April 11, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374102/predictive-significance-of-tumor-depth-and-budding-for-late-lymph-node-metastases-in-patients-with-clinical-n0-early-oral-tongue-carcinoma
#18
Yukiko Hori, Akira Kubota, Tomoyuki Yokose, Madoka Furukawa, Takeshi Matsushita, Morihito Takita, Sachiyo Mitsunaga, Nobutaka Mizoguchi, Tetsuo Nonaka, Yuko Nakayama, Nobuhiko Oridate
In clinical N0 early oral tongue carcinoma, treatment of occult lymph node metastasis is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the histopathological risk factors for predicting late lymph node metastasis in early oral tongue carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 48 patients with early oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Associations between the histopathological factors (depth of tumor, differentiation, blood vessel invasion, lymphatic invasion, and tumor budding) and late lymph metastasis were analyzed...
April 3, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349372/nut-midline-carcinoma-of-the-sublingual-gland-clinical-presentation-and-review
#19
Nolan B Seim, Ramez H W Philips, Lynn Schoenfield, Theodoros N Teknos, James W Rocco, Amit Agrawal, Enver Ozer, Ricardo L Carrau, Stephen Y Kang, Matthew O Old
NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare and aggressive disease encountered in the midline of the head and neck or mediastinum. Due to its sparse incidence and subtle pathologic features, we aim to increase knowledge and awareness for this pathologic entity. We present an exemplary case of a young, healthy male presenting with oral cavity pain and cervical lymphadenopathy. This patient was initially diagnosed with an unspecified, highly aggressive sublingual gland malignancy and underwent locoregional resection with free flap reconstruction however suffered a rapid local recurrence and widely extensive metastasis within just 1 month...
March 27, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349371/intraoral-salivary-duct-cyst-clinical-and-histopathologic-features-of-177-cases
#20
Ivan J Stojanov, Umer A Malik, Sook-Bin Woo
The salivary duct cyst (SDC) is a reactive ductal ectasia most frequently seen in major salivary glands, and likely caused by obstruction. The aim of this study is to define the clinical and histopathologic spectrum of intraoral SDCs. Cases were retrieved from the archives of Harvard School of Dental Medicine/StrataDx, Inc. from January 2012 to August 2014. There were 177 cases of which 103 (58.2%) occurred in females, with a median age of 56 (range 2-95). Approximately half of cases (45.8%) presented in the area of the buccal mucosa, lower lip mucosa, or mandibular vestibule, and 23...
March 27, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
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