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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

Simon Pollett, Nidia S Trovão, Yi Tan, John-Sebastian Eden, Rebecca A Halpin, Jayati Bera, Suman R Das, David Wentworth, Victor Ocaña, Silvia M Mendocilla, Carlos Álvarez, Maria E Calisto, Josefina Garcia, Eric Halsey, Julia S Ampuero, Martha I Nelson, Mariana Leguia
The transmission dynamics of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in tropical countries remain unclear. We examined the spatial patterns of HMPV in three ecologically diverse Peruvian locales (Lima, Iquitos and Piura) through phylogenetic analysis of 61 complete genomes, which revealed extensive genetic diversity generated by frequent viral introductions, with little evidence of local persistence. While considerable viral traffic between non-Peruvian countries and Peru was observed, HMPV epidemics in Peruvian locales were more frequently epidemiologically linked with other sites within Peru...
December 29, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Jie-Ying Zhou, Ying Peng, Xiao-You Peng, Han-Chun Gao, Ya-Ping Sun, Le-Yun Xie, Li-Li Zhong, Zhao-Jun Duan, Zhi-Ping Xie, You-de Cao
AIM: Human bocavirus(HBoV) and human metapneumovirus(HMPV) are two important viruses for children with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). We aimed to assay the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of HBoV and HMPV with LRTI in Changsha, China. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from children with LRTI were collected. Real-time PCR was used to screen HBoV and HMPV. Analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0 software. RESULTS: Pneumonia was the most frequent diagnosis...
December 21, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Bruno Lina, Charles Boucher, Albert Osterhaus, Arnold S Monto, Martin Schutten, Richard J Whitley, Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Influenza Resistance Information Study (IRIS) was initiated in 2008 to study the emergence of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) resistance and the clinical course of influenza in immunocompetent treated and untreated patients. METHODS: Patients had throat/nose swabs collected on Days 1, 3, 6 and 10 for analyses of influenza type, subtype and virus susceptibility to NAIs. RT-PCR Positive samples were cultured, and tested for NAI resistance by specific RT-PCR and phenotypic testing...
December 19, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Andros Theo, Stefano Tempia, Adam L Cohen, Paul Simusika, Edward Chentulo, Chikama Mukwangole Chikamukwa, Mwaka Monze
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated hospitalization are limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the national number of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalization in Zambia. METHODS: We conducted active prospective hospital-based surveillance for SARI at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) situated in Lusaka Province during 2011-2014. Upper respiratory tract samples were tested for influenza virus using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay...
December 15, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Jeanette A Dawa, Sandra S Chaves, Bryan Nyawanda, Henry N Njuguna, Carolyne Makokha, Nancy A Otieno, Omu Anzala, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Gideon O Emukule
BACKGROUND: Influenza-associated respiratory illness was substantial during the emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic. Estimates of influenza burden in the post-pandemic period are unavailable to guide Kenyan vaccine policy. OBJECTIVES: To update estimates of hospitalized and non-hospitalized influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) during a post-pandemic period (2012-2014) and describe the incidence of disease by narrow age categories. METHODS: We used data from Siaya County Referral Hospital to estimate age-specific base rates of SARI...
December 15, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Wei Cheng, Xiaoxiao Wang, Ye Shen, Zhao Yu, Shelan Liu, Jian Cai, Enfu Chen
BACKGROUND: The sudden increase of the number of human cases infected with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus after September, 2016 raised global concern. OBJECTIVES: To assess the changes of epidemiological characteristics of H7N9 cases since the massive closure of live poultry markets (LPMs)in the main urban areas in Zhejiang province. METHODS: We used descriptive statistics to compare epidemiological characteristics of the three distinct waves of H7N9 cases in Zhejiang province...
December 15, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Dena L Schanzer, Myriam Saboui, Liza Lee, Andrea Nwosu, Christina Bancej
BACKGROUND: A regression-based study design has commonly been used to estimate the influenza burden; however, these estimates are not timely and many countries lack sufficient virological data. Alternative approaches that would permit a timelier assessment of the burden, including a sentinel surveillance approach recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), have been proposed. We aimed to estimate the hospitalization burden attributable to influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and other respiratory viruses (ORV) and to assess both the completeness of viral identification among respiratory inpatients in Canada and the implications of adopting other approaches...
