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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

Hermann Landry Munshili Njifon, Chavely Gwladys Monamele, Cyprien Kengne Nde, Marie-Astrid Vernet, Gake Bouba, Serges Tchatchouang, Mohamadou Njankouo Ripa, Raphaël Tapondjou, Louis Deweerdt, Wilfred Mbacham, Richard Njouom
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the role of meteorological parameters in the seasonality of influenza viruses in tropical and subtropical regions, most importantly temperature, humidity and rainfall. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the influence of meteorological parameters in the seasonality of influenza viruses in Northern Cameroon, a region characterized by high temperatures. METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed in Garoua Cameroon from January 2014 to December 2016...
September 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Florette K Treurnicht, Amelia Buys, Stefano Tempia, Mpho Seleka, Adam L Cohen, Sibongile Walaza, Allison J Glass, Inéz Rossouw, Johanna McAnerney, Lucille Blumberg, Cheryl Cohen, Marietjie Venter
BACKGROUND: Data on the susceptibility of influenza viruses from South Africa to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is scarce, and no extensive analysis was done. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine oseltamivir and zanamivir susceptibility of influenza A and B virus neuraminidases (NAs), 2007-2013, South Africa. PATIENTS/METHODS: We enrolled participants through national influenza-like illness surveillance, 2007-2013. Influenza diagnosis was by virus isolation and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
September 14, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Marcus J Bolton, Eugenio J Abente, Divya Venkatesh, Jered A Stratton, Michael Zeller, Tavis K Anderson, Nicola S Lewis, Amy L Vincent
BACKGROUND: Six amino acid positions (145, 155, 156, 158, 159 and 189, referred to as the antigenic motif; H3 numbering) in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA1 domain) play an important role in defining the antigenic phenotype of swine Clade IV (C-IV) H3N2 IAV, containing an H3 from a late 1990s human-to-swine introduction. We hypothesized that antigenicity of a swine C-IV H3 virus could be inferred based upon the antigenic motif if it matched a previously characterized antigen with the same motif...
September 14, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Max Hansen, Michael Brockmann, Verena Schildgen, Oliver Schildgen
BACKGROUND: To date four human bocaviruses (HBoV) have been described. The most closely related viruses (bovine and canine parvoviruses) are associated with miscarriage in their hosts. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency of HBoV-DNA in miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: Tissue samples from 172 in which miscarriage occurred were included and tested with a published qPCR protocol. Positive PCRs were mutually confirmed by sequencing. RESULTS: 43 patients (25%) were positive for HBoV-DNA...
September 9, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Maureen Chase, Michael N Cocchi, Xiaowen Liu, Lars W Andersen, Mathias Holmberg, Michael W Donnino
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this investigation was to determine if acute influenza infection is associated with depletion of CoQ10 compared to healthy controls and to determine any associations between CoQ10 levels and illness severity and inflammatory biomarkers. Patients and Methods We analyzed serum CoQ10 concentrations of patients with acute influenza enrolled in a randomized clinical trial prior to study drug administration. Patients were enrolled at a single urban tertiary care center over 3 influenza seasons (December 27, 2013 to March31, 2016)...
August 29, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Joelinotahina H Rabarison, Stefano Tempia, Aina Harimanana, Julia Guillebaud, Norosoa H Razanajatovo, Maherisoa Ratsitorahina, Jean-Michel Heraud
BACKGROUND: Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are responsible for substantial global morbidity and mortality in young children and elderly individuals. Estimates of the burden of influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalization are limited in Africa. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza- and RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) among patients of any age at one hospital and a retrospective review of SARI hospitalizations in five hospitals situated in Antananarivo during 2011-2016...
August 28, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ana A Ortiz-Hernández, Katherine K Nishimura, Daniel E Noyola, Sarbelio Moreno-Espinosa, Ana Gamiño, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Rafael Valdéz Vázquez, Martín Magaña Aquino, Alejandra Ramirez-Venegas, Raydel Valdés Salgado, Diana Andrade-Platas, Juliana Estevez-Jimenéz, Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios, M Lourdes Guerrero, John Beigel, Mary C Smolskis, Sally Hunsberger, Laura Freimanis-Hence, Beatriz Llamosas-Gallardo
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children, and are often caused by viruses. However, the relative severity of illness associated with different viruses is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of hospitalization from different viruses in children presenting with an influenza like illness (ILI). METHODS: Data from children 5 years old or younger participating in an ILI natural history study from April 2010 through March 2014 was analyzed...
