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Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010520/herbage-intake-and-growth-of-rabbits-under-different-pasture-type-herbage-allowance-and-quality-conditions-in-organic-production
#1
H Legendre, J-P Goby, A Duprat, T Gidenne, G Martin
A lack of knowledge about rabbit herbage intake during grazing limits the development of organic rabbit production. This study describes rabbit herbage intake under a wide range of grazing conditions and characterises the factors that decrease rabbit herbage intake and daily weight gain. It was conducted with growing rabbits reared in moving cages with 0.4 m2 of grazing area per rabbit. Rabbits grazed on pastures dominated by legumes (LEG) or grass and forbs (GRF) and received 60 g/day per rabbit of a complete pelleted feed...
July 16, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008274/effects-of-a-commercial-broiler-enrichment-programme-with-or-without-natural-light-on-behaviour-and-other-welfare-indicators
#2
I C de Jong, H Gunnink
Commercial broiler production systems based on market initiatives to improve animal welfare beyond minimum legal requirements have emerged in several European countries. A common factor in the 'higher welfare' indoor systems is the application of environmental enrichment, with or without natural light, to promote locomotor activity and natural behaviours of the broiler chickens. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of a commercial enrichment programme for fast-growing indoor-housed broiler chickens, with or without natural light entering the broiler house...
July 16, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004320/review-beef-eating-quality-a-european-journey
#3
L J Farmer, D T Farrell
This paper reviews recent research into predicting the eating qualities of beef. A range of instrumental and grading approaches have been discussed, highlighting implications for the European beef industry. Studies incorporating a number of instrumental and spectroscopic techniques illustrate the potential for online systems to non-destructively measure muscle pH, colour, fat and moisture content of beef with R 2 (coefficient of determination) values >0.90. Direct predictions of eating quality (tenderness, flavour, juiciness) and fatty acid content using these methods are also discussed though success is greatly variable...
July 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996958/ligaps-beef-a-mechanistic-model-to-explore-potential-and-feed-limited-beef-production-1-model-description-and-illustration
#4
A van der Linden, G W J van de Ven, S J Oosting, M K van Ittersum, I J M de Boer
The expected increase in the global demand for livestock products calls for insight in the scope to increase actual production levels across the world. This insight can be obtained by using theoretical concepts of production ecology. These concepts distinguish three production levels for livestock: potential (i.e. theoretical maximum) production, which is defined by genotype and climate only; feed-limited production, which is limited by feed quantity and quality; and actual production. The difference between the potential or limited production and the actual production is the yield gap...
July 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996955/ligaps-beef-a-mechanistic-model-to-explore-potential-and-feed-limited-beef-production-2-sensitivity-analysis-and-evaluation-of-sub-models
#5
A van der Linden, G W J van de Ven, S J Oosting, M K van Ittersum, I J M de Boer
The model LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems - Beef cattle) has been developed to assess potential and feed-limited growth and production of beef cattle in different areas of the world and to identify the processes responsible for the yield gap. Sensitivity analysis and evaluation of model results with experimental data are important steps after model development. The first aim of this paper, therefore, is to identify which parameters affect the output of LiGAPS-Beef most by conducting sensitivity analyses...
July 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991377/nurse-sow-strategies-in-the-domestic-pig-ii-consequences-for-piglet-growth-suckling-behaviour-and-sow-nursing-behaviour
#6
O Schmitt, E M Baxter, L A Boyle, K O'Driscoll
Nurse sow strategies are used to manage large litters on commercial pig farms. However, new-born piglets transferred to nurse sows in late lactation might be compromised in terms of growth and survival. We investigated the effects of two nurse sow strategies on piglet growth, suckling behaviour and sow nursing behaviour. At 1-day post-farrowing, the four heaviest piglets from large litters were transferred to a nurse sow either 21 (1STEP21, n=9 litters) or 7 (2STEP7, n=10 litters) days into lactation. The remainder of the litter remained with their mother and was either kept intact (remain intact (RI), n=10 litters) or had some piglets cross-fostered to equalise birth weights (remain equalised (RE), n=9 litters)...
July 11, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991373/effect-of-cow-replacement-strategy-on-cow-and-calf-performance-in-the-beef-herd
#7
S McCabe, R Prendiville, R Evans, N E O'Connell, N McHugh
Two contrasting replacement strategies are used by Irish beef farmers to select replacement females - animals sourced from within the suckler beef herd and sourced from the dairy herd. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacement strategy (i.e. beef v. beef×dairy (BDX)) on cow and calf performance using data from the national beef database across a range of beef and dairy breeds. The association between replacement strategy and calving difficulty score, calving interval, weaning weight, weaning price and all carcass traits was investigated using a mixed model...
