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ISME Journal

Keisuke Inomura, Jason Bragg, Michael J Follows
Nitrogen fixation is advantageous in microbial competition when bioavailable nitrogen is scarce, but has substantial costs for growth rate and growth efficiency. To quantify these costs, we have developed a model of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium that constrains mass, electron and energy flow at the scale of the individual. When tested and calibrated with laboratory data for the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, the model reveals that the direct energetic cost of nitrogen fixation is small relative to the cost of managing intracellular oxygen...
October 14, 2016: ISME Journal
Jennifer Bh Martiny, Adam C Martiny, Claudia Weihe, Ying Lu, Renaud Berlemont, Eoin L Brodie, Michael L Goulden, Kathleen K Treseder, Steven D Allison
Terrestrial ecosystem models assume that microbial communities respond instantaneously, or are immediately resilient, to environmental change. Here we tested this assumption by quantifying the resilience of a leaf litter community to changes in precipitation or nitrogen availability. By manipulating composition within a global change experiment, we decoupled the legacies of abiotic parameters versus that of the microbial community itself. After one rainy season, more variation in fungal composition could be explained by the original microbial inoculum than the litterbag environment (18% versus 5...
October 14, 2016: ISME Journal
Olaya Rendueles, Gregory J Velicer
Evolutionary adaptation can be achieved by mechanisms accessible to all organisms, including faster growth and interference competition, but self-generated motility offers additional possibilities. We tested whether 55 populations of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus that underwent selection for increased fitness at the leading edge of swarming colonies adapted by swarming faster toward unused resources or by other means. Populations adapted greatly but diversified markedly in both swarming phenotypes and apparent mechanisms of adaptation...
September 23, 2016: ISME Journal
Ovidiu Popa, Giddy Landan, Tal Dagan
Bacteriophages are recognized DNA vectors and transduction is considered as a common mechanism of lateral gene transfer (LGT) during microbial evolution. Anecdotal events of phage-mediated gene transfer were studied extensively, however, a coherent evolutionary viewpoint of LGT by transduction, its extent and characteristics, is still lacking. Here we report a large-scale evolutionary reconstruction of transduction events in 3982 genomes. We inferred 17 158 recent transduction events linking donors, phages and recipients into a phylogenomic transduction network view...
September 20, 2016: ISME Journal
Alexander B Bochdansky, Melissa A Clouse, Gerhard J Herndl
In the bathypelagic realm of the ocean, the role of marine snow as a carbon and energy source for the deep-sea biota and as a potential hotspot of microbial diversity and activity has not received adequate attention. Here, we collected bathypelagic marine snow by gentle gravity filtration of sea water onto 30 μm filters from ~1000 to 3900 m to investigate the relative distribution of eukaryotic microbes. Compared with sediment traps that select for fast-sinking particles, this method collects particles unbiased by settling velocity...
September 20, 2016: ISME Journal
Marlies Meisel, Toufic Mayassi, Hannah Fehlner-Peach, Jason C Koval, Sarah L O'Brien, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Kathryn Lesko, Sangman Kim, Romain Bouziat, Li Chen, Christopher R Weber, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Bana Jabri, Dionysios A Antonopoulos
Dysbiosis resulting in gut-microbiome alterations with reduced butyrate production are thought to disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis and promote complex immune disorders. However, whether and how dysbiosis develops before the onset of overt pathology remains poorly defined. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is upregulated in distressed tissue and its overexpression is thought to predispose susceptible individuals to and have a role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the immunological roles of IL-15 have been largely studied, its potential impact on the microbiota remains unexplored...
September 20, 2016: ISME Journal
Ashley Shade
Local diversity (within-sample or alpha diversity) is often implicated as a cause of success or failure of a microbial community. However, the relationships between diversity and emergent properties of a community, such as its stability, productivity or invasibility, are much more nuanced. I argue that diversity without context provides limited insights into the mechanisms underpinning community patterns. I provide examples from traditional and microbial ecology to discuss common complications and assumptions about within-sample diversity that may prevent us from digging deeper into the more specific mechanisms underpinning community outcomes...
