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Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses

R M Reeves, P Hardelid, R Gilbert, F Warburton, J Ellis, R G Pebody
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospital admission in young children. With several RSV vaccines candidates undergoing clinical trials, recent estimates of RSV burden are required to provide a baseline for vaccine impact studies. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of RSV-associated hospital admissions in children <5 years old in England over a 5-year period from 2007 using ecological time series modelling of national hospital administrative data...
January 6, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Shamim Sarkar, Salah Uddin Khan, Andrea Mikolon, Mohammad Ziaur Rahman, Jaynal Abedin, Nord Zeidner, Katherine Sturm-Ramirez, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, nomadic duck flocks are groups of domestic ducks reared for egg production that are moved to access feeding sites beyond their owners' village boundaries and are housed overnight in portable enclosures in scavenging areas. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of influenza A virus RNA and H5-specific antibodies in nomadic ducks and to characterize nomadic duck raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh. METHODS: We tested duck egg yolk specimens by competitive ELISA to detect antibodies against avian influenza A (H5) and environmental fecal samples by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect influenza A virus RNA and H5 subtype...
December 14, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Wilke Hendriks, Hendriek Boshuizen, Arnold Dekkers, Mirjam Knol, Ge A Donker, Arie van der Ende, Hester Korthals Altes
BACKGROUND: While the burden of community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is still considerable, there is little insight in the factors contributing to disease. Previous research on the lagged relationship between respiratory viruses and pneumococcal disease incidence is inconclusive, and studies correcting for temporal autocorrelation are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal relation between influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and IPD, correcting for temporal autocorrelation...
December 10, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Anina Pless, David Shaw, Stuart McLennan, Bernice Elger
BACKGROUND: Despite studies demonstrating that the annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers reduces morbidity and mortality among vulnerable patients, vaccination rates remain very low, particularly in nursing staff. Educational programs have failed to improve rates, which has led to a diverse range of enforced approaches being advocated and implemented. OBJECTIVES: To examine the attitudes of non-vaccinated nursing staff towards various enforced measures aimed at increasing rates of influenza vaccination...
December 10, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Huong Q McLean, Siri H Peterson, Jennifer P King, Jennifer K Meece, Edward A Belongia
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are common in school-aged children, but few studies have assessed school absenteeism due to specific respiratory viruses. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate school absenteeism among children with medically attended ARI due to common viruses. METHODS: We analyzed follow-up surveys from children seeking care for acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the influenza vaccine effectiveness study at Marshfield Clinic during the 2012-2013 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons...
November 25, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Gerardo Chowell, Lone Simonsen, Rodrigo Fuentes, Jose Flores, Mark A Miller, Cécile Viboud
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city and investigated risk factors for severe mortality impact across regions. RESULTS: Chile exhibited two waves of excess mortality in winter 1957 and 1959 with a cumulative excess mortality rate of 12 per 10,000, and a ~10-fold mortality difference across provinces...
November 24, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ana S Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana L Ramírez, María L Müller, David Orellana, Silvia M Sosa, Pablo Ola, Jorge Paniagua, Lucía Ortíz, Jorge Hernandez, Celia Cordón-Rosales, Daniel R Perez
BACKGROUND: Guatemala is the country with the largest swine production in Central America; however, evidence of influenza A virus (IAV) in pigs has not been clearly delineated. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we analyzed the presence and spatial distribution of IAV in commercial and backyard swine populations. METHODS: Samples from two nation-wide surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 were tested using virological (rRT-PCR and virus isolation) and serological (ELISA and Hemagglutination Inhibition) assays to detect IAV...
November 12, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Johanna M McAnerney, Sibongile Walaza, Stefano Tempia, Lucille Blumberg, Florette K Treurnicht, Shabir A Madhi, Ziyaad Valley-Omar, Cheryl Cohen
Trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2015 season in South Africa was assessed using a test-negative case control study design. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was the dominant circulating strain. Overall influenza vaccine coverage was 3.2% (29/899). The vaccine effectiveness estimate, against any influenza virus infection, adjusted for age, underlying conditions and timing within season was 46.2% (95% CI: -23.5 to 76.5), and 53.6% (95% CI: -62.6 to 80.3) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.
