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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

Malinee Chittaganpitch, Sunthareeya Waicharoen, Thitipong Yingyong, Prabda Praphasiri, Somchai Sangkitporn, Sonja J Olsen, Kim A Lindblade
BACKGROUND: Information on the burden, characteristics and seasonality of non-influenza respiratory viruses is limited in tropical countries. OBJECTIVES: Describe the epidemiology of selected non-influenza respiratory viruses in Thailand between June 2010 and May 2014 using a sentinel surveillance platform established for influenza. METHODS: Patients with influenza-like illness (ILI; history of fever or documented temperature >38°C, cough, not requiring hospitalization) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; history of fever or documented temperature >38°C, cough, onset <10 days, requiring hospitalization) were enrolled from 10 sites...
March 8, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
F Scott Dahlgren, David K Shay, Hector S Izurieta, Richard A Forshee, Michael Wernecke, Yoganand Chillarige, Yun Lu, Jeffrey A Kelman, Carrie Reed
BACKGROUND: Over 34 million residents of the United States aged 65 years old and older are also Medicare prescription drug beneficiaries. Medical claims records for this age group potentially provide a wealth of data for better understanding influenza epidemiology. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate data on oseltamivir dispensing extracted from medical claims records as an indicator of influenza activity in the United States for the 2010-11 through 2014-15 influenza seasons...
March 5, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Almudena Laris González, Mónica Villa Guillén, Briseida López Martínez, Ana Estela Gamiño Arroyo, Sarbelio Moreno Espinosa, Rodolfo Jiménez Juárez, José Luis Sánchez Huerta, Daniela de la Rosa Zamboni
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare personnel (HP) are frequently exposed to influenza and can be a source of transmission to patients and other workers, resulting in high-cost outbreaks for healthcare institutions. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the presentation of HP with influenza-like illness (ILI) and the differences between individuals with influenza confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and those with a negative test. The secondary objective was to evaluate the duration of symptomatology and work absenteeism as well as the vaccination rate of HP at a paediatric referral hospital...
March 5, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Timothy J Savage, Jane Kuypers, Helen Y Chu, Miranda C Bradford, Anne Marie Buccat, Xuan Qin, Eileen J Klein, Keith R Jerome, Janet A Englund, Alpana Waghmare
BACKGROUND: Severe respiratory disease associated with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been reported in hospitalized pediatric patients. Virologic and clinical characteristics of EV-D68 infections exclusively in patients presenting to a hospital Emergency Department (ED) or urgent care have not been well defined. METHODS: Mid-nasal swabs from pediatric patients with respiratory symptoms presenting to the ED or urgent care were evaluated using a commercial multiplex PCR platform...
March 2, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Donatella Panatto, Alessio Signori, Piero Luigi Lai, Roberto Gasparini, Daniela Amicizia
AIM: Influenza has many age-dependent characteristics. A previous systematic review of randomized controlled trials showed that the detection rate of influenza B was higher in children than in non-elderly adults. However, no comprehensive reviews have targeted the elderly, who carry the main burden of disease. We aimed to quantify the relative detection rates of virus types A and B among the elderly, to identify factors affecting these proportions and to compare type distribution among seniors and younger age-classes...
March 2, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Han Sol Lee, Ji Yun Noh, Joon Young Song, Hee Jin Cheong, Won Suk Choi, Hye Won Jeong, Seong-Heon Wie, Woo Joo Kim
Influenza A viruses are classified under the Orthomyxoviridae family, and consist of several subtypes, based on their hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) composition. In some cases, reassortment of the 8 viral RNA segments may occur if different influenza viruses infect the same host, thereby generating new viral strains (antigenic shift). Mutations in the genes of influenza A viruses are enhanced by the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes; in particular, substitutions in the HA protein alter the viral antigenic epitopes sufficiently to avoid the host immune response (antigenic drift)...
