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Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428955/-tailception-using-neural-networks-for-assessing-tail-lesions-on-pictures-of-pig-carcasses
#1
J Brünger, S Dippel, R Koch, C Veit
Tail lesions caused by tail biting are a widespread welfare issue in pig husbandry. Determining their prevalence currently involves labour intensive, subjective scoring methods. Increased societal interest in tail lesions requires fast, reliable and cheap systems for assessing tail status. In the present study, we aimed to test the reliability of neural networks for assessing tail pictures from carcasses against trained human observers. Three trained observers scored tail lesions from automatically recorded pictures of 13 124 pigs...
November 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428948/characteristics-of-boli-formed-by-dairy-cows-upon-ingestion-of-fresh-ryegrass-lucerne-or-chicory
#2
E M K Minnee, G C Waghorn, P Gregorini, R H Bryant, D F Chapman
This study examined the comminution of fresh herbage, subsequent nutrient release, and the characteristics of swallowed boli from three physically and chemically contrasting forages during ingestive mastication by dairy cows. The extent and pattern of nutrient release will determine their availability to rumen microflora, and potentially influence their efficiency of use. The forages evaluated were perennial ryegrass (ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., cv Alto AR37), lucerne (Medicago sativa L., cv Torlesse) and chicory (Cichorium intybus L...
November 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419993/use-of-geographic-information-system-tools-to-predict-animal-breed-suitability-for-different-agro-ecological-zones
#3
M Lozano-Jaramillo, J W M Bastiaansen, T Dessie, H Komen
Predicting breed-specific environmental suitability has been problematic in livestock production. Native breeds have low productivity but are thought to be more robust to perform under local conditions than exotic breeds. Attempts to introduce genetically improved exotic breeds are generally unsuccessful, mainly due to the antagonistic environmental conditions. Knowledge of the environmental conditions that are shaping the breed would be needed to determine its suitability to different locations. Here, we present a methodology to predict the suitability of breeds for different agro-ecological zones using Geographic Information Systems tools and predictive habitat distribution models...
November 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419992/relative-abilities-of-young-sheep-and-goats-to-self-medicate-with-tannin-rich-sainfoin-when-infected-with-gastrointestinal-nematodes
#4
E Gaudin, M Costes-Thiré, J J Villalba, H Hoste, V Gerfault, C Ginane
Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) are one of the promising options to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats. The objective of this study was to assess the abilities of sheep and goats to self-medicate with tannin-rich sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) (SF) when infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, using a cafeteria and an operant conditioning trial. Hypotheses were that parasitized (P) lambs and goat kids would show greater intake and preference for SF than their non-parasitized (NP) counterparts, that kids would eat more SF than lambs (due to their lower resistance against parasites and their greater ability to consume PSM), and that SF intake would increase over time for P animals...
November 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419980/review-new-considerations-to-refine-breeding-objectives-of-dairy-cows-for-increasing-robustness-and-sustainability-of-grass-based-milk-production-systems
#5
J R Roche, D P Berry, L Delaby, P G Dillon, B Horan, K A Macdonald, M Neal
Although food from grazed animals is increasingly sought by consumers because of perceived animal welfare advantages, grazing systems provide the farmer and the animal with unique challenges. The system is dependent almost daily on the climate for feed supply, with the importation of large amounts of feed from off farm, and associated labour and mechanisation costs, sometimes reducing economic viability. Furthermore, the cow may have to walk long distances and be able to harvest feed efficiently in a highly competitive environment because of the need for high levels of pasture utilisation...
November 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419975/effects-of-feeding-frequency-of-an-elevated-plane-of-milk-replacer-and-calf-age-on-behavior-and-glucose-and-insulin-kinetics-in-male-holstein-calves
#6
J MacPherson, S J Meale, K Macmillan, J Haisan, C J Bench, M Oba, M A Steele
Optimizing feeding regimens in early life to maximize lifelong growth and production are essential in the dairy industry. This study investigated the effects of milk replacer (MR) feeding frequency and calf age on behavior, and glucose and insulin kinetics of pre- and post-weaned calves fed an elevated plane of MR. Ten male Holstein calves (42.2±1.8 kg BW) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to two treatments offering 8 l MR/day (150 g/l) in two (2×; meal size 4 l) or four (4×; meal size 2 l) feedings via an automated calf feeder...
November 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415645/effects-of-partial-replacement-of-soybean-meal-with-other-protein-sources-in-diets-of-lactating-cows
#7
M S Miranda, J R P Arcaro, A Saran Netto, S L Silva, M G Pinheiro, P R Leme
The protein nutrition of dairy cows is of great importance because of its direct influence on milk production, reproductive efficiency, and feeding cost. Eight first-lactation Holstein cows were randomly assigned to two contemporary 4 × 4 Latin squares in a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal with yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) as a protein source (0% or 1.5% of dry matter (DM)) and its combination with slow-release urea (SRU; 0% or 0.75% of DM) on DM intake and milk production and composition, as well as blood parameters and nitrogen balance...
