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Hepatology International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330836/pathogenesis-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-mediated-by-yap
#1
Ping Chen, Qihui Luo, Chao Huang, Qi Gao, Like Li, Jingfei Chen, Bing Chen, Wentao Liu, Wen Zeng, Zhengli Chen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the interaction between Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathways in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Serum samples of monkeys with biopsy-proven NAFLD and healthy normal monkeys were used to measure fasting plasma glucose (FPG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG) and albumin (ALB) with the BECKMAN CX5 PRO...
January 12, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318450/the-utility-of-noninvasive-scores-in-assessing-the-prevalence-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-advanced-fibrosis-in-type-1-diabetic-patients
#2
Amandeep Singh, Phuc Le, Rocio Lopez, Naim Alkhouri
GOALS: The aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and advanced hepatic fibrosis in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using simple noninvasive scores. BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data on the prevalence of NAFLD in T1D. Moreover, T1D could be a risk factor for advanced disease in NAFLD patients. STUDY: Using ICD-9 codes, all patients with the diagnosis of T1D were reviewed and a retrospective chart analysis was carried out on 23,314 patients between the ages of 18 and 80...
January 9, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299759/translating-scientific-discovery-the-need-for-preclinical-models-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#3
REVIEW
Abdul M Oseini, Banumathi K Cole, Danny Issa, Ryan E Feaver, Arun J Sanyal
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world, affecting about 1/3 of the US general population and remaining as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The hallmark of the disease is the excessive accumulation of fat within the liver cells (hepatocytes), which eventually paves the way to cellular stress, injury and apoptosis. NAFLD is strongly associated with components of the metabolic syndrome and is fast emerging as a leading cause of liver transplant in the USA...
January 3, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224053/spontaneous-bacteremia-and-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-share-similar-prognosis-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-a-cohort-study
#4
Sebastián Marciano, Melisa Dirchwolf, Carla S Bermudez, Natalia Sobenko, Leila Haddad, Federico Genre Bert, Laura Barcán, Astrid Smud, Maria Lourdes Posadas-Martínez, Diego Giunta, Adrián Gadano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spontaneous bacteremia is a poorly characterized infection in patients with cirrhosis. We compared the incidence of mortality and acute kidney injury in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and spontaneous bacteremia, and identified risk factors for mortality and acute kidney injury in patients with spontaneous bacteremia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacteremia or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis from 2008 to 2016 at Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210030/pharmacologic-prevention-of-variceal-bleeding-and-rebleeding
#5
REVIEW
Anna Baiges, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Jaime Bosch
BACKGROUND: Variceal bleeding is a major complication of portal hypertension, which is associated with significant mortality. Moreover, patients surviving a variceal bleeding episode have very high risk of rebleeding, which is associated with mortality as high as that of the first bleed. Because of this, prevention of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices has been one of the main therapeutic goals since the advent of the first effective therapies for portal hypertension. AIM: This review deals with the present day state-of-the-art pharmacological prevention of variceal bleeding in primary and secondary prophylaxis...
December 5, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189974/association-of-sirt1-gene-polymorphism-and-its-expression-for-the-risk-of-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-the-han-population
#6
Yeting Hou, Bingzhong Su, Ping Chen, Haijing Niu, Sheng Zhao, Ruijun Wang, Wei Shen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between SIRT1 polymorphisms and their expression in patients with alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). METHODS: A total of 268 heavy drinkers were divided into the AFLD group (n = 176) and alcoholic control (n = 92) and 237 light-/non-drinkers into the NAFLD (non-AFLD) group (n = 117) and healthy control (n = 120). The genotyping of SIRT1 (rs33957861, rs11599176, rs12413112 and rs35689145) was detected by the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX test...
