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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

Francoise M Blachere, William G Lindsley, Angela M Weber, Donald H Beezhold, Robert E Thewlis, Kenneth R Mead, John D Noti
BACKGROUND: In December 2016, an outbreak of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N2) occurred in cats at a New York City animal shelter and quickly spread to other shelters in New York and Pennsylvania. The A(H7N2) virus also spread to an attending veterinarian. In response, 500 cats were transferred from these shelters to a temporary quarantine facility for continued monitoring and treatment. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to assess the occupational risk of A(H7N2) exposure among emergency response workers at the feline quarantine facility...
May 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Karen A Alroy, Trang Thuy Do, Phu Dac Tran, Tan Quang Dang, Long Ngoc Vu, Nga Thi Hang Le, Anh Duc Dang, Nghia Duy Ngu, Tu Huy Ngo, Phuong Mai Vu Hoang, Lan Trong Phan, Thuong Vu Nguyen, Long Thanh Nguyen, Thinh Viet Nguyen, Mai Quang Vien, Huy Xuan Le, Anh The Dao, Trieu Bao Nguyen, Duoc Tho Pham, Van Thi Tuyet Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc Pham, Binh Hai Phan, Brett Whitaker, Thuy Thi Thu Do, Phuong Anh Dao, S Arunmozhi Balajee, Anthony W Mounts
BACKGROUND: In 2016, as a component of the Global Health Security Agenda, the Vietnam Ministry of Health expanded its existing influenza sentinel surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) to include testing for 7 additional viral respiratory pathogens. This article describes the steps taken to implement expanded SARI surveillance in Vietnam and reports data from 1 year of expanded surveillance. METHOD: The process of expanding the suite of pathogens for routine testing by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) included laboratory trainings, procurement/distribution of reagents, and strengthening and aligning SARI surveillance epidemiology practices at sentinel sites and regional institutes (RI)...
May 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Janet V Diaz, Justin R Ortiz, Paula Lister, Nahoko Shindo, Neill K J Adhikari
BACKGROUND: The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic caused surges of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) in resource-limited settings. Several Ministries of Health requested clinical management guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO), which had not previously developed guidance regarding critically ill patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the acceptability and impact on knowledge of a short course about the management of critically ill patients with acute respiratory infections complicated by sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome delivered to clinicians in resource-limited ICUs...
May 4, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Thedi Ziegler, Awandha Mamahit, Nancy J Cox
The 1918 devastating influenza pandemic left a lasting impact on influenza experts and the public, and the importance of global influenza surveillance was soon recognized. The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN) was founded in 1952 and renamed to Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System in 2011 upon the adoption by the World Health Assembly, of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the Sharing of Influenza Viruses and Access to Vaccines and Other Benefits ("PIP Framework")...
May 4, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Alan J Hay, John W McCauley
In the centenary year of the devastating 1918-19 pandemic, it seems opportune to reflect on the success of the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) initiated 70 years ago to provide early warning of changes in influenza viruses circulating in the global population to help mitigate the consequences of such a pandemic and maintain the efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccines. Three pandemics later and in the face of pandemic threats from highly pathogenic zoonotic infections by different influenza A subtypes it continues to represent a model platform for global collaboration and timely sharing of viruses, reagents and information to forestall and respond to public health emergencies...
May 2, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Katharine M Benedict, Tammy A Santibanez, Katherine E Kahn, Laura J Pabst, Carolyn B Bridges, Erin D Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Reminders for influenza vaccination improve influenza vaccination coverage. The purpose of this study was to describe the receipt of reminders for influenza vaccination during the 2011-12 influenza season among U.S. adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the March 2012 National Flu Survey (NFS), a random digit dial telephone survey of adults in the United States. Relative to July 1, 2011, respondents were asked if they received a reminder for influenza vaccination and the source and type of reminder they received...
April 22, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Verena Schildgen, Ylenia Longo, Monika Pieper, Oliver Schildgen
Despite being frequently detected as a co-pathogen in respiratory infections, the human bocavirus has also been shown to be a major player in viral respiratory mono-infections in all age groups (1-4). However, although known since more than a decade, cultivation of the virus remains a major challenge and was so far limited to some selected laboratories, which made either use of primary air liquid interface cell cultures or not commercially available CuFi-8 cells (5, 6). This article is protected by copyright...
