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Hepatology International

Mohamed Rela, Mettu Srinivas Reddy
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is currently the commonest form of liver transplantation in Asia. Efforts to improve the number of deceased donor liver transplantation have not been uniformly successful. We believe that THE unique combination of demographic, social, economic and political factors that exist in Asia will ensure that LDLT will continue to remain the predominant form of liver transplantation. While efforts to increase deceased donation rates should continue and intensify, progress in LDLT should also be supported and encouraged, as it will be the main workhorse of liver transplantation in Asia in the near and medium-term future...
January 17, 2017: Hepatology International
Ming Wang, Dong Xi, Qin Ning
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor with high lethality, and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a chief cause. HBV can accelerate HCC via multiple mechanisms. First, HBV induces immune reactions that lead to repeated hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and a deficient immune microenvironment. Subsequently, HBV can modify host genes near the insertion point through DNA integration to cause host cell genome instability and to generate carcinogenic fusion proteins. Additionally, HBV expresses diverse active proteins, especially HBx and HBs, which have a range of transactivation functions such as regulation of apoptosis, interference with intracellular signaling pathways, and alteration of epigenetics...
January 17, 2017: Hepatology International
Mohamed Shoreibah, Jordan Orr, DeAnn Jones, Jie Zhang, Krishna Venkata, Omar Massoud
BACKGROUND/AIM: Recurrent hepatitis C virus infection is a challenging complication post-liver transplant. Current guidelines recommend the combination of ribavirin and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 12 weeks for the treatment of recurrent HCV genotype 1 post-liver transplant. Data are limited on the use of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir without ribavirin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir without ribavirin for the treatment of recurrent hepatitis C virus post-liver transplant...
January 12, 2017: Hepatology International
Chih-Lin Lin, Jia-Horng Kao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Hepatology International
Chandana Papudesu, Shyamasundaran Kottilil, Shashwatee Bagchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2016: Hepatology International
Keigo Machida
The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has been disproved in many cancers. CSCs may exist in blood cancer, while many epithelial cancers may not have CSCs but tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Several independent studies have provided strong evidence for existence of CSCs in brain, skin, and colon cancers (Mani et al. in Cell 133:704-715, 2008, Joseph et al. in Cancer Cell 13:129-140, 2008, Reya et al. in Nature 414:105-111, 2001), while the CSC hypothesis remains controversial (Magee et al. in Cancer Cell 21:283-296, 2012)...
December 18, 2016: Hepatology International
Wonngarm Kittanamongkolchai, Ziad M El-Zoghby, J Eileen Hay, Russell H Wiesner, Patrick S Kamath, Nicholas F LaRusso, Kymberly D Watt, Carl H Cramer, Nelson Leung
BACKGROUND: Pruritus is a distressing symptom in a considerable proportion of cholestatic patients and a few of them do not respond to conventional treatment. Charcoal hemoperfusion (CH) is an extracorporeal technique that is effective in eliminating protein-bound substances which may have accumulated during cholestasis. Several case reports have shown significant reduction of bilirubin in mechanical jaundice and neonatal hemolytic jaundice. However, the published data of CH for the treatment of refractory pruritus in cholestatic patients are scarce...
December 8, 2016: Hepatology International
Rebecca Lee, Shyam Kottilil, Eleanor Wilson
Treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) has evolved rapidly from an interferon based regimen of modest efficacy with significant adverse events to a well-tolerated, highly effective all-oral directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. Although significant improvement in sustained virologic responses (SVR) has been reported with new DAAs for genotypes 1 and 4, effective treatments for genotype 3 have been lacking, and a single pill that can yield high SVR rates against HCV genotypes 1-6 has not been available until now...
December 7, 2016: Hepatology International
Shi-Ming Lin, Sheng-Nan Lu, Ping-Tsung Chen, Long-Bin Jeng, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Chi-Tan Hu, Sien-Sing Yang, Marie-Aude Le Berre, Xuan Liu, David Y Mitchell, Klaas Prins, Joachim Grevel, Carol A E Peña, Gerold Meinhardt
BACKGROUND: Sorafenib significantly improves survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This phase IV study assessed sorafenib efficacy/safety in Taiwanese patients with advanced HCC and Child-Pugh A status. METHODS: All patients received 400 mg sorafenib BID. Safety, efficacy, sorafenib pharmacokinetics, and Child-Pugh progression were evaluated. A hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) prevention substudy assessed HFSR incidence and grade/severity and time to HFSR in 29 and 34 patients randomized to corticosteroid and noncorticosteroid ointments, respectively, and in 88 nonrandomized patients...
December 1, 2016: Hepatology International
Nozomu Wada, Akinobu Takaki, Fusao Ikeda, Tetsuya Yasunaka, Masahiro Onji, Kazuhiro Nouso, Atsuko Nakatsuka, Jun Wada, Kazuko Koike, Koji Miyahara, Hidenori Shiraha, Kazuhide Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Okada
BACKGROUND: The molecular pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is not well defined. The objective of the present study was to identify disease progression-related cytokines and investigate the molecular pathogenesis of such changes in NASH. METHODS: A study population of 20 non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and 59 NASH patients diagnosed by liver biopsy and 15 healthy volunteers was recruited. The serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured by a multiple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
November 8, 2016: Hepatology International
Christiane Stern, Laurent Castera
Non-invasive diagnosis and quantification of hepatic steatosis rely on two different but complementary approaches: biomarkers or imaging techniques, either ultrasound-based such as liver ultrasonography and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), or computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Scores for the detection of steatosis have not gained much popularity in clinical practice so far. CAP, using the M probe, is the most promising technique but needs to be implemented with the XL probe and compared to ultrasound that, despite its limitations, remains the most widely used method...
