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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502086/does-influenza-pandemic-preparedness-and-mitigation-require-gain-of-function-research
#1
Dillon C Adam, Daniel J Magee, Chau M Bui, Matthew Scotch, C Raina MacIntyre
The risk and benefits of gain-of-function studies on influenza A has been widely debated since 2012 when the methods to create two respiratory transmissible H5N1 mutant isolates were published. Opponents of gain-of-function studies argue the biosecurity risk is unacceptable, while proponents cite potential uses for pandemic surveillance, preparedness and mitigation. In this commentary, we provide an overview of the background and applications of gain-of-function research and argue that the anticipated benefits have yet to materialize while the significant risks remain...
May 14, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488368/a-cluster-of-adenovirus-type-b55-infection-in-a-neurosurgical-inpatient-department-of-a-general-hospital-in-guangdong-china
#2
Lina Yi, LiRong Zou, Jing Lu, Min Kang, Yingchao Song, Juan Su, Xin Zhang, LiJun Liang, HanZhong Ni, Changwen Ke, Jie Wu
BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus type 55 is a re-emerging human respiratory pathogen that is associated with several respiratory infections outbreaks in military and school populations. In this study, we describe the first HAdV55-associated hospital outbreak documented in Guangdong, China. METHODS: Active surveillance was conducted in the involved neurosurgical inpatient department. All staff and patients in the involved neurosurgical department were surveyed for any symptoms of fever (≥38°C) and enlarged tonsils during the outbreak period...
May 10, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464462/effect-of-low-to-moderate-dose-corticosteroids-on-mortality-of-hospitalized-adolescents-and-adults-with-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-viral-pneumonia
#3
Hui Li, Shi-Gui Yang, Li Gu, Yao Zhang, Xi-Xin Yan, Zong-An Liang, Wei Zhang, Hong-Yu Jia, Wei Chen, Meng Liu, Kai-Jiang Yu, Chun-Xue Xue, Ke Hu, Qi Zou, Lan-Juan Li, Bin Cao, Chen Wang
BACKGROUND: The effect of corticosteroids on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viral pneumonia patients remains controversial and the impact of dosage has never been studied. METHODS: Using data of hospitalized adolescent and adult patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viral pneumonia, prospectively collected from 407 hospitals in mainland China, the effects of low-to-moderate dose (25-150 mg·day(-1) ) and high-dose (> 150 mg·day(-1) ) corticosteroids on 30-day mortality, 60-day mortality, and nosocomial infection were assessed with multivariate Cox regression and propensity score-matched case-control analysis...
May 2, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444974/school-based-surveillance-for-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-during-2014-15-seasons-in-hong-kong
#4
Ting F Leung, Renee W Y Chan, Angela Kwok, Wendy C S Ho, Mars K P Tao, Kam L Hon, Frankie W T Cheng, Albert M Li, Paul K S Chan
BACKGROUND: Influenza imposes substantial healthcare burden in children, which can be prevented by vaccination. Influenza vaccination coverage varies widely among childhood populations worldwide, which has significant impact on herd immunity and usefulness of influenza vaccine. However, there is limited real-life data on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children. OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to investigate clinical spectrum of childhood influenza and VE in preventing influenza in Hong Kong children...
April 26, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380272/influence-of-time-to-diagnosis-of-severe-influenza-on-antibiotic-use-length-of-stay-isolation-precautions-and-mortality-a-retrospective-study
#5
Isabel E Akers, Rainer Weber, Hugo Sax, Jürg Böni, Alexandra Trkola, Stefan P Kuster
BACKGROUND: Timely diagnosis of influenza infection in patients might help reduce antibiotic use during influenza seasons and, consequently, antibiotic selection pressure. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to evaluate whether time to influenza diagnosis in patients with severe influenza is associated with the duration of antibiotic therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively included all hospitalized patients >16 years who tested positive for influenza A or B by polymerase-chain-reaction during influenza seasons 2013/2014 or 2014/2015 at the University Hospital Zurich...
April 5, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371393/estimates-of-influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-incidences-with-fraction-modeling-approach-in-baguio-city-the-philippines-2012-2014
#6
Taro Kamigaki, Portia P Aldey, Edelwisa S Mercado, Alvin G Tan, Jenaline B Javier, Socorro P Lupisan, Hitoshi Oshitani, Veronica L Tallo
BACKGROUND: Estimation of the incidences of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is important for disease control. Previous estimate in the city showed a substantial burden of influenza in both outpatients and inpatients while it did not account for individuals who do not seek medical attention nor RSV. PATIENTS/METHODS: A total of 17,674 influenza like illness (ILI) and 13,242 severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) cases were recruited and samples were collected from 6,267 and 2,962 of ILI and SARI cases, respectively...
