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Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151400/review-optimizing-ruminant-conversion-of-feed-protein-to-human-food-protein
#1
G A Broderick
Ruminant livestock have the ability to produce high-quality human food from feedstuffs of little or no value for humans. Balanced essential amino acid composition of meat and milk from ruminants makes those protein sources valuable adjuncts to human diets. It is anticipated that there will be increasing demand for ruminant proteins in the future. Increasing productivity per animal dilutes out the nutritional and environmental costs of maintenance and rearing dairy animals up to production. A number of nutritional strategies improve production per animal such as ration balancing in smallholder operations and small grain supplements to ruminants fed high-forage diets...
November 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151396/effect-of-dietary-sources-of-n-3-fatty-acids-on-pig-performance-and-technological-nutritional-and-sensory-qualities-of-pork
#2
A de Tonnac, J Mourot
In France, animal products (dairy products, meat and eggs) are the main source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the human diet; however, many individuals do not consume enough of this nutrient. The objective of this study was to increase n-3 PUFA precursor and derivative contents in tissues and test how they influence technological and sensory qualities of meat without negatively affecting growth performances of pigs. A total of 60 male pigs [(Large White×Landrace)×Pietrain] were assigned according to their initial liveweight (50...
November 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143721/bio-economic-and-operational-feasibility-of-introducing-oestrus-synchronization-and-artificial-insemination-in-simulated-smallholder-sheep-breeding-programmes
#3
S Gizaw, A Tegegne
Low selection intensity due to few selection candidates available at any one time due to thinly spread year-round lambings in villages and prohibitively large nucleus requirements to provide sufficient improved rams to the production tier are the major challenges for designing effective village-based and central nucleus-based breeding programmes, respectively, for smallholder sheep farmers. To tackle these challenges, we used deterministic simulation to design three schemes in village-based programmes introducing hormonal oestrus synchronization (natural oestrus (VNE), single oestrus synchronization (VSE1) and double oestrus synchronization (VSE2)) and three schemes in central nucleus programme introducing artificial insemination (AI) (natural mating with nucleus sizes of 5% (CNM1) and 1% (CNM2) of the total ewe population and natural mating in breeding tier and AI in production tier (CAI))...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143714/new-insights-into-mitogenomic-phylogeny-and-copy-number-in-eight-indigenous-sheep-populations-based-on-the-atp-synthase-and-cytochrome-c-oxidase-genes
#4
P Xiao, L L Niu, Q J Zhao, X Y Chen, L J Wang, L Li, H P Zhang, J Z Guo, H Y Xu, T Zhong
The origins and phylogeny of different sheep breeds has been widely studied using polymorphisms within the mitochondrial hypervariable region. However, little is known about the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and phylogeny based on mtDNA protein-coding genes. In this study, we assessed the phylogeny and copy number of the mtDNA in eight indigenous (population size, n=184) and three introduced (n=66) sheep breeds in China based on five mitochondrial coding genes (COX1, COX2, ATP8, ATP6 and COX3). The mean haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143712/accuracy-and-bias-of-genomic-prediction-with-different-de-regression-methods
#5
H Song, L Li, Q Zhang, S Zhang, X Ding
Genomic selection has become increasingly important in the breeding of animals and plants. The response variable is an important factor, influencing the accuracy of genomic selection. The de-regressed proof (DRP) based on traditional estimated breeding value (EBV) is commonly used as response variable. In the current study, simulated data from 16th QTL-MAS Workshop and real data from Chinese Holstein cattle were used to compare accuracy and bias of genomic prediction with two methods of calculating DRP. Our results with simulated data showed that the correlation between genomic EBV and true breeding value achieved using the Jairath method (DRP_J) was superior to that achieved using the Garrick method (DRP_G) for simulated trait 1 but the reverse was true for simulated trait 3, and these two methods performed comparably for simulated trait 2...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143711/defining-the-breeding-goal-for-a-sheep-breed-including-production-and-functional-traits-using-market-data
#6
A Theodoridis, A Ragkos, G Rose, D Roustemis, G Arsenos
In this study, the economic values for production and functional traits of dairy sheep are estimated through the application of a profit function model using farm-level technical and economic data. The traits incorporated in the model were milk production, prolificacy, fertility, milking speed, longevity and mastitis occurrence. The economic values for these traits were derived as the approximate partial derivative of the specified profit function. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted in order to examine how potential changes in input and output prices would affect the breeding goal...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143710/importance-of-determining-the-climatic-domains-of-sheep-breeds
#7
D Petit, I Boujenane
The main purpose of the study was to compare the capacity of the major sheep breeds in Morocco to cope with climate changes through the ranges of several climate parameters in which they can be found. We first delimitated the climatic 'domains' of each breed by constructing a database including altitude and climatic parameters (minima mean of the coldest month, maxima mean of the hottest month, annual rainfall, pluviothermic coefficient of Emberger Q 2, annual minima mean and annual maxima mean) on a 30-year period using the representative stations of each breed distribution...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143709/acute-and-chronic-cold-exposure-differentially-affects-the-browning-of-porcine-white-adipose-tissue
#8
Y Gao, N R Qimuge, J Qin, R Cai, X Li, G Y Chu, W J Pang, G S Yang
