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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218983/single-radial-haemolysis-compared-to-hemagglutinin-inhibition-and-microneutralization-as-a-correlate-of-protection-against-influenza-a-h3n2-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Biao Wang, Margaret L Russell, Angela Brewer, Jennifer Newton, Pardeep Singh, Brian J Ward, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Serum antibodies are often used as correlates of protection for influenza. Three commonly used serological assays for detecting influenza-specific serum antibodies are single radial haemolysis (SRH), hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI), and microneutralization (MN). However, here are limited data on SRH as well as HAI and MN as correlates of protection against influenza in children and adolescents. There are also limited data that compare SRH to HAI and MN. OBJECTIVES: We sought primarily to understand how SRH titres correlate to protection against influenza infection in children and adolescents...
February 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207989/predictors-of-influenza-a-molecular-viral-shedding-in-hutterites-communities
#2
Biao Wang, Margaret L Russell, Kevin Fonseca, David J D Earn, Gregory Horsman, Paul Van Caeseele, Khami Chokani, Mark Vooght, Lorne Babiuk, Stephen D Walter, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Patterns of influenza molecular viral shedding following influenza infection have been well established; predictors of viral shedding however remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine factors associated with peak molecular viral load, duration of shedding, and viral area under curve (AUC) in children and adult Hutterite colony members with laboratory confirmed influenza. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted in Hutterite colonies in Alberta, Canada...
February 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207986/novel-multiplex-assay-platforms-to-detect-influenza-a-hemagglutinin-subtype-specific-antibody-responses-for-high-throughput-and-in-field-applications
#3
Zhu-Nan Li, Jessica F Trost, Kimberly M Weber, Elizabeth H LeMasters, Sharifa Nasreen, Javan Esfandiari, Angelo H Gunasekera, Megan McCausland, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Jens Wrammert, Sean Gregory, Vic Veguilla, James Stevens, Joseph D Miller, Jacqueline M Katz, Min Z Levine
BACKGROUND: Detections of influenza A subtype specific antibody responses are often complicated by the presence of cross-reactive antibodies. We developed two novel multiplex platforms for antibody detection. The multiplexed magnetic fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (MAGPIX) is a high throughput laboratory-based assay. Chembio Dual Path Platform (DPP) is a portable and rapid test that could be used in the field. METHODS: Twelve recombinant globular head domain hemagglutinin (GH HA1) antigens from A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1), A(H2N2), A(H3N2), A(H5N1), A(H7N9), A(H9N2), A(H13N9), B/Victoria lineage, B/Yamagata lineage viruses, and protein A control were used...
February 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164446/the-characteristics-and-antigenic-properties-of-recently-emerged-subclade-3c-3a-and-3c-2a-human-influenza-a-h3n2-viruses-passaged-in-mdck-cells
#4
Yipu Lin, Stephen A Wharton, Lynne Whittaker, Mian Dai, Burcu Ermetal, Janice Lo, Andrea Pontoriero, Elsa Baumeister, Rodney S Daniels, John W McCauley
BACKGROUND: Two new subclades of influenza A(H3N2) viruses became prominent during the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. The HA glycoproteins of these viruses showed sequence changes previously associated with alterations in receptor-binding properties. To address how these changes influence virus propagation, viruses were isolated and propagated in conventional MDCK cells and MDCK-SIAT1 cells, cells with enhanced expression of the human receptor for the virus, and analysed at each passage...
February 5, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146323/workshop-report-immunoassay-standardisation-for-universal-influenza-vaccines
#5
Sophia Pavlova, Flavia D'Alessio, Sophie Houard, Edmond J Remarque, Norbert Stockhofe, Othmar G Engelhardt
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called "universal" influenza vaccines, and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. More than fifty experts from the global influenza vaccine research and development field met to initiate such discussion at a workshop co-organised by EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA...
February 1, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146320/influenza-antivirals-currently-in-late-phase-clinical-trial
#6
Paulina Koszalka, Danielle Tilmanis, Aeron C Hurt
Influenza antiviral drugs are important for the control of influenza, most specifically for the treatment of influenza patients with severe disease following infection with a seasonal influenza virus, a newly emerging influenza strain, or in the event of a pandemic. Many influenza antivirals that are currently under investigation in late stage clinical trials differ in their mechanism of action compared to drugs currently licensed for the treatment of influenza. Nitazoxanide and DAS181 target components of the host cell and alter the ability of the virus to replicate efficiently, while small molecule drugs such as T705, JNJ63623872 and S-033188 bind to the viral polymerase complex and restrict viral replication...
February 1, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122175/enterovirus-d68-and-other-enterovirus-serotypes-identified-in-south-african-patients-with-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-2009-2011
#7
Orienka Hellferscee, Florette K Treurnicht, Stefano Tempia, Ebrahim Variava, Halima Dawood, Kathleen Kahn, Adam L Cohen, Marthi Pretorius, Cheryl Cohen, Shabir A Madhi, Marietjie Venter
BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (EV) have been associated with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiology of EV serotypes among patients hospitalized with SARI during 2009-2011. PATIENTS/METHODS: Study samples from patients were tested for the presence of enterovirus using a polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: 8.2% (842/10260) of SARI cases tested positive for enterovirus...
