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Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931268/an-epidemiological-analysis-of-equine-welfare-data-from-regulatory-inspections-by-the-official-competent-authorities
#1
P L Hitchens, J Hultgren, J Frössling, U Emanuelson, L J Keeling
Determining welfare status in a population is the first step in efforts to improve welfare. The primary objective of this study was to explore a new epidemiological approach for analysis of data from official competent authorities that pertain to compliance with animal welfare legislation. We reviewed data already routinely collected as part of Swedish official animal welfare inspections for 2010-13, using a checklist containing 45 checkpoints (CPs). These covered animal-, resource- and management-based measures of equine welfare...
December 9, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927266/enzymatically-modified-starch-up-regulates-expression-of-incretins-and-sodium-coupled-monocarboxylate-transporter-in-jejunum-of-growing-pigs
#2
B U Metzler-Zebeli, R Ertl, D Grüll, T Molnar, Q Zebeli
Dietary effects on the host are mediated via modulation of the intestinal mucosal responses. The present study investigated the effect of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) product on the mucosal expression of genes related to starch digestion, sugar and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption and incretins in the jejunum and cecum in growing pigs. Moreover, the impact of the EMS on hepatic expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, and postprandial serum metabolites were assessed. Barrows (n=12/diet; initial BW 29 kg) were individually fed three times daily with free access to a diet containing either EMS or waxy corn starch as control (CON) for 10 days...
December 8, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927263/effect-of-concentrate-feeding-sequence-on-equine-hindgut-fermentation-parameters
#3
S Sadet-Bourgeteau, C Philippeau, V Julliand
Feeding a diet with a small amount of hay and a high proportion of concentrate given in large meals entails a risk of colic to horses as this can impact the hindgut microbial ecosystem. To counteract this potential negative effect, one feeding strategy is to modify the distribution sequence of concentrate and hay. The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of feeding the concentrate meal before or with the hay meal on fermentative parameters postprandial variations in caecum and right ventral colon contents and faeces...
December 8, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927261/effect-of-environmental-enrichment-and-herbal-compound-supplementation-on-physiological-stress-indicators-chromogranin-a-cortisol-and-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-in-growing-pigs
#4
N Casal, X Manteca, D Escribano, J J Cerón, E Fàbrega
Stress response induces physiological, behavioural, immunological and biochemical changes that directly affect health and well-being. Provision of environmental enrichment and herbal compounds may reduce stress in current commercial pig husbandry systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of providing different environmental enrichment materials (EE) and a herbal compound (HC) on physiological indicators of acute and chronic stress in growing pigs (salivary cortisol and chromogranin A (CgA), hair cortisol and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α))...
December 8, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919305/a-new-model-for-parent-of-origin-effect-analyses-applied-to-brown-swiss-cattle-slaughterhouse-data
#5
I Blunk, M Mayer, H Hamann, N Reinsch
Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon that arises when the expression of genes depends on the parental origin of alleles. Epigenetic mechanisms may induce the full or partial suppression of maternal or paternal alleles, thereby leading to different types of imprinting. However, imprinting effects have received little consideration in animal breeding programmes, although their relevance to some agricultural important traits has been demonstrated. A recently proposed model (imprinting model) with two path-of-transmission (male and female)-specific breeding values for each animal accounts for all types of imprinting simultaneously (paternal, maternal, full and partial)...
December 6, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917742/amino-acid-utilization-and-body-composition-of-growing-pigs-fed-processed-soybean-meal-or-rapeseed-meal-with-or-without-amino-acid-supplementation
#6
T G Hulshof, A F B van der Poel, W H Hendriks, P Bikker
Feed ingredients used in swine diets are often processed to improve nutritional value. However, (over-)processing may result in chemical reactions with amino acids (AAs) that decrease their ileal digestibility. This study aimed to determine effects of (over-)processing of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) on post-absorptive utilization of ileal digestible AAs for retention and on body AA composition of growing pigs. Soybean meal and RSM were processed by secondary toasting in the presence of lignosulfonate to obtain processed soybean meal (pSBM) and processed rapeseed meal (pRSM)...