November 8, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Samir Refaey, Marwa Mohamed Amin, Katherine Roguski, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Timothy M Uyeki, Manal Labib, Amr Kandeel
BACKGROUND: Approximately 80 000 Egyptians participate in Hajj pilgrimage annually. The purpose of this study was to estimate influenza virus and MERS-CoV prevalence among Egyptian pilgrims returning from Hajj. STUDY: A cross-sectional survey among 3 364 returning Egyptian pilgrims from 2012 to 2015 was conducted. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from all participants. Sputum specimens were collected from participants with respiratory symptoms and productive cough at the time of their interview...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Amalya Mangiri, A Danielle Iuliano, Yunita Wahyuningrum, Catharina Y Praptiningsih, Kathryn E Lafond, Aaron D Storms, Gina Samaan, Iwan Ariawan, Nugroho Soeharno, Jennifer M Kreslake, J Douglas Storey, Timothy M Uyeki
Indonesia has reported highest number of fatal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) virus infection worldwide since 2005. There are limited data available on seasonal and pandemic influenza in Indonesia. During 2012, we conducted a survey of clinicians in two districts in western Java, Indonesia, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of clinical diagnosis, testing, and treatment of patients with seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, or HPAI H5N1 virus infections. Overall, a very low percentage of physician participants reported ever diagnosing hospitalized patients with seasonal, pandemic, or HPAI H5N1 influenza...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Bernadette Glatthaar-Saalmüller, Kerstin H Mair, Armin Saalmüller
AIM: Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has been used for more than 115 years in medicine. Research exists to show that aspirin has antiviral effects in vitro, for example, by blocking influenza virus propagation via NF-κB inhibition when used at high concentrations and short-term incubation steps. The aim of this study was to confirm the antiviral activity of aspirin against influenza virus and further elucidate the activity of aspirin against other respiratory viruses. METHODS: Tests to detect antiviral activity were performed using plaque-reduction assays...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Rachel Murphy, Ellen B Fragaszy, Andrew C Hayward, Charlotte Warren-Gash
BACKGROUND: Following the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, obesity was shown to be associated with severe influenza outcomes. It remains unclear whether obesity was a risk factor for milder influenza-like illness (ILI). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether obesity was associated with an increased risk of self-reported ILI during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic using Health Survey for England (HSE) 2010 cross-sectional data. METHODS: This study used HSE data collected from English households between January and December 2010...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Emily Rowlinson, Erica Dueger, Adel Mansour, Nahed Azzazy, Hoda Mansour, Lisa Peters, Summer Rosenstock, Sarah Hamid, Mayar M Said, Mohamed Geneidy, Monier Abd Allah, Amr Kandeel
INTRODUCTION: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) are responsible for nearly two million childhood deaths worldwide. A limited number of studies have been published on the epidemiology of viral respiratory pathogens in Egypt. METHODS: A total of 6113 hospitalized patients >1 month of age with suspected ARI were enrolled between June 23, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Naso- and oropharyngeal specimens were collected and tested for influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, and parainfluenza viruses 1-3...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Leah J Martin, Cindy Im, Huiru Dong, Bonita E Lee, James Talbot, David P Meurer, Shamir N Mukhi, Steven J Drews, Yutaka Yasui
BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) visit volumes can be especially high during the Christmas-New Year holidays, a period occurring during the influenza season in Canada. METHODS: Using daily data, we examined the relationship between ED visits for the chief complaint "cough" (for Edmonton, Alberta residents) and laboratory detections for influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (for Edmonton and surrounding areas), lagged 0-5 days ahead, for non-pandemic years (2004-2008 and 2010-2014) using multivariable linear regression adjusting for temporal variables...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ana Rita Gonçalves, Anne Iten, Patricia Suter-Boquete, Manuel Schibler, Laurent Kaiser, Samuel Cordey