July 11, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987993/a-genome-scan-for-selection-signatures-in-taihu-pig-breeds-using-next-generation-sequencing
#8
Z Wang, H Sun, Q Chen, X Zhang, Q Wang, Y Pan
Taihu pig breeds are the most prolific breeds of swine in the world, and they also have superior economic traits, including high resistance to disease, superior meat quality, high resistance to crude feed and a docile temperament. The formation of these phenotypic characteristics is largely a result of long-term artificial or natural selection. Therefore, exploring selection signatures in the genomes of the Taihu pigs will help us to identify porcine genes related to productivity traits, disease and behaviour...
July 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987991/potential-of-milk-mid-ir-spectra-to-predict-metabolic-status-of-cows-through-blood-components-and-an-innovative-clustering-approach
#9
C Grelet, A Vanlierde, M Hostens, L Foldager, M Salavati, K L Ingvartsen, M Crowe, M T Sorensen, E Froidmont, C P Ferris, C Marchitelli, F Becker, T Larsen, F Carter, F Dehareng
Unbalanced metabolic status in the weeks after calving predisposes dairy cows to metabolic and infectious diseases. Blood glucose, IGF-I, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are used as indicators of the metabolic status of cows. This work aims to (1) evaluate the potential of milk mid-IR spectra to predict these blood components individually and (2) to evaluate the possibility of predicting the metabolic status of cows based on the clustering of these blood components. Blood samples were collected from 241 Holstein cows on six experimental farms, at days 14 and 35 after calving...
July 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986790/nurse-sow-strategies-in-the-domestic-pig-i-consequences-for-selected-measures-of-sow-welfare
#10
O Schmitt, E M Baxter, L A Boyle, K O'Driscoll
Management strategies are needed to optimise the number of piglets weaned from hyper-prolific sows. Nurse sow strategies involve transferring supernumerary new-born piglets onto a sow whose own piglets are either weaned or fostered onto another sow. Such 'nurse sows' have extended lactations spent in farrowing crates, which could have negative implications for their welfare. This study used 47 sows, 20 of which farrowed large litters and had their biggest piglets fostered onto nurse sows which were either 1 week (2STEP7, n=9) or 3 weeks into lactation (1STEP21, n=10)...
July 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986789/postnatal-differential-expression-of-chemoreceptors-of-free-fatty-acids-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-supplemental-feeding-v-grazing-kid-goats
#11
T Ran, Y Liu, J Z Jiao, C S Zhou, S X Tang, M Wang, Z X He, Z L Tan, W Z Yang, K A Beauchemin
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals is capable of sensing various kinds of nutrients via G-protein coupled receptor-mediated signaling transduction pathways, and the process is known as 'gut nutrient chemosensing'. GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 are chemoreceptors for free fatty acids (FFAs) and lipid derivatives, but they are not well studied in small ruminants. The objective of this study is to determine the expression of GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 along the GIT of kid goats under supplemental feeding (S) v...
July 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983137/dietary-essential-oils-improve-feed-efficiency-and-hepatic-antioxidant-content-of-broiler-chickens
#12
V Pirgozliev, S C Mansbridge, S P Rose, A M Mackenzie, A Beccaccia, F Karadas, S G Ivanova, G P Staykova, O O Oluwatosin, D Bravo
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of an improved growth, dietary nutrient availability and overall health of broiler chickens reared on recycled litter when fed a standardised combination of essential oils (EO; carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin). To assess the effect of dietary treatments, feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, availability of dietary nutrients and energy, villus morphometry, excreta sialic acid concentration, hepatic antioxidants and serum amyloid A (SAA) when fed to broiler chickens were evaluated...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983136/early-intervention-with-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-an-effective-means-to-improve-growth-performance-and-the-intestinal-development-of-suckling-piglets
#13
C S Cheng, H K Wei, P Wang, H C Yu, X M Zhang, S W Jiang, J Peng
Recent studies indicate that early postnatal period is a critical window for gut microbiota manipulation to optimise the immunity and body growth. This study investigated the effects of maternal faecal microbiota orally administered to neonatal piglets after birth on growth performance, selected microbial populations, intestinal permeability and the development of intestinal mucosal immune system. In total, 12 litters of crossbred newborn piglets were selected in this study. Litter size was standardised to 10 piglets...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983135/effects-of-whole-linseed-supplementation-and-treatment-duration-on-fatty-acid-profile-and-endogenous-bioactive-compounds-of-beef-muscle
#14
R Marino, A Della Malva, M Caroprese, P de Palo, A Santillo, A Sevi, M Albenzio