January 25, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966289/an-epidemiological-study-of-avian-influenza-a-h5-virus-in-nomadic-ducks-and-their-raising-practices-in-northeastern-bangladesh-2011-2012
#8
Shamim Sarkar, Salah Uddin Khan, Andrea Mikolon, Mohammad Ziaur Rahman, Jaynal Abedin, Nord Zeidner, Katherine Sturm-Ramirez, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, nomadic duck flocks are groups of domestic ducks reared for egg production that are moved to access feeding sites beyond their owners' village boundaries and are housed overnight in portable enclosures in scavenging areas. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of influenza A virus RNA and H5-specific antibodies in nomadic ducks and to characterize nomadic duck raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh. METHODS: We tested duck egg yolk specimens by competitive ELISA to detect antibodies against avian influenza A (H5) and environmental fecal samples by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect influenza A virus RNA and H5 subtype...
December 14, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943585/nurses-attitudes-towards-enforced-measures-to-increase-influenza-vaccination-a-qualitative-study
#9
Anina Pless, David Shaw, Stuart McLennan, Bernice S Elger
BACKGROUND: Despite studies demonstrating that the annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers reduces morbidity and mortality among vulnerable patients, vaccination rates remain very low, particularly in nursing staff. Educational programmes have failed to improve rates, which has led to a diverse range of enforced approaches being advocated and implemented. OBJECTIVES: To examine the attitudes of non-vaccinated nursing staff towards various enforced measures aimed at increasing rates of influenza vaccination...
December 10, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058797/estimating-the-burden-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-on-respiratory-hospital-admissions-in-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-in-england-2007-2012
#10
Rachel Melanie Reeves, Pia Hardelid, Ruth Gilbert, Fiona Warburton, Joanna Ellis, Richard G Pebody
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospital admission in young children. With several RSV vaccines candidates undergoing clinical trials, recent estimates of RSV burden are required to provide a baseline for vaccine impact studies. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of RSV-associated hospital admissions in children aged <5 years in England over a 5-year period from 2007 using ecological time series modelling of national hospital administrative data...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943624/temporal-cross-correlation-between-influenza-like-illnesses-and-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-the-netherlands
#11
Wilke Hendriks, Hendriek Boshuizen, Arnold Dekkers, Mirjam Knol, Ge A Donker, Arie van der Ende, Hester Korthals Altes
BACKGROUND: While the burden of community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is still considerable, there is little insight in the factors contributing to disease. Previous research on the lagged relationship between respiratory viruses and pneumococcal disease incidence is inconclusive, and studies correcting for temporal autocorrelation are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal relation between influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and IPD, correcting for temporal autocorrelation...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865064/estimating-vaccine-effectiveness-in-preventing-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-in-outpatient-settings-in-south-africa-2015
#12
Johanna M McAnerney, Sibongile Walaza, Stefano Tempia, Lucille Blumberg, Florette K Treurnicht, Shabir A Madhi, Ziyaad Valley-Omar, Cheryl Cohen
Trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2015 season in South Africa was assessed using a test-negative case control study design. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was the dominant circulating strain. Overall influenza vaccine coverage was 3.2% (29/899). The vaccine effectiveness estimate, against any influenza virus infection, adjusted for age, underlying conditions and timing within season was 46.2% (95% CI: -23.5 to 76.5), and 53.6% (95% CI: -62.6 to 80.3) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860313/origin-distribution-and-potential-risk-factors-associated-with-influenza-a-virus-in-swine-in-two-production-systems-in-guatemala
#13
Ana S Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana L Ramírez, María L Müller, David Orellana, Silvia M Sosa, Pablo Ola, Jorge Paniagua, Lucía Ortíz, Jorge Hernandez, Celia Cordón-Rosales, Daniel R Perez
BACKGROUND: Guatemala is the country with the largest swine production in Central America; however, evidence of influenza A virus (IAV) in pigs has not been clearly delineated. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we analyzed the presence and spatial distribution of IAV in commercial and backyard swine populations. METHODS: Samples from two nationwide surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 were tested using virological (rRT-PCR and virus isolation) and serological (ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition) assays to detect IAV...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762061/sero-epidemiologic-study-of-influenza-a-h7n9-infection-among-exposed-populations-china-2013-2014
#14
Nijuan Xiang, Tian Bai, Kai Kang, Hui Yuan, Suizan Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Xiuying Li, Jiabing Wu, Liquan Deng, Ge Zeng, Xianjun Wang, Shenghua Mao, Jian Shi, Rongbao Gao, Tao Chen, Sumei Zou, Dan Li, Fiona Havers, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Carolyn M Greene, Yanping Zhang, Daxin Ni, Xiaoqing Liu, Qun Li, Yuelong Shu
