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Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience

N De Neve, B Vlaeminck, F Gadeyne, E Claeys, P Van der Meeren, V Fievez
Previously, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from linseed oil were effectively protected (>80%) against biohydrogenation through polyphenol-oxidase-mediated protein crosslinking of an emulsion, prepared with polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extract from potato tuber peelings. However, until now, emulsions of only 2 wt% oil have been successfully protected, which implies serious limitations both from a research perspective (e.g. in vivo trials) as well as for further upscaling toward practical applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to increase the oil/PPO ratio...
March 16, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
D P Berry, A O'Brien, J O'Donovan, N McHugh, E Wall, S Randles, K McDermott, R E O'Connor, M A Patil, J Ho, A Kennedy, N Byrne, D C Purfield
Early detection of karyotype abnormalities, including aneuploidy, could aid producers in identifying animals which, for example, would not be suitable candidate parents. Genome-wide genetic marker data in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now being routinely generated on animals. The objective of the present study was to describe the statistics that could be generated from the allele intensity values from such SNP data to diagnose karyotype abnormalities; of particular interest was whether detection of aneuploidy was possible with both commonly used genotyping platforms in agricultural species, namely the Applied BiosystemsTM AxiomTM and the Illumina platform...
March 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
X Ma, P H Li, M X Zhu, L C He, S P Sui, S Gao, G S Su, N S Ding, Y Huang, Z Q Lu, X G Huang, R H Huang
Litter size has a great impact on the profit of swine producers. Uterine development is an important determinant of reproduction efficiency and could hence affect litter size. Chinese Erhualian pig is one of the most prolific breeds in the world, even though large phenotypic variation in litter size was observed within Erhualian sows. To dissect the genetic basis of the phenotypic variation, we herein conducted genome-wide association studies for total number born and number born alive (NBA) of Erhualian sows...
March 14, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
March 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
F J W C Schaafstra, D A van Doorn, J T Schonewille, E Roelfsema, C M Westermann, O Dansen, M Jacobs, J-Y Lee, E A Spronck, M C Blok, W H Hendriks
Exercise and physical training are known to affect gastrointestinal function and digestibility in horses and can lead to inaccurate estimates of nutrient and energy digestibility when markers are used. The effect of exercise on apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal recoveries of ADL and TiO2 was studied in six Welsh pony geldings subjected to either a low- (LI) or high-intensity (HI) exercise regime according to a cross-over design. Ponies performing LI exercise were walked once per day for 45 min in a horse walker (5 km/h) for 47 consecutive days...
March 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
J L Schenk
Knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the reproductive capacity of bulls is vital in maximizing reproductive efficiencies. Bull semen collection guidelines established by researchers and industry personnel to maximize the sperm harvest from bulls have been evolving for more than 60 years. Today, a mature artificial insemination industry employs those strategies to meet demands. These efficient management schemes exploit the reproductive potential of each sire while minimizing the associated risk of injury to bulls and reduce associated production costs...
March 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
E Babacanoğlu, H C Güler
Hypoxia strongly affects embryonic development during the pre-hatch period. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of oxygen supplementation (O) and a 38.5°C high temperature (HT) at high altitude (HA, 1720 m) on morphological traits during a pre-hatch period and on relative fluctuating asymmetry (relative FA) and allometric growth during an early post-hatch period in broilers. A total of 720 eggs were obtained from a 45-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock raised at sea level (2 m). The eggs were divided into six incubation condition (IC) groups and were incubated at HA...
March 6, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
A E Taylor, M R Bedford, H M Miller
Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) present in wheat and barley can act as anti-nutrients leading to an increase in digesta viscosity and a reduction in nutrient digestibility. Xylanase, an NSP-degrading enzyme, has been shown to increase nutrient digestibility in pigs. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the optimum inclusion level of xylanase in grower pig diets by measuring the effect of increasing enzyme levels on growth performance, the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and peptide YY concentration in portal and peripheral blood of grower pigs and (2) to increase our understanding of the interrelationships between xylanase inclusion, VFA production and peptide YY secretion...
March 6, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
V S Murphy, D E Lowe, F O Lively, A W Gordon
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of using different floor types to accommodate growing and finishing beef cattle on lameness. In all, 80 dairy origin bulls were blocked according to live weight and breed into 20 groups, and randomly allocated within groups to one of four treatments. The floor types studied were fully slatted flooring throughout the entire experimental period (CS); fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips throughout the entire experimental period (RS); fully slatted flooring during the growing period and then moved to a solid floor covered with straw bedding during the finishing period (CS-S) and fully slatted flooring during the growing period and then moved to fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips during the finishing period (CS-RS)...
February 27, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
C A Rosales Nieto, M B Ferguson, C A Macleay, J R Briegel, D A Wood, G B Martin, R Bencini, A N Thompson
In ewe lambs, acceleration of growth and accumulation of both muscle and fat leads to earlier sexual maturity and better reproductive performance. The next stage in the development of this theme is to test whether these aspects of growth in young ewes affect milk production in their first lactation and the growth of their first progeny. We studied 75 young Merino ewes that had known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning weight (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT)...
February 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
L L Yu, T Gao, M M Zhao, P A Lv, L Zhang, J L Li, Y Jiang, F Gao, G H Zhou
In ovo feeding (IOF) of l-arginine (Arg) can affect growth performance of broilers, but the response of IOF of Arg on breast muscle growth is unclear, and the mechanism involved in protein deposition remains unknown. Hense, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of IOF of Arg on breast muscle growth and protein-deposited signalling in post-hatch broilers. A total of 720 fertile eggs were collected from 34-week-old Arbor Acres breeder hens and distributed to three treatments: (1) non-injected control group; (2) 7...
