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Zoonoses and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044996/lifestyle-habitat-and-farmers-risk-of-exposure-to-tick-bites-in-an-endemic-area-of-tick-borne-diseases-in-hungary
#1
S Li, L Juhász-Horváth, A Trájer, L Pintér, M D A Rounsevell, P A Harrison
Controlling tick bites on farmers is important to the management of tick-borne diseases and occupational health risks in agriculture. Based on an extensive household survey conducted between June and August 2015 with 219 farmers from western Hungary where tick-borne diseases are endemic, we analysed the pattern of farmers' self-reported contacts with ticks and investigated the potential interactions between farmers, landscape and the risk of exposure to tick bites. We developed a lifestyle typology based on farmers' socioeconomic profiles, farming objectives and time use patterns, and a habitat typology describing different configurations of tick habitats and agricultural areas in place of farming...
October 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027355/a-descriptive-analysis-of-rabies-post-exposure-prophylaxis-data-2013-ontario-canada
#2
D Middleton, J J Edwin, K O Johnson, B F Warshawsky
By 2013, the number of confirmed rabid animals in Ontario had decreased to unprecedented low numbers, yet the expected decrease in the number of courses of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) administered did not occur consistent with the decrease in animal rabies cases (Figure ). This prompted a review of the reasons that RPEP was administered in Ontario. This study provides a descriptive analysis of the exposure incidents resulting in RPEP administration in Ontario during 2013 using data obtained from the integrated Public Health Information System, a Web-based disease surveillance system...
October 13, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990371/exploring-animal-rabies-endemicity-to-inform-control-programmes-in-punjab-india
#3
V J Brookes, G S Gill, C K Singh, B S Sandhu, N K Dhand, B B Singh, J P S Gill, M P Ward
Previous studies estimate that one-third of the annual global burden of rabies (~20,000 cases) occurs in India. Elimination of canine rabies is essential to reduce this burden. Surveillance of animal cases can assess both the risk to humans and the efficacy of control strategies. The objective of this study was to describe the spatial and temporal occurrence of reported confirmed cases of rabies in animals in Punjab, India, from 2004 to 2014. We analysed passive surveillance data on 556 samples submitted from 2004 to 2014 to GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab, India...
October 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984083/temporal-trends-in-giardia-occurrence-in-the-grand-river-and-surrounding-tributaries-waterloo-ontario-2005-2013-a-retrospective-analysis-of-surveillance-data
#4
A L Swirski, D L Pearl, A S Peregrine, J Thomas, K Pintar
Giardia contamination in the Grand River Watershed (south-western Ontario, Canada) was monitored from 2005 to 2013 as part of FoodNet Canada. Our study objectives were to describe the temporal pattern of Giardia occurrence and determine whether water quality parameters and bacterial indicators could act as effective markers for Giardia occurrence. Water samples were collected monthly from the Grand River near a drinking water intake point (2005-2013) and also collected intermittently from other areas in the watershed during the study period...
October 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984040/equine-chlamydiosis-an-emerging-infectious-disease-requiring-a-one-health-surveillance-approach
#5
K A Taylor, D Durrheim, J Heller, B O'Rourke, K Hope, T Merritt, P Freeman, C Chicken, J Carrick, J Branley, P Massey
Psittacosis is a rare but potentially fatal zoonosis caused by Chlamydia psittaci, an organism that is typically associated with bird contact. However C. psittaci is capable of infecting other non-avian hosts, such as horses, sheep, cattle and goats. Stud staff and veterinarians have significant exposure to parturient animals and reproductive materials in their routine work. To investigate the zoonotic potential associated with the emergence of C. psittaci as an abortifacient agent in horses, we established a programme of joint human and animal surveillance in a sentinel horse-breeding region in Australia...
October 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984036/a-cross-sectional-study-of-intestinal-parasitoses-in-dogs-and-children-of-the-periurban-area-of-la-plata-buenos-aires-argentina-zoonotic-importance-and-implications-in-public-health
#6
P Cociancic, M L Zonta, G T Navone
A cross-sectional study was performed between school term dates 2014 and 2015 to diagnose intestinal parasites in dogs and children living with them. The socio-environmental characteristics and hygiene practices of the children were also evaluated in terms of risk factors for parasitic infection of periurban neighbourhoods of La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Serial coproparasitological samples of 78 dogs and 211 children were analysed by means of concentration and flotation techniques. Socio-environmental variables and hygiene practices of children were evaluated through semi-structured questionnaires which were answered by every family...
