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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

Rameela Chandrasekhar, Chantel Sloan, Edward Mitchel, Danielle Ndi, Nisha Alden, Ann Thomas, Nancy M Bennett, Pam D Kirley, Mary Hill, Evan J Anderson, Ruth Lynfield, Kimberly Yousey-Hindes, Marisa Bargsten, Shelley M Zansky, Krista Lung, Monica Schroeder, Maya Monroe, Seth Eckel, Tiffanie M Markus, Charisse N Cummings, Shikha Garg, William Schaffner, Mary Lou Lindegren
BACKGROUND: Influenza hospitalizations result in substantial morbidity and mortality each year. Little is known about the association between influenza hospitalization and census tract-based socioeconomic determinants beyond the effect of individual factors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if census tract-based determinants such as poverty and household crowding would contribute significantly to the risk of influenza hospitalization above and beyond individual level determinants...
September 5, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Suchitra Rao, Victoria Fischman, Angela Moss, Sonja I Ziniel, Michelle R Torok, Heidi McNeely, Daniel Hyman, Karen M Wilson, Amanda F Dempsey
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization provides an ideal opportunity for immunization, but few studies have explored provider and parental attitudes towards pediatric inpatient vaccination against influenza. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine provider and caregiver attitudes and explore potential barriers to inpatient influenza vaccination. METHODS: We developed and distributed two surveys to parents/caregivers as well as providers of general pediatric inpatients at Children's Hospital Colorado between October 2014 and March 2015 assessing attitudes towards influenza and inpatient influenza vaccination...
September 5, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Chandini Raina MacIntyre, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Bayzidur Rahman, Yang Peng, Yi Zhang, Holly Seale, Xiaoli Wang, Quanyi Wang
OBJECTIVE: We aim to examine the efficacy of medical masks and respirators in protecting against respiratory infections using pooled data from two homogenous randomised control clinical trials (RCTs). METHODS: The data collected on 3591 subjects in two similar RCTs conducted in Beijing China, which examined the same infection outcomes, were pooled. Four interventions were compared; a) continuous N95 respirator use, b) targeted N95 respirator use, c) medical mask use and, d) control arm...
August 11, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
E Pickett, J Brown, M C I van Schalkwyk, A Hunter, K Edwards, S Edwards, N Marshall, L Swaden, F Burns, M Johnson, M Lipman
Influenza is an important cause of morbidity in HIV positive adults, who may be more susceptible and more likely to develop severe disease.(1,2) Annual influenza immunisation is recommended for all HIV positive adults in the UK, supported by British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines,(1) with evidence for reasonably good uptake (3). HIV services do not receive specific funding to provide immunisation; and the National Flu Immunisation Programme offers this instead via Primary Care and pharmacies.(4) Whether this meets the needs of people living with HIV has not been evaluated...
July 30, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Xin Li, Houbin Ju, Jian Liu, Dequan Yang, Xinyong Qi, Xianchao Yang, Yafeng Qiu, Jie Zheng, Feifei Ge, Jinping Zhou
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza viruses represent a growing threat of an influenza pandemic. The co-circulation of multiple H9N2 genotypes over the past decade has been replaced by one predominant genotype-G57 genotype, which displays a changed antigenicity and improved adaptability in chickens. Effective H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus vaccines for poultry are urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we constructed H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus-like particle (VLP) and evaluated its protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens to lay the foundation for developing an effective vaccine against influenza viruses...
July 28, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Xueting Qiu, Venkata R Duvvuri, Jonathan B Gubbay, Richard J Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Justin Bahl
BACKGROUND: Multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses continue to co-circulate. This has complicated pandemic preparedness and confounded effective vaccine candidate selection and evaluation. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to predict and map the diversity of CD8+ T-cell epitopes among H5 hemagglutinin (HA) gene lineages to estimate CD8+ T-cell immunity in humans induced by vaccine candidates. METHODS: A dataset consisting of 1125 H5 HA sequences collected between 1996 and 2017 from avian and humans was assembled for phylogenetic and lineage-specific epitope analyses...
