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Zoonoses and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449278/seroepidemiology-and-molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-swine-and-occupationally-exposed-workers-in-punjab-india
#1
M Bansal, S Kaur, D Deka, R Singh, J P S Gill
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has two discrete epidemiological patterns: waterborne epidemics in developing countries only, caused by HEV genotype I, and sporadic zoonotic outbreaks in developing and developed countries caused by genotypes III and IV. This study was designed to investigate seroprevalence, molecular detection and the characterization of HEV by nested RT-PCR in swine as well as the occupational risk to exposed human population in Punjab state of north-western India. The occupational risk-exposed group comprised of swine farmers (organized - mixed feed feeders and unorganized - swill feeders), slaughterhouse workers, sewage workers and veterinary internes...
April 27, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432738/tick-bite-and-lyme-disease-related-emergency-department-encounters-in-new-hampshire-2010-2014
#2
E R Daly, C Fredette, A A Mathewson, K Dufault, D J Swenson, B P Chan
Lyme disease (LD) is a common tick-borne disease in New Hampshire (NH). While LD is a reportable condition and cases are counted for public health surveillance, many more people receive care for tick bites or diagnoses of LD than are reflected in surveillance data. NH's emergency department (ED) data system was queried for tick bite and LD-related encounters. Chief complaint text was queried for words related to LD or tick bites. International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes were queried for the LD diagnosis code (088...
April 22, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418192/detection-of-potentially-novel-paramyxovirus-and-coronavirus-viral-rna-in-bats-and-rats-in-the-mekong-delta-region-of-southern-viet-nam
#3
A Berto, P H Anh, J J Carrique-Mas, P Simmonds, N Van Cuong, N T Tue, N Van Dung, M E Woolhouse, I Smith, G A Marsh, J E Bryant, G E Thwaites, S Baker, M A Rabaa
Bats and rodents are being increasingly recognized as reservoirs of emerging zoonotic viruses. Various studies have investigated bat viruses in tropical regions, but to date there are no data regarding viruses with zoonotic potential that circulate in bat and rat populations in Viet Nam. To address this paucity of data, we sampled three bat farms and three wet markets trading in rat meat in the Mekong Delta region of southern Viet Nam. Faecal and urine samples were screened for the presence of RNA from paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses and filoviruses...
April 18, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418113/autochthonous-chagas-disease-in-the-southern-united-states-a-case-report-of-suspected-residential-and-military-exposures
#4
N Harris, L Woc-Colburn, S M Gunter, R Gorchakov, K O Murray, S Rossmann, M N Garcia
Chagas disease is a parasitic infection that can result in a progressive dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we present the epidemiologic details of a suspected locally acquired transmission case originating from the southern United States. This is the first published report of Chagas disease in a young, healthy United States veteran with repeat triatomine exposures in Arizona. Military personnel and Arizona residents should be aware of their Chagas disease transmission risks.
April 18, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391650/identification-of-brucella-spp-in-feral-swine-sus-scrofa-at-abattoirs-in-texas-usa
#5
K Pedersen, N E Bauer, S Olsen, A M Arenas-Gamboa, A C Henry, T D Sibley, T Gidlewski
Various tissues, nasal swabs, urine and blood samples were collected from 376 feral swine at two federally inspected abattoirs in Texas during six separate sampling periods in 2015. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. by culture and serology. Brucella spp. were cultured from 13.0% of feral swine, and antibodies were detected in 9.8%. Only 32.7% of culture-positive feral swine were also antibody positive, and 43.2% of antibody-positive feral swine were culture positive. Approximately, the same number of males (14...
April 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371451/novel-coronaviruses-astroviruses-adenoviruses-and-circoviruses-in-insectivorous-bats-from-northern-china
#6
H-J Han, H-L Wen, L Zhao, J-W Liu, L-M Luo, C-M Zhou, X-R Qin, Y-L Zhu, M-M Liu, R Qi, W-Q Li, H Yu, X-J Yu
Bats are considered as the reservoirs of several emerging infectious disease, and novel viruses are continually found in bats all around the world. Studies conducted in southern China found that bats carried a variety of viruses. However, few studies have been conducted on bats in northern China, which harbours a diversity of endemic insectivorous bats. It is important to understand the prevalence and diversity of viruses circulating in bats in northern China. In this study, a total of 145 insectivorous bats representing six species were collected from northern China and screened with degenerate primers for viruses belonging to six families, including coronaviruses, astroviruses, hantaviruses, paramyxoviruses, adenoviruses and circoviruses...