Piglets are characteristically cold intolerant and thus susceptible to high mortality. However, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) can induce non-shivering thermogenesis as a potential strategy to facilitate the animal's response to cold. Whether cold exposure can induce browning of subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) in piglets in a similar manner as it can in humans remains largely unknown. In this study, piglets were exposed to acute cold (4°C, 10 h) or chronic cold exposure (8°C, 15 days), and the genes and proteins of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent and independent thermogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, lipogenic and lipolytic processes were analysed...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143708/genome-wide-association-study-for-growth-traits-in-nelore-cattle
#9
A P N Terakado, R B Costa, G M F de Camargo, N Irano, T Bresolin, L Takada, C V D Carvalho, H N Oliveira, R Carvalheiro, F Baldi, L G de Albuquerque
The objective of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with birth weight, weight gain from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling, yearling height and cow weight in Nelore cattle. Data from 5064 animals participating in the DeltaGen and PAINT breeding programs were used. The animals were genotyped with a panel of 777 962 SNPs (Illumina BovineHD BeadChip) and 412 993 SNPs remained after quality control analysis of the genomic data. A genome-wide association study was performed using a single-step methodology...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143706/potential-sensitivity-of-pork-production-situations-aiming-at-high-quality-products-to-the-use-of-entire-male-pigs-as-an-alternative-to-surgical-castrates
#10
M Bonneau, M Čandek-Potokar, M Škrlep, M Font-I-Furnols, M Aluwé, L Fontanesi
The perspective of a possible ban on surgical castration of male pigs in the EU is a real challenge for pork production systems aiming at (very) high-quality products. Information was collected from a total of 272 situations in 16 European countries, including 170 situations related to EU protected designations (Database of Origin & Registration (DOOR) database) and 102 other situations related to high-quality products or differentiated production systems, in order to evaluate their potential sensitivity to the use of entire male pigs along four dimensions: BT_Inc, likelihood of increased levels of boar taint compounds compared with conventional production of entire males; BT_Per, extent to which (some of) the associated pork product(s) are susceptible to perception of boar taint by consumers; FatQQ, likelihood that the quality of (some of) the related products is decreased due to the lower fat quantity and quality in entire males; Manag, increased likelihood of animal management and welfare problems compared with conventional production of entire males...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143705/rumination-time-and-monitoring-of-health-disorders-during-early-lactation
#11
S Paudyal, F P Maunsell, J T Richeson, C A Risco, D A Donovan, P J Pinedo
The objective was to evaluate the association between changes in daily rumination time (dRT) and early stages of disease during early lactation and to assess the performance of two proposed disease detection indices. This cohort study included 210 multiparous Holstein cows at the University of Florida Dairy Unit. Cows were affixed with a neck collar containing rumination loggers providing rumination time. The occurrence of health disorders (mastitis, metritis, clinical hypocalcemia, depression/dehydration/fever (DDF), digestive conditions, lameness and clinical ketosis) was assessed until 60 days in milk...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143703/dose-response-evaluation-of-the-standardized-ileal-digestible-tryptophan-lysine-ratio-to-maximize-growth-performance-of-growing-finishing-gilts-under-commercial-conditions
#12
M A D Gonçalves, M D Tokach, N M Bello, K J Touchette, R D Goodband, J M DeRouchey, J C Woodworth, S S Dritz
Environmental regulations as well as economic incentives have resulted in greater use of synthetic amino acids in swine diets. Tryptophan is typically the second limiting amino acid in corn-soybean meal-based diets. However, using corn-based co-products emphasizes the need to evaluate the pig's response to increasing Trp concentrations. Therefore, the objective of these studies was to evaluate the dose-response to increasing standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp : Lys on growth performance of growing-finishing gilts housed under large-scale commercial conditions...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143701/modelling-interactions-between-farmer-practices-and-fattening-pig-performances-with-an-individual-based-model
#13
A Cadéro, A Aubry, L Brossard, J Y Dourmad, Y Salaün, F Garcia-Launay
European pig production continues to encounter economic and environmental challenges. To address these issues, methods have been developed to assess performances of pig production systems. Recent studies indicate that considering variability in performances among pigs improves the accuracy and reliability of results compared with modelling an average animal. Our objective was to develop a pig fattening unit model able to (i) simulate individual pig performances, including their variability in interaction with farmers' practices and management, and (ii) assess their effects on technical, economic and environmental performances...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122055/extruded-linseed-alone-or-in-combination-with-fish-oil-modifies-mammary-gene-expression-profiles-in-lactating-goats
#14
Y Faulconnier, L Bernard, C Boby, J Domagalski, Y Chilliard, C Leroux
Nutrition is a major factor that regulates ruminant milk components, particularly its fatty acid (FA) composition, which is an important determinant of milk nutritional quality. In the mammary gland, milk component biosynthesis involves a large number of genes under nutritional regulation that are not well understood. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of extruded linseeds (EL) alone or in combination with fish oil (ELFO) on goat mammary gene expression. In total, 14 goats were fed one of the following three diets: a natural grassland hay basal diet (CTRL) alone, CTRL supplemented with 530 g/day of EL, or 340 g/day of EL plus 39 g/day of fish oil (ELFO)...