November 30, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185106/efficacy-of-carvedilol-versus-propranolol-versus-variceal-band-ligation-for-primary-prevention-of-variceal-bleeding
#7
Ayman Yosry Abd ElRahim, Rabab Fouad, Marwa Khairy, Aisha Elsharkawy, Waleed Fathalah, Haytham Khatamish, Omayma Khorshid, Mona Moussa, Moataz Seyam
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Band ligation and propranolol are the current therapies for primary prevention of variceal bleeding. Carvedilol is a rising nonselective beta-blocker used for reducing portal pressure with favorable outcome. The aim of this study to assess the efficacy of carvedilol, propranolol, and band ligation for primary prevention of variceal bleeding based on the effect of each regimen on progression of Child score and portal hypertensive gastropathy after 1 year. METHODS: The study included 264 cirrhotic patients with medium/large-sized varices who were candidates for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding...
November 28, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170994/-no-go-donor-hepatectomy-in-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#8
Viniyendra Pamecha, Kishore G S Bharathy, Shyam S Mahansaria, Piyush K Sinha, Archana Rastogi, Shridhar V Sasturkar
BACKGROUND: Selection of appropriate donors after rigorous evaluation is of paramount importance in living-donor liver transplantation. Despite this, donor surgery may not proceed due to unforeseen reasons. The aim of this paper is to study reasons for "no go" donor hepatectomy in living liver donors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Donor operations stopped after surgical start, directly due to donor safety-related reasons, qualified for inclusion as "no go" donor hepatectomy...
November 24, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124667/improving-survival-in-aclf-growing-evidence-for-use-of-g-csf
#9
EDITORIAL
D A Simonetto, V H Shah, P S Kamath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110128/endoscopic-treatments-for-portal-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Gin-Ho Lo
Acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage is a dreaded complication of portal hypertension. Its management has evolved rapidly in recent years. Endoscopic therapy is often employed to arrest bleeding varices as well as to prevent early rebleeding. The combination of vasoconstrictor and endoscopic therapy is superior to vasoconstrictor or endoscopic therapy alone for control of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage. After control of acute variceal bleeding, combination of banding ligation and beta-blockers is generally recommended to prevent variceal rebleeding...
November 7, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098564/hepatitis-b-virus-virology-molecular-biology-life-cycle-and-intrahepatic-spread
#11
REVIEW
P Karayiannis
Hepatitis B virus is a member of the Hepadnaviridae family and responsible for causing acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The current estimates of people chronically infected with the virus are put at 250 million worldwide. Immune-mediated liver damage in these individuals may lead to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma later in life. This review deals with our current understanding of the virology, molecular biology, life cycle and cell-to-cell spread of this very important pathogen, all of which are considered essential for current and future approaches to antiviral treatment...
November 2, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075990/biology-of-portal-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Matthew McConnell, Yasuko Iwakiri
Portal hypertension develops as a result of increased intrahepatic vascular resistance often caused by chronic liver disease that leads to structural distortion by fibrosis, microvascular thrombosis, dysfunction of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. While the basic mechanisms of LSEC and HSC dysregulation have been extensively studied, the role of microvascular thrombosis and platelet function in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension remains to be clearly characterized...
October 26, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064029/the-portal-hypertension-syndrome-etiology-classification-relevance-and-animal-models
#13
REVIEW
Jaime Bosch, Yasuko Iwakiri
BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension is a key complication of portal hypertension, which is responsible for the development of varices, ascites, bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy, which, in turn, cause a high mortality and requirement for liver transplantation. AIM: This review deals with the present day state-of-the-art preventative treatments of portal hypertension in cirrhosis according to disease stage. Two main disease stages are considered, compensated and decompensated cirrhosis, the first having good prognosis and being mostly asymptomatic, and the second being heralded by the appearance of bleeding or non-bleeding complications of portal hypertension...