April 20, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Meng-Jer Hsieh, Wei-Juen Lee, Hsiu-Ying Cho, Meng-Fang Wu, Han-Chung Hu, Kuo-Chin Kao, Ning-Hung Chen, Ying-Huang Tsai, Chung-Chi Huang
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to severe influenza A H1N1 pneumonitis would result in impaired pulmonary functions and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after hospital discharge. OBJECTIVES: The recovery of pulmonary functions, exercise capacity and HRQoL in the survivors of ARDS due to 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 pneumonitis (H1N1-ARDS) were evaluated in a tertiary teaching hospital in the northern Taiwan between May 2010 and June 2011...
April 20, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Brian M Davis, Betsy Foxman, Arnold S Monto, Ralph S Baric, Emily T Martin, Amra Uzicanin, Jeanette J Rainey, Allison E Aiello
BACKGROUND: The prevalence, symptom course, and shedding in persons infected with the four most common human coronaviruses (HCoV) -229E, HKU1, NL63 and OC43 are poorly described OBJECTIVES: We estimate their prevalence and associated symptoms among college students identified via a social network study design. PATIENTS/METHODS: We collected 1-3 samples (n=250 specimens) from 176 participants between October 2012 and January 17, 2013: participants with acute respiratory infection (ARI) (cough and body aches or chills or fever/feverishness) and their social contacts...
April 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Steffen Kunzmann, Christine Krempl, Silvia Seidenspinner, Kirsten Glaser, Christian P Speer, Markus Fehrholz
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in early childhood. Underlying pathomechanisms of elevated pulmonary morbidity in later infancy are largely unknown. We found that RSV-infected H441 cells showed increased mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key factor in airway remodeling. Additional dexamethasone treatment led to further elevated mRNA levels, indicating additive effects. Caffeine treatment prevented RSV-mediated increase of CTGF mRNA...
April 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Jens Nielsen, Tyra Grove Krause, Kåre Mølbak
BACKGROUND: In temperate zones, all-cause mortality exhibits a marked seasonality, and influenza represents a major cause of winter excess mortality. We present a statistical model, FluMOMO, which estimate influenza associated mortality from all-cause mortality data and apply it to Danish data from 2010/11 to 2016/17. METHODS: We applied a multivariable time-series model with all-cause mortality as outcome, influenza activity and extreme temperatures as explanatory variables while adjusting for time-trend and seasonality...
April 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Marta Valenciano, E Kissling, Amparo Larrauri, Baltasar Nunes, Daniela Pitigoi, Joan O Donnell, Annicka Reuss, Judit Krisztina Horváth, Iwona Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Caterina Rizzo, Alessandra Falchi, Isabel Daviaud, Mia Brytting, Adam Meijer, Bernard Kaic, Alin Gherasim, Ausenda Machado, Alina Ivanciuc, Lisa Domegan, Brunhilde Schweiger, Annamária Ferenczi, Monika Korczyńska, Antonino Bella, Ana-Maria Vilcu, Anne Mosnier, Katherina Zakikhany, Sanja Kurečić Filipovićović, Kari Johansen, Alain Moren, Marit de Lange
BACKGROUND: Results of previous influenza vaccination effects on current season influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To explore previous influenza vaccination effects on current season VE among population targeted for vaccination. METHODS: We used 2011/12 to 2016/17 I-MOVE primary care multicentre test-negative data. For each season we compared current season adjusted VE (aVE) between individuals vaccinated and unvaccinated in previous season...
April 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Joelinotahina H Rabarison, Stefano Tempia, Aina Harimanana, Julia Guillebaud, Norosoa H Razanajatovo, Maherisoa Ratsitorahina, Jean-Michel Heraud
BACKGROUND: Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are responsible for substantial global morbidity and mortality in young children and elderly individuals. Estimates of the burden of influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalization are limited in Africa. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza- and RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) at one hospital and a retrospective review of SARI hospitalizations in five hospitals situated in Antananarivo during 2011-2016...
April 6, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
M J Meijboom, J Riphagen-Dalhuisen, E Hak
BACKGROUND: Despite the clinical evidence, influenza vaccination coverage of healthcare workers remains low. To assess the health economic value of implementing an influenza immunization program among healthcare workers (HCW) in University Medical Centers (UMCs) in the Netherlands, a cost-benefit model was developed using a societal perspective. METHODS/PATIENTS: The model was based on a trial performed among all UMCs in the Netherlands that included both hospital staff as well as patients admitted to the pediatrics and internal medicine departments...
