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Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience

T Schwarz, J Nowicki, R Tuz, P M Bartlewski
Azaperone treatment can control aggression and decrease stress due to weaning, re-grouping and hierarchical fighting of gilts and sows. However, the effects of this butyrophenone neuroleptic and sedative administered at weaning on pig reproductive function are poorly characterized. In this year-long study, a total of 619 cross-bred sows (Polish Large White×Polish Landrace) kept on a commercial farm received an i.m. injection of azaperone (Stresnil®; 2 mg/kg BW) just before weaning and were artificially inseminated during the ensuing estrus with 3×109 spermatozoa per dose of an inseminate; 1180 sows served as untreated controls...
July 19, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
X Belaunzaran, P Lavín, A R Mantecón, J K G Kramer, N Aldai
This study was undertaken to provide a thorough analysis of the neutral lipid (NL) and polar lipid (PL) fractions of horse meat that included the content and distribution of acyl and alkenyl moieties in foals under different rearing conditions. Two groups of crossbred horses were studied; the first group was selected from suckling foals produced under grazing conditions and slaughtered at 4 months of age (n=8), and the second group was selected from concentrate-finished foals and slaughtered at 12 months of age (n=7)...
July 19, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
V E Cabrera
The objective of this review paper is to describe the development and application of a suite of more than 40 computerized dairy farm decision support tools contained at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) Dairy Management website These data-driven decision support tools are aimed to help dairy farmers improve their decision-making, environmental stewardship and economic performance. Dairy farm systems are highly dynamic in which changing market conditions and prices, evolving policies and environmental restrictions together with every time more variable climate conditions determine performance...
July 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
I Fernández-Fígares, M Lachica, M L Rojas-Cano, A González-Casado
In nutrition studies, para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) is a marker frequently used to measure blood flow in pigs, which is essential for estimating portal-drained viscera (PDV) flux of nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PAH analytical method by means of qualimetric statistical procedures to estimate the matrix effect and the accuracy and limits of quantitation of the method. Net PDV flux of nutrients was determined in five multi-catheterized pigs using water, plasma or commercial serum as standard matrix...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
G Stocco, C Cipolat-Gotet, V Gasparotto, A Cecchinato, G Bittante
Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY)...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
I Kafantaris, D Stagos, B Kotsampasi, A Hatzis, A Kypriotakis, K Gerasopoulos, S Makri, N Goutzourelas, C Mitsagga, I Giavasis, K Petrotos, S Kokkas, P Goulas, V Christodoulou, D Kouretas
In the present study, grape pomace (GP) was used as feed additive in the diet of weaned piglets in order to develop innovative feedstuffs and to investigate their potential beneficial effects on welfare, productivity and meat quality. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the experimental feeds, 24 piglets of 20 days old were assigned to two experimental groups receiving standard or experimental diet for 30 days. Blood and tissues collections were performed at four different time-points, 2, 20, 35 and 50 days post birth...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
D P Berry, N McHugh, S Randles, E Wall, K McDermott, M Sargolzaei, A C O'Brien
Accurate genomic analyses are predicated on access to a large quantity of accurately genotyped and phenotyped animals. Because the cost of genotyping is often less than the cost of phenotyping, interest is increasing in generating genotypes for phenotyped animals. In some instances this may imply the requirement to genotype older animals with greater phenotypic information content. Biological material for these older informative animals may, however, no longer exist. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability to impute 11 129 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of non-genotyped animals (in this instance sires) from the genotypes of their progeny with or without including the genotypes of the progenys' dams (i...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
S Y Landau, L Dvash, Y Yehuda, H Muklada, G Peleg, Z Henkin, H Voet, E D Ungar
In the context of determining the sustainable carrying capacity of dry-Mediterranean herbaceous rangelands, we examined the effect of animal density on cattle nutrition, which is fundamental to animal performance and welfare. The effects on dietary components of low (0.56 cows/ha; L) and high (1.11 cows/ha; H) animal densities were monitored for three consecutive years in grazing beef cows. In the dry season (summer and early autumn), cows had free access to N-rich poultry litter (PL) given as a dietary supplement...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
T Martin-Gimenez, C N Aguirre-Pascasio, I de Blas
Morphometry has proven to be a useful tool, both for the clinician and horse owners, for evaluating the body condition in equids due to its objectivity, easiness and capacity for detection of important metabolic disturbances. However, limited information is available on the use of morphometric ratios to characterize regional and overall adiposity and much less about their application in different genders, ages and horses with different levels of obesity. The objectives were to evaluate body and neck absolute measurements and ratios; factors affecting them such as the influence of gender, age, appearance of the neck crest and overall body condition and; relationships among these measurements...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
C Dadousis, C Cipolat-Gotet, G Bittante, A Cecchinato
We studied the genetics of cheese-related latent variables (factors; Fs) for application in dairy cattle breeding. In total, 26 traits, recorded in 1264 Brown Swiss cows, were analyzed through multivariate factor analysis (MFA). Traits analyzed were descriptors of milk quality and yield (including protein fractions) and measures of coagulation, curd firmness (CF), cheese yields (%CY) and nutrient recoveries in the curd (REC). A total of 10 Fs (mutual orthogonal with a varimax rotation) were obtained. To assess the practical use of the Fs into breeding, we inferred their genetic parameters using single and bivariate animal models under a Bayesian framework...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
D E Goszczynski, C M Corbi-Botto, H M Durand, A Rogberg-Muñoz, S Munilla, P Peral-Garcia, R J C Cantet, G Giovambattista
The Brangus breed was developed to combine the superior characteristics of both of its founder breeds, Angus and Brahman. It combines the high adaptability to tropical and subtropical environments, disease resistance, and overall hardiness of Zebu cattle with the reproductive potential and carcass quality of Angus. It is known that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC, also known as bovine leucocyte antigen: BoLA), located on chromosome 23, encodes several genes involved in the adaptive immune response and may be responsible for adaptation to harsh environments...
