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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

Giedre Gefenaite, Adriana Pistol, Rodica Popescu, Odette Popovici, Daniel Ciurea, Christiaan Dolk, Mark Jit, Diane Gross
BACKGROUND: Influenza is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, but there is limited information on reliable disease burden estimates, especially from middle-income countries in the WHO European Region. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of medically attended influenza-associated influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalizations due to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) presenting to public health care facilities in Romania. PATIENTS/METHODS: Sentinel influenza surveillance data for ILI and SARI from 2011/12-2015/16, including virological data, was used to estimate influenza-associated ILI and SARI incidence/100000 and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)...
November 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
L Minodier, S Masse, L Capai, T Blanchon, P E Ceccaldi, S van der Werf, T Hanslik, N R Charrel, A Falchi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported detection of influenza RNA in stools of patients with seasonal influenza infection. While this detection may have a clinical significance, other factors may influence the stools positivity for influenza viruses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate demographical, clinical and microbiological factors which could favour the presence of influenza viral RNA in the stools of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection...
November 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Surachai Kotirum, Anthony T Newall, Philipp Lambach, Raymond C W Hutubessy
Influenza disease burden is recognized as one of the major public health problems globally. Much less is known about the economic burden of influenza especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A recent systematic review on the economic burden of influenza in LMICs suggests that information is scarce and/or incomplete and that there is a lack of standardized approaches for cost evaluations in LMICs. WHO commissioned and publicized a Manual for estimating the economic burden of seasonal influenza to support the standardization of estimates of the economic burden of seasonal influenza across countries...
November 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Jansen de Araujo, Maria Virgínia Petry, Thomas Fabrizio, David Walker, Tatiana Ometto, Luciano M Thomazelli, Angelo L Scherer, Patricia P Serafini, Isaac S Neto, Scott Krauss, Robert G Webster, Richard J Webby, Edison L Durigon
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge about the relation of avian influenza virus (AIV) to migratory birds in South America. Accordingly, we studied samples obtained over a 4-year period (2009-2012) from wild birds at a major wintering site in Southern Brazil. METHODS: We obtained 1212 oropharyngeal/cloacal samples from wild birds at Lagoa do Peixe National Park and screened them for influenza A virus by RT-PCR amplification of the matrix gene. Virus isolates were subjected to genomic sequencing and antigenic characterization...
November 15, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Lance Jennings, Qiu Sue Huang, Ian Barr, Ping-Ing Lee, Woo Joo Kim, Philippe Buchy, Melvin Sanicas, Bruce A Mungall, Jing Chen
AIM: Influenza control strategies focus on the use of trivalent influenza vaccines containing two influenza A virus subtypes and one of the two circulating influenza type B lineages (Yamagata or Victoria). Mismatches between the vaccine B lineage and the circulating lineage have been regularly documented in many countries, including those in the Asia-Pacific region. We conducted a literature review with the aim of understanding the relative circulation of influenza B viruses in Asia-Pacific countries...
November 11, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Carita Ng, Lingyun Ye, Stephen G Noorduyn, Margaret Hux, Edward Thommes, Ron Goeree, Ardith Ambrose, Melissa K Andrew, Todd Hatchette, Guy Boivin, William Bowie, May ElSherif, Karen Green, Jennie Johnstone, Kevin Katz, Jason Leblanc, Mark Loeb, Donna MacKinnon-Cameron, Anne McCarthy, Janet McElhaney, Allison McGeer, Andre Poirier, Jeff Powis, David Richardson, Rohita Sharma, Makeda Semret, Stephanie Smith, Daniel Smyth, Grant Stiver, Sylvie Trottier, Louis Valiquette, Duncan Webster, Shelly A McNeil
BACKGROUND: Consideration of cost determinants is crucial to inform delivery of public vaccination programs. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the average total cost of laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring hospitalization in Canadians prior to, during, and 30 days following discharge. To analyze effects of patient/disease characteristics, treatment, and regional differences in costs. METHODS: Study utilized previously recorded clinical characteristics, resource use, and outcomes of laboratory-confirmed influenza patients admitted to hospitals in the Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS), Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN), from 2010/11 - 2012/13...
