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Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience

A Mottet, F Teillard, P Boettcher, G De' Besi, B Besbes
Herbivores are found in a variety of ecosystems all over the world. Permanent pastures and meadows cover about 25% of global land. We currently count one domesticated herbivore for two people in the world and the number is growing. Production systems and products are highly diverse. This high diversity is the result of thousands of years of natural selection and human-controlled breeding, as well as migration and trade. Because of the high diversity of domestic herbivore genetic resources, herders have been able to live in regions where no alternative for income generation exists...
September 14, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
G Goudet, L Nadal-Desbarats, C Douet, J Savoie, C Staub, E Venturi, S Ferchaud, S Boulot, A Prunier
Estrus synchronization is important for optimal management of gilt reproduction in pig farms. Hormonal treatments, such as synthetic progestogens, are used on a routine basis, but there is a growing demand for non-hormonal alternative breeding tools. Before puberty, gilts exhibit a 'waiting period,' related to the ovarian development and gonadotrophin secretions, during which external stimulations, such as boar exposure, could induce and synchronize first ovulation. Practical non-invasive tools for identification of this period in farms are lacking...
September 5, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
F J W C Schaafstra, D A van Doorn, J T Schonewille, R van den Boom, M Verschuur, M C Blok, W H Hendriks
In equines, Cr2O3 is widely accepted as an indigestible marker, but there are health concerns regarding the carcinogenic properties of Cr2O3. Recently, TiO2 has been suggested to be an alternative digestibility marker in equines. However, a comparison between Cr2O3 and TiO2 has not been made in equines. Six Welsh pony geldings (initial BW: 254±3 kg; 7 years of age) fed chopped alfalfa hay were used to evaluate the use of TiO2 (Ti) and Cr2O3 (Cr) as markers for calculating apparent digestibility and to investigate the effect of frequency of marker administration on the measurement of digestibility values...
September 3, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
N Titze, J Krieg, H Steingass, M Rodehutscord
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the variability in in situ CP degradation characteristics of 15 batches lupin grains from nine genotypes in a standardised approach. This study also investigated whether differences in CP degradation can be described by protein fractionation using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) and also whether thermal processing of lupins has an effect on CP degradation in the rumen and analysed protein fractions. The rising political and consumer demand for milk products from dairy production systems based on domestic protein sources and the wide range of lupin types and varieties that can be chosen as protein feed in dairy nutrition requires research to determine the variability in CP degradation characteristics in the rumen...
August 29, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
R Davoli, G Catillo, A Serra, M Zappaterra, P Zambonelli, D Meo Zilio, R Steri, M Mele, L Buttazzoni, V Russo
Subcutaneous fat thickness and fatty acid composition (FAC) play an important role on seasoning loss and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned hams. Dry-cured ham industry prefers meats with low contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) because these negatively affect fat firmness and ham quality, whereas consumers require higher contents in those fatty acids (FA) for their positive effect on human health. A population of 950 Italian Large White pigs from the Italian National Sib Test Selection Programme was investigated with the aim to estimate heritabilities, genetic and phenotypic correlations of backfat FAC, Semimembranosus muscle intramuscular fat (IMF) content and other carcass traits...
August 28, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
M L García, A Blasco, M E García, M J Argente
A divergent selection experiment on litter size variability (high and low lines) was performed in rabbits over seven generations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlated responses to selection in body condition and fat reserves mobilisation. Litter size variability was estimated as phenotypic variance of litter size within female after correcting for the year-season and the parity-lactation status effects. A total of 226 females were used in this study, of which 158 females were used to measure body condition and energy mobilisation...
