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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

Cécile Souty, Philippe Amoros, Alessandra Falchi, Lisandru Capai, Isabelle Bonmarin, Sylvie van der Werf, Shirley Masse, Clément Turbelin, Louise Rossignol, Ana-Maria Vilcu, Daniel Lévy-Bruhl, Bruno Lina, Laëtitia Minodier, Yves Dorléans, Caroline Guerrisi, Thomas Hanslik, Thierry Blanchon
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological analysis of past influenza epidemics remains essential to understand the evolution of the disease and optimize control and prevention strategies. Here, we aimed to use data collected by a primary care surveillance system over the last three decades to study trends in influenza epidemics and describe epidemic profiles according to circulating influenza viruses. METHODS: Influenza-like illness (ILI) weekly incidences were estimated using cases reported by general practitioners participating in the French Sentinelles network, between 1984 and 2017...
November 14, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Juan Cristina, Raquel Pollero, Adela Pellegrino
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed the impact and dynamics of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in temperate regions of South America. OBJECTIVE: To identify key factors for influenza onset, spread and mortality in Montevideo and Uruguay in 1918-1919. METHODS: An analysis of official national records of the public health system of Uruguay was performed. RESULTS: From November to December of 1918 (spring), a total of 131 deaths due to influenza occurred in Montevideo and a total of 296 deaths accounted from July to September of 1919 (winter) in the same city...
November 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Grace D Appiah, Jessie R Chung, Brendan Flannery, Fiona Havers, Richard K Zimmerman, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Arnold S Monto, Emily T Martin, Manjusha Gaglani, Kempapura Murthy, Lisa A Jackson, Michael L Jackson, Huong Q McLean, Edward A Belongia, Alicia M Fry
Over five seasons, we determined the proportion of outpatients with laboratory-confirmed, influenza-associated illness who were hospitalized within 30 days following the outpatient visit. Overall, 136 (1.7%) of 7,813 influenza-positive patients were hospitalized a median of 4 days after an outpatient visit. Patients aged ≥65 years and those with high-risk conditions were at increased risk of hospitalization. After controlling for age and high-risk conditions, vaccination status and infecting influenza virus type were not associated with hospitalization risk among adults...
November 8, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Qiaozhi Guo, Zhiqiang Dong, Weilin Zeng, Wenjun Ma, Danyang Zhao, Sun Xin, Sitang Gong, Jianpeng Xiao, Tiegang Li, Wenhui Hu
BACKGROUND: Influenza seriously affects the health of children, yet little evidence is available on the association between meteorological factors and the occurrence of influenza among children in subtropical regions. The current study aimed to explore the effects of meteorological factors on influenza among children in Guangzhou, a subtropical city in China. METHODS: The distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was used to assess the effects of meteorological factors on children influenza occurrence in Guangzhou, China...
November 8, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Mark Loeb, Anh Duc Dang, Vu Dinh Thiem, Vitheya Thanabalan, Biao Wang, Nguyen Binh Nguyen, Hung Thi Mai Tran, Tan Minh Luong, Pardeep Singh, Marek Smieja, Jonathon Maguire, Eleanor Pullenayegum
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether Vitamin D can reduce respiratory infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine if vitamin D supplementation reduces influenza and other upper viral respiratory tract infections. METHODS: 1,300 healthy children and adolescents between the ages of 3 and 17 years were randomized to vitamin D (14,000U weekly) or placebo for eight months in Vietnam. The primary outcome was reverse transcriptase (RT) -PCR confirmed influenza infection and the co-primary outcome was multiplex PCR confirmed non-influenza respiratory viruses...
October 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Tuan Le, Lan Phan, Long Nguyen, Hieu Nguyen, Khanh Ly, Thien Ngan Ho, Tung Trinh, Tran Minh Nguyen
Outbreaks of H5N1 Avian Influenza (AI) emerged in Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam during 2003- 2005. Its severe impact has been reported; the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Bank (WB) estimated that Viet Nam lost up to 1.8% of GDP (1). Since then the country reported over 3000 H5N1 poultry outbreaks (2) and 127 human H5N1 cases and 64 dead. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 6, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Dinah Henritzi, Bernd Hoffmann, Silke Wacheck, Stefan Pesch, Georg Herrler, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
BACKGROUND: Human- or avian-to-swine transmissions have founded several autonomously circulating influenza A virus (IAV) lineages in swine populations that cause economically important respiratory disease. Little is known on other human influenza virus types, like B (IBV) and C (ICV) in European swine, and of the recently detected novel animal influenza virus type D (IDV). OBJECTIVES: Development of a cost-effective diagnostic tool for large-scale surveillance programmes targeting all four influenza virus types...
