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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741903/the-acceptability-and-validity-of-self-collected-nasal-swabs-for-detection-of-influenza-virus-infection-among-older-adults-in-thailand
#1
Sonal Goyal, Kriengkrai Prasert, Prabda Praphasiri, Malinee Chittaganpitch, Sunthareeya Waicharoen, Darunee Ditsungnoen, Siriluk Jaichuang, Kim A Lindblade
BACKGROUND: Self-collection of nasal swabs could improve the timeliness of influenza virus detection in older adults. OBJECTIVES: Measure the acceptability, adequacy, timeliness and validity of self-collected nasal swabs among adults ≥65 years in Thailand. METHODS: Our evaluation consisted of two parts: a one-month study among randomly-selected, community-dwelling older adults to simulate community-based surveillance for acute respiratory infections (ARI); and a clinic study of older adults with ARI to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of self-collected nasal swabs for influenza virus infection compared with healthcare worker (HCW)-collected nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs...
July 25, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715152/demographic-and-ecological-risk-factors-for-human-influenza-a-virus-infections-in-rural-indonesia
#2
Elisabeth Dowling Root, Dwi Agustian, Cissy Kartasasmita, Timothy M Uyeki, Eric A F Simões
BACKGROUND: Indonesia has the world's highest reported mortality for human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. Indonesia is an agriculturally-driven country where human-animal mixing is common and provides a unique environment for zoonotic influenza A virus transmission. OBJECTIVES: To identify potential demographic and ecological risk factors for human infection with seasonal influenza A viruses in rural Indonesia, a population-based study was conducted in Cileunyi and Soreang sub-districts near Bandung in western Java from 2008 to 2011...
July 17, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715148/lineage-specific-epitope-profiles-for-hpai-h5-pre-pandemic-vaccine-selection-and-evaluation
#3
Xueting Qiu, Venkata R Duvvuri, Jonathan B Gubbay, Richard Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Justin Bahl
BACKGROUND: Multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses continue to co-circulate. This has complicated pandemic preparedness and confounded effective vaccine candidate selection and evaluation. OBJECTIVES: In this study we aim to predict and map the diversity of CD8+ T-cell epitopes among H5 Hemagglutinin (HA) gene lineages to estimate CD8+ T-cell immunity in humans induced by vaccine candidates. METHODS: A dataset consisting of 1125 H5 HA sequences collected between 1996 and 2017 from avian and humans was assembled for phylogenetic and lineage-specific epitope analyses...
July 17, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703921/estimating-and-modelling-the-transmissibility-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-corona-virus-during-the-2015-outbreak-in-the-republic-of-korea
#4
Xu-Sheng Zhang, Richard Pebody, Andre Charlett, Daniela de Angelis, Paul Birrell, Hunseok Kang, Marc Baguelin, Yoon Hong Choi
BACKGROUND: Emerging respiratory infections represent a significant public health threat. Because of their novelty, there are limited measures available to control their early spread. Learning from past outbreaks is important for future preparation. The MERS-CoV 2015 outbreak in the Republic of Korea (ROK) provides one such opportunity. OBJECTIVES: We demonstrated through quantitative methodologies how to estimate MERS-CoV's transmissibility and identified the effective countermeasures that stopped its spread...
July 13, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691237/influenza-in-long-term-care-facilities
#5
Louise E Lansbury, Caroline S Brown, Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam
Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised...
July 10, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688210/infection-with-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-during-the-first-wave-of-the-2009-pandemic-evidence-from-a-longitudinal-seroepidemiologic-study-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#6
Sharifa Nasreen, Mustafizur Rahman, Kathy Hancock, Jacqueline M Katz, Doli Goswami, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Crystal Holiday, Stacie Jefferson, Alicia Branch, David Wang, Vic Veguilla, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Alicia M Fry, W Abdullah Brooks
BACKGROUND: We determined influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 antibody levels before and after the first wave of the pandemic in an urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS: We identified a cohort of households by stratified random sampling. We collected baseline serum specimens during July-August 2009, just prior to the initial wave of the 2009 pandemic in this community and a second specimen during November 2009, after the pandemic peak. Paired sera was tested for antibodies against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus using microneutralization assay and hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay...
July 8, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688206/absence-of-clinical-disease-and-contact-transmission-of-north-american-clade-2-3-4-4-h5nx-hpai-in-experimentally-infected-pigs
#7
Bryan S Kaplan, Mia Kim Torchetti, Kelly M Lager, Richard J Webby, Amy L Vincent
BACKGROUND: In the fall of 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 was introduced into North America by migrating waterfowl from Asia where, through reassortment, novel HPAI H5N2 and H5N1 viruses emerged. OBJECTIVES: Assess the susceptibility of pigs to North American HPAI clade 2.3.4.4 H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8. METHODS: Pigs and trachea explants were inoculated with a representative panel of clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses from North America...
