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ISME Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467398/a-virus-or-more-in-nearly-every-cell-ubiquitous-networks-of-virus-host-interactions-in-extreme-environments
#1
Jacob H Munson-McGee, Shengyun Peng, Samantha Dewerff, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Rachel J Whitaker, Joshua S Weitz, Mark J Young
The application of viral and cellular metagenomics to natural environments has expanded our understanding of the structure, functioning, and diversity of microbial and viral communities. The high diversity of many communities, e.g., soils, surface ocean waters, and animal-associated microbiomes, make it difficult to establish virus-host associations at the single cell (rather than population) level, assign cellular hosts, or determine the extent of viral host range from metagenomics studies alone. Here, we combine single-cell sequencing with environmental metagenomics to characterize the structure of virus-host associations in a Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hot spring microbial community...
February 21, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467397/expanded-diversity-of-microbial-groups-that-shape-the-dissimilatory-sulfur-cycle
#2
Karthik Anantharaman, Bela Hausmann, Sean P Jungbluth, Rose S Kantor, Adi Lavy, Lesley A Warren, Michael S Rappé, Michael Pester, Alexander Loy, Brian C Thomas, Jillian F Banfield
A critical step in the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur on Earth is microbial sulfate reduction, yet organisms from relatively few lineages have been implicated in this process. Previous studies using functional marker genes have detected abundant, novel dissimilatory sulfite reductases (DsrAB) that could confer the capacity for microbial sulfite/sulfate reduction but were not affiliated with known organisms. Thus, the identity of a significant fraction of sulfate/sulfite-reducing microbes has remained elusive...
February 21, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463895/cryptophyta-as-major-bacterivores-in-freshwater-summer-plankton
#3
Vesna Grujcic, Julia K Nuy, Michaela M Salcher, Tanja Shabarova, Vojtech Kasalicky, Jens Boenigk, Manfred Jensen, Karel Simek
Small bacterivorous eukaryotes play a cardinal role in aquatic food webs and their taxonomic classification is currently a hot topic in aquatic microbial ecology. Despite increasing interest in their diversity, core questions regarding predator-prey specificity remain largely unanswered, e.g., which heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNFs) are the main bacterivores in freshwaters and which prokaryotes support the growth of small HNFs. To answer these questions, we fed natural communities of HNFs from Římov reservoir (Czech Republic) with five different bacterial strains of the ubiquitous betaproteobacterial genera Polynucleobacter and Limnohabitans...
February 20, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463894/coral-bleaching-from-a-single-cell-perspective
#4
Daniel Aagren Nielsen, Katherina Petrou, Ruth D Gates
Ocean warming is resulting in increased occurrence of mass coral bleaching; a response in which the intracellular algal endosymbionts (Symbiodinium sp.) are expelled from the coral host due to physiological stress. This detrimental process is often attributed to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leak out of the endosymbionts and causes damage to the host cell, though direct evidence validating this link is limited. Here, for the first time, we used confocal microscopy and fluorescent dyes to investigate if endosymbiont ROS production significantly and predictably affects physiological parameters in its host cell...
February 20, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463893/consistent-changes-in-the-taxonomic-structure-and-functional-attributes-of-bacterial-communities-during-primary-succession
#5
Rüdiger Ortiz-Álvarez, Noah Fierer, Asunción de Los Ríos, Emilio O Casamayor, Albert Barberán
Ecologists have long studied primary succession, the changes that occur in biological communities after initial colonization of an environment. Most of this work has focused on succession in plant communities, laying the conceptual foundation for much of what we currently know about community assembly patterns over time. Because of their prevalence and importance in ecosystems, an increasing number of studies have focused on microbial community dynamics during succession. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of bacterial primary succession patterns across a range of distinct habitats, including the infant gut, plant surfaces, soil chronosequences, and aquatic environments, to determine whether consistent changes in bacterial diversity, community composition, and functional traits are evident over the course of succession...
February 20, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463892/microbial-cycling-of-isoprene-the-most-abundantly-produced-biological-volatile-organic-compound-on-earth
#6
Terry J McGenity, Andrew T Crombie, J Colin Murrell
Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), the most abundantly produced biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) on Earth, is highly reactive and can have diverse and often detrimental atmospheric effects, which impact on climate and health. Most isoprene is produced by terrestrial plants, but (micro)algal production is important in aquatic environments, and the relative bacterial contribution remains unknown. Soils are a sink for isoprene, and bacteria that can use isoprene as a carbon and energy source have been cultivated and also identified using cultivation-independent methods from soils, leaves and coastal/marine environments...
February 20, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463891/specialized-plant-biochemistry-drives-gene-clustering-in-fungi
#7
Emile Gluck-Thaler, Jason C Slot
The fitness and evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are affected by the organization of their genomes. In particular, the physical clustering of genes can coordinate gene expression and can prevent the breakup of co-adapted alleles. Although clustering may thus result from selection for phenotype optimization and persistence, the impact of environmental selection pressures on eukaryotic genome organization has rarely been systematically explored. Here, we investigated the organization of fungal genes involved in the degradation of phenylpropanoids, a class of plant-produced secondary metabolites that mediate many ecological interactions between plants and fungi...