December 5, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917741/the-behaviour-and-welfare-of-sows-and-piglets-in-farrowing-crates-or-lactation-pens
#7
C Singh, M Verdon, G M Cronin, P H Hemsworth
Temporary confinement during parturition and early postpartum may provide an intermediary step preceding loose housing that offers improvement in sow and piglet welfare. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the implications of replacing farrowing crates (FCs) with an alternative housing system from 3 days postpartum until weaning. In each experiment sows farrowed in FCs and were randomly allocated at day 3 of lactation to either a FC or a pen with increased floor space (lactation pen (LP)) until weaning...
December 5, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903321/impact-of-fat-source-and-dietary-fibers-on-feed-intake-plasma-metabolites-litter-gain-and-the-yield-and-composition-of-milk-in-sows
#8
U Krogh, T S Bruun, J Poulsen, P K Theil
Sow lactation diets often include fat sources without considering the impact on digestion, metabolism and performance. Fiber ingredients may reduce feed intake and are often completely excluded from lactation diets, although locally available ingredients may be cost-efficient alternatives to partly replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903315/gait-and-posture-discrimination-in-sheep-using-a-tri-axial-accelerometer
#9
M Radeski, V Ilieski
Temporo-spatial observation of the leg could provide important information about the general condition of an animal, especially for those such as sheep and other free-ranging farm animals that can be difficult to access. Tri-axial accelerometers are capable of collecting vast amounts of data for locomotion and posture observations; however, interpretation and optimization of these data records remain a challenge. The aim of the present study was to introduce an optimized method for gait (walking, trotting and galloping) and posture (standing and lying) discrimination, using the acceleration values recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on the hind leg of sheep...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903314/pudong-white-pig-a-unique-genetic-resource-disclosed-by-sequencing-data
#10
Q Xiao, Z Zhang, H Sun, Q Wang, Y Pan
Pudong White (PW) pigs are distributed in the Taihu region of China and are characterized by their completely white coats. A heated debate concerning this genetic resource and its relationship to Taihu and western pig breeds has arisen, due to the white coat of the animals. To determine whether PW is a unique genetic resource, we performed a detailed assessment of the genetic relationships among PW, six breeds from the Taihu population and three western pig breeds, based on whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903311/comparison-of-neural-histomorphology-in-tail-tips-from-pigs-docked-using-clippers-or-cautery-iron
#11
N J Kells, N J Beausoleil, C B Johnson, M A Sutherland, R S Morrison, W Roe
Tail docking of pigs is commonly performed to reduce the incidence of unwanted tail-biting behaviour. Two docking methods are commonly used: blunt trauma cutting (i.e. using side clippers), or cutting and concurrent cauterisation using a hot cautery iron. A potential consequence of tail amputation is the development of neuromas at the docking site. Neuromas have been linked to neuropathic pain, which can influence the longer-term welfare of affected individuals. To determine whether method of tail docking influences the extent of neuroma formation, 75 pigs were allocated to one of three treatments at birth: tail docked using clippers; tail docked using cautery iron; tail left intact...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890022/continuous-light-after-2-months-of-long-days-stimulates-ram-testis-volume-and-increases-fertility-in-spring
#12
D Chesneau, D Guillaume, P Chemineau, B Malpaux
Seasonal reproduction is one of the major biotechnical and economic constraints of sheep production in temperate latitudes. Treatments using extra light followed by melatonin implants have been used satisfactorily in open barns, farms and artificial insemination centres to produce out-of-season sexual activity in rams. The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of replacing melatonin implants with continuous light (LL), which was recently shown to increase LH secretion similar to melatonin and/or pinealectomy...