July 8, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675634/predictors-for-fatal-human-infections-with-avian-h7n9-influenza-evidence-from-4-epidemic-waves-in-jiangsu-province-eastern-china-2013-2016
#8
Wang Ma, Haodi Huang, Jian Chen, Ke Xu, Qigang Dai, Huiyan Yu, Fei Deng, Xian Qi, Shenjiao Wang, Jie Hong, Changjun Bao, Xiang Huo, Minghao Zhou
Four epidemic waves of human infection with H7N9 have been recorded in China up to 1 June 2016, including in Jiangsu Province. However, few studies have investigated the differences in patients' characteristics among the 4 epidemic waves, and the analyses of factors associated with fatal infection lacked statistical power in previous studies due to limited sample size METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) patients in Jiangsu province were analysed. Patients' characteristics were compared across 4 waves and between survivors and those who died...
July 4, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646616/curcumin-alleviates-macrophage-activation-and-lung-inflammation-induced-by-influenza-virus-infection-through-inhibiting-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#9
Yiming Xu, Ling Liu
BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses (IAV) result in severe public health problems with worldwide each year. Over-response of immune system to IAV infection leads to complications, and ultimately causing morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory ability. However, its molecular mechanism in immune responses remains unclear. METHODS: We detected the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) related protein expression in human macrophages or mice infected by IAV with or without curcumin treatment...
June 24, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646615/definition-of-healthcare-associated-influenza-a-review-and-results-from-an-international-survey
#10
Elodie Munier-Marion, Thomas Bénet, Philippe Vanhems
AIM: To describe definitions of healthcare-associated influenza (HAI) in recent literature and in hospitals participating in a survey of Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Network (SRN) members. METHOD: A review with PubMed search was undertaken to retrieve articles published between 2008 and 2016, focusing on the subject headings "influenza, human" and "cross infection". Definitions of clinical influenza-like illness (ILI) and HAI were identified...
June 24, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502086/does-influenza-pandemic-preparedness-and-mitigation-require-gain-of-function-research
#11
Dillon C Adam, Daniel Magee, Chau M Bui, Matthew Scotch, C Raina MacIntyre
The risk and benefits of gain-of-function studies on influenza A have been widely debated since 2012 when the methods to create two respiratory transmissible H5N1 mutant isolates were published. Opponents of gain-of-function studies argue the biosecurity risk is unacceptable, while proponents cite potential uses for pandemic surveillance, preparedness and mitigation. In this commentary, we provide an overview of the background and applications of gain-of-function research and argue that the anticipated benefits have yet to materialize while the significant risks remain...
July 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488368/a-cluster-of-adenovirus-type-b55-infection-in-a-neurosurgical-inpatient-department-of-a-general-hospital-in-guangdong-china
#12
Lina Yi, LiRong Zou, Jing Lu, Min Kang, Yingchao Song, Juan Su, Xin Zhang, LiJun Liang, HanZhong Ni, Changwen Ke, Jie Wu
BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus type 55 is a re-emerging human respiratory pathogen that is associated with several respiratory infections outbreaks in military and school populations. In this study, we describe the first HAdV55-associated hospital outbreak documented in Guangdong, China. METHODS: Active surveillance was conducted in the involved neurosurgical inpatient department. All staff and patients in the involved neurosurgical department were surveyed for any symptoms of fever (≥38°C) and enlarged tonsils during the outbreak period...
July 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464462/effect-of-low-to-moderate-dose-corticosteroids-on-mortality-of-hospitalized-adolescents-and-adults-with-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-viral-pneumonia
#13
Hui Li, Shi-Gui Yang, Li Gu, Yao Zhang, Xi-Xin Yan, Zong-An Liang, Wei Zhang, Hong-Yu Jia, Wei Chen, Meng Liu, Kai-Jiang Yu, Chun-Xue Xue, Ke Hu, Qi Zou, Lan-Juan Li, Bin Cao, Chen Wang
BACKGROUND: The effect of corticosteroids on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viral pneumonia patients remains controversial, and the impact of dosage has never been studied. METHODS: Using data of hospitalized adolescent and adult patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viral pneumonia, prospectively collected from 407 hospitals in mainland China, the effects of low-to-moderate-dose (25-150 mg d(-1) ) and high-dose (>150 mg d(-1) ) corticosteroids on 30-day mortality, 60-day mortality, and nosocomial infection were assessed with multivariate Cox regression and propensity score-matched case-control analysis...