December 15, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Sukhyun Ryu, Jun-Sik Lim, Benjamin J Cowling, Byung Chul Chun
An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus occurred between November 20, 2016 and March 1, 2017 in poultry farms, in the Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. To identify the risk of transmission of H5N6 to depopulation workers, active and passive surveillance was conducted. Virological testing of respiratory swabs with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for workers who reported respiratory symptoms. Among 4633 depopulation workers, 25 reported respiratory symptoms, but all tested negative for H5N6...
December 13, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Marika Genzow, Christa Goodell, Troy J Kaiser, Wesley Johnson, Marc Eichmeyer
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) causes an acute respiratory disease of swine which results in great economic losses in pig production. Major control strategies include the use of killed vaccines (KV) in breeding females to confer passive immunity to their offspring. A bivalent H1N1 and H3N2 NS1-truncated live attenuated IAV-S vaccine has recently become available, which showed promising results in young pigs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an intranasal vaccination of newborn pigs with or without maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on virus shedding (via nasal swabs tested by virus isolation)...
December 13, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Stefano Tempia, Sibongile Walaza, Jocelyn Moyes, Adam L Cohen, Claire von Mollendorf, Meredith L McMorrow, Sarona Mhlanga, Florette K Treurnicht, Marietjie Venter, Marthi Pretorius, Orienka Hellferscee, Nicole Wolter, Anne von Gottberg, Arthemon Nguweneza, Johanna M McAnerney, Halima Dawood, Ebrahim Variava, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen
BACKGROUND: The attributable fraction of influenza virus detection to illness (INF-AF) and the duration of symptoms as a surveillance inclusion criterion could potentially have substantial effects on influenza disease burden estimates. METHODS: We estimated rates of influenza-associated influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute (SARI-10) or chronic (SCRI-10) respiratory illness (using a symptom duration cut-off of ≤10 days) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients attending 3 hospitals and 2 affiliated clinics in South Africa during 2013-2015...
December 6, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Doaa M Abdel-Hady, Rima M Al Balushi, Badr A Al Abri, Seif S Al Abri, Hanan S Al Kindi, Amina K Al-Jardani, Fatma M Al Yaqubi, Idris S Al Abaidani
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a serious vaccine-preventable disease with high incidence, hospitalization, and mortality in high-risk groups. The epidemiology, seasonality, and risk factors for influenza are well defined in most of the temperate countries, but estimating influenza burden in the World Health Organization (WHO) Region for the Eastern Mediterranean is scarce. In Oman, despite the advancements in influenza surveillance, the clinical burden and seasonality of influenza remain not fully understood...
December 5, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ni K Susilarini, Edy Haryanto, Catharina Y Praptiningsih, Amalya Mangiri, Natalie Kipuw, Irmawati Tarya, Roselinda Rusli, Gestafiana Sumardi, Endang Widuri, Masri M Sembiring, Widya Noviyanti, Christina Widaningrum, Kathryn E Lafond, Gina Samaan, Vivi Setiawaty
BACKGROUND: Indonesia's hospital-based Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) surveillance system, Surveilans Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan Akut Berat Indonesia (SIBI), was established in 2013. While respiratory illnesses such as SARI pose a significant problem, there are limited incidence-based data on influenza disease burden in Indonesia. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of influenza-associated SARI in Indonesia during 2013-2016 at three existing SIBI surveillance sites. METHODS: From May 2013 to April 2016, inpatients from sentinel hospitals in three districts of Indonesia (Gunung Kidul, Balikpapan, Deli Serdang) were screened for SARI...
December 5, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Makhdum Ahmed, Mohammad Abdul Aleem, Katherine Roguski, Jaynal Abedin, Ariful Islam, Kazi Faisal Alam, Emily S Gurley, Mahmudur Rahman, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Nusrat Homaira, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, A Danielle Iuliano
BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza-associated mortality estimates help identify the burden of disease and assess the value of public health interventions such as annual influenza immunization. Vital registration is limited in Bangladesh making it difficult to estimate seasonal influenza mortality. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to estimate seasonal influenza-associated mortality rates for 2010-2012 in Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted surveillance among hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) for persons aged ≥5 years and severe pneumonia for children <5 years in 11 sites across Bangladesh...