February 20, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463890/iron-and-phosphorus-deprivation-induce-sociality-in-the-marine-bloom-forming-cyanobacterium-trichodesmium
#8
Yael Tzubari, Liel Magnezi, Avraham Be'er, Ilana Berman-Frank
Trichodesmium spp. are diazotrophic cyanobacteria that exist as single filaments (trichomes) and as macroscopic colonies of varying shapes formed by aggregating trichomes. The causes and dynamics of colony formation and disassociation are not yet elucidated. we demonstrate that limited availability of dissolved phosphorus (P) or iron (Fe) stimulated trichome mobility and induced colony formation in Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 cultures. The specific nutrient limitation differentially affected the rate of colony formation and morphology of the colonies...
February 20, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449611/seasonal-resource-conditions-favor-a-summertime-increase-in-north-pacific-diatom-diazotroph-associations
#9
Christopher L Follett, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, David M Karl, Keisuke Inomura, Michael J Follows
In the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), an annual pulse of sinking organic carbon is observed at 4000 m between July and August, driven by large diatoms found in association with nitrogen fixing, heterocystous, cyanobacteria: Diatom-Diazotroph Associations (DDAs). Here we ask what drives the bloom of DDAs and present a simplified trait-based model of subtropical phototroph populations driven by observed, monthly averaged, environmental characteristics. The ratio of resource supply rates favors nitrogen fixation year round...
February 15, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445133/photoautotrophic-organisms-control-microbial-abundance-diversity-and-physiology-in-different-types-of-biological-soil-crusts
#10
Stefanie Maier, Alexandra Tamm, Dianming Wu, Jennifer Caesar, Martin Grube, Bettina Weber
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover about 12% of the Earth's land masses, thereby providing ecosystem services and affecting biogeochemical fluxes on a global scale. They comprise photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, which grow together with heterotrophic microorganisms, forming a model system to study facilitative interactions and assembly principles in natural communities. Biocrusts can be classified into cyanobacteria-, lichen-, and bryophyte-dominated types, which reflect stages of ecological succession...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445132/microbiome-assembly-of-avian-eggshells-and-their-potential-as-transgenerational-carriers-of-maternal-microbiota
#11
H Pieter J van Veelen, Joana Falcão Salles, B Irene Tieleman
The microbiome is essential for development, health and homeostasis throughout an animal's life. Yet, the origins and transmission processes governing animal microbiomes remain elusive for non-human vertebrates, oviparous vertebrates in particular. Eggs may function as transgenerational carriers of the maternal microbiome, warranting characterisation of egg microbiome assembly. Here, we investigated maternal and environmental contributions to avian eggshell microbiota in wild passerine birds: woodlark Lullula arborea and skylark Alauda arvensis...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445131/strains-of-the-toxic-and-bloom-forming-nodularia-spumigena-cyanobacteria-can-degrade-methylphosphonate-and-release-methane
#12
Jonna E Teikari, David P Fewer, Rashmi Shrestha, Shengwei Hou, Niina Leikoski, Minna Mäkelä, Asko Simojoki, Wolfgang R Hess, Kaarina Sivonen
Nodularia spumigena is a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium that forms toxic blooms in the Baltic Sea each summer and the availability of phosphorous is an important factor limiting the formation of these blooms. Bioinformatic analysis identified a phosphonate degrading (phn) gene cluster in the genome of N. spumigena suggesting that this bacterium may use phosphonates as a phosphorus source. Our results show that strains of N. spumigena could grow in medium containing methylphosphonic acid (MPn) as the sole source of phosphorous and released methane when growing in medium containing MPn...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445130/comparative-genomic-inference-suggests-mixotrophic-lifestyle-for-thorarchaeota
#13
Yang Liu, Zhichao Zhou, Jie Pan, Brett J Baker, Ji-Dong Gu, Meng Li
Thorarchaeota are a new archaeal phylum within the Asgard superphylum, whose ancestors have been proposed to play possible ecological roles in cellular evolution. However, little is known about the lifestyles of these uncultured archaea. To provide a better resolution of the ecological roles and metabolic capacity of Thorarchaeota, we obtained Thorarchaeota genomes reconstructed from metagenomes of different depth layers in mangrove and mudflat sediments. These genomes from deep anoxic layers suggest the presence of Thorarchaeota with the potential to degrade organic matter, fix inorganic carbon, reduce sulfur/sulfate and produce acetate...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445129/light-and-temperature-control-the-seasonal-distribution-of-thaumarchaeota-in-the-south-atlantic-bight
#14
Qian Liu, Bradley B Tolar, Meredith J Ross, Jelani B Cheek, Corinne M Sweeney, Natalie J Wallsgrove, Brian N Popp, James T Hollibaugh
Mid-summer peaks in the abundance of Thaumarchaeota and nitrite concentration observed on the Georgia, USA, coast could result from in situ activity or advection of populations from another source. We collected data on the distribution of Thaumarchaeota, ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria (AOB), Nitrospina, environmental variables and rates of ammonia oxidation during six cruises in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) from April to November 2014. These data were used to examine seasonality of nitrification in offshore waters and to test the hypothesis that the bloom was localized to inshore waters...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434315/association-of-gut-microbial-communities-with-plasma-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-lbp-in-premenopausal-women