October 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944617/genetic-diversity-anti-microbial-resistance-plasmid-profile-and-frequency-of-the-vi-antigen-in-salmonella-dublin-strains-isolated-in-brazil
#7
F P Vilela, M R Frazão, D P Rodrigues, R G Costa, M R T Casas, S A Fernandes, J P Falcão, F Campioni
Salmonella Dublin is strongly adapted to cattle causing enteritis and/or systemic disease with high rates of mortality. However, it can be sporadically isolated from humans, usually causing serious disease, especially in patients with underlying chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to molecularly type S. Dublin strains isolated from humans and animals in Brazil to verify the diversity of these strains as well as to ascertain possible differences between strains isolated from humans and animals. Moreover, the presence of the capsular antigen Vi and the plasmid profile was characterized in addition to the anti-microbial resistance against 15 drugs...
September 24, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944602/hepatitis-e-virus-and-related-viruses-in-wild-domestic-and-zoo-animals-a-review
#8
REVIEW
C Spahr, T Knauf-Witzens, T Vahlenkamp, R G Ulrich, R Johne
Hepatitis E is a human disease mainly characterized by acute liver illness, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Large hepatitis E outbreaks have been described in developing countries; however, the disease is also increasingly recognized in industrialized countries. Mortality rates up to 25% have been described for pregnant women during outbreaks in developing countries. In addition, chronic disease courses could be observed in immunocompromised transplant patients. Whereas the HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly confined to humans, genotypes 3 and 4 are also found in animals and can be zoonotically transmitted to humans...
September 24, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941132/infectious-dose-dependent-accumulation-of-live-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-virus-in-chicken-skeletal-muscle-implications-for-public-health
#9
G Vasudevan, P R Vanamayya, S Nagarajan, K Rajukumar, S Suba, G Venketash, C Tosh, R Sood, R H Nissly, S V Kuchipudi
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of H5N1 subtype are a major global threat to poultry and public health. Export of poultry products, such as chicken and duck meat, is a known source for the cross-boundary spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses. Humans get infected with HPAI H5N1 viruses either by close contact with infected poultry or through consumption of fresh/undercooked poultry meat. Skeletal muscle is the largest soft tissue in chicken that has been shown to contain virus during systemic HPAIV infection and supports productive virus infection...
September 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925562/the-horizontal-transfer-of-salmonella-between-the-lesser-mealworm-alphitobius-diaperinus-and-poultry-manure
#10
T L Crippen, C L Sheffield, R C Beier, D J Nisbet
There is need to determine the nature of enduring reservoirs of Salmonella contributing to perpetual contamination within poultry flocks. The dispersal of Salmonella between birds, litter and the lesser mealworm has been established, but the extent that these act as critical components in the epidemiology of Salmonella infection during broiler grow-out and flock rotation has not been delineated; in particular, the level of participation by the lesser mealworm beetles (LMB) as agents of retention and dispersal...
September 19, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921940/attribution-of-human-infections-with-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-to-livestock-sources-and-identification-of-source-specific-risk-factors-the-netherlands-2010-2014
#11
L Mughini-Gras, W van Pelt, M van der Voort, M Heck, I Friesema, E Franz
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic pathogen of public health concern whose sources and transmission routes are difficult to trace. Using a combined source attribution and case-control analysis, we determined the relative contributions of four putative livestock sources (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, poultry) to human STEC infections and their associated dietary, animal contact, temporal and socio-econo-demographic risk factors in the Netherlands in 2010/2011-2014. Dutch source data were supplemented with those from other European countries with similar STEC epidemiology...
September 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921905/antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-southeastern-australian-pig-herds-and-implications-for-surveillance
#12
L K van Breda, O P Dhungyel, M P Ward
To investigate public health implications of antibiotics to control post-weaning scours, we surveyed 22 commercial pig herds in southeastern Australia. Fifty faecal samples per herd were collected from pre- and post-weaned piglets. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Isolates (n = 325) were screened for susceptibility to 19 veterinary antibiotics using MIC broth microdilution. All 325 E. coli isolates underwent further testing against 27 antibiotics used in human medicine and were screened for ETEC adhesin and enterotoxin genes (F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F18, F41, STa, STb, Stx2e and LT) by multiplex PCR...
September 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913904/re-emergence-of-rabies-virus-maintained-by-canid-populations-in-paraguay
#13
A C F Amarilla, J C A Pompei, D B Araujo, F A Vázquez, R R Galeano, L M Delgado, G Bogado, M Colman, L Sanabria, K Iamamoto, R Garcia, D Assis, R Recalde, L F Martorelli, E Quiñones, A Cabello, M Martini, O Cosivi, E L Durigon, S R Favoretto
Paraguay has registered no human cases of rabies since 2004, and the last case in dogs, reported in 2009, was due to a variant maintained in the common vampire bat "Desmodus rotundus". In 2014, a dog was diagnosed as positive for rabies with aggression towards a boy and all required measures of control were successfully adopted. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the dog was not vaccinated and had been attacked by a crab-eating fox, "zorro" (Cerdocyon thous). The sample was diagnosed by the Official Veterinary Service of the Country and sent to the Center on Rabies Research from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, for antigenic and genetic characterization...