November 10, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Esther Kissling, Marta Valenciano, Francisco Pozo, Ana-Maria Vilcu, Annicka Reuss, Caterina Rizzo, Amparo Larrauri, Judit Krisztina Horváth, Mia Brytting, Lisa Domegan, Monika Korczyńska, Adam Meijer, Ausenda Machado, Alina Ivanciuc, Vesna Višekruna Vučina, Sylvie van der Werf, Brunhilde Schweiger, Antonino Bella, Alin Gherasim, Annamária Ferenczi, Katherina Zakikhany, Joan O Donnell, Iwona Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Frederika Dijkstra, Raquel Guiomar, Mihaela Lazar, Sanja Kurečić Filipović, Kari Johansen, Alain Moren
BACKGROUND: During the 2015/16 influenza season in Europe, the co-circulating influenza viruses were A(H1N1)pdm09 and B/Victoria, which was antigenically distinct from the B/Yamagata component in the trivalent influenza vaccine. METHODS: We used the test negative design in a multicentre case-control study in twelve European countries to measure 2015/16 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza...
November 10, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Luciana Peniche Moreira, Aripuana Sakurada Aranha Watanabe, Clarice Neves Camargo, Thais Boim Melchior, Celso Granato, Nancy Bellei
RSV is recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract infections. Immunocompromised patients, health care workers (HCW) and children contacts are at increased risk of acquiring the infection. However, the impact of asymptomatic infection in transmission has not been well studied. This study evaluated the frequency and viral load (VL) of RSV in nasal swab samples of individuals with different risk factors for acquiring infection in a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We included 196 symptomatic children and their 192 asymptomatic caregivers, 70 symptomatic and 95 asymptomatic HCW, 43 samples from symptomatic HIV positive outpatients and 100 samples of asymptomatic HIV patients in the period of 2009 to 2013...
October 27, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Julia Guillebaud, Jean-Michel Héraud, Norosoa Harline Razanajatovo, Alicia A Livinski, Wladimir J Alonso
BACKGROUND: Influenza immunization still poses a critical challenge globally and specifically for tropical regions due to their complex influenza circulation pattern. Tropical regions should select the WHO's Northern or Southern hemisphere recommended vaccine composition based on local surveillance. Analyses of influenza immunization effectiveness have neglected to account for the proportion of circulating viruses prevented from causing infection each year. We investigate this question for Madagascar, where influenza vaccines are not widely available...
October 25, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Calvin Lo, Dominik Mertz, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: High quality reporting of outbreak characteristics is fundamental to understand the behavior of various strains of influenza virus and the impact of outbreak management strategies. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the quality of outbreak reporting. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic analysis and assessment for reporting quality of influenza outbreaks based on a modified version of the STROBE statement, and to examine characteristics associated with reporting quality...
October 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Andres H Gutiérrez, Vicki Rapp-Gabrielson, Frances E Terry, Crystal Loving, Leonard Moise, William D Martin, Anne S De Groot
BACKGROUND: Predicting vaccine efficacy against emerging pathogen strains is a significant problem in human and animal vaccine design. T cell epitope cross-conservation may play an important role in cross-strain vaccine efficacy. While influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers are widely used to predict protective efficacy of one IAV vaccine against new strains, no similar correlate of protection has been identified for T cell epitopes. OBJECTIVE: We developed a computational method (EpiCC) that facilitates pairwise comparison of protein sequences based on an immunological property - T cell epitope content - rather than sequence identity, and evaluated its ability to classify swine IAV strain relatedness to estimate cross-protective potential of a vaccine strain for circulating viruses...
October 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Yang Pan, Yi Zhang, Shi Weixian, Xiaomin Peng, Shujuan Cui, Daitao Zhang, Guilan Lu, Yimeng Liu, Shuangsheng Wu, Peng Yang, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) threatens human health and even survival, causing a huge number of hospitalized patients every year. However, as one of the most common respiratory viruses circulated worldwide, the epidemiological and phylogenetic characteristics of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) in these cases were not well known. METHODS: A molecular epidemiological study against HPIVs infection in SARIs was performed from Sep. 2014 to Aug...
October 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Shuangsheng Wu, Zaihua Wei, Carolyn M Greene, Peng Yang, Jianting Su, Ying Song, A Danielle Iuliano, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Data about influenza mortality burden in northern China are limited. This study estimated mortality burden in Beijing associated with seasonal influenza from 2007-2013 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. METHODS: We estimated influenza-associated excess mortality by fitting a negative binomial model using weekly mortality data as the outcome of interest with the percent of influenza positive samples by type/subtype as predictor variables. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2013, an average of 2,375 (CI 1,002-8,688) deaths was attributed to influenza per season, accounting for 3% of all deaths...
