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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

Huong Q McLean, Siri H Peterson, Jennifer P King, Jennifer K Meece, Edward A Belongia
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are common in school-aged children, but few studies have assessed school absenteeism due to specific respiratory viruses. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate school absenteeism among children with medically attended ARI due to common viruses. METHODS: We analyzed follow-up surveys from children seeking care for acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the influenza vaccine effectiveness study at Marshfield Clinic during the 2012-2013 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons...
November 25, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Gerardo Chowell, Lone Simonsen, Rodrigo Fuentes, Jose Flores, Mark A Miller, Cécile Viboud
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city and investigated risk factors for severe mortality impact across regions. RESULTS: Chile exhibited two waves of excess mortality in winter 1957 and 1959 with a cumulative excess mortality rate of 12 per 10,000, and a ~10-fold mortality difference across provinces...
November 24, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ana S Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana L Ramírez, María L Müller, David Orellana, Silvia M Sosa, Pablo Ola, Jorge Paniagua, Lucía Ortíz, Jorge Hernandez, Celia Cordón-Rosales, Daniel R Perez
BACKGROUND: Guatemala is the country with the largest swine production in Central America; however, evidence of influenza A virus (IAV) in pigs has not been clearly delineated. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we analyzed the presence and spatial distribution of IAV in commercial and backyard swine populations. METHODS: Samples from two nation-wide surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 were tested using virological (rRT-PCR and virus isolation) and serological (ELISA and Hemagglutination Inhibition) assays to detect IAV...
November 12, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Johanna M McAnerney, Sibongile Walaza, Stefano Tempia, Lucille Blumberg, Florette K Treurnicht, Shabir A Madhi, Ziyaad Valley-Omar, Cheryl Cohen
Trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2015 season in South Africa was assessed using a test-negative case control study design. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was the dominant circulating strain. Overall influenza vaccine coverage was 3.2% (29/899). The vaccine effectiveness estimate, against any influenza virus infection, adjusted for age, underlying conditions and timing within season was 46.2% (95% CI: -23.5% to 76.5%), and 53.6% (95% CI: -62.6% to 80.3%) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. This article is protected by copyright...
November 8, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Nijuan Xiang, Tian Bai, Kai Kang, Hui Yuan, Suizan Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Xiuying Li, Jiabing Wu, Liquan Deng, Ge Zeng, Xianjun Wang, Shenghua Mao, Jian Shi, Rongbao Gao, Tao Chen, Sumei Zou, Dan Li, Fiona Havers, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Carolyn M Greene, Yanping Zhang, Daxin Ni, Xiaoqing Liu, Qun Li, Yuelong Shu
BACKGROUND: The first human infections of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were identified in China in March 2013. Sentinel surveillance systems and contact tracing may not identify mild and asymptomatic human infections of influenza A(H7N9) virus. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H7N9) virus in three populations during the early stages of the epidemic. PATIENTS/METHODS: From March 2013-May 2014, we collected sera from the general population, poultry workers and contacts of confirmed infections in nine Chinese provinces reporting human A(H7N9) infections and, for contacts, second sera 2-3 weeks later...
October 20, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Matthias An der Heiden, Udo Buchholz
BACKGROUND: The total burden of influenza in primary care is difficult to assess. The case definition of medically attended "acute respiratory infection" (MAARI) in the German physician sentinel is sensitive, however it requires modelling techniques to derive estimates of disease attributable to influenza. We aimed to examine the impact of type/subtype and age. METHODS: Data on MAARI and virological results of respiratory samples (virological sentinel) were available from 2001/02 until 2014/15...
October 18, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Kay L Escuyer, Christine L Waters, Donna L Gowie, Angie M Maxted, Gregory M Farrell, Meghan E Fuschino, Kirsten St George
BACKGROUND: Following the 2013 USA release of the Influenza Virologic Surveillance Right Size Roadmap, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) embarked on an evaluation of data sources for influenza virologic surveillance. OBJECTIVE: To assess NYS data sources, additional to data generated by the state public health laboratory (PHL), which could enhance influenza surveillance at the state and national level. METHODS: Potential sources of laboratory test data for influenza were analyzed for quantity and quality...