August 23, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Paul Robert Cleary, Jonathan Crofts, Frances Parry-Ford, Meera Chand, Nick Phin
BACKGROUND: Aqueous zanamivir solution, an investigational product, was provided by the manufacturer on compassionate grounds for parenteral administration to severe H1N1pdm09 influenza cases during the 2009 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics and outcomes of United Kingdom patients receiving parenteral zanamivir therapy. METHODS: Collaborators at multiple hospital sites gathered retrospective data on patients receiving aqueous zanamivir therapy between Q4 2009 and Q1 2011...
August 23, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Binay Thapa, Katherine Roguski, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Karen Siener, Philip Gould, Thinley Jamtsho, Sonam Wangchuk
BACKGROUND: Influenza burden estimates help provide evidence to support influenza prevention and control programs. In this study, we estimated influenza-associated respiratory hospitalization rates in Bhutan, a country considering influenza vaccine introduction. METHODS: Using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction laboratory results from severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance, we estimated the proportion of respiratory hospitalizations attributable to influenza each month among patients aged <5, 5-49, and ≥50 years in six Bhutanese districts for 2015 and 2016...
August 23, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Gabriela A Willis, David B Preen, Peter C Richmond, Peter Jacoby, Paul V Effler, David W Smith, Christine Robins, Meredith L Borland, Avram Levy, Anthony D Keil, Christopher C Blyth
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major cause of respiratory illness in young children. Assessing the impact of infection on children and the community is required to guide immunisation policies. OBJECTIVES: To describe the impact of laboratory-proven influenza in young children and to compare its impact with that of other respiratory viruses on the child, their family and the health care system. METHODS: Preschool children presenting for care or admission to a tertiary paediatric hospital during the 2008-2014 influenza seasons were tested for respiratory virus by polymerase chain reaction and culture...
August 23, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Mingyuan Han, Charu Rajput, Joanna L Hinde, Qian Wu, Jing Lei, Tomoko Ishikawa, J Kelley Bentley, Marc B Hershenson
BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) causes the common cold and asthma exacerbations. The RV genome is a 7.3 kb single-strand positive-sense RNA. OBJECTIVE: Using minor group RV1A as a backbone, we sought to design and generate a recombinant RV1A accommodating fluorescent marker expression, thereby allowing tracking of viral infection. METHOD: Recombinant RV1A infectious cDNA clones harboring the coding sequence of green fluorescent protein (GFP), Renilla luciferase, or iLOV (for light, oxygen, or voltage sensing) were engineered and constructed...
August 17, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Pélagie Babakazo, Léopold Lubula, Wally Disasuani, Léonie Kitoko Manya, Edith Nkwembe, Naomi Mitongo, Hugo Kavunga-Membo, Jean-Claude Changachanga, Saleh Muhemedi, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Joelle Kabamba-Tshilobo, Stefano Tempia
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated outpatient consultations and hospitalizations are severely limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. METHODS: We conducted active prospective surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) at 5 healthcare facilities situated in Kinshasa Province during 2013-2015. We tested upper respiratory tract samples for influenza viruses using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay...
August 17, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Emilia Prospero, Sara Galmozzi, Valentina Paris, Gessica Felici, Pamela Barbadoro, Antonella D'Alleva, Gemma Zocco, Andrea Ciavattini
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are at increased risk of influenza complications. Influenza vaccine provides them a substantial protection. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants associated with non-adherence to influenza vaccine recommendations in pregnant women in Italy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study has been carried out among pregnant women attending their follow-up visit in some mother and child services in a Region of Italy from October 2016 to January 2017...
August 12, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Juliette Paireau, Camille Pelat, Céline Caserio-Schönemann, Isabelle Pontais, Yann Le Strat, Daniel Lévy-Bruhl, Simon Cauchemez
BACKGROUND: Maps of influenza activity are important tools to monitor influenza epidemics and inform policymakers. In France, the availability of a high-quality data set from the Oscour® surveillance network, covering 92% of hospital emergency department (ED) visits, offers new opportunities for disease mapping. Traditional geostatistical mapping methods such as Kriging ignore underlying population sizes, are not suited to non-Gaussian data and do not account for uncertainty in parameter estimates...