October 24, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164395/primary-biliary-cholangitis-a-comprehensive-overview
#14
REVIEW
Ana Lleo, Simona Marzorati, Juan-Manuel Anaya, M Eric Gershwin
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by biliary destruction, progressive cholestasis, and potentially liver cirrhosis. Patients develop a well-orchestrated immune reaction, both innate and adaptive, against mitochondrial antigens that specifically targets intrahepatic biliary cells. A puzzling feature of PBC is that the immune attack is predominantly organ specific, although the mitochondrial autoantigens are found in all nucleated cells. The disease results from a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors; however, the exact pathogenesis remains unclear...
November 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064028/mother-to-infant-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-challenges-and-perspectives
#15
Yi-Fen Shih, Chun-Jen Liu
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection due to perinatal mother-to-infant transmission (MTIT) remains a serious global health problem. Despite passive-active immunoprophylaxis using hepatitis B vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg), up to 8-10% of newborns still acquire HBV infection. Understanding the mechanisms of MTIT is essential for the interruption of HBV transmission. There are three possible routes of transmission: intrauterine transmission, transmission during delivery (intrapartum) and postnatal transmission through close contact or breast milk (postpartum)...
November 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027107/viral-factors-for-hbv-mother-to-child-transmission
#16
James S Park, Calvin Q Pan
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Because chronic hepatitis B infection is rarely eradicated, preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the most effective strategy to eliminate HBV globally. Although immunoprophylaxis strategy is widely available and effective for infants born to mothers with chronic hepatitis B infection, postnatal immunoprophylaxis fails in approximately 5-10 % of infants, and this failure rate goes up to 30 % in infants born to highly viremic mothers...
November 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983839/aki-persistence-at-48%C3%A2-h-predicts-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#17
Rakhi Maiwall, Guresh Kumar, Ankit Bharadwaj, Kapil Jamwal, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Priyanka Jain, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Management of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cirrhotics has undergone a paradigm change. We evaluated the impact of AKI persistence at 48 h on outcome in patients with acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODS: Consecutive patients with ACLF (n = 373) were prospectively followed. AKI was defined as increase in serum creatinine of 0.3 mg/dl or 1.5- to 2-fold from baseline. Persistent AKI was defined as nonresponsive AKI at 48 h with respect to admission serum creatinine...
November 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983776/second-primary-cancer-after-liver-transplantation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#18
Jaesung Heo, O Kyu Noh, Young-Taek Oh, Mison Chun, Logyoung Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate prevalence of second primary cancer (SPC) among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after liver transplantation (LT) by using nationwide claims data from South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The nationwide cohort included patients who were diagnosed with HCC and received LT from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014. We analyzed frequency and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to estimate the risk of SPC in HCC patients after LT...
November 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027109/scenarios-to-manage-the-hepatitis-c-disease-burden-and-associated-economic-impact-of-treatment-in-turkey
#19
Necati Örmeci, Simten Malhan, İsmail Balık, Gül Ergör, Homie Razavi, Sarah Robbins
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant health problem. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HCV treatment and estimate its economic burden in Turkey. METHODS: An Excel-based disease progression model was used to estimate the HCV-infected population for 2015-2030. Direct costs in US dollars (USD) including diagnostic, laboratory, and healthcare costs were provided by experts in the country. Indirect costs were estimated as lost productivity using the World Health Organization (WHO) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) metric from the Global Burden of Disease study...
October 12, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936686/comparable-short-and-long-term-outcomes-in-deceased-donor-and-living-donor-liver-retransplantation
#20
Kenneth Siu Ho Chok, Albert C Y Chan, James Y Y Fung, Wing Chiu Dai, Tan To Cheung, Chung Mau Lo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a big controversy over liver retransplantation, the only life-saving treatment for patients with a failing or failed liver graft. This retrospective study tried to determine if living-donor liver retransplantation (re-LDLT) is a justifiable alternative to deceased-donor liver retransplantation (re-DDLT). METHODS: Anonymous data of liver transplant patients from January 2000 to April 2016 were reviewed. Recipients of retransplantation were divided into the re-DDLT and re-LDLT groups...
September 21, 2017: Hepatology International
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