April 2, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294578/rethinking-thresholds-for-serological-evidence-of-influenza-virus-infection
#7
Xiahong Zhao, Karen Siegel, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Alex R Cook
INTRODUCTION: For pathogens such as influenza that cause many subclinical cases, serologic data can be used to estimate attack rates and the severity of an epidemic in near real time. Current methods for analysing serologic data tend to rely on use of a simple threshold or comparison of titres between pre- and post-epidemic, which may not accurately reflect actual infection rates. METHODS: We propose a method for quantifying infection rates using paired sera and bivariate probit models to evaluate the accuracy of thresholds currently used for influenza epidemics with low and high existing herd immunity levels, and a subsequent non-influenza period...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245096/triple-reassortant-influenza-a-virus-with-h3-of-human-seasonal-origin-na-of-swine-origin-and-internal-a-h1n1-pandemic-2009-genes-is-established-in-danish-pigs
#8
Jesper Schak Krog, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Michael Albin Larsen, Lars Erik Larsen
This report describes a triple-reassortant influenza A virus with a HA that resembles H3 of human seasonal influenza from 2004 to 2005, N2 from influenza A virus already established in swine, and the internal gene cassette from A(H1N1)pdm09 has spread in Danish pig herds. The virus has been detected in several Danish pig herds during the last 2-3 years and may possess a challenge for human as well as animal health.
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218983/single-radial-haemolysis-compared-to-haemagglutinin-inhibition-and-microneutralization-as-a-correlate-of-protection-against-influenza-a-h3n2-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
Biao Wang, Margaret L Russell, Angela Brewer, Jennifer Newton, Pardeep Singh, Brian J Ward, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Serum antibodies are often used as correlates of protection for influenza. Three commonly used serological assays for detecting influenza-specific serum antibodies are single radial haemolysis (SRH), haemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN). However, here are limited data on SRH as well as HAI and MN as correlates of protection against influenza in children and adolescents. There are also limited data that compare SRH to HAI and MN. OBJECTIVES: We sought primarily to understand how SRH titres correlate to protection against influenza infection in children and adolescents...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207989/predictors-of-influenza-a-molecular-viral-shedding-in-hutterite-communities
#10
Biao Wang, Margaret L Russell, Kevin Fonseca, David J D Earn, Gregory Horsman, Paul Van Caeseele, Khami Chokani, Mark Vooght, Lorne Babiuk, Stephen D Walter, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Patterns of influenza molecular viral shedding following influenza infection have been well established; predictors of viral shedding however remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine factors associated with peak molecular viral load, duration of shedding, and viral area under the curve (AUC) in children and adult Hutterite colony members with laboratory-confirmed influenza. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted in Hutterite colonies in Alberta, Canada...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207986/novel-multiplex-assay-platforms-to-detect-influenza-a-hemagglutinin-subtype-specific-antibody-responses-for-high-throughput-and-in-field-applications
#11
Zhu-Nan Li, Jessica F Trost, Kimberly M Weber, Elizabeth H LeMasters, Sharifa Nasreen, Javan Esfandiari, Angelo H Gunasekera, Megan McCausland, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Jens Wrammert, Sean Gregory, Vic Veguilla, James Stevens, Joseph D Miller, Jacqueline M Katz, Min Z Levine
BACKGROUND: Detections of influenza A subtype-specific antibody responses are often complicated by the presence of cross-reactive antibodies. We developed two novel multiplex platforms for antibody detection. The multiplexed magnetic fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (MAGPIX) is a high-throughput laboratory-based assay. Chembio Dual Path Platform (DPP) is a portable and rapid test that could be used in the field. METHODS: Twelve recombinant globular head domain hemagglutinin (GH HA1) antigens from A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1), A(H2N2), A(H3N2), A(H5N1), A(H7N9), A(H9N2), A(H13N9), B/Victoria lineage, B/Yamagata lineage viruses, and protein A control were used...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164446/the-characteristics-and-antigenic-properties-of-recently-emerged-subclade-3c-3a-and-3c-2a-human-influenza-a-h3n2-viruses-passaged-in-mdck-cells
#12
Yipu Lin, Stephen A Wharton, Lynne Whittaker, Mian Dai, Burcu Ermetal, Janice Lo, Andrea Pontoriero, Elsa Baumeister, Rodney S Daniels, John W McCauley
BACKGROUND: Two new subclades of influenza A(H3N2) viruses became prominent during the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. The HA glycoproteins of these viruses showed sequence changes previously associated with alterations in receptor-binding properties. To address how these changes influence virus propagation, viruses were isolated and propagated in conventional MDCK cells and MDCK-SIAT1 cells, cells with enhanced expression of the human receptor for the virus, and analysed at each passage...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146323/workshop-report-immunoassay-standardisation-for-universal-influenza-vaccines
#13
Sophia Pavlova, Flavia D'Alessio, Sophie Houard, Edmond J Remarque, Norbert Stockhofe, Othmar G Engelhardt
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called universal influenza vaccines and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. More than fifty experts from the global influenza vaccine research and development field met to initiate such discussion at a workshop co-organised by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146320/influenza-antivirals-currently-in-late-phase-clinical-trial