July 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
C-A Duthie, S M Troy, J J Hyslop, D W Ross, R Roehe, J A Rooke
Adding nitrate to or increasing the concentration of lipid in the diet are established strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions, but their effectiveness when used in combination has been largely unexplored. This study investigated the effect of dietary nitrate and increased lipid included alone or together on CH4 emissions and performance traits of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a 2×4 factorial design comprising two breeds (cross-bred Aberdeen Angus (AAx) and cross-bred Limousin (LIMx) steers) and four dietary treatments (each based on 550 g forage : 450 g concentrate/kg dry matter (DM))...
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
S Lürzel, K Barth, I Windschnurer, A Futschik, S Waiblinger
Cattle's relationship with humans is a crucial factor regarding their welfare. In dairy cows, interactions with humans occur regularly during milking. We tested the effect of gentle interactions (stroking, talking in a gentle voice) during milking on avoidance distance and milk composition, yield and flow characteristics as well as behaviour during milking. Over the course of 15 days, an experimenter interacted gently with 14 German Holstein cows for 2 min during morning and evening milkings, totalling 60 min; the experimenter stayed at a similar distance to 12 control cows of the same breed for the same amount of time...
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
T G Ramsay, M J Stoll, L A Blomberg, T J Caperna
Fetuin A (also known as α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein) is a protein primarily expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. Previous studies have suggested that plasma concentrations of fetuin A are elevated with impaired growth rate in swine. The present study was designed to examine the relationship of porcine fetuin A with growth rate in the pig and to also elucidate the regulation of fetuin A expression by examining the hormonal and cytokine regulation of fetuin A mRNA abundance in hepatocytes prepared from suckling piglets...
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
C Clouard, L Stokvis, J E Bolhuis, H M J van Hees
We investigated the effect of offering supplementary dietary fibres to suckling piglets on their behaviour and performance before weaning. From 5 to 22 days of age, suckling piglets were offered a high-fibre diet (HF; 5% cellulose; n=5 litters), or a control low-fibre diet (n=5 litters). Piglets were housed with the sows in individual farrowing pens, and had access to maternal milk until weaning, at 23 days of age. Behaviours of six focal piglets per pen were scored at 6, 16 and 21 days of age. All piglets were individually weighed at 5, 15 and 20 days of age and feed intake was measured daily at the pen level...
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
R R Mota, F F Silva, P S Lopes, R J Tempelman, B P Sollero, I Aguilar, F F Cardoso
Despite single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) availability and frequent cost reduction has allowed genome-wide association studies even in complex traits as tick resistance, the use of this information source in SNP by environment interaction context is unknown for many economically important traits in cattle. We aimed at identifying putative genomic regions explaining differences in tick resistance in Hereford and Braford cattle under SNP by environment point of view as well as to identify candidate genes derived from outliers/significant markers...
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
I Köhler-Rollefson, D Steane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
R K Taylor, C T LeMaster, K S Mangrum, R E Ricks, N M Long
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of early and mid-gestation nutrient restriction on maternal metabolites and foetal growth. Primiparous Angus cows were synchronized and inseminated with semen from one sire. Dietary treatments were: control to gain 1 kg/week (CON) or 0.55% maintenance energy and CP requirements (nutrient restricted; NR). A subset of dams was fed NR (n=8) or CON (n=8) from days 30 to 110 of gestation. Another group was fed CON (n=8), days 30 to 190; NR (n=7), days 30 to 110 followed by CON days 110 to 190; or CON, (n=7) days 30 to 110 followed by NR days 110 to 190...
July 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
L T Nesengani, K A Nephawe, J Sebei, D Norris, A Maiwashe
A study was conducted to estimate the genetic relationship between weaning weight and milk yield in Nguni cattle. Milk yield data (n=125) were collected from 116 Nguni cows from Mara Research Station located in Limpopo Province and Loskop South Farm located in Mpumalanga Province using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. Weaning weight data (n=19 065) were obtained from stud Nguni cattle from 146 herds distributed throughout South Africa. Estimates of (co)variance components for milk yield and weaning weight were calculated using PEST and VCE softwares...
July 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
J M Lorenzo, C M Guedes, R Agregán, M V Sarriés, D Franco, S R Silva
This work represents the first contribution for the application of the video image analysis (VIA) technology in predicting lean meat and fat composition in the equine species. Images of left sides of the carcass (n=42) were captured from the dorsal, lateral and medial views using a high-resolution digital camera. A total of 41 measurements (angles, lengths, widths and areas) were obtained by VIA. The variation of percentage of lean meat obtained from the forequarter (FQ) and hindquarter (HQ) carcass ranged between 5...
July 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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