September 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905526/transmission-and-immunopathology-of-the-avian-influenza-virus-a-anhui-1-2013-h7n9-human-isolate-in-three-commonly-commercialized-avian-species
#14
B Vidaña, R Dolz, N Busquets, A Ramis, R Sánchez, R Rivas, R Valle, I Cordón, D Solanes, J Martínez, N Majó
H7N9 virus infection is a global concern, given that it can cause severe infection and mortality in humans. However, the understanding of H7N9 epidemiology, animal reservoir species and zoonotic risk remains limited. This work evaluates the pathogenicity, transmissibility and local innate immune response of three avian species harbouring different respiratory distribution of α2,6 and α2,3 SA receptors. Muscovy ducks, European quails and SPF chickens were intranasally inoculated with 10(5) embryo infectious dose (EID)50 of the human H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013) influenza isolate...
September 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905501/outbreak-of-tularaemia-connected-to-a-contaminated-well-in-the-v%C3%A3-stra-g%C3%A3-taland-region-in-sweden
#15
E Lindhusen Lindhé, M Hjertqvist, T Wahab
Tularaemia, is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. This disease has been reported in Sweden since 1931 and its wide distribution in the country poses a challenge for understanding the transmission, ecology and epidemiology of the disease. In Sweden, the disease is usually transmitted by mosquitoes, but in this study we could show that consumption of well water was epidemiologically linked to the outbreak, by isolating F. tularensis from the water. In this article, we describe an outbreak of tularaemia in the region of Västra Götaland in the southwest of Sweden in spring of 2013...
September 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834351/preliminary-insights-into-the-occurrence-of-similar-clones-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-bacteria-in-humans-animals-and-the-environment-in-tanzania-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-between-2005-and-2016
#16
REVIEW
J Seni, N Moremi, M Matee, F van der Meer, R DeVinney, S E Mshana, J D D Pitout
The emergence and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are complex and of the public health concern across the globe. This review aimed at assessing the ESBL-PE clones circulating in humans, animals and the environment to provide evidence-based insights for combating ESBL-PE using One Health approach. Systematic search from Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar and African Journals Online was carried out and retrieved nine eligible articles (of 131) based on phenotypic and genotypic detection of ESBL-PE between 2005 and 2016 in Tanzania...
August 22, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834267/pet-associated-campylobacteriosis-a-persisting-public-health-concern
#17
E R Campagnolo, L M Philipp, J M Long, N L Hanshaw
Campylobacter is regarded as a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. We report on a case of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter jejuni infection in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania among members of a household living with a laboratory-confirmed but non-speciated Campylobacter-infected puppy. We describe an outbreak of likely dog-associated campylobacteriosis, the risk factors, potential routes of exposure and the clinical features in the exposed family members, which began shortly after exposure to the recently purchased dog...
August 21, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834190/fecal-shedding-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-among-feral-pigs-in-texas
#18
K J Cummings, L D Rodriguez-Rivera, I McNeely, J S Suchodolski, B T Mesenbrink, B R Leland, M J Bodenchuk
The population and range of feral pigs in the United States are rapidly expanding, yet key knowledge gaps exist regarding their role in the ecology and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding among feral pigs throughout Texas and to identify risk factors for positive status. Faecal samples were collected from feral pigs in Texas from February 2014 through May 2015, and target organisms were detected using PCR assays...
August 19, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816022/assessing-human-risk-of-illness-with-west-nile-virus-mosquito-surveillance-data-to-improve-public-health-preparedness
#19
S Karki, N E Westcott, E J Muturi, W M Brown, M O Ruiz
Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other mosquito-borne pathogens involves costly and time-consuming collection and testing of mosquito samples. One difficulty faced by public health personnel is how to interpret mosquito data relative to human risk, thus leading to a failure to fully exploit the information from mosquito testing. The objective of our study was to use the information gained from historic West Nile virus mosquito testing to determine human risk relative to mosquito infection and to assess the usefulness of our mosquito infection forecasting models to give advance warning...
August 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795513/the-economic-implications-of-sylvatic-rabies-eradication-in-italy
#20
S Sartore, P Mulatti, S Trestini, M Lorenzetto, L Gagliazzo, S Marangon, L Bonfanti
After more than 10 years of absence, sylvatic rabies re-appeared in Italy in 2008. To prevent disease spread, three oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns targeting red foxes were performed through manual distribution of vaccine baits between January and September 2009. As these campaigns proved unsuccessful, at the end of December 2009, baits started being distributed using helicopters, allowing uniform coverage of larger areas in a shorter time period. From winter 2009 to autumn 2016, a total of 15 ORV campaigns (four emergency, four regular and seven preventive ORV) were implemented through aerial distribution of baits...
August 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
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