#14
Paulina Koszalka, Danielle Tilmanis, Aeron C Hurt
Influenza antiviral drugs are important for the control of influenza, most specifically for the treatment of influenza patients with severe disease following infection with a seasonal influenza virus, a newly emerging influenza strain, or in the event of a pandemic. Many influenza antivirals that are currently under investigation in late-stage clinical trials differ in their mechanism of action compared to drugs currently licensed for the treatment of influenza. Nitazoxanide and DAS181 target components of the host cell and alter the ability of the virus to replicate efficiently, while small molecule drugs such as T705, JNJ63623872 and S-033188 bind to the viral polymerase complex and restrict viral replication...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122175/enterovirus-d68-and-other-enterovirus-serotypes-identified-in-south-african-patients-with-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-2009-2011
#15
Orienka Hellferscee, Florette K Treurnicht, Stefano Tempia, Ebrahim Variava, Halima Dawood, Kathleen Kahn, Adam L Cohen, Marthi Pretorius, Cheryl Cohen, Shabir A Madhi, Marietjie Venter
BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (EV) have been associated with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiology of EV serotypes among patients hospitalized with SARI during 2009-2011. PATIENTS/METHODS: Study samples from patients were tested for the presence of enterovirus using a polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: 8.2% (842/10 260) of SARI cases tested positive for enterovirus; 16% (7/45) were species EV-A, 44% (20/45) EV-B, 18% (8/45) EV-C and 22% (10/45) EV-D...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966289/an-epidemiological-study-of-avian-influenza-a-h5-virus-in-nomadic-ducks-and-their-raising-practices-in-northeastern-bangladesh-2011-2012
#16
Shamim Sarkar, Salah Uddin Khan, Andrea Mikolon, Mohammad Ziaur Rahman, Jaynal Abedin, Nord Zeidner, Katherine Sturm-Ramirez, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, nomadic duck flocks are groups of domestic ducks reared for egg production that are moved to access feeding sites beyond their owners' village boundaries and are housed overnight in portable enclosures in scavenging areas. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of influenza A virus RNA and H5-specific antibodies in nomadic ducks and to characterize nomadic duck raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh. METHODS: We tested duck egg yolk specimens by competitive ELISA to detect antibodies against avian influenza A (H5) and environmental fecal samples by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect influenza A virus RNA and H5 subtype...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943585/nurses-attitudes-towards-enforced-measures-to-increase-influenza-vaccination-a-qualitative-study
#17
Anina Pless, David Shaw, Stuart McLennan, Bernice S Elger
BACKGROUND: Despite studies demonstrating that the annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers reduces morbidity and mortality among vulnerable patients, vaccination rates remain very low, particularly in nursing staff. Educational programmes have failed to improve rates, which has led to a diverse range of enforced approaches being advocated and implemented. OBJECTIVES: To examine the attitudes of non-vaccinated nursing staff towards various enforced measures aimed at increasing rates of influenza vaccination...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885805/school-absenteeism-among-school-aged-children-with-medically-attended-acute-viral-respiratory-illness-during-three-influenza-seasons-2012-2013-through-2014-2015
#18
Huong Q McLean, Siri H Peterson, Jennifer P King, Jennifer K Meece, Edward A Belongia
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are common in school-aged children, but few studies have assessed school absenteeism due to specific respiratory viruses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate school absenteeism among children with medically attended ARI due to common viruses. METHODS: We analyzed follow-up surveys from children seeking care for acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the influenza vaccine effectiveness study at Marshfield Clinic during the 2012-2013 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883281/severe-mortality-impact-of-the-1957-influenza-pandemic-in-chile
#19
Gerardo Chowell, Lone Simonsen, Rodrigo Fuentes, Jose Flores, Mark A Miller, Cécile Viboud
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower-income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile, including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city, and investigated risk factors for severe mortality impact across regions. RESULTS: Chile exhibited two waves of excess mortality in winter 1957 and 1959 with a cumulative excess mortality rate of 12 per 10 000, and a ~10-fold mortality difference across provinces...
May 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058797/estimating-the-burden-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-on-respiratory-hospital-admissions-in-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-in-england-2007-2012
#20
Rachel Melanie Reeves, Pia Hardelid, Ruth Gilbert, Fiona Warburton, Joanna Ellis, Richard G Pebody
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospital admission in young children. With several RSV vaccines candidates undergoing clinical trials, recent estimates of RSV burden are required to provide a baseline for vaccine impact studies. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of RSV-associated hospital admissions in children aged <5 years in England over a 5-year period from 2007 using ecological time series modelling of national hospital administrative data...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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