August 28, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
W H Chang, A J Zheng, Z M Chen, S Zhang, H Y Cai, G H Liu
β-Casomorphin is an opioid-like bioactive peptide derived from β-casein of milk that plays a crucial role in modulating animal's feed intake, growth, nutrient utilization and immunity. However, the effect of β-casomorphin on lipid metabolism in chickens and its mechanism remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of β-casomorphin on fat deposition in broiler chickens and explore its mechanism of action. A total of 120 21-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers (747.94±8.85 g) was chosen and randomly divided into four groups with six replicates of five birds per replicate...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
P G Toral, F J Monahan, G Hervás, P Frutos, A P Moloney
Growth in demand for foods with potentially beneficial effects on consumer health has motivated increased interest in developing strategies for improving the nutritional quality of ruminant-derived products. Manipulation of the rumen environment offers the opportunity to modify the lipid composition of milk and meat by changing the availability of fatty acids (FA) for mammary and intramuscular lipid uptake. Dietary supplementation with marine lipids, plant secondary compounds and direct-fed microbials has shown promising results...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
H Lapierre, M Larsen, D Sauvant, M E Van Amburgh, G Van Duinkerken
Improving milk nitrogen efficiency through a reduction of CP supply without detrimental effect on productivity requires usage of feeding systems estimating both the flows of digestible protein, the exported true proteins and from these predict milk protein yield (MPY). Five feeding systems were compared in their ability to predict MPY v. observed MPY in two studies where either protein supply or protein and energy supply were changed. The five feedings systems were: Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (v6...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
H J van Lingen, J G Fadel, A Bannink, J Dijkstra, J M Tricarico, D Pacheco, D P Casper, E Kebreab
On-farm nutrition and management interventions to reduce enteric CH4 (eCH4) emission, the most abundant greenhouse gas from cattle, may also affect volatile solids and N excretion. The objective was to jointly quantify eCH4 emissions, digestible volatile solids (dVS) excretion and N excretion from dairy cattle, based on dietary variables and animal characteristics, and to evaluate relationships between these emissions and excreta. Univariate and Bayesian multivariate mixed-effects models fitted to 520 individual North American dairy cow records indicated dry matter (DM) intake and dietary ADF and CP to be the main predictors for production of eCH4 emissions and dVS and N excreta (g/day)...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
M M Ladeira, J P Schoonmaker, K C Swanson, S K Duckett, M P Gionbelli, L M Rodrigues, P D Teixeira
The present review will present the recent published results and discuss the main effects of nutrients, mainly fatty acids, on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In this sense, the review focuses in two phases: prenatal life and finishing phase, showing how nutrients can modulate gene expression affecting marbling and fatty acid profile in meat from ruminants. Adiposity in ruminants starts to be affected by nutrients during prenatal life when maternal nutrition affects the differentiation and proliferation of adipose cells enhancing the marbling potential...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
B Dumont, J C J Groot, M Tichit
Livestock farming systems provide multiple benefits to humans: protein-rich diets that contribute to food security, employment and rural economies, capital stock and draught power in many developing countries and cultural landscape all around the world. Despite these positive contributions to society, livestock is also the centre of many controversies as regards to its environmental impacts, animal welfare and health outcomes related to excessive meat consumption. Here, we review the potentials of sustainable intensification (SI) and agroecology (AE) in the design of sustainable ruminant farming systems...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
V Sejian, R Bhatta, J B Gaughan, F R Dunshea, N Lacetera
Livestock plays an important role in the global economy. Climate change effects are not only limited to crop production, but also affect livestock production, for example reduced milk yields and milk quality, reduced meat production and reduced fertility. Therefore, livestock-based food security is threatened in many parts of the world. Furthermore, multiple stressors are a common phenomenon in many environments, and are likely to increase due to climate change. Among these stresses, heat stress appears to be the major factor which negatively influences livestock production...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
I Mizrahi, E Jami