July 17, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Kazuya Nakamura, Masayuki Shirakura, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Noriko Kishida, David F Burke, Derek J Smith, Tomoko Kuwahara, Emi Takashita, Ikuyo Takayama, Mina Nakauchi, Mandeep Chadha, Varsha Potdar, Arvind Bhushan, Bishnu Prasad Upadhyay, Geeta Shakya, Takato Odagiri, Tsutomu Kageyama, Shinji Watanabe
We characterized influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates from large-scale outbreaks that occurred in Nepal and India in early 2015. Although no specific viral features, which may have caused the outbreaks, were identified, an S84N substitution in hemagglutinin was frequently observed. Chronological phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Nepalese and Indian viruses possessing the S84N substitution constitute potential ancestors of the novel genetic subclade 6B.1 virus that spread globally in the following (2015/16) influenza season...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Subhashini A Sellers, Robert S Hagan, Frederick G Hayden, William A Fischer
Severe influenza infection represents a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Although influenza is primarily considered a viral infection that results in pathology limited to the respiratory system, clinical reports suggest that influenza infection is frequently associated with a number of clinical syndromes that involve organ systems outside the respiratory tract. A comprehensive MEDLINE literature review of articles pertaining to extra-pulmonary complications of influenza infection, using organ-specific search terms, yielded 218 articles including case reports, epidemiologic investigations, and autopsy studies that were reviewed to determine the clinical involvement of other organs...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Sonal Goyal, Kriengkrai Prasert, Prabda Praphasiri, Malinee Chittaganpitch, Sunthareeya Waicharoen, Darunee Ditsungnoen, Siriluk Jaichuang, Kim A Lindblade
BACKGROUND: Self-collection of nasal swabs could improve the timeliness of influenza virus detection in older adults. OBJECTIVES: Measure the acceptability, adequacy, timeliness, and validity of self-collected nasal swabs among adults >65 years in Thailand. METHODS: Our evaluation consisted of two parts: a one-month study among randomly selected, community-dwelling older adults to simulate community-based surveillance for acute respiratory infections (ARI); and a clinic study of older adults with ARI to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of self-collected nasal swabs for influenza virus infection compared with healthcare worker (HCW)-collected nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Elisabeth Dowling Root, Dwi Agustian, Cissy Kartasasmita, Timothy M Uyeki, Eric A F Simões
BACKGROUND: Indonesia has the world's highest reported mortality for human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. Indonesia is an agriculturally driven country where human-animal mixing is common and provides a unique environment for zoonotic influenza A virus transmission. OBJECTIVES: To identify potential demographic and ecological risk factors for human infection with seasonal influenza A viruses in rural Indonesia, a population-based study was conducted in Cileunyi and Soreang subdistricts near Bandung in western Java from 2008 to 2011...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Xu-Sheng Zhang, Richard Pebody, Andre Charlett, Daniela de Angelis, Paul Birrell, Hunseok Kang, Marc Baguelin, Yoon Hong Choi
BACKGROUND: Emerging respiratory infections represent a significant public health threat. Because of their novelty, there are limited measures available to control their early spread. Learning from past outbreaks is important for future preparation. The Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus (MERS-CoV ) 2015 outbreak in the Republic of Korea (ROK) provides one such opportunity. OBJECTIVES: We demonstrated through quantitative methodologies how to estimate MERS-CoV's transmissibility and identified the effective countermeasures that stopped its spread...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Kelly Kline, James L Hadler, Kimberly Yousey-Hindes, Linda Niccolai, Pam D Kirley, Lisa Miller, Evan J Anderson, Maya L Monroe, Susan R Bohm, Ruth Lynfield, Marisa Bargsten, Shelley M Zansky, Krista Lung, Ann R Thomas, Diane Brady, William Schaffner, Gregg Reed, Shikha Garg
INTRODUCTION: Previous FluSurv-NET studies found that adult females had a higher incidence of influenza-associated hospitalizations than males. To identify groups of women at higher risk than men, we analyzed data from 14 FluSurv-NET sites that conducted population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations among residents of 78 US counties. METHODS: We analyzed 6292 laboratory-confirmed, geocodable (96%) adult cases collected by FluSurv-NET during the 2010-12 influenza seasons...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Louise E Lansbury, Caroline S Brown, Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam
Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Sharifa Nasreen, Mustafizur Rahman, Kathy Hancock, Jacqueline M Katz, Doli Goswami, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Crystal Holiday, Stacie Jefferson, Alicia Branch, David Wang, Vic Veguilla, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Alicia M Fry, W Abdullah Brooks
BACKGROUND: We determined influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 antibody levels before and after the first wave of the pandemic in an urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS: We identified a cohort of households by stratified random sampling. We collected baseline serum specimens during July-August 2009, just prior to the initial wave of the 2009 pandemic in this community and a second specimen during November 2009, after the pandemic peak. Paired sera were tested for antibodies against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus using microneutralization assay and hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Bryan S Kaplan, Mia K Torchetti, Kelly M Lager, Richard J Webby, Amy L Vincent
BACKGROUND: In the fall of 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 clade was introduced into North America by migrating waterfowl from Asia where, through reassortment, novel HPAI H5N2 and H5N1 viruses emerged. OBJECTIVES: Assess the susceptibility of pigs to HPAI H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 clade from North America. METHODS: Pigs and trachea explants were inoculated with a representative panel of H5NX clade 2...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Wang Ma, Haodi Huang, Jian Chen, Ke Xu, Qigang Dai, Huiyan Yu, Fei Deng, Xian Qi, Shenjiao Wang, Jie Hong, Changjun Bao, Xiang Huo, Minghao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Four epidemic waves of human infection with H7N9 have been recorded in China up to 1 June 2016, including in Jiangsu Province. However, few studies have investigated the differences in patients' characteristics among the four epidemic waves, and the analyses of factors associated with fatal infection lacked statistical power in previous studies due to limited sample size. METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) patients in Jiangsu province were analysed...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Yiming Xu, Ling Liu
BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses (IAV) result in severe public health problems with worldwide each year. Overresponse of immune system to IAV infection leads to complications, and ultimately causing morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory ability. However, its molecular mechanism in immune responses remains unclear. METHODS: We detected the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB)-related protein expression in human macrophages or mice infected by IAV with or without curcumin treatment...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Elodie Munier-Marion, Thomas Bénet, Philippe Vanhems
AIM: To describe definitions of healthcare-associated influenza (HAI) in recent literature and in hospitals participating in a survey of Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Network (SRN) members. METHOD: A review with PubMed search was undertaken to retrieve articles published between 2008 and 2016, focusing on the subject headings "influenza, human" and "cross infection." Definitions of clinical influenza-like illness (ILI) and HAI were identified...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Dillon C Adam, Daniel Magee, Chau M Bui, Matthew Scotch, C Raina MacIntyre
The risk and benefits of gain-of-function studies on influenza A have been widely debated since 2012 when the methods to create two respiratory transmissible H5N1 mutant isolates were published. Opponents of gain-of-function studies argue the biosecurity risk is unacceptable, while proponents cite potential uses for pandemic surveillance, preparedness and mitigation. In this commentary, we provide an overview of the background and applications of gain-of-function research and argue that the anticipated benefits have yet to materialize while the significant risks remain...
July 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Lina Yi, LiRong Zou, Jing Lu, Min Kang, Yingchao Song, Juan Su, Xin Zhang, LiJun Liang, HanZhong Ni, Changwen Ke, Jie Wu
BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus type 55 is a re-emerging human respiratory pathogen that is associated with several respiratory infections outbreaks in military and school populations. In this study, we describe the first HAdV55-associated hospital outbreak documented in Guangdong, China. METHODS: Active surveillance was conducted in the involved neurosurgical inpatient department. All staff and patients in the involved neurosurgical department were surveyed for any symptoms of fever (≥38°C) and enlarged tonsils during the outbreak period...
July 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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