April 1, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371424/knowledge-perceptions-and-attitude-of-a-community-living-around-a-colony-of-straw-coloured-fruit-bats-eidolon-helvum-in-ghana-after-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-west-africa
#7
F Gbogbo, M O Kyei
A large population of straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) colonizes a prime area in the city of Accra where several public amenities are located. Although the colony is positive to several zoonotic viruses including the Ebola virus, there is limited information on the social dimensions of the existence of the bats. As a step towards effective response to health risk and conservation of the bats, this study assessed the knowledge and attitude of the community living around the bats and determined their level of environmental and public health consciousness...
March 30, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371421/hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-rabbits-and-european-brown-hares-in-germany
#8
F Hammerschmidt, K Schwaiger, L Dähnert, A Vina-Rodriguez, D Höper, M Gareis, M H Groschup, M Eiden
Recently, a change of hepatitis E from being a typical travel-associated disease to an autochthonous zoonosis in Germany was observed. An increasing number of autochthonous infections with the hepatitis E Virus (HEV) have been recognized in developed countries. Venison from wild boar is already known to be a potential source of infection, if not prepared properly by the consumer. In Germany, certain wild animals are known to be a reservoir for HEV. However, current information is missing about European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)...
March 28, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371319/faecal-campylobacter-shedding-among-dogs-in-animal-shelters-across-texas
#9
A M Leahy, K J Cummings, L D Rodriguez-Rivera, S A Hamer, S D Lawhon
Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014...
March 28, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342271/more-bark-than-bite-comparative-studies-are-needed-to-determine-the-importance-of-canine-zoonoses-in-aboriginal-communities-a-critical-review-of-published-research
#10
REVIEW
F Smout, L Schrieber, R Speare, L F Skerratt
The objective of this review was to identify and critique over forty years of peer-reviewed literature concerned with the transmission of canine zoonoses to Aboriginal people and determine the zoonotic organisms documented in dogs in Australian Aboriginal communities. A systematic literature search of public health, medical and veterinary databases identified 19 articles suitable for critical appraisal. Thirteen articles documented the occurrence of recognized zoonotic organisms in dogs in Aboriginal communities, including Toxocara canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Rickettsia felis, Sarcoptes scabiei and Giardia...
March 25, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328183/seroprevalence-of-bartonella-species-coxiella-burnetii-and-toxoplasma-gondii-among-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-a-pilot-study-in-romania
#11
C J Messinger, E S Gurzau, E B Breitschwerdt, C I Tomuleasa, S J Trufan, M M Flonta, R G Maggi, I Berindan-Neagoe, P M Rabinowitz
Patients receiving immunosuppressive cancer treatments in settings where there is a high degree of human-animal interaction may be at increased risk for opportunistic zoonotic infections or reactivation of latent infections. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of selected zoonotic pathogens among patients diagnosed with haematologic malignancies and undergoing chemotherapeutic treatments in Romania, where much of the general population lives and/or works in contact with livestock. A convenience sample of 51 patients with haematologic cancer undergoing chemotherapy at a referral clinic in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, was surveyed regarding animal exposures...
March 22, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318148/barriers-to-innovation-in-human-rabies-prophylaxis-and-treatment-a-causal-analysis-of-insights-from-key-opinion-leaders-and-literature
#12
L H M van de Burgwal, A M G Neevel, C A C M Pittens, A D M E Osterhaus, C E Rupprecht, E Claassen
Rabies is an essentially 100% fatal, zoonotic disease, caused by Lyssaviruses. Currently, the disease is vaccine-preventable with pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP). Still, rabies virus is estimated to cause up to 60,000 human deaths annually, of which the vast majority occurs in rural Asia and Africa, due to the inaccessibility of prophylaxis and non-existence of treatment. Despite these unmet clinical needs, rabies control mainly focuses on the sylvatic reservoir and drug innovation receives relatively little attention compared to other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)...
March 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296192/inferring-source-attribution-from-a-multiyear-multisource-data-set-of-salmonella-in-minnesota
#13
C Ahlstrom, P Muellner, S E F Spencer, S Hong, A Saupe, A Rovira, C Hedberg, A Perez, U Muellner, J Alvarez
Salmonella enterica is a global health concern because of its widespread association with foodborne illness. Bayesian models have been developed to attribute the burden of human salmonellosis to specific sources with the ultimate objective of prioritizing intervention strategies. Important considerations of source attribution models include the evaluation of the quality of input data, assessment of whether attribution results logically reflect the data trends and identification of patterns within the data that might explain the detailed contribution of different sources to the disease burden...