Diet supplementation with oilseeds is known to improve the fatty acid profile of meat, but few studies have been carried out to determine the time required for the incorporation of a significant quantity of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) into meat from steers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of linseed supplementation and feeding duration on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol and bioactive compounds of bovine meat. In total, 54 Friesian steers were randomly allocated during the finishing period into six experimental treatments following a 2×3 factorial design...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983133/thymol-supplementation-effects-on-adrenocortical-immune-and-biochemical-variables-recovery-in-japanese-quail-after-exposure-to-chronic-heat-stress
#15
F N Nazar, E A Videla, R H Marin
Chronic heat stress (CHS) exposure negatively impairs avian' immunoneuroendocrine interplay. Thymol has shown several bioactive properties including antioxidant, bactericidal, antifungal and gamma-aminobutyric acid modulator activities. Indeed, supplementation with thymol has been used with positive effects on poultry production and immune-related variables. This study evaluates whether a thymol dietary supplementation can be used as a new functional feed strategy to mitigate CHS deleterious effects on endocrine, biochemical and immune-related variables...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983132/analysing-innovations-among-cattle-smallholders-to-evaluate-the-adequacy-of-breeding-programs
#16
Y Camara, N Moula, F Sow, M M Sissokho, N Antoine-Moussiaux
Many breeding programs have been implemented in developing countries, many of which have been unsuccessful. To better understand the failure of these breeding programs, it is proposed to analyze their adequacy with innovations that are actually adopted by smallholders. The proposed methodology takes account of these innovations, the reasons for their adoption and the objectives of livestock keeping. The N'Dama cattle-breeding program in Senegal was used as a case study. Surveys were carried out among 54 farmers: 27 breeders who participated in this program, 17 of whom recently resigned, and 27 breeders who have never participated...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983131/characterisation-of-white-and-black-merino-wools-a-proteomics-study
#17
J Plowman, A Thomas, T Perloiro, S Clerens, A M de Almeida
Wool is an important agricultural commodity with merino wool being rated alongside the finest quality fibres, which include the goat fibres Mohair and Cashmere. Although pigmented wool merinos have become extremely rare, the market for this wool is increasing. In Portugal, there are two merino breeds: white and black, descendants of animals originally bred on the Iberian Peninsula. These breeds have the potential to assist in our understanding of how protein expression relates to wool traits of importance to the textile industry...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983130/follicular-development-of-sows-at-weaning-in-relation-to-estimated-breeding-value-for-within-litter-variation-in-piglet-birth-weight
#18
N G J Costermans, K J Teerds, J Keijer, E F Knol, R E Koopmanschap, B Kemp, N M Soede
In this study we aimed to identify possible causes of within-litter variation in piglet birth weight (birth weight variation) by studying follicular development of sows at weaning in relation to their estimated breeding value (EBV) for birth weight variation. In total, 29 multiparous sows (parity 3 to 5) were selected on their EBV for birth weight variation (SD in grams; High-EBV: 15.8±1.6, N=14 and Low-EBV: -24.7±1.5, N=15). The two groups of sows had similar litter sizes (15.7 v. 16.9). Within 24 h after parturition, piglets were cross-fostered to ensure 13 suckling piglets per sow...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983129/water-footprint-assessment-of-sheep-farming-systems-based-on-farm-survey-data
#19
R Ibidhi, H Ben Salem
Water scarcity is among the main challenges making vulnerable the livestock farming systems in drylands. The water footprint (WF) indicator was proposed as a metric to measure the impacts of livestock production on freshwater resources. Therefore, this study aimed to assess water use in five different Tunisian sheep production systems using the Water Footprint Network methodology. The primary data were obtained from 1050 sheep farms located in 13 Tunisian provinces. A multivariate analysis was performed to characterize the different farming systems...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983126/transcriptome-changes-in-muscle-of-nellore-cows-submitted-to-recovery-weight-gain-under-grazing-condition
#20
D A Fausto, A L J Ferraz, E F Delgado, S C S Andrade, L L Coutinho, G L D Feijó
The aim of this study was to evaluate transcriptome changes in the muscle tissue of Bos taurus indicus cull cows subjected to recovery weight gain under grazing conditions. In all, 38 Nellore cull cows were divided randomly into two different management groups: (1) Maintenance (MA) and (2) Recovery gain (RG) from weight loss by moderate growth under high forage availability. After slaughter, RNA analysis was performed on the Longissimus thoracis muscle. Semaphorin 4A, solute carrier family 11 member 1, and Ficolin-2 were expressed in the RG, which may indicate an inflammatory response during tissue regrowth...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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