February 28, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Rebekah J Stewart, Sovann Ly, Borann Sar, Vanra Ieng, Seng Heng, Kheng Sim, Chiedza Machingaidze, Katherine Roguski, Erica Dueger, Ann Moen, Reiko Tsuyuoka, A Danielle Iuliano
BACKGROUND: Understanding the burden of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) is important for setting national influenza surveillance and vaccine priorities. Estimating influenza-associated SARI rates requires hospital-based surveillance data and a population-based denominator, which can be challenging to determine. OBJECTIVES: We present an application of the World Health Organization's recently developed manual (WHO Manual) including hospital admission survey (HAS) methods for estimating the burden of influenza-associated SARI, with lessons learned to help others calculate similar estimates...
February 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Melissa A Rolfes, Ivo M Foppa, Shikha Garg, Brendan Flannery, Lynnette Brammer, James A Singleton, Erin Burns, Daniel Jernigan, Sonja J Olsen, Joseph Bresee, Carrie Reed
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza disease burden are broadly useful for public health, helping national and local authorities monitor epidemiologic trends, plan and allocate resources, and promote influenza vaccination. Historically, estimates of the burden of seasonal influenza in the United States, focused mainly on influenza-related mortality and hospitalization, were generated every few years. Since the 2010-2011 influenza season, annual US influenza burden estimates have been generated and expanded to include estimates of influenza-related outpatient medical visits and symptomatic illness in the community...
February 14, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Viviana Sotomayor, Rodrigo A Fasce, Natalia Vergara, Felipe De la Fuente, Sergio Loayza, Rakhee Palekar
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a vaccine preventable disease that causes important morbidity and mortality worldwide. Estimating the burden of influenza disease is difficult. However, there are some methods based in surveillance data and laboratory testing that can be used for this purpose. OBJECTIVES: Estimating the burden of serious illness from influenza by means of hospitalization and death records during the period between 2012 and 2014, and using information from Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) surveillance...
February 14, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Wenqing Zhang, John Wood
Among all pathogens of public health concern, influenza virus is unique and somewhat notorious for its ability to constantly evolve and to rapidly spread; its potential for catastrophic impact and its ubiquitous presence in wild and domestic animals. The only way to address such a serious challenge is by timely and effective global collaboration. One such collaboration began 65 years ago: the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN), just 4 years after the WHO constitution had came into force [1]. This article is protected by copyright...
February 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Catherine L King, Maria Y K Chow, Kerrie E Wiley, Julie Leask
BACKGROUND: Effective public health messaging is essential in both the planning phase and duration of a pandemic. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to gain an understanding of parental information seeking, trusted sources and needs in relation to pandemic influenza A 2009 (pH1N1) to inform future policy planning and resource development. PATIENTS/METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study; parents from 16 childcare centres in Sydney, Australia, were surveyed between 16 November and 9 December 2009 and interviews were conducted with participants from six childcare centres between June 2009 and May 2011...
February 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Hadia Hussain, Allison McGeer, Shelly McNeil, Kevin Katz, Mark Loeb, Andrew Simor, Jeff Powis, Joanne Langley, Matthew Muller, Brenda Coleman
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine coverage rates among health care workers (HCWs) in acute care facilities in Canada remain below national targets. OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with influenza vaccine uptake among HCWs. METHODS: This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study included HCWs aged 18-69 years, working ≥ 20 hours/week in a Canadian acute care hospital. Questionnaires were administered to participants in the fall of the season of participation (2011/12-2013/14) which captured demographic/household characteristics, medical histories, occupational, behavioral and risk factors for influenza...
February 11, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Pauline Terebuh, Akini Adija, Lindsay Edwards, Thomas Rowe, Suzanne Jenkins, Jennifer Kleene, Keiji Fukuda, Jacqueline M Katz, Carolyn B Bridges
BACKGROUND: In March 2002, an outbreak of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N2) was detected among commercial poultry operations in Virginia. METHODS: We performed a serosurvey of 80 government workers involved in efforts to control the outbreak. RESULTS: One study participant who assisted with disposal of infected birds tested positive for neutralizing antibodies to influenza A(H7N2) by microneutralization assay and H7-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA...