The rumen microbiome has the important task of supplying ruminants with most of their dietary requirements and is responsible for up to 90% of their metabolic needs. This tremendous feat is possible due to the large diversity of microorganisms in the rumen. The rumen is considered one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet in terms of species diversity and functional richness. From the moment the feed is ingested, it enters a vast cascade in which specialized microorganisms degrade specific components of the feed turning them into molecules, which in turn are utilized as anabolic precursors and energy sources for the animal...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
J C Plaizier, M Danesh Mesgaran, H Derakhshani, H Golder, E Khafipour, J L Kleen, I Lean, J Loor, G Penner, Q Zebeli
Due to their high energy requirements, high-yielding dairy cows receive high-grain diets. This commonly jeopardises their gastrointestinal health by causing subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and hindgut acidosis. These disorders can disrupt nutrient utilisations, impair the functionalities of gastrointestinal microbiota, and reduce the absorptive and barrier capacities of gastrointestinal epithelia. They can also trigger inflammatory responses. The symptoms of SARA are not only due to a depressed rumen pH. Hence, the diagnosis of this disorder based solely on reticulo-rumen pH values is inaccurate...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
A A Ayantunde, A J Duncan, M T van Wijk, P Thorne
The role of herbivorous livestock in supporting the sustainability of the farming systems in which they are found is complex and sometimes conflicting. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the integration of livestock into farming systems is important for sustainable agriculture as the recycling of nutrients for crop production through returns of animal manure is a central element of the dominant mixed crop-livestock systems. Sustainable agriculture has been widely advocated as the main practical pathway to address the challenge of meeting the food needs of the rapidly growing population in SSA while safeguarding the needs of future generations...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
P Chavatte-Palmer, M A Velazquez, H Jammes, V Duranthon
Epidemiological studies in humans and animal models (including ruminants and horses) have highlighted the critical role of nutrition on developmental programming. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that the nutritional environment during the periconceptional period and foetal development can altered the postnatal performance of the resultant offspring. This nutritional programming can be exerted by maternal and paternal lineages and can affect offspring beyond the F1 generation. Alterations in epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed as the causative link behind the programming trajectories observed in the offspring...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
G Cantalapiedra-Hijar, M Abo-Ismail, G E Carstens, L L Guan, R Hegarty, D A Kenny, M McGee, G Plastow, A Relling, I Ortigues-Marty
Animal's feed efficiency in growing cattle (i.e. the animal ability to reach a market or adult BW with the least amount of feed intake), is a key factor in the beef cattle industry. Feeding systems have made huge progress to understand dietary factors influencing the average animal feed efficiency. However, there exists a considerable amount of animal-to-animal variation around the average feed efficiency observed in beef cattle reared in similar conditions, which is still far from being understood. This review aims to identify biological determinants and molecular pathways involved in the between-animal variation in feed efficiency with particular reference to growing beef cattle phenotyped for residual feed intake (RFI)...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
V Niderkorn, C Martin, M Bernard, A Le Morvan, Y Rochette, R Baumont
There is a lot of evidence that chicory could be a highly palatable and nutritious source of forage for ruminants, well adapted to climate change and dry conditions in summer, thanks to its resistance to drought and high water content. This study aimed to describe the effect of incorporating chicory to ryegrass or to a ryegrass-white clover mixture on feeding behaviour, digestive parameters, nitrogen (N) balance and methane (CH4) emissions in sheep. In total, three swards of ryegrass, white clover and chicory were established and managed in a manner ensuring the forage use at a constant vegetative stage throughout the experiment...
August 23, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
M P Serrano, A Maggiolino, J M Lorenzo, P De Palo, A García, T Landete-Castillejos, P Gambín, J Cappelli, R Domínguez, F J Pérez-Barbería, L Gallego
Supplementation with copper (Cu) improves deer antler characteristics, but it could modify meat quality and increase its Cu content to levels potentially harmful for humans. Here, we studied the effects of Cu bolus supplementation by means on quality and composition of sternocephalicus (ST) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles (n=13 for each one) from yearling male red deer fed with a balanced diet. Each intraruminal bolus, containing 3.4 g of Cu, was administered orally in the treatment group to compare with the control group...
August 23, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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