April 6, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Rasna R Walia, Tavis K Anderson, Amy L Vincent
BACKGROUND: Regular spatial and temporal analyses of the genetic diversity and evolutionary patterns of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine informs control efforts and improves animal health. Initiated in 2009, the USDA passively surveils IAV in U.S. swine, with a focus on subtyping clinical respiratory submissions, sequencing at minimum the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes, and sharing these data publicly. OBJECTIVES: In this study, our goal was to quantify and describe regional and national patterns in the genetic diversity and evolution of IAV in U...
April 6, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Anwar E Ahmed, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Mody Alaqeel, Salma S Siddiq, Hanan A Alsaab, Ezzeldin A Sakr, Hamed A Alyahya, Munzir M Alandonisi, Alaa T Subedar, Yosra Z Ali, Hazza Al Otaibi, Nouf M Aloudah, Salim Baharoon, Sameera Al Johani, Mohammed G Alghamdi
AIM: Research evidence exists that poor prognosis is common in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) patients. This study estimates recovery delay intervals and identifies associated factors in a sample of Saudi Arabian patients admitted for suspected MERS-CoV and diagnosed by rRT-PCR assay. METHOD: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted on 829 patients admitted between September 2012 and June 2016 and diagnosed by rRT-PCR procedures to have MERS-CoV and non-MERS-CoV infection in which 396 achieved recovery...
April 6, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Wan Yang, Matthew J Cummings, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, John Kayiwa, Nicholas Owor, Barbara Namagambo, Timothy Byaruhanga, Julius J Lutwama, Max R O'Donnell, Jeffrey Shaman
BACKGROUND: The association of influenza with meteorological variables in tropical climates remains controversial. Here we investigate the impact of weather conditions on influenza in the tropics and factors that may contribute to this uncertainty. METHODS: We computed the monthly viral positive rate for each of the three circulating influenza (sub)types (i.e., A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B) among patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in two Ugandan cities (Entebbe and Kampala)...
March 23, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Raburn M Mallory, Jing Yu, Sachiko Kameo, Michio Tanaka, Ki Rito, Yohji Itoh, Filip Dubovsky
BACKGROUND: Quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (Q/LAIV) has not been assessed in Japanese children. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate safety and efficacy of Q/LAIV in Japanese children. PATIENTS/METHODS: Two Phase 3 studies were conducted in the 2014-2015 influenza season. Study 1 was an open-label, uncontrolled single arm, multicenter study of Q/LAIV safety in subjects aged 2-6 years. Study 2 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study of Q/LAIV safety and efficacy; subjects aged 7-18 years were randomized 2:1 to receive Q/LAIV or placebo...
March 23, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Malinee Chittaganpitch, Sunthareeya Waicharoen, Thitipong Yingyong, Prabda Praphasiri, Somchai Sangkitporn, Sonja J Olsen, Kim A Lindblade
BACKGROUND: Information on the burden, characteristics and seasonality of non-influenza respiratory viruses is limited in tropical countries. OBJECTIVES: Describe the epidemiology of selected non-influenza respiratory viruses in Thailand between June 2010 and May 2014 using a sentinel surveillance platform established for influenza. METHODS: Patients with influenza-like illness (ILI; history of fever or documented temperature ≥38°C, cough, not requiring hospitalization) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; history of fever or documented temperature ≥38°C, cough, onset <10 days, requiring hospitalization) were enrolled from 10 sites...
March 8, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
F Scott Dahlgren, David K Shay, Hector S Izurieta, Richard A Forshee, Michael Wernecke, Yoganand Chillarige, Yun Lu, Jeffrey A Kelman, Carrie Reed
BACKGROUND: Over 34 million residents of the United States aged 65 years and older are also Medicare prescription drug beneficiaries. Medical claims records for this age group potentially provide a wealth of data for better understanding influenza epidemiology. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate data on oseltamivir dispensing extracted from medical claims records as an indicator of influenza activity in the United States for the 2010-11 through 2014-15 influenza seasons...
March 5, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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