February 11, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Saverio Caini, Clotilde El-Guerche Séblain, Meral A Ciblak, John Paget
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge regarding the epidemiology of influenza in Middle East and North Africa. OBJECTIVES: We described the patterns of influenza circulation and the timing of seasonal epidemics in countries of Middle East and North Africa. METHODS: We used virological surveillance data for 2010-2016 from the WHO-FluNet database. In each country, we calculated the median proportion of cases that were caused by each virus type and subtype; determined the timing and amplitude of the primary and secondary peaks; and used linear regression models to test for spatial trends in the timing of epidemics...
February 5, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Noelle M Cocoros, Anne Gulbech Ording, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Victor W Henderson, Henrik Toft Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Substantial but inconclusive evidence suggests in utero exposure to influenza infection may be linked with Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether individuals exposed in utero to the 1918 influenza pandemic are at increased risk of dementia. PATIENTS/METHODS: In this cohort study, surveillance data were used to identify months when influenza activity was at its peak during the pandemic. Using birth dates, exposed and unexposed individuals were identified based on whether they were in utero during ≥1 of the peak months...
January 22, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Svenn-Erik Mamelund
BACKGROUND: Whether morbidity from the 1918-19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was "socially neutral". OBJECTIVES: To study the associations between Influenza like illness (ILI) and socioeconomic status (SES), gender and wave during the 1918-19 influenza pandemic. METHODS: Availability of incidence data on the 1918-19 pandemic is scarce, in particular for waves other than the "fall wave" October-December 1918...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
John M Wood, Jerry P Weir
The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world-wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high level of reproducibility and its applicability to the different types of influenza vaccine being produced at that time. Clinical evidence indicated the relevance of SRID as a potency assay. Unique features of the SRID assay are likely responsible for its longevity even as newer technologies for vaccine characterization have been developed and refined...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Monique Bouvier, Wei-Ju Chen, John C Arnold, Mary P Fairchok, Patrick J Danaher, Tahaniyat Lalani, Leslie Malone, Deepika Mor, Michelande Ridoré, Timothy H Burgess, Eugene V Millar
Human coronavirus (HCoV) is a known cause of influenza-like illness (ILI). In a multi-site, observational, longitudinal study of ILI among otherwise healthy adolescents and adults, 12% of subjects were PCR-positive for HCoV. The distribution of species was as follows: HCoV-OC43 (34%), HCoV-229E (28%), HCoV-NL63 (22%), and HCoV-HKU1 (16%). We did not observe species-specific differences in the clinical characteristics of HCoV infection, with the exception of HCoV-HKU1, for which the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms trended higher on the fourth day of illness...
January 19, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Armel M Sanou, Sampoko Carine M Wandaogo, Armel Poda, Laure Tamini, Anselme E Kyere, Tani Sagna, Macaire S Ouedraogo, Maude Pauly, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller, Zekiba Tarnagda, Chantal J Snoeck
BACKGROUND: The importance of influenza viruses in respiratory infections in sub-Saharan Africa has been historically overlooked, including in Burkina Faso. This study therefore aimed at evaluating the prevalence and seasonal occurrence of influenza viruses in children under five years old, at risk of influenza-related complications, presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). The study also aimed at identifying the periods with increased influenza transmission for vaccination recommendations in Burkina Faso...
January 19, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Kate E Russell, Ashley Fowlkes, Melissa S Stockwell, Celibell Y Vargas, Lisa Saiman, Elaine L Larson, Philip LaRussa, Steve Di Lonardo, Michael Popowich, Kirsten St George, Andrea Steffens, Carrie Reed
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States is primarily conducted through medical settings despite a significant burden of non-medically attended ILI. OBJECTIVES: To assess consistency between surveillance for respiratory viruses in outpatient and community settings using ILI surveillance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) and the Mobile Surveillance for Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) and Influenza-Like Illness in the Community (MoSAIC) Study...
January 19, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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