November 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122053/associations-of-rumen-parameters-with-feed-efficiency-and-sampling-routine-in-beef-cattle
#15
S Lam, J C Munro, M Zhou, L L Guan, F S Schenkel, M A Steele, S P Miller, Y R Montanholi
Characterizing ruminal parameters in the context of sampling routine and feed efficiency is fundamental to understand the efficiency of feed utilization in the bovine. Therefore, we evaluated microbial and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, rumen papillae epithelial and stratum corneum thickness and rumen pH (RpH) and temperature (RT) in feedlot cattle. In all, 48 cattle (32 steers plus 16 bulls), fed a high moisture corn and haylage-based ration, underwent a productive performance test to determine residual feed intake (RFI) using feed intake, growth, BW and composition traits...
November 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122042/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-fails-to-overcome-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-cla-inhibition-of-milk-fat-in-dairy-sheep
#16
E C Sandri, M Camêra, E M Sandri, K J Harvatine, D E De Oliveira
The trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes milk fat depression by downregulating expression of genes and transcription factors involved in lipogenesis and it has been proposed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) can be inhibited by trans-10, cis-12 CLA. The PPARγ is a nuclear receptor activated by natural or synthetic ligands and promotes expression of lipogenic genes and its effect on mammary lipogenesis and the interaction with trans-10, cis-12 CLA in lactating ewes was evaluated using thiazolidinedione (TZD), a chemical PPARγ agonist...
November 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103395/evaluation-of-trace-element-status-of-organic-dairy-cattle
#17
I Orjales, C Herrero-Latorre, M Miranda, F Rey-Crespo, R Rodríguez-Bermúdez, M López-Alonso
The present study aimed to evaluate trace mineral status of organic dairy herds in northern Spain and the sources of minerals in different types of feed. Blood samples from organic and conventional dairy cattle and feed samples from the respective farms were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of the essential trace elements (cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn)) and toxic trace elements (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb))...
November 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103394/very-high-expander-processing-of-maize-on-animal-performance-digestibility-and-product-quality-of-finishing-pigs-and-broilers
#18
R Puntigam, K Schedle, C Schwarz, E Wanzenböck, J Eipper, E-M Lechner, L Yin, M Gierus
The present study investigated the effect of hydrothermic maize processing and supplementation of amino acids (AA) in two experiments. In total, 60 barrows and 384 broilers were fed four diets including either unprocessed (T1), or hydrothermically processed maize, that is short- (T2), or long-term conditioned (LC) (T3), and subsequently expanded maize of the same batch. Assuming a higher metabolizable energy (ME) content after processing, the fourth diet (T4) contains maize processed as treatment T3, but AA were supplemented to maintain the ideal protein value...
November 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103393/water-footprinting-of-pasture-based-farms-beef-and-sheep
#19
E Murphy, T P Curran, N M Holden, D O'Brien, J Upton
In the context of water use for agricultural production, water footprints (WFs) have become an important sustainability indicator. To understand better the water demand for beef and sheep meat produced on pasture-based systems, a WF of individual farms is required. The main objective of this study was to determine the primary contributors to freshwater consumption up to the farm gate expressed as a volumetric WF and associated impacts for the production of 1 kg of beef and 1 kg of sheep meat from a selection of pasture-based farms for 2 consecutive years, 2014 and 2015...
November 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103392/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-a-herd-health-and-production-management-programme-in-organic-dairy-cattle-farms-a-process-evaluation-approach
#20
J E Duval, N Bareille, A Madouasse, M de Joybert, K Sjöström, U Emanuelson, F Bonnet-Beaugrand, C Fourichon
Animal health planning activities are not always providing a satisfactory positive impact on herd health and welfare. Moreover, evaluating the impact of advisory programmes is complex due to multiple interacting elements that influence its outcome. Therefore, measuring solely health outcomes is not sufficient: the whole process of the implementation and use of such programmes should be evaluated. In order to evaluate the impact of an intervention with a Herd Health and Production Management (HHPM) programme a process evaluation framework was designed and used...
November 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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