March 13, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009105/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-indiana-in-china-1984-2016
#14
REVIEW
J Gong, P Kelly, C Wang
Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana, first described in 1955, is generally regarded as having a low frequency worldwide with outbreaks of gastroenteritis and abortions described in North America and Europe. In China, S. Indiana was first reported in 1984 and in the subsequent 71 surveys in 35 cities/municipalities from 18 provinces, 70% of which were after 2012, S. Indiana has been shown to have become widely prevalent in people, animals, food and the environment around abattoirs and meat processing facilities...
June 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911041/impact-of-rabies-vaccination-history-on-attainment-of-an-adequate-antibody-titre-among-dogs-tested-for-international-travel-certification-israel-2010-2014
#15
B Yakobson, N Taylor, N Dveres, S Rotblat, Ż Spero, E W Lankau, J Maki
Rabies is endemic in wildlife or domestic carnivore populations globally. Infection of domestic dogs is of particular concern in many areas. In regions where domestic animals are at risk of exposure to rabies virus, dogs should be routinely vaccinated against rabies to protect both pet and human populations. Many countries require demonstration of an adequate level of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies to permit entry of dogs during international travel. We analysed rabies titres of dogs seeking travel certification in Israel to assess demographic and vaccine history factors associated with antibody titres below the acceptable threshold for travel certification...
June 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911040/retrospective-study-evaluating-seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-blood-donors-and-in-swine-veterinarians-in-italy-2004
#16
L De Sabato, I Di Bartolo, E Montomoli, C Trombetta, F M Ruggeri, F Ostanello
Hepatitis E is an emerging viral disease in developed countries, with sporadic cases occasionally linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork, wild boar or deer meat. Cases due to transfusion or transplantation have also been reported. In developed countries, hepatitis E is considered a zoonosis and pig is the main reservoir. In the last few years, several studies conducted in Europe reported variable seroprevalence rates among the general population, ranging between 0.26% and 52.5%. A higher seroprevalence was described among workers who come in contact with pigs...
June 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860367/multidrug-resistant-outbreak-associated-salmonella-strains-in-irrigation-water-from-the-metropolitan-region-chile
#17
M C Martínez, P Retamal, J F Rojas-Aedo, J Fernández, A Fernández, L Lapierre
Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) is the main cause of foodborne diseases in the Chilean population. With the aim of characterizing the presence of S. enterica in bodies of water, samples from 40 sources were obtained, including rivers and irrigation canals used by agricultural farms in the most populated regions of Chile. As result, 35 S. enterica isolates belonging to several serotypes were detected, with the highest frequency represented by Typhimurium and Enteritidis. All strains showed phenotypic antimicrobial resistance, and most of them were multiresistant to critically important antimicrobials...
June 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801549/identification-of-a-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-gene-in-salmonella-isolates-from-texas-dairy-farm-environmental-samples
#18
K J Cummings, L D Rodriguez-Rivera, K N Norman, N Ohta, H M Scott
A recent increase in plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has been detected among Salmonella isolated from humans in the United States, and it is necessary to determine the sources of human infection. We had previously isolated Salmonella from dairy farm environmental samples collected in Texas, and isolates were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Two isolates, serotyped as Salmonella Muenster, showed the discordant pattern of nalidixic acid susceptibility and intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin...
June 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770505/sensitivity-of-direct-culture-enrichment-and-pcr-for-detection-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-c-%C3%A2-coli-in-broiler-flocks-at-slaughter
#19
J D Rodgers, E Simpkin, R Lee, F A Clifton-Hadley, A B Vidal
Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp...
June 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762078/phenotypic-resistance-to-disinfectants-and-antibiotics-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-isolated-from-pigs
#20
E Espigares, E Moreno Roldan, M Espigares, R Abreu, B Castro, A L Dib, Á Arias
The aim of this research was to study the phenotypic resistances to disinfectants and antibiotics in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) obtained from Canary black pigs. Analyses were performed on 54 strains of MRSA, isolated in Canary black pigs from the province of Tenerife (Spain); all of them carried the mecA gene. The strains were isolated by means of nasal swab samples of healthy pigs, collected under veterinarian supervision. Bactericidal activity of antiseptics and disinfectants was tested by means of the dilution-neutralization method...
June 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
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