October 8, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Farhana Haque, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Nusrat Homaira, Emily Suzane Gurley, Md Jahangir Hossain, S M Murshid Hasan, Sukanta Chowdhury, Shamim Sarkar, Abdul Khaleque Md Dawlat Khan, Mustafizur Rahman, Mahmudur Rahman, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: National media reported a febrile illness among dormitory residents of a boys' religious school. We investigated the outbreak to identify cause. METHODS: Individuals with fever (>100°F) and cough or sore throat between 1 and 13 August 2011 were influenza-like-illness (ILI) case-patients. We collected histories and specimens from hospitalized case-patients and visited campus to explore environmental context. RESULTS: All 28 case-patients were dormitory residents including 27 hospitalizations...
October 5, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Aye M Moa, David J Muscatello, Robin M Turner, Chandini R MacIntyre
BACKGROUND: Influenza B is characterised by two antigenic lineages: B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. These lineages circulate together with influenza A during influenza seasons, with varying incidence from year to year and by geographic region. OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology of influenza B relative to influenza A in Australia. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed influenza notifications between 2001 and 2014 in Australia were obtained from the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System...
September 21, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Takashi Yamanaka, Manabu Nemoto, Hiroshi Bannai, Koji Tsujimura, Takashi Kondo, Tomio Matsumura, Sarah Gildea, Ann Cullinane
We previously reported that horse antiserum against the Japanese equine influenza vaccine virus, A/equine/La Plata/1993 (LP93) exhibited reduced cross-neutralization against some Florida sublineage Clade (Fc) 2 viruses, for example, A/equine/Carlow/2011 (CL11). As a result, Japanese vaccine manufacturers will replace LP93 with A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (Y10, Fc2). To assess the benefit of updating the vaccine, five horses vaccinated with inactivated Y10 vaccine and five vaccinated with inactivated LP93 were challenged by exposure to a nebulized aerosol of CL11...
November 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ahsan Chaudhry, Nathalie Bastien, Yan Li, Allison Scott, Kanti Pabbaraju, Douglas Stewart, Sallene Wong, Steven J Drews
This manuscript describes the identification of an oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H3N2) virus in a respiratory specimen collected from an immunocompromised patient in Alberta, Canada, during the 2014-2015 influenza season. Following treatment with oseltamivir, neuraminidase (NA) gene sequencing indicated the presence of an R292K mutation. Phenotypic susceptibility testing by the NA-Star assay indicated a highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir and normal inhibition by zanamivir. The use of zanamivir following identification of the oseltamivir-resistant strain, combined with a partial immune reconstitution, was followed by a suggested decrease in the nasopharyngeal viral load in the nasopharynx and clinical improvement of the patient...
November 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Pål Voltersvik, Lara A Aqrawi, Susanne Dudman, Olav Hungnes, Leif Bostad, Karl A Brokstad, Rebecca J Cox
BACKGROUND: During the pandemic outbreak of the 2009 swine influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09), 32 fatal cases occurred in Norway and 19 of these were included in this study. OBJECTIVES: We characterised pulmonary changes in these fatal Norwegian cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Upon hospitalisation, detailed clinical information and specimens from the upper and lower respiratory pathways were collected. At post-mortem, lung tissue was collected, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded...
November 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Shaun Truelove, Huachen Zhu, Justin Lessler, Steven Riley, Jonathan M Read, Shuying Wang, Kin On Kwok, Yi Guan, Chao Qiang Jiang, Derek A T Cummings
BACKGROUND: Serum antibody to influenza can be used to identify past exposure and measure current immune status. The two most common methods for measuring this are the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) and the viral neutralization assay (NT), which have not been systematically compared for a large number of influenza viruses. METHODS: A total of 151 study participants from near Guangzhou, China, were enrolled in 2009 and provided serum. HI and NT assays were performed for 12 historic and recently circulating strains of seasonal influenza A...