October 25, 2016: Hepatology International
Sukriti Sukriti, Nirupma Trehanpati, Manoj Kumar, Chandana Pande, Syed S Hissar, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) promote pathogen recognition, uptake and presentation of antigen through DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and toll-like receptors (TLRs). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study temporal changes in DCs, TLRs and DC-SIGN during acute viral hepatitis B (AVHB) infection and compare them to chronic (CHB) and to investigate the earliest time point of activated pathogen recognition receptors in hepatitis B viral infection...
November 2016: Hepatology International
Atsushi Tanaka, Xiong Ma, Osamu Yokosuka, Martin Weltman, Hong You, Deepak N Amarapurkar, Yoon Jun Kim, Zaigham Abbas, Diana A Payawal, Ming-Ling Chang, Cumali Efe, Ersan Ozaslan, Masanori Abe, Robert Mitchell-Thain, Mikio Zeniya, Kwang Hyub Han, John M Vierling, Hajime Takikawa
During the 25th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL 2016) in Tokyo, we organized and moderated an inaugural satellite symposium on the autoimmune liver diseases, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Following the keynote lecture by John M. Vierling (USA), speakers from the Asia-Pacific region provided an up-to-date perspective on the epidemiology, clinical practice and research in AIH and PBC in the Asia-Pacific region. Although epidemiology and clinical features of AIH seem to be similar in East Asia compared to those in western countries, the majority of patients with AIH are detected at an advanced stage and have higher mortality rates in South Asia, indicating an unmet need for earlier diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate immunosuppressive treatment...
November 2016: Hepatology International
Joaquin Cabezas, Ramon Bataller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Hepatology International
Meena B Bansal
Since their original identification, our understanding of the role of hepatic stellate cells in both health and disease continues to grow. Numerous studies have delineated the role of stellate cell activation in contributing to the pool of myofibroblasts responsible for liver fibrosis, and these have resulted in the development of a number of anti-fibrotic strategies targeting this cell. However, their potential role in liver regeneration, both initiation and termination, is also emerging and needs to be contemplated when considering targeted therapy...
November 2016: Hepatology International
Hiroko Nagata, Mina Nakagawa, Yuki Nishimura-Sakurai, Yu Asano, Tomoyuki Tsunoda, Masato Miyoshi, Shun Kaneko, Fumio Goto, Satoshi Otani, Fukiko Kawai-Kitahata, Miyako Murakawa, Sayuri Nitta, Yasuhiro Itsui, Seishin Azuma, Sei Kakinuma, Naoko Tojo, Shuji Tohda, Yasuhiro Asahina, Mamoru Watanabe
AIM: Wisteria floribunda agglutinin positive (WFA(+)) Mac-2-binding protein (M2BPGi) is a noninvasive glyco-marker for liver fibrosis. This study evaluated the utility of serial measurement of serum M2BPGi and total M2BP as a predictor of fibrosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: This study included 119 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Of these patients, 97 were treated with IFN-based therapy and 22 were treated with daclatasvir and asunaprevir...
November 2016: Hepatology International
Cyriac Abby Philips, Shiv Kumar Sarin
Infections and sepsis are more common in cirrhotic than in the general population and constitute the commonest cause of sudden worsening and death. The diagnosis of systemic inflammatory syndrome and sepsis are challenging in cirrhotics due to an underlying a state of hyperdynamic circulation. Further, poor nutritional and bone marrow reserves lead to modest host immune response, the so called immunoparalysis state and the outcome of antibiotic therapy is suboptimal. In this review, a comprehensive description of current and emerging concepts in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of sepsis with importance to current and novel biomarkers for diagnosis of sepsis in cirrhosis is presented...
November 2016: Hepatology International
Petr Tkachenko, Marina Maevskaya, Alexander Pavlov, Inna Komkova, Chavdar Pavlov, Vladimir Ivashkin
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening liver disease with a potential of 30-40 % mortality at 1 month. While steroids remain to be a first line therapy, they provide only about 50 % survival benefit. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of glucocorticoids plus S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), as compared to glucocorticoids alone, in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: Forty patients with severe AH were randomized in two groups and enrolled in the prospective trial...
November 2016: Hepatology International
Sarah Kattakuzhy, Rachel Levy, Elana Rosenthal, Lydia Tang, Eleanor Wilson, Shyam Kottilil
Hepatitis C genotype 3 (GT-3) infection comprises up to 30 % of all HCV infections worldwide, with roughly 54.3 million cases concentrated in South and Southeast Asia. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated significantly increased rates of steatosis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in GT-3 disease, thus distinguishing this genotype as both the most difficult and urgent to treat. However, novel direct-acting antiviral agents currently approved have not demonstrated the uniform potency seen in GT-1 disease for GT-3...
November 2016: Hepatology International
Mohammad U Malik, Stuart D Russell, Aliaksei Pustavoitau, Matthews Chacko, Arif M Cosar, Carol B Thompson, Panagiotis Trilianos, Nabil N Dagher, Andrew M Cameron, Ahmet Gurakar
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Cardiac morbidities can occur during the peri- and post-liver transplant (LT) period, affecting the long-term survival. The purpose of this study was to identify the potential factors that predict a coronary event post-transplantation. METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent liver transplantation at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2009 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. We looked at pre-liver transplant cardiac risk factors and the diagnostic tests utilized for coronary artery disease screening...
November 2016: Hepatology International
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