November 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392490/current-recommendations-for-footbath-solutions-renewal-rates-in-dairy-cattle-the-need-for-adaptation
#8
J M Ariza, N Bareille, K Oberle, R Guatteo
Footbaths represent a potentially useful strategy for the prevention of claw infectious diseases by treating a large number of animals concomitantly. Nevertheless, under field conditions, footbath solutions are exposed to increasing number of animal passages and therefore, to different volume losses and concentrations of manure contamination which could alter their presumed bactericidal activity. Across increasing number of cow passages, the organic matter (OM) concentration, the microbial load (ML) and the residual volumes were assessed in six commercial farms...
November 5, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392486/genetic-polymorphisms-at-candidate-genes-affecting-fat-content-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-modicana-cows-effects-on-milk-production-traits-in-different-feeding-systems
#9
B Valenti, A Criscione, V Moltisanti, S Bordonaro, A De Angelis, D Marletta, F Di Paola, M Avondo
Feeding greatly affects milk yield and composition. The research is highlighting the potential of genetic polymorphism at some loci to affect milk yield and quality traits. These loci can be up/down regulated depending on the production environment; therefore, we hypothesized that milk yield and composition could differ when cows with different genotype at SCD, DGAT1 and ABCG2 loci are reared in different feeding systems. The polymorphisms of SCD, DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes were investigated in Modicana breed. In all, three polymorphic sites, responsible for the genetic variation of quantitative trait loci and therefore defined quantitative trait nucleotides, were genotyped: the transition g...
November 5, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378527/the-effect-of-manganese-nanoparticles-on-performance-redox-reactions-and-epigenetic-changes-in-turkey-tissues
#10
K Ognik, K Kozłowski, A Stępniowska, R Szlązak, K Tutaj, Z Zduńczyk, J Jankowski
The hypothesis of the research was the assumption, that manganese nanoparticles can affect the body in the same way as macromolecules. Their smaller size and greater biological reactivity will potentially allow the Mn addition to the diet to be reduced and, consequently, less excretion of this element into the environment. The aim of the study was to determine whether the use of Mn nanoparticles would make it possible to reduce the level of this micronutrient added to turkey diets without adversely affecting redox reactions in cells and epigenetic changes...
October 31, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378518/lpar5-gnat3-and-partial-amino-acid-transporters-messenger-rna-expression-patterns-in-digestive-tracts-metabolic-organs-and-muscle-tissues-of-growing-goats
#11
X Zhu, J Jiao, C Zhou, S Tang, M Wang, J Kang, X Han, Z Tan
Sufficient amino acid (AA) transport is essential to ensure the normal physiological function and growth of growing animals. The processes of AA sensing and transport in humans and murine animals, but rarely in goats, have been arousing great interest recently. This study was conducted to investigate the messenger RNA expression patterns of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5 (LPAR5), guanine nucleotide-binding protein α-transducing 3 (GNAT3) and important partial AA transporters in digestive tracts, metabolic organs and muscles of growing goats...
October 31, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30376911/effect-of-l-theanine-on-the-growth-performance-immune-function-and-jejunum-morphology-and-antioxidant-status-of-ducks
#12
C Zhang, K K Chen, X H Zhao, C Wang, Z Y Geng
l-theanine is a unique nonproteinogenic amino acid found in tea, and has recently received considerable attention because of its various biological activities. However, there is no available research report on the use of l-theanine as a feed additive in ducks. This study was conducted to investigate the potential benefits and appropriate dosages of l-theanine on the growth performance, immune function, serum biochemical parameters, and jejunum morphology and antioxidant capacity of ducks. A total of 600 1-day-old Chaohu ducks were randomly allocated into five dietary treatment groups supplemented with 0 (control group), 300, 600, 900 and 1500 mg/kg of l-theanine...
October 31, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30376905/effects-of-soybean-oil-supplementation-on-performance-digestion-and-metabolism-of-early-lactation-dairy-cows-fed-sugarcane-based-diets
#13
J P P Rodrigues, R M de Paula, L N Rennó, G P Costa, V C E Hamade, S C Valadares Filho, F P Rennó, M I Marcondes
Sugarcane is an important forage source for dairy cows in tropical countries. However, it provides limited digestible fiber and energy intake, and fat supplementation can be a way to increase energy density and decrease dietary, non-fiber carbohydrates concentrations. We aimed to evaluate the performance, digestion and metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation fed different concentrations of soybean oil (SBO) in sugarcane-based diets. Fourteen primiparous (545±17.2 kg of BW) and eight multiparous (629±26...
October 31, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373681/a-systematic-literature-mapping-and-meta-analysis-of-animal-based-traits-as-indicators-of-production-diseases-in-pigs
#14
S Stavrakakis, F Loisel, P Sakkas, N Le Floc'h, I Kyriazakis, G Stewart, L Montagne
The choice of animal-based traits to identify and deal with production diseases is often a challenge for pig farmers, researchers and other related professionals. This systematic review focused on production diseases, that is, the diseases that arise from management practices, affecting the digestive, locomotory and respiratory system of pigs. The aim was to classify all traits that have been measured and conduct a meta-analysis to quantify the impact of diseases on these traits so that these can be used as indicators for intervention...