BACKGROUND: The first human infections of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were identified in China in March 2013. Sentinel surveillance systems and contact tracing may not identify mild and asymptomatic human infections of influenza A(H7N9) virus. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H7N9) virus in three populations during the early stages of the epidemic. PATIENTS/METHODS: From March 2013 to May 2014, we collected sera from the general population, poultry workers, and contacts of confirmed infections in nine Chinese provinces reporting human A(H7N9) infections and, for contacts, second sera 2-3 weeks later...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754611/estimation-of-influenza-attributable-medically-attended-acute-respiratory-illness-by-influenza-type-subtype-and-age-germany-2001-02-2014-15
#15
Matthias An der Heiden, Udo Buchholz
BACKGROUND: The total burden of influenza in primary care is difficult to assess. The case definition of medically attended "acute respiratory infection" (MAARI) in the German physician sentinel is sensitive; however, it requires modelling techniques to derive estimates of disease attributable to influenza. We aimed to examine the impact of type/subtype and age. METHODS: Data on MAARI and virological results of respiratory samples (virological sentinel) were available from 2001/02 until 2014/15...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718314/the-assessment-of-data-sources-for-influenza-virologic-surveillance-in-new-york-state
#16
Kay L Escuyer, Christine L Waters, Donna L Gowie, Angie M Maxted, Gregory M Farrell, Meghan E Fuschino, Kirsten St George
BACKGROUND: Following the 2013 USA release of the Influenza Virologic Surveillance Right Size Roadmap, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) embarked on an evaluation of data sources for influenza virologic surveillance. OBJECTIVE: To assess NYS data sources, additional to data generated by the state public health laboratory (PHL), which could enhance influenza surveillance at the state and national level. METHODS: Potential sources of laboratory test data for influenza were analyzed for quantity and quality...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650482/epidemiology-of-influenza-b-in-australia-2001-2014-influenza-seasons
#17
Aye M Moa, David J Muscatello, Robin M Turner, Chandini R MacIntyre
BACKGROUND: Influenza B is characterised by two antigenic lineages: B/Victoria and B/Yamagata. These lineages circulate together with influenza A during influenza seasons, with varying incidence from year to year and by geographic region. OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology of influenza B relative to influenza A in Australia. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed influenza notifications between 2001 and 2014 in Australia were obtained from the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611835/down-syndrome-as-risk-factor-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-hospitalization-a-prospective-multicenter-epidemiological-study
#18
Manuel Sánchez-Luna, Constancio Medrano, Julián Lirio
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood, particularly in premature infants, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To compare the hospitalization rates due to RSV infection and severity of disease between infants with and without Down syndrome (DS) born at term and without other associated risk factors for severe RSV infection. PATIENTS/METHODS: In a prospective multicentre epidemiological study, 93 infants were included in the DS cohort and 68 matched by sex and data of birth (±1 week) and were followed up to 1 year of age and during a complete RSV season...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603154/influenza-b-virus-outbreak-at-a-religious-residential-school-for-boys-in-northern-bangladesh-2011
#19
Farhana Haque, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Nusrat Homaira, Emily Suzane Gurley, Md Jahangir Hossain, S M Murshid Hasan, Sukanta Chowdhury, Shamim Sarkar, Abdul Khaleque Md Dawlat Khan, Mustafizur Rahman, Mahmudur Rahman, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: National media reported a febrile illness among dormitory residents of a boys' religious school. We investigated the outbreak to identify cause. METHODS: Individuals with fever (>100°F) and cough or sore throat between 1 and 13 August 2011 were influenza-like-illness (ILI) case-patients. We collected histories and specimens from hospitalized case-patients and visited campus to explore environmental context. RESULTS: All 28 case-patients were dormitory residents including 27 hospitalizations...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465959/clinical-characteristics-and-factors-associated-with-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-and-influenza-among-children-in-jingzhou-china
#20
Yang Huai, Xuhua Guan, Shali Liu, Timothy M Uyeki, Hui Jiang, John Klena, Jigui Huang, Maoyi Chen, Youxing Peng, Hui Yang, Jun Luo, Jiandong Zheng, Zhibin Peng, Xixiang Huo, Lin Xiao, Hui Chen, Yuzhi Zhang, Xuesen Xing, Luzhao Feng, Dale J Hu, Hongjie Yu, Faxian Zhan, Jay K Varma
BACKGROUND: Influenza is an important cause of respiratory illness in children, but data are limited on hospitalized children with laboratory-confirmed influenza in China. METHODS: We conducted active surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; fever and at least one sign or symptom of acute respiratory illness) among hospitalized pediatric patients in Jingzhou, Hubei Province, from April 2010 to April 2012. Data were collected from enrolled SARI patients on demographics, underlying health conditions, clinical course of illness, and outcomes...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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