#15
Jessica S Citronberg, Keith R Curtis, Emily White, Polly A Newcomb, Katherine Newton, Charlotte Atkinson, Xiaoling Song, Johanna W Lampe, Meredith Aj Hullar
The mechanisms by which obesity increases cancer risk are unclear, but some lines of evidence suggest that gut microbial communities (GMC) may contribute to chronic inflammation in obese individuals through raised systemic levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We evaluated associations of the GMC in stool with plasma LPS-binding protein (LBP, a measure of LPS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in 110 premenopausal women in the United States. Diet was assessed using 3-day food records and GMCs were evaluated using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434314/elevated-circulating-levels-of-succinate-in-human-obesity-are-linked-to-specific-gut-microbiota
#16
Carolina Serena, Victoria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Noelia Keiran, Maria Isabel Queipo-Ortuño, Rosa Bernal, Ricardo Gomez-Huelgas, Mireia Urpi-Sarda, Mónica Sabater, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Andres Moya, Francisco J Tinahones, Jose Manuel Fernández-Real, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
Gut microbiota-related metabolites are potential clinical biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Circulating succinate, a metabolite produced by both microbiota and the host, is increased in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to analyze systemic levels of succinate in obesity, a major risk factor for CVD, and its relationship with gut microbiome. We explored the association of circulating succinate with specific metagenomic signatures in cross-sectional and prospective cohorts of Caucasian Spanish subjects...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434313/distributions-of-phytoplankton-carbohydrate-protein-and-lipid-in-the-world-oceans-from-satellite-ocean-colour
#17
Shovonlal Roy
Energy value of phytoplankton regulates the growth of higher trophic species, affecting the tropic balance and sustainability of marine food webs. Therefore, developing our capability to estimate and monitor, on a global scale, the concentrations of macromolecules that determine phytoplankton energy value, would be invaluable. Reported here are the first estimates of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and overall energy value of phytoplankton in the world oceans, using ocean-colour data from satellites. The estimates are based on a novel bio-optical method that utilises satellite-derived bio-optical fingerprints of living phytoplankton combined with allometric relationships between phytoplankton cells and cellular macromolecular contents...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426952/nanosims-and-tissue-autoradiography-reveal-symbiont-carbon-fixation-and-organic-carbon-transfer-to-giant-ciliate-host
#18
Jean-Marie Volland, Arno Schintlmeister, Helena Zambalos, Siegfried Reipert, Patricija Mozetič, Salvador Espada-Hinojosa, Valentina Turk, Michael Wagner, Monika Bright
The giant colonial ciliate Zoothamnium niveum harbors a monolayer of the gammaproteobacteria Cand. Thiobios zoothamnicoli on its outer surface. Cultivation experiments revealed maximal growth and survival under steady flow of high oxygen and low sulfide concentrations. We aimed at directly demonstrating the sulfur-oxidizing, chemoautotrophic nature of the symbionts and at investigating putative carbon transfer from the symbiont to the ciliate host. We performed pulse-chase incubations with 14C- and 13C-labeled bicarbonate under varying environmental conditions...
February 9, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426951/small-eukaryotic-phytoplankton-communities-in-tropical-waters-off-brazil-are-dominated-by-symbioses-between-haptophyta-and-nitrogen-fixing-cyanobacteria
#19
Catherine Gérikas Ribeiro, Adriana Lopes Dos Santos, Dominique Marie, Frederico Pereira Brandini, Daniel Vaulot
Symbioses between eukaryotic algae and nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria have been recognized in recent years as a key source of new nitrogen in the oceans. We investigated the composition of the small photosynthetic eukaryote communities associated with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the Brazilian South Atlantic Bight using a combination of flow cytometry sorting and high throughput sequencing of two genes: the V4 region of 18S rRNA and nifH. Two distinct eukaryotic communities were often encountered, one dominated by the Mamiellophyceae Bathycoccus and Ostreococcus, and one dominated by a prymnesiophyte known to live in symbiosis with the UCYN-A1 nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium...
February 9, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416126/microbial-parasites-make-cyanobacteria-blooms-less-of-a-trophic-dead-end-than-commonly-assumed
#20
Matilda Haraldsson, Mélanie Gerphagnon, Pauline Bazin, Jonathan Colombet, Samuele Tecchio, Télesphore Sime-Ngando, Nathalie Niquil
Parasites exist in every ecosystem and can have large influence on food web structure and function, yet, we know little about parasites' effect on food web dynamics. Here we investigate the role of microbial parasitism (viruses of bacteria, phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, and parasitic chytrids on cyanobacteria) on the dynamics of trophic pathways and food web functioning during a cyanobacteria bloom, using linear inverse food web modeling parameterized with a 2-month long data set (biomasses, infection parameters, etc...
February 7, 2018: ISME Journal
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