September 28, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Hermann Landry Munshili Njifon, Chavely Gwladys Monamele, Cyprien Kengne Nde, Marie-Astrid Vernet, Gake Bouba, Serges Tchatchouang, Mohamadou Njankouo Ripa, Raphaël Tapondjou, Louis Deweerdt, Wilfred Mbacham, Richard Njouom
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the role of meteorological parameters in the seasonality of influenza viruses in tropical and subtropical regions, most importantly temperature, humidity and rainfall. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the influence of meteorological parameters in the seasonality of influenza viruses in Northern Cameroon, a region characterized by high temperatures. METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed in Garoua Cameroon from January 2014 to December 2016...
September 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Florette K Treurnicht, Amelia Buys, Stefano Tempia, Mpho Seleka, Adam L Cohen, Sibongile Walaza, Allison J Glass, Inéz Rossouw, Johanna McAnerney, Lucille Blumberg, Cheryl Cohen, Marietjie Venter
BACKGROUND: Data on the susceptibility of influenza viruses from South Africa to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are scarce, and no extensive analysis was done. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine oseltamivir and zanamivir susceptibility of influenza A and B virus neuraminidases (NAs), 2007-2013, South Africa. PATIENTS/METHODS: We enrolled participants through national influenza-like illness surveillance, 2007-2013. Influenza diagnosis was by virus isolation and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
September 14, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Marcus J Bolton, Eugenio J Abente, Divya Venkatesh, Jered A Stratton, Michael Zeller, Tavis K Anderson, Nicola S Lewis, Amy L Vincent
BACKGROUND: Six amino acid positions (145, 155, 156, 158, 159 and 189, referred to as the antigenic motif; H3 numbering) in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA1 domain) play an important role in defining the antigenic phenotype of swine Clade IV (C-IV) H3N2 IAV, containing an H3 from a late 1990s human-to-swine introduction. We hypothesized that antigenicity of a swine C-IV H3 virus could be inferred based upon the antigenic motif if it matched a previously characterized antigen with the same motif...
September 14, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Max Hansen, Michael Brockmann, Verena Schildgen, Oliver Schildgen
BACKGROUND: To date, four human bocaviruses (HBoV) have been described. The most closely related viruses (bovine and canine parvoviruses) are associated with miscarriage in their hosts. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency of HBoV DNA in miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: Tissue samples from 172 patients, in which miscarriage occurred, were included and tested with a published qPCR protocol. Positive PCRs were mutually confirmed by sequencing...
September 9, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Maureen Chase, Michael N Cocchi, Xiaowen Liu, Lars W Andersen, Mathias J Holmberg, Michael W Donnino
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this investigation was to determine if acute influenza infection is associated with depletion of CoQ10 compared to healthy controls and to determine any associations between CoQ10 levels and illness severity and inflammatory biomarkers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed serum CoQ10 concentrations of patients with acute influenza enrolled in a randomized clinical trial prior to study drug administration. Patients were enrolled at a single urban tertiary care center over 3 influenza seasons (December 27, 2013 to March31, 2016)...
August 29, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Joelinotahina H Rabarison, Stefano Tempia, Aina Harimanana, Julia Guillebaud, Norosoa H Razanajatovo, Maherisoa Ratsitorahina, Jean-Michel Heraud
BACKGROUND: Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are responsible for substantial global morbidity and mortality in young children and elderly individuals. Estimates of the burden of influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalization are limited in Africa. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza- and RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) among patients of any age at one hospital and a retrospective review of SARI hospitalizations in five hospitals situated in Antananarivo during 2011-2016...