July 28, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Noelle M Cocoros, Genna Panucci, Nicole Haug, Carmen Maher, Marsha Reichman, Sengwee Toh
Electronic data collected from routine health care can be used for public health surveillance. To examine the Sentinel System, a distributed data network of health plans, as a source for influenza surveillance, we compared trends in outpatient prescription dispensings of influenza antivirals in Sentinel to trends in CDC's ILINet and NREVSS systems over five seasons. There were 2 102 885 dispensed prescriptions of oseltamivir capsules, 494 188 of oseltamivir powder, and 7955 of zanamivir. Across all seasons, the magnitude and timing of peaks in drug utilization were highly comparable to those in ILINet and NREVSS...
July 27, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Philip Maykowski, Marie Smithgall, Philip Zachariah, Matthew Oberhardt, Celibell Vargas, Carrie Reed, Ryan T Demmer, Melissa S Stockwell, Lisa Saiman
BACKGROUND: Widespread availability of rapid diagnostic testing for respiratory viruses allows more in-depth studies of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess seasonality of HPIV types 1-4, clinical outcomes by HPIV type, and risk factors for illness severity. PATIENTS/METHODS: This retrospective study was performed from January 2013 to December 2015 in children and adults with HPIV, detected by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, participating in a community surveillance study of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in New York City and patients admitted to a tertiary care center in the same neighborhood...
July 26, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Elsa Baumeister, Jazmin Duque, Teresa Varela, Rakhee Palekar, Paula Couto, Vilma Savy, Carlos Giovacchini, Amber K Haynes, Brian Rha, Carmen S Arriola, Susan I Gerber, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner
INTRODUCTION: Within-country differences in the timing of RSV and influenza epidemics have not been assessed in Argentina, the eighth largest country in the world by area. We compared seasonality for RSV and influenza both nationally and in each of the five regions to inform Argentina's prevention and treatment guidelines. METHOD: The Argentine National Laboratories and Health Institutes Administration collected respiratory specimens from clinical practices, outbreak investigations, and respiratory virus surveillance in 2007-2016; these were tested using immunofluorescence or RT-PCR techniques...
July 26, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ha Minh Lam, Amy Wesolowski, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Tran Dang Nguyen, Nguyen Thi Duy Nhat, Stacy Todd, Dao Nguyen Vinh, Nguyen Ha Thao Vy, Tran Thi Nhu Thao, Nguyen Thi Le Thanh, Phan Tri Tin, Ngo Ngoc Quang Minh, Juliet E Bryant, Caroline O Buckee, Tran Van Ngoc, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Guy E Thwaites, Jeremy Farrar, Dong Thi Hoai Tam, Ha Vinh, Maciej F Boni
BACKGROUND: In temperate and subtropical climates, respiratory diseases exhibit seasonal peaks in winter. In the tropics, with no winter, peak timings are irregular. METHODS: To obtain a detailed picture of influenza-like illness (ILI) patterns in the tropics, we established an mHealth study in community clinics in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). During 2009-2015, clinics reported daily case numbers via SMS, with a subset performing molecular diagnostics for influenza virus...
July 25, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Haruka Morita, Sarah Kramer, Alexandra Heaney, Harold Gil, Jeffrey Shaman
BACKGROUND: Advance warning of influenza incidence levels from skillful forecasts could help public health officials and healthcare providers implement more timely preparedness and intervention measures to combat outbreaks. Compared to influenza predictions generated at regional and national levels, those generated at finer scales could offer greater value in determining locally appropriate measures; however, to date, the various influenza surveillance data that are collected by state and county departments of health have not been well utilized in influenza prediction...
July 20, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Jennifer P King, Huong Q McLean, Edward A Belongia
Self-reported influenza vaccination is generally accurate for the current season, but the accuracy of self-report for vaccination in prior seasons is largely unknown. This study evaluated the accuracy of self-report for current and prior season influenza vaccination among patients with medically attended acute respiratory illness enrolled in a study of influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2014-15 influenza season. It demonstrates there is a greater potential for exposure misclassification when prior season vaccinations are ascertained by self-report...
July 20, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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