November 28, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881209/genetic-parameters-for-lameness-mastitis-and-dagginess-in-a-multi-breed-sheep-population
#13
A C O'Brien, N McHugh, E Wall, T Pabiou, K McDermott, S Randles, S Fair, D P Berry
The objective of the present study was to quantify the extent of genetic variation in three health-related traits namely dagginess, lameness and mastitis, in an Irish sheep population. Each of the health traits investigated pose substantial welfare implications as well as considerable economic costs to producers. Data were also available on four body-related traits, namely body condition score (BCS), live weight, muscle depth and fat depth. Animals were categorised as lambs (<365 days old) or ewes (⩾365 days old) and were analysed both separately and combined...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881206/ultra-low-density-genotype-panels-for-breed-assignment-of-angus-and-hereford-cattle
#14
M M Judge, M M Kelleher, J F Kearney, R D Sleator, D P Berry
Angus and Hereford beef is marketed internationally for apparent superior meat quality attributes; DNA-based breed authenticity could be a useful instrument to ensure consumer confidence on premium meat products. The objective of this study was to develop an ultra-low-density genotype panel to accurately quantify the Angus and Hereford breed proportion in biological samples. Medium-density genotypes (13 306 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) were available on 54 703 commercial and 4042 purebred animals...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881201/review-feeding-conserved-forage-to-horses-recent-advances-and-recommendations
#15
P A Harris, A D Ellis, M J Fradinho, A Jansson, V Julliand, N Luthersson, A S Santos, I Vervuert
The horse is a non-ruminant herbivore adapted to eating plant-fibre or forage-based diets. Some horses are stabled for most or the majority of the day with limited or no access to fresh pasture and are fed preserved forage typically as hay or haylage and sometimes silage. This raises questions with respect to the quality and suitability of these preserved forages (considering production, nutritional content, digestibility as well as hygiene) and required quantities. Especially for performance horses, forage is often replaced with energy dense feedstuffs which can result in a reduction in the proportion of the diet that is forage based...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881200/sow-level-risk-factors-for-stillbirth-of-piglets-in-organic-sow-herds
#16
L Rangstrup-Christensen, M A Krogh, L J Pedersen, J T Sørensen
In Danish organic pig production, one-third of total born piglets die before weaning, and stillbirth has previously crudely been estimated to account for 27% of the total preweaning mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate season, litter size, parity and body condition of the sow as risk factors for stillbirth in nine commercial Danish organic pig herds. The study was conducted over a 1-year period, and the data included registrations on 5170 farrowings with 82 906 total born piglets. The average number of total born piglets per litter was 16...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881199/intestinal-permeability-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-and-measured-by-lactulose-rhamnose-and-mannitol-sugars-in-chickens
#17
S Gilani, G S Howarth, S M Kitessa, C D Tran, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Increased intestinal permeability (IP) can lead to compromised health. Limited in vivo IP research has been conducted in chickens. The objectives of the current study were to develop a model of increased IP utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS Escherichia coli O55:B5) and to evaluate IP changes using the lactulose, mannitol and rhamnose (LMR) sugar permeability test. In addition, fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d), d-lactate, zonula occludens (ZO-1) and diamine oxidase (DAO) permeability tests were employed...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881195/the-involvement-of-runx2-and-sparc-genes-in-the-bacterial-chondronecrosis-with-osteomyelitis-in-broilers
#18
E Paludo, A M G Ibelli, J O Peixoto, F C Tavernari, C A V Lima-Rosa, J R C Pandolfi, M C Ledur
Economic losses due to an increase of leg disorders in broilers have become a major concern of the poultry industry. Despite the efforts to reduce skeletal abnormalities in chickens, insufficient progress has been made. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is one of the main disorders that affect bone integrity in broilers. However, the genetic pathways and genes involved in most bone problems, including BCO, remains unclear. In this study, femoral samples from male broilers with 45 days of age affected or not with BCO were used to compare the relative expression with a reverse transcription real time PCR approach of 13 candidate genes: SPP1 (osteopontin), TNFRSF11B (osteoprotegerin), SPARC (osteonectin), CALB1 (calbidin 1), CALM (Calmodulin 2), IBSP (sialoprotein), COL1A2 (collagen, type I, α 2), BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2), BMP3 (bone morphogenetic protein 3), RANKL (κ-B nuclear factor ligand), SMAD1 (SMAD family member 1), LEPR (leptin receptor) and RUNX2 (related transcription factor Runt 2)...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881192/effect-of-a-ceiling-fan-ventilation-system-on-finishing-young-bulls-health-behaviour-and-growth-performance
#19
L Magrin, M Brscic, I Lora, C Rumor, L Tondello, G Cozzi, F Gottardo
This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869065/effect-of-organic-grass-clover-silage-on-fiber-digestion-in-dairy-cows
#20
S S Naadland, H Steinshamn, S J Krizsan, Å T Randby
There are differences in grass-clover proportions and chemical composition between herbage from primary growth (PG) and regrowth (RG) in grass-clover leys. Mixing silages made from PG and RG may provide a more optimal diet to dairy cows than when fed separately. We tested the hypotheses that increasing dietary proportions of grass-clover silage made from RG compared with PG would increase digestion rate of potentially degradable NDF (pdNDF), and increase ruminal accumulation of indigestible NDF (iNDF). Eight rumen cannulated Norwegian Red cows were used in two replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-day periods...
November 21, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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