October 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Cynthia Lucero-Obusan, Patricia L Schirmer, Aaron Wendelboe, Gina Oda, Mark Holodniy
We describe influenza activity in the US Veterans Affairs (VA) population for the 2010-2011 through 2015-2016 seasons and compare with national CDC FluView data. VA confirmed influenza cases ranged from 1,005-11,506 per season; triage calls from 6,090-10,346; outpatient visits from 3,849-13,406; antiviral prescriptions from 3,650-32,826; hospitalizations from 546-4,673; and deaths in hospitalized patients from 17-139. Peak activity was generally the same as observed nationally by the CDC. For the seasons analyzed, correlation between VA and CDC %ILI visits (r=0...
October 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Anthony T Newall, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Philipp Lambach, Raymond Hutubessy
Influenza is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality across the globe, with a large share of the total disease burden occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There have been relatively few economic evaluations assessing the value of seasonal influenza vaccination in LMICs. The purpose of this guide is to outline the key theoretical concepts and best practice in methodologies, and to provide guidance on the economic evaluation of influenza vaccination in LMICs. It outlines many of the influenza vaccine-specific challenges and should help to provide a framework for future evaluations in the area to build upon...
October 11, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ellen B Fragaszy, Charlotte Warren-Gash, Peter J White, Maria Zambon, W John Edmunds, Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Estimates of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work/school absences for influenza are typically based on medically-attended cases or those meeting influenza-like-illness (ILI) case definitions, and thus biased towards severe disease. Although community influenza cases are more common, estimates of their effects on HRQoL and absences are limited. OBJECTIVES: To measure Quality-Adjusted Life Days and Years (QALDs and QALYs) lost and work/school absences among community cases of acute respiratory infections (ARI), ILI and influenza A and B and to estimate community burden of QALY loss and absences from influenza...
October 9, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Benedikt Hogan, Luise Ammer, Marlow Zimmermann, Tabea Binger, Ralf Krumkamp, Nimako Sarpong, Theresa Rettig, Denise Dekker, Benno Kreuels, Lisa Reigl, Kennedy G Boahen, Charity Wiafe, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May, Daniel Eibach
BACKGROUND: Influenza surveillance data from Africa indicate a substantial disease burden with high mortality. However, local influenza data from district hospitals with limited laboratory facilities are still scarce. OBJECTIVES: To identify the frequency and seasonal distribution of influenza among hospitalized febrile children in a rural hospital in Ghana and to describe differential diagnoses to other severe febrile infections. METHODS: Between January 2014 and April 2015, all children with a temperature of ≥38°C admitted to a district hospital in Ghana were screened for influenza A and B by RT-PCR and differentiated to subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2)...
October 9, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Kawsar R Talaat, Neal A Halsey, Amber B Cox, Christian L Coles, Anna P Durbin, Amritha Ramakrishnan, Jay H Bream
BACKGROUND: The timing of host cytokine responses to influenza vaccination is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We examined serum cytokine kinetics following inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) to better understand potential relationships between markers of inflammation and TIV-related side effects. PATIENTS/METHODS: Twenty healthy adult subjects received TIV. Cytokines/chemokines were assessed in intervals from 3 hours - 14 days. Antibody titers were measured at baseline and day 14...
October 9, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Faye Janice Lim, Christopher Charles Blyth, Parveen Fathima, Nicholas de Klerk, Hannah Catherine Moore
BACKGROUND: Reliance on hospital discharge diagnosis codes alone will likely underestimate the burden of respiratory viruses. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory viruses more accurately, we used record linkage to examine data relating to all children hospitalized in Western Australia between 2000 and 2012. PATIENTS/METHODS: We extracted hospital, infectious disease notification and laboratory data of a cohort of children born in Western Australia between 1996 and 2012...
October 9, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Young-In Kim, Rajat Pareek, Ryan Murphy, Lisa Harrison, Eric Farrell, Robert Cook, John DeVincenzo
BACKGROUND: RSV viral load and disease severity associate, and the timing of viral load and disease run in parallel. An antiviral must be broadly effective against the natural spectrum of RSV genotypes and must attain concentrations capable of inhibiting viral replication within the human respiratory tract. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated a novel RSV fusion inhibitor, MDT-637, and compared it with ribavirin for therapeutic effect in vitro to identify relative therapeutic doses achievable in humans...
October 9, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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