October 30, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370898/in-vitro-protein-digestion-kinetics-of-protein-sources-for-pigs
#15
H Chen, P A Wierenga, W H Hendriks, A J M Jansman
In current feed evaluation systems, the nutritional value of protein sources in diets for pigs is based on the ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids, which does not account for the kinetics of protein digestion along the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the present study was to determine the in vitro protein digestion kinetics of different protein sources (soya bean meal (SBM), wheat gluten (WG), rapeseed meal (RSM), whey powder (WP), dried porcine plasma protein, yellow meal worm larvae and black soldier fly larvae (BSF))...
October 29, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370897/mob-size-of-single-bearing-or-twin-bearing-merino-ewes-at-lambing-may-not-influence-lamb-survival-when-feed-on-offer-is-high
#16
A Lockwood, S Hancock, B Paganoni, C Macleay, G Kearney, R Sohi, A Thompson
Limited research has suggested that higher lambing densities increase interference from foreign ewes at lambing which disrupts the ewe-lamb bond and compromises lamb survival. This may be particularly evident in mobs of twin-bearing ewes compared to single-bearing ewes because a greater number of lambs are born per day. Therefore, we hypothesised that; (i) decreasing the mob size of ewes at lambing has a greater impact on the survival of twin-born lambs than single-born lambs; (ii) the relationship between mob size and lamb survival can be explained by differences in the rate of interaction with foreign ewes and lambs at lambing; and (iii) ewes will utilise a limited area of the paddock at lambing and thus lambing density will be defined by the distribution of ewes in the paddock rather than the paddock area...
October 29, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370894/grain-source-and-chromium-supplementation-effects-on-feed-intake-meal-and-rumination-patterns-and-growth-performance-in-holstein-dairy-calves
#17
S Kargar, Z Habibi, S Karimi-Dehkordi
Carbohydrate-rich diets may increase urinary excretion of chromium (Cr) and increase its requirements. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of grain type (barley v. corn) and Cr supplementation on feed intake, feeding behavior and weight gain in dairy calves. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein female calves were assigned randomly to four experimental diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Experimental diets were either barley-based diet (BBD) or corn-based diet (CBD) supplemented with (+Cr) or without (-Cr) Cr as Cr-methionine (0...
October 29, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370892/comparison-of-performance-health-and-welfare-aspects-between-commercially-housed-hatchery-hatched-and-on-farm-hatched-broiler-flocks
#18
I C de Jong, H Gunnink, T van Hattum, J W van Riel, M M P Raaijmakers, E S Zoet, H van den Brand
On-farm hatching systems for broiler chicks are increasingly used in practice. We studied whether or not performance, health and welfare aspects differed between commercial flocks hatched on-farm or in a hatchery (control). In two successive production cycles on seven farms, a total of 16 on-farm hatched flocks were paired to 16 control flocks, housed at the same farm. Paired flocks originated from the same batch of eggs and were subjected to similar on-farm management. On-farm hatched and control flocks only differed with respect to hatching conditions, with on-farm hatched flocks not being exposed to, for example, chick handling, post-hatch feed and water deprivation and transport, in contrast to control flocks that were subjected to standard hatchery procedures, subsequently transported and placed in the poultry house...
October 29, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370891/robot-milking-and-relationship-with-culling-rate-in-dairy-cows
#19
A Bugueiro, R Fouz, F Camino, E Yus, F J Diéguez
Cow routines and behavioral responses are altered substantially following the installation of robot milking. The present study was designed to analyze the effect that switching from milking parlor to automatic milking system (AMS) had on the culling rate (due to various causes) of dairy cattle. For this purpose, culling records and causes for culling were tracked in 23 dairy farms in the Galicia region (NW Spain). The animals in these farms were monitored for 5 years. For the present study, that length of time was divided into three different stages, as follows: 2 years before switching from a milking parlor to AMS (stage 1), the 1st year following the implementation of AMS (stage 2) and the 2nd and 3rd years succeeding the implementation of AMS (stage 3)...
October 29, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370890/comparison-of-genotype-imputation-strategies-using-a-combined-reference-panel-for-chicken-population
#20
S Ye, X Yuan, S Huang, H Zhang, Z Chen, J Li, X Zhang, Z Zhang
Using whole-genome sequence (WGS) data are supposed to be optimal for genome-wide association studies and genomic predictions. However, sequencing thousands of individuals of interest is expensive. Imputation from single nucleotide polymorphisms panels to WGS data is an attractive approach to obtain highly reliable WGS data at low cost. Here, we conducted a genotype imputation study with a combined reference panel in yellow-feather dwarf broiler population. The combined reference panel was assembled by sequencing 24 key individuals of a yellow-feather dwarf broiler population (internal reference panel) and WGS data from 311 chickens in public databases (external reference panel)...
October 29, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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