September 16, 2016: ISME Journal
Helena M van Tol, Shady A Amin, E Virginia Armbrust
Intricate relationships between microorganisms structure the exchange of molecules between taxa, driving their physiology and evolution. On a global scale, this molecular trade is an integral component of biogeochemical cycling. As important microorganisms in the world's oceans, diatoms and bacteria have a large impact on marine biogeochemistry. Here, we describe antagonistic effects of the globally distributed flavobacterium Croceibacter atlanticus on a phylogenetically diverse group of diatoms. We used the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana to study the antagonistic impact in more detail...
September 13, 2016: ISME Journal
Ruben Props, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Peter Rubbens, Jo De Vrieze, Emma Hernandez Sanabria, Willem Waegeman, Pieter Monsieurs, Frederik Hammes, Nico Boon
High-throughput amplicon sequencing has become a well-established approach for microbial community profiling. Correlating shifts in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa with environmental gradients is the goal of many microbiome surveys. As the abundances generated by this technology are semi-quantitative by definition, the observed dynamics may not accurately reflect those of the actual taxon densities. We combined the sequencing approach (16S rRNA gene) with robust single-cell enumeration technologies (flow cytometry) to quantify the absolute taxon abundances...
September 9, 2016: ISME Journal
Patrick Browne, Hideyuki Tamaki, Nikos Kyrpides, Tanja Woyke, Lynne Goodwin, Hiroyuki Imachi, Suzanna Bräuer, Joseph B Yavitt, Wen-Tso Liu, Stephen Zinder, Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz
Members of the order Methanomicrobiales are abundant, and sometimes dominant, hydrogenotrophic (H2-CO2 utilizing) methanoarchaea in a broad range of anoxic habitats. Despite their key roles in greenhouse gas emissions and waste conversion to methane, little is known about the physiological and genomic bases for their widespread distribution and abundance. In this study, we compared the genomes of nine diverse Methanomicrobiales strains, examined their pangenomes, reconstructed gene flow and identified genes putatively mediating their success across different habitats...
August 23, 2016: ISME Journal
Eva C Sonnenschein, Kristian F Nielsen, Paul D'Alvise, Cisse H Porsby, Jette Melchiorsen, Jens Heilmann, Panos G Kalatzis, Mario López-Pérez, Boyke Bunk, Cathrin Spröer, Mathias Middelboe, Lone Gram
Tropodithietic acid (TDA)-producing Ruegeria mobilis strains of the Roseobacter clade have primarily been isolated from marine aquaculture and have probiotic potential due to inhibition of fish pathogens. We hypothesized that TDA producers with additional novel features are present in the oceanic environment. We isolated 42 TDA-producing R. mobilis strains during a global marine research cruise. While highly similar on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene level (99-100% identity), the strains separated into four sub-clusters in a multilocus sequence analysis...
August 23, 2016: ISME Journal
Jinsong Liang, Yaohui Bai, Yujie Men, Jiuhui Qu
Manganese (Mn) is an important metal in geochemical cycles. Some microorganisms can oxidize Mn(II) to Mn oxides, which can, in turn, affect the global cycles of other elements by strong sorption and oxidation effects. Microbe-microbe interactions have important roles in a number of biological processes. However, how microbial interactions affect Mn(II) oxidation still remains unknown. Here, we investigated the interactions between two bacteria (Arthrobacter sp. and Sphingopyxis sp.) in a co-culture, which exhibited Mn(II)-oxidizing activity, although neither were able to oxidize Mn(II) in isolation...
August 12, 2016: ISME Journal
Rohit Ghai, Maliheh Mehrshad, Carolina Megumi Mizuno, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera
Low-GC Actinobacteria are among the most abundant and widespread microbes in freshwaters and have largely resisted all cultivation efforts. Consequently, their phages have remained totally unknown. In this work, we have used deep metagenomic sequencing to assemble eight complete genomes of the first tailed phages that infect freshwater Actinobacteria. Their genomes encode the actinobacterial-specific transcription factor whiB, frequently found in mycobacteriophages and also in phages infecting marine pelagic Actinobacteria...