July 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444974/school-based-surveillance-for-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-during-2014-2015-seasons-in-hong-kong
#14
Ting F Leung, Renee W Y Chan, Angela Kwok, Wendy C S Ho, Mars K P Tao, Kam L Hon, Frankie W T Cheng, Albert M Li, Paul K S Chan
BACKGROUND: Influenza imposes substantial healthcare burden in children, which can be prevented by vaccination. Influenza vaccination coverage varies widely among childhood populations worldwide, which has significant impact on herd immunity and usefulness of influenza vaccine. However, there are limited real-life data on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children. OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to investigate clinical spectrum of childhood influenza and VE in preventing influenza in Hong Kong children...
July 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380272/influence-of-time-to-diagnosis-of-severe-influenza-on-antibiotic-use-length-of-stay-isolation-precautions-and-mortality-a-retrospective-study
#15
Isabel E Akers, Rainer Weber, Hugo Sax, Jürg Böni, Alexandra Trkola, Stefan P Kuster
BACKGROUND: Timely diagnosis of influenza infection in patients might help reduce antibiotic use during influenza seasons and, consequently, antibiotic selection pressure. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to evaluate whether time to influenza diagnosis in patients with severe influenza is associated with the duration of antibiotic therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively included all hospitalized patients >16 years who tested positive for influenza A or B by polymerase chain reaction during influenza seasons 2013/2014 or 2014/2015 at the University Hospital Zurich...
July 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371393/estimates-of-influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-incidences-with-fraction-modeling-approach-in-baguio-city-the-philippines-2012-2014
#16
Taro Kamigaki, Portia P Aldey, Edelwisa S Mercado, Alvin G Tan, Jenaline B Javier, Socorro P Lupisan, Hitoshi Oshitani, Veronica L Tallo
BACKGROUND: Estimation of the incidences of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is important for disease control. Previous estimate in the city showed a substantial burden of influenza in both outpatients and inpatients while it did not account for individuals who do not seek medical attention nor RSV. PATIENTS/METHODS: A total of 17 674 influenza-like illness (ILI) and 13 242 severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) cases were recruited, and samples were collected from 6267 and 2962 of ILI and SARI cases, respectively...
July 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294578/rethinking-thresholds-for-serological-evidence-of-influenza-virus-infection
#17
Xiahong Zhao, Karen Siegel, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Alex R Cook
INTRODUCTION: For pathogens such as influenza that cause many subclinical cases, serologic data can be used to estimate attack rates and the severity of an epidemic in near real time. Current methods for analysing serologic data tend to rely on use of a simple threshold or comparison of titres between pre- and post-epidemic, which may not accurately reflect actual infection rates. METHODS: We propose a method for quantifying infection rates using paired sera and bivariate probit models to evaluate the accuracy of thresholds currently used for influenza epidemics with low and high existing herd immunity levels, and a subsequent non-influenza period...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245096/triple-reassortant-influenza-a-virus-with-h3-of-human-seasonal-origin-na-of-swine-origin-and-internal-a-h1n1-pandemic-2009-genes-is-established-in-danish-pigs
#18
Jesper Schak Krog, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Michael Albin Larsen, Lars Erik Larsen
This report describes a triple-reassortant influenza A virus with a HA that resembles H3 of human seasonal influenza from 2004 to 2005, N2 from influenza A virus already established in swine, and the internal gene cassette from A(H1N1)pdm09 has spread in Danish pig herds. The virus has been detected in several Danish pig herds during the last 2-3 years and may possess a challenge for human as well as animal health.
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218983/single-radial-haemolysis-compared-to-haemagglutinin-inhibition-and-microneutralization-as-a-correlate-of-protection-against-influenza-a-h3n2-in-children-and-adolescents
#19
Biao Wang, Margaret L Russell, Angela Brewer, Jennifer Newton, Pardeep Singh, Brian J Ward, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Serum antibodies are often used as correlates of protection for influenza. Three commonly used serological assays for detecting influenza-specific serum antibodies are single radial haemolysis (SRH), haemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN). However, here are limited data on SRH as well as HAI and MN as correlates of protection against influenza in children and adolescents. There are also limited data that compare SRH to HAI and MN. OBJECTIVES: We sought primarily to understand how SRH titres correlate to protection against influenza infection in children and adolescents...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207989/predictors-of-influenza-a-molecular-viral-shedding-in-hutterite-communities
#20
Biao Wang, Margaret L Russell, Kevin Fonseca, David J D Earn, Gregory Horsman, Paul Van Caeseele, Khami Chokani, Mark Vooght, Lorne Babiuk, Stephen D Walter, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Patterns of influenza molecular viral shedding following influenza infection have been well established; predictors of viral shedding however remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine factors associated with peak molecular viral load, duration of shedding, and viral area under the curve (AUC) in children and adult Hutterite colony members with laboratory-confirmed influenza. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted in Hutterite colonies in Alberta, Canada...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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