February 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
P Sutovsky
Fertilization is an intricate cascade of events that irreversibly alter the participating male and female gamete and ultimately lead to the union of paternal and maternal genomes in the zygote. Fertilization starts with sperm capacitation within the oviductal sperm reservoir, followed by gamete recognition, sperm-zona pellucida interactions and sperm-oolemma adhesion and fusion, followed by sperm incorporation, oocyte activation, pronuclear development and embryo cleavage. At fertilization, bull spermatozoon loses its acrosome and plasma membrane components and contributes chromosomes, centriole, perinuclear theca proteins and regulatory RNAs to the zygote...
February 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
D Van der Saag, S Lomax, P A Windsor, C Taylor, P Thomson, E Hall, P J White
Although the pain caused by castration of calves is a significant animal welfare issue for the beef industry, analgesia is not always used for this procedure, largely because of practical limitations associated with injectable forms of pain relief. Novel analgesic formulations have now been developed for livestock to allow topical and buccal administration, offering practical options to improve cattle welfare if shown to be effective. To assess the effects of topical anaesthetic (TA) and buccal meloxicam (BM) on average daily gain (ADG), behaviour and inflammation following surgical castration of beef calves, a total of 50 unweaned bull calves were randomly allocated to: (1) sham castration (SHAM, n=10); (2) surgical castration (C, n=10); (3) surgical castration with pre-operative buccal meloxicam (CBM, n=10); (4) surgical castration with post-operative topical anaesthetic (CTA, n=10); and (5) surgical castration with pre-operative buccal meloxicam and post-operative topical anaesthetic (CBMTA, n=10)...
February 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
D M Sun, S Y Mao, W Y Zhu, J H Liu
Starter feeding is usually used in lamb production to improve rumen development and to facilitate the weaning process, but molecular mechanism of which is not well understood. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of starter feeding on the expression of ruminal epithelial genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism in pre-weaned lambs. We selected eight pairs of 10-day-old lamb twins. One twin was fed ewe milk (M, n=8), while the other was fed ewe milk plus starter (M+S, n=8)...
February 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
X Z Zhang, W B Chen, X Wu, Y W Zhang, Y M Jiang, Q X Meng, Z M Zhou
In the present study, calcium propionate (CaP) was used as feed additive in the diet of calves to investigate their effects on rumen fermentation and the development of rumen epithelium in calves. To elucidate the mechanism in which CaP improves development of calf rumen epithelium via stimulating the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of G protein-coupled receptors, a total of 54 male Jersey calves (age=7±1 days, BW=23.1±1.2 kg) were randomly divided into three treatment groups: control without CaP supplementation (Con), 5% CaP supplementation (5% CaP) and 10% CaP supplementation (10% CaP)...
February 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
B R Harstine, M D Utt, J M DeJarnette
The technology available to assess sperm population characteristics has advanced greatly in recent years. Large artificial insemination (AI) organizations that sell bovine semen utilize many of these technologies not only for novel research purposes, but also to make decisions regarding whether to sell or discard the product. Within an AI organization, the acquisition, interpretation and utilization of semen quality data is often performed by a quality control department. In general, quality control decisions regarding semen sales are often founded on the linkages established between semen quality and field fertility...
February 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
M J Bell, J Craigon, N Saunders, J R Goodman, P C Garnsworthy
Diet manipulation and genetic selection are two important mitigation strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock. The aim of this study was to assess whether the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from individual dairy cows changes over time when cows are fed on diets varying in forage composition. Emissions of CH4 from 36 cows were measured during milking in an automatic (robotic) milking station in three consecutive feeding periods, for a total of 84 days. In Periods 1 and 2, the 36 cows were fed a high-forage partial mixed ration (PMR) containing 75% forage, with either a high grass silage or high maize silage content...
February 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
F O Bussiman, B C Perez, R V Ventura, M G C D Peixoto, R A Curi, J C C Balieiro
Genetic improvement, without control of inbreeding, can go to loss of genetic variability, reducing the potential for genetic gains in the domestic populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the population structure and the inbreeding depression in Campolina horses. Phenotype information from 43 465 individuals was analyzed, data provided by the Campolina Breeders Association. A pedigree file containing 107 951 horses was used to connected the phenotyped individuals. The inbreeding coefficient was performed by use of the diagonal of the relationship matrix and the genealogical parameters were computed using proper softwares...
February 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Y N Ma, B Wang, Z X Wang, N A Gomez, M J Zhu, M Du
Protocols designed for the adipogenic differentiation of human and mouse cells are commonly used for inducing the adipogenesis of bovine stromal vascular cells. However, likely due to metabolic differences between ruminant and non-ruminant animals, these methods result in only few cells undergoing complete adipogenesis with minimal lipid droplet accumulation. Here, we discuss the development of an adipogenic differentiation protocol for bovine primary cells through a three-dimensional spheroid culture. Stromal vascular cells derived from bovine intramuscular fat were isolated and stored in liquid nitrogen before culturing...
February 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
K E Kliem, A L Thomson, L A Crompton, D I Givens
The effect of botanical diversity on supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to ruminants in vitro, and the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle in lambs was investigated. Six plant species, commonly grown as part of UK herbal ley mixtures (Trifolium pratense, Lotus corniculatus, Achillea millefolium, Centaurea nigra, Plantago lanceolata and Prunella vulgaris), were assessed for FA profile, and in vitro biohydrogenation of constituent PUFA, to estimate intestinal supply of PUFA available for absorption by ruminants...
February 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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