November 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Dinah Henritzi, Na Zhao, Elke Starick, Gaelle Simon, Jesper S Krog, Lars Erik Larsen, Scott M Reid, Ian H Brown, Chiara Chiapponi, Emanuela Foni, Silke Wacheck, Peter Schmid, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann, Timm C Harder
BACKGROUND: A diversifying pool of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses (IAV) with largely unknown zoonotic potential is maintained in domestic swine populations worldwide. The most recent human influenza pandemic in 2009 was caused by a virus with genes originating from IAV isolated from swine. Swine influenza viruses (SIV) are widespread in European domestic pig populations and evolve dynamically. Knowledge regarding occurrence, spread and evolution of potentially zoonotic SIV in Europe is poorly understood...
November 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Louise E Smith, Donatella D'Antoni, Vageesh Jain, Julia M Pearce, John Weinman, G James Rubin
The aim of this review was to identify factors predicting actual or intended adherence to antivirals as treatment or prophylaxis for influenza. Literature from inception to March 2015 was systematically reviewed to find studies reporting predictors of adherence to antivirals and self-reported reasons for non-adherence to antivirals. Twenty-six studies were included in the review; twenty identified through the literature search and six through other means. Of these studies, 18 assessed predictors of actual adherence to antivirals, whereas eight assessed predictors of intended adherence...
November 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Vigneswary M Ratnamohan, Frank Zeng, Linda Donovan, Chandini R MacIntyre, Jen Kok, Dominic E Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRV) cause a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild influenza-like illness (ILI) to severe respiratory infection. Molecular epidemiological data are limited for HRV circulating in the Southern Hemisphere. OBJECTIVES: To identify the species and genotypes of HRV from clinical samples collected in Sydney, Australia, from 2006 to 2009. METHODS: Combined nose and throat swabs or nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from individuals with ILI were tested for HRV using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
November 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Nerissa Lakhan, Michelle Clarke, Suja M Mathew, Helen Marshall
BACKGROUND: Influenza infection can result in severe disease with debilitating complications. Young children have the highest rate of influenza hospitalisations with various factors influencing influenza susceptibility and severity. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the disease burden and assess risk factors for severe hospitalised influenza in South Australian children under 5 years of age. METHODS: Influenza admissions to the tertiary paediatric hospital in South Australia from 2008 to 2012 were identified...
November 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Lauren Jelley, Avram Levy, Yi-Mo Deng, Natalie Spirason, Jurissa Lang, Iwona Buettner, Julian Druce, Chris Blyth, Paul Effler, David Smith, Ian G Barr
BACKGROUND: Influenza C is usually considered a minor cause of respiratory illness in humans with many infections being asymptomatic or clinically mild. Large outbreaks can occur periodically resulting in significant morbidity. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at analyzing the available influenza C clinical samples from two widely separated states of Australia, collected over a 7-year period and to compare them with influenza C viruses detected in other parts of the world in recent years...
November 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Denis K Byarugaba, Bernard Erima, Monica Millard, Hannah Kibuuka, Luswa Lkwago, Josephine Bwogi, Derrick Mimbe, Jocelyn B Kiconco, Titus Tugume, Edison A Mworozi, Jasmine Turner, Pamela P Mckenzie, Richard R J Webby, Robert G Webster, Charlotte Foret, Mariette F Ducatez, Rodney Coldren, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Scott Krauss
We report a whole-genome analysis of 19 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates from four Ugandan hospitals between 2009 and 2011. The isolates differed from the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 by three amino acid substitutions P100S, S220T, and I338V in the hemagglutinin and by two amino acid substitutions V106I and N248D in the neuraminidase proteins with consistent mutations in all gene segments distinguishing isolates from the 2009/2010 to 2010/2011 seasons. Phylogenetic analysis showed low genetic evolution, with genetic distances of 0%-1...
November 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Sarah A Buchan, Travis S Hottes, Laura C Rosella, Natasha S Crowcroft, Dat Tran, Jeffrey C Kwong
AIM: The burden of disease in children attributable to influenza viruses is difficult to quantify given the similarity of symptoms caused by infection due to influenza and other viruses. This uncertainty impacts clinical decision-making and estimates of burden. We aimed to systematically review the literature to determine the proportion of healthy children presenting for health care with an acute respiratory illness (ARI) who have laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza (PROSPERO ID#CRD42014013896)...
November 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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