August 9, 2016: ISME Journal
Blair Ney, F Hafna Ahmed, Carlo R Carere, Ambarish Biswas, Andrew C Warden, Sergio E Morales, Gunjan Pandey, Stephen J Watt, John G Oakeshott, Matthew C Taylor, Matthew B Stott, Colin J Jackson, Chris Greening
F420 is a low-potential redox cofactor that mediates the transformations of a wide range of complex organic compounds. Considered one of the rarest cofactors in biology, F420 is best known for its role in methanogenesis and has only been chemically identified in two phyla to date, the Euryarchaeota and Actinobacteria. In this work, we show that this cofactor is more widely distributed than previously reported. We detected the genes encoding all five known F420 biosynthesis enzymes (cofC, cofD, cofE, cofG and cofH) in at least 653 bacterial and 173 archaeal species, including members of the dominant soil phyla Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes...
August 9, 2016: ISME Journal
Lea Benedicte Skov Hansen, Dawei Ren, Mette Burmølle, Søren J Sørensen
It is well known that bacteria often exist in naturally formed multispecies biofilms. Within these biofilms, interspecies interactions seem to have an important role in ecological processes. Little is known about the effects of interspecies interactions on gene expression in these multispecies biofilms. This study presents a comparative gene expression analysis of the Xanthomonas retroflexus transcriptome when grown in a single-species biofilm and in dual- and four-species consortia with Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus...
August 9, 2016: ISME Journal
Patrick R Hutchins, Scott R Miller
Variation in phenotypic traits that contribute to fitness influences a population's evolutionary response and its impact on ecosystem function following environmental change, yet its amount and nature are rarely known. Here, we investigated variation in nitrogen (N) fixation activity and its genetic basis for a random sample of laboratory strains of the cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus from a N-limited, geothermally influenced stream in Yellowstone National Park. In a linear mixed-effects model, temperature and genetic differences among strains were the most important factors explaining variation in activity...
August 9, 2016: ISME Journal
Sarah Evans, Jennifer B H Martiny, Steven D Allison
Stochastic processes can play an important role in microbial community assembly. Dispersal limitation is one process that can increase stochasticity and obscure relationships between environmental variables and microbial community composition, but the relationship between dispersal, selection and stochasticity has not been described in a comprehensive way. We examine how dispersal and its interactions with drift and selection alter the consistency with which microbial communities assemble using a realistic, individual-based model of microbial decomposers...
August 5, 2016: ISME Journal
Yan Yan, Eiko E Kuramae, Mattias de Hollander, Peter G L Klinkhamer, Johannes A van Veen
We studied the impact of community diversity on the selection of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere by comparing the composition and the functional traits of these communities in soil and rhizosphere. Differences in diversity were established by inoculating into sterilized soils diluted suspensions of the same soil. We used 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing to determine the taxonomical structure of the bacterial communities and a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the potential functional diversity of the communities...
August 2, 2016: ISME Journal
Nina Dombrowski, Klaus Schlaeppi, Matthew T Agler, Stéphane Hacquard, Eric Kemen, Ruben Garrido-Oter, Jörg Wunder, George Coupland, Paul Schulze-Lefert
Recent field and laboratory experiments with perennial Boechera stricta and annual Arabidopsis thaliana suggest that the root microbiota influences flowering time. Here we examined in long-term time-course experiments the bacterial root microbiota of the arctic-alpine perennial Arabis alpina in natural and controlled environments by 16S rRNA gene profiling. We identified soil type and residence time of plants in soil as major determinants explaining up to 15% of root microbiota variation, whereas environmental conditions and host genotype explain maximally 11% of variation...
August 2, 2016: ISME Journal
Zhenshun Zeng, Xiaoxiao Liu, Jianyun Yao, Yunxue Guo, Baiyuan Li, Yangmei Li, Nianzhi Jiao, Xiaoxue Wang
Among the environmental stresses experienced by bacteria, temperature shifts are one of the most important. In this study, we discovered a novel cold adaptation mechanism in Shewanella oneidensis that occurs at the DNA level and is regulated by cryptic prophage excision. Previous studies on bacterial cold tolerance mainly focus on the structural change of cell membrane and changes at the RNA and protein levels. Whether or not genomic change can also contribute to this process has not been explored. Here we employed a whole-genome deep-sequencing method to probe the changes at DNA level in a model psychrotrophic bacteria strain...
August 2, 2016: ISME Journal
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