August 28, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ana A Ortiz-Hernández, Katherine K Nishimura, Daniel E Noyola, Sarbelio Moreno-Espinosa, Ana Gamiño, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Rafael Valdéz Vázquez, Martín Magaña Aquino, Alejandra Ramirez-Venegas, Raydel Valdés Salgado, Diana Andrade-Platas, Juliana Estevez-Jimenéz, Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios, Maria Lourdes Guerrero, John Beigel, Mary C Smolskis, Sally Hunsberger, Laura Freimanis-Hence, Beatriz Llamosas-Gallardo
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children and are often caused by viruses. However, the relative severity of illness associated with different viruses is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of hospitalization from different viruses in children presenting with an influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS: Data from children 5 years old or younger participating in an ILI natural history study from April 2010 to March 2014 was analyzed...
August 23, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Paul Robert Cleary, Jonathan Crofts, Frances Parry-Ford, Meera Chand, Nick Phin
BACKGROUND: Aqueous zanamivir solution, an investigational product, was provided by the manufacturer on compassionate grounds for parenteral administration to severe H1N1pdm09 influenza cases during the 2009 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics and outcomes of United Kingdom patients receiving parenteral zanamivir therapy. METHODS: Collaborators at multiple hospital sites gathered retrospective data on patients receiving aqueous zanamivir therapy between Q4 2009 and Q1 2011...
August 23, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Binay Thapa, Katherine Roguski, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Karen Siener, Philip Gould, Thinley Jamtsho, Sonam Wangchuk
BACKGROUND: Influenza burden estimates help provide evidence to support influenza prevention and control programs. In this study, we estimated influenza-associated respiratory hospitalization rates in Bhutan, a country considering influenza vaccine introduction. METHODS: Using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction laboratory results from severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance, we estimated the proportion of respiratory hospitalizations attributable to influenza each month among patients aged <5, 5-49, and ≥50 years in six Bhutanese districts for 2015 and 2016...
August 23, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Gabriela A Willis, David B Preen, Peter C Richmond, Peter Jacoby, Paul V Effler, David W Smith, Christine Robins, Meredith L Borland, Avram Levy, Anthony D Keil, Christopher C Blyth
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major cause of respiratory illness in young children. Assessing the impact of infection on children and the community is required to guide immunisation policies. OBJECTIVES: To describe the impact of laboratory-proven influenza in young children and to compare its impact with that of other respiratory viruses on the child, their family and the health care system. METHODS: Preschool children presenting for care or admission to a tertiary paediatric hospital during the 2008-2014 influenza seasons were tested for respiratory virus by polymerase chain reaction and culture...
August 23, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Mingyuan Han, Charu Rajput, Joanna L Hinde, Qian Wu, Jing Lei, Tomoko Ishikawa, J Kelley Bentley, Marc B Hershenson
BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) causes the common cold and asthma exacerbations. The RV genome is a 7.3 kb single-strand positive-sense RNA. OBJECTIVE: Using minor group RV1A as a backbone, we sought to design and generate a recombinant RV1A accommodating fluorescent marker expression, thereby allowing tracking of viral infection. METHOD: Recombinant RV1A infectious cDNA clones harboring the coding sequence of green fluorescent protein (GFP), Renilla luciferase, or iLOV (for light, oxygen, or voltage sensing) were engineered and constructed...
November 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Pélagie Babakazo, Léopold Lubula, Wally Disasuani, Léonie Kitoko Manya, Edith Nkwembe, Naomi Mitongo, Hugo Kavunga-Membo, Jean-Claude Changachanga, Saleh Muhemedi, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Joelle Kabamba-Tshilobo, Stefano Tempia
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated outpatient consultations and hospitalizations are severely limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. METHODS: We conducted active prospective surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) at 5 healthcare facilities situated in Kinshasa Province during 2013-2015. We tested upper respiratory tract samples for influenza viruses using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay...
November 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Juliette Paireau, Camille Pelat, Céline Caserio-Schönemann, Isabelle Pontais, Yann Le Strat, Daniel Lévy-Bruhl, Simon Cauchemez
BACKGROUND: Maps of influenza activity are important tools to monitor influenza epidemics and inform policymakers. In France, the availability of a high-quality data set from the Oscour® surveillance network, covering 92% of hospital emergency department (ED) visits, offers new opportunities for disease mapping. Traditional geostatistical mapping methods such as Kriging ignore underlying population sizes, are not suited to non-Gaussian data and do not account for uncertainty in parameter estimates...
November 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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