BACKGROUND: The Swiss Sentinel system for influenza virus surveillance reports influenza-like illness in the community through a network of primary care practitioners, but the epidemiologic, demographic, and virological characterization may differ from that observed in hospitalized patients with influenza. OBJECTIVE: To compare demographic and virological data from hospital influenza cases with Sentinel system data during the 2014-2015 season. METHODS: We included 2623 in- and outpatients with a screening request for influenza A/B in a university teaching hospital in Geneva, Switzerland, and 933 participants from the Swiss Sentinel surveillance system and compared the demographic and virological data of the two populations, including the respective distribution of influenza subtypes, and conducted a phylogenetic comparison at the HA1 level of influenza viruses recovered in community and hospital cases...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ana E Gamiño-Arroyo, Sarbelio Moreno-Espinosa, Beatriz Llamosas-Gallardo, Ana A Ortiz-Hernández, M Lourdes Guerrero, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Juan F Galán-Herrera, Francisco J Prado-Galbarro, John H Beigel, Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios, Daniel E Noyola
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading etiological agent of acute respiratory tract infections and hospitalizations in children. However, little information is available regarding RSV infections in Latin American countries, particularly among adult patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of RSV infection and to analyze the factors associated with severe infections in children and adults in Mexico. METHODS: Patients ≥1 month old, who presented with an influenza-like illness (ILI) to six hospitals in Mexico, were eligible for participation in the study...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Udayan Joseph, Yvonne C F Su, Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Gavin J D Smith
Since 2013, there have been several alarming influenza-related events; the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses into North America, the detection of H10N8 and H5N6 zoonotic infections, the ongoing H7N9 infections in China and the continued zoonosis of H5N1 viruses in parts of Asia and the Middle East. The risk of a new influenza pandemic increases with the repeated interspecies transmission events that facilitate reassortment between animal influenza strains; thus, it is of utmost importance to understand the factors involved that promote or become a barrier to cross-species transmission of Influenza A viruses (IAVs)...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Peter W Horby, Karen L Laurie, Benjamin J Cowling, Othmar G Engelhardt, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Jose L Sanchez, Jacqueline M Katz, Timothy M Uyeki, John Wood, Maria D Van Kerkhove
BACKGROUND: Population-based serologic studies are a vital tool for understanding the epidemiology of influenza and other respiratory viruses, including the early assessment of the transmissibility and severity of the 2009 influenza pandemic, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. However, interpretation of the results of serologic studies has been hampered by the diversity of approaches and the lack of standardized methods and reporting. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the CONSISE ROSES-I statement was to improve the quality and transparency of reporting of influenza seroepidemiologic studies and facilitate the assessment of the validity and generalizability of published results...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Xiyan Zhang, Jun Zhang, Liling Chen, Luzhao Feng, Hongjie Yu, Genming Zhao, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: The disease burden of influenza among children in China has not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influenza-associated excess hospitalization rate and compare the hospitalization length and costs between pneumonia and influenza (P&I) and other community-acquired diseases (CAD) in Suzhou, China. METHODS: We retrospectively collected hospital discharge data on pediatric patients' discharge diagnosis, hospital costs, and length of hospital stay in Suzhou...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Benjamin J Cowling, Mike Y W Kwan, Joshua S C Wong, Shuo Feng, Chi-Wai Leung, Eunice L Y Chan, Kwok-Hung Chan, Tak-Keung Ng, Wing-Kin To, Malik J S Peiris, Susan S Chiu
From 1 September 2015 through 31 January 2016, we enrolled 2068 children 6 months to 17 years of age admitted to hospital with a febrile acute respiratory infection in our test-negative study. Information on receipt of 2015-16 northern hemisphere inactivated influenza vaccination was elicited from parents or legal guardians. Using conditional logistic regression adjusting for age and matching on calendar time, we estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization with influenza A or B to be 79...
January 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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