December 2, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Venkatesh Vinayak Narayan, Angela Danielle Iuliano, Katherine Roguski, Partha Haldar, Siddhartha Saha, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Shashi Kant, Sanjay Zodpey, Chandrakant S Pandav, Seema Jain, Anand Krishnan
BACKGROUND: No estimates of influenza-associated mortality exist for India. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate national mortality and viral surveillance data from India for assessing their appropriateness in estimating influenza-associated mortality using varied analytic approaches. METHODS: We reviewed influenza virus surveillance data from a national influenza surveillance network. We also reviewed national mortality data from Civil Registration System (CRS), Medical Certification of Cause of Death (MCCD) and the Sample Registration System (SRS)...
December 2, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Desmond Gul, Cheryl Cohen, Stefano Tempia, Anthony T Newall, David J Muscatello
BACKGROUND: Regression modeling methods are commonly used to estimate influenza-associated mortality using covariates such as laboratory-confirmed influenza activity in the population as a proxy of influenza incidence. OBJECTIVE: We examined the choices of influenza proxies that can be used from influenza laboratory surveillance data and their impact on influenza-associated mortality estimates. METHOD: Semiparametric generalized additive models with a smoothing spline were applied on national mortality data from South Africa and influenza surveillance data as covariates to obtain influenza-associated mortality estimates from respiratory causes from 2009 to 2013...
December 2, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Brenda L Coleman, Shaza A Fadel, Tiffany Fitzpatrick, Sera-Melisa Thomas
AIM: To determine factors associated with a serious outcome (hospital admission or severe outcome: critical care or death) and associated with illness caused by laboratory-confirmed influenza, with a specific interest in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHOD: Databases were searched on 11 March 2016 for reports of influenza and factors associated with mortality or morbidity in humans, with no language restrictions. Pooled risks were estimated using random-effects models...
December 2, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
José Nyamusore, Joseph Rukelibuga, Mwumvaneza Mutagoma, Andrew Muhire, Alice Kabanda, Thelma Williams, Angela Mutoni, Julius Kamwesiga, Thierry Nyatanyi, Jared Omolo, Adeline Kabeja, Jean Baptiste Koama, Agrippine Mukarurangwa, Jeanne d'Arc Umuringa, Carolina Granados, Michel Gasana, Ann Moen, Stefano Tempia
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated hospitalization are severely limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the national number of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalization in Rwanda. METHODS: We multiplied the influenza virus detection rate from influenza surveillance conducted at 6 sentinel hospitals by the national number of respiratory hospitalization obtained from passive surveillance after adjusting for underreporting and reclassification of any respiratory hospitalizations as SARI during 2012-2014...
December 2, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Hongjun Zhang, Qian Xiong, Peng Wu, Yuyun Chen, Nancy H L Leung, Benjamin J Cowling
INTRODUCTION: The Yangtze river delta in eastern China, centered on Shanghai, is one of the most populated regions of the world with more than 100 million residents. We examined the impact of influenza on excess mortality in Yancheng, a prefecture-level city with 8.2 million population located 250 km north of Shanghai, during 2011-2015. METHODS: We obtained individual data on deaths by date, age, sex, and cause in Yancheng from the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and used these to derive weekly rates of mortality from respiratory causes, respiratory and cardiovascular causes combined, and all causes...
November 28, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Majd Saleh, Lara Bazzi, Ebstissam Ismail, Lina Mroueh, Nisrine Jammal, Amgad Elkholy, Pamela Mrad, Ahmad Al Samadi, Ahmad Hijazi, Firass Abiad, Ghazi Nsouli, Alissar Rady, Wasiq Khan, Mamunur Malik, Pierre Zalloua, Walid Ammar, Nada Ghosn
BACKGROUND: Given the sparse information on burden of influenza in Lebanon, the Ministry of Public Health established a sentinel surveillance for Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) to identify the attribution of influenza to reported cases. We aim to highlight the proportion of influenza-associated SARI from September 1(st) 2015 to August 31(st) 2016 in two Lebanese hospitals. METHODS: The study was conducted in two sentinel sites located in Beirut suburbs and Southern province of Lebanon...
November 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Anupama Vasudevan, Amy Woerner, Falko Schmeisser, Swati Verma, Ollie Williams, Jerry P Weir
BACKGROUND: The single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay, the accepted method for determining potency of inactivated influenza vaccines, measures an immunogenic form of the influenza hemagglutinin. Nevertheless, alternative methods for measuring vaccine potency have been explored in order to address some of the weaknesses of the SRID assay, including limited sensitivity and the requirement for large amounts of standardized reagents. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based potency assays also have the ability to detect and measure relevant immunogenic forms of HA...
November 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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