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Zoonoses and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105884/the-unravelled-enterococcus-faecalis-zoonotic-superbugs-emerging-multiple-resistant-and-virulent-lineages-isolated-from-poultry-environment
#1
Khwaja A Hasan, Syed A Ali, Marium Rehman, Hassaan Bin-Asif, Sindhu Zahid
This study aimed to investigate the zoonotic potential by virtue of phylogenetic analysis, virulence and resistance gene profiles of Enterococcus faecalis originating from poultry environment. The ERIC, BOX and RAPD PCR analysis showed the clustering of E. faecalis strains (n = 74) into five groups (G1-G5) and fifteen sub-clusters (B1-B15), which share 50%-80% similarities with ATCC E. faecalis and clinical strains of human infection. E. faecalis strains harboured seven enterocins genes including ent1097 (85%), entB (84%), enterolysinA (51%), entSEK4 (51%), entL50 (31%), entA (25...
August 13, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105852/ecosystem-change-and-zoonoses-in-the-anthropocene
#2
REVIEW
Barry J McMahon, Serge Morand, Jeremy S Gray
Changes in land use, animal populations and climate, primarily due to increasing human populations, drive the emergence of zoonoses. Force of infection (FOI), which for these diseases is a measure of the ease with which a pathogen reaches the human population, can change with specific zoonoses and context. Here, we outline three ecosystem categories-domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic, where disease ecology alters the FOI of specific zoonoses. Human intervention is an overriding effect in the emergence of zoonoses; therefore, we need to understand the disease ecology and other influencing factors of pathogens and parasites that are likely to interact differently within ecological and cultural contexts...
August 13, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105809/building-the-foundation-for-veterinary-register-based-epidemiology-a-systematic-approach-to-data-quality-assessment-and-validation
#3
Anna Camilla Birkegård, Mette Ely Fertner, Vibeke Frøkjaer Jensen, Anette Boklund, Nils Toft, Tariq Halasa, Ana Carolina Lopes Antunes
Epidemiological studies often use data from registers. Data quality is of vital importance for the quality of the research. The aim of this study was to suggest a structured workflow to assess the quality of veterinary national registers. As an example of how to use the workflow, the quality of the following three registers was assessed: the Central Husbandry Register (CHR), the database for movement of pigs (DMP) and the national Danish register of drugs for veterinary use (VetStat). A systematic quantitative assessment was performed, with calculation the proportion of farms and observations with "poor quality" of data...
August 13, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099849/assessing-rabies-knowledge-gaps-in-human-and-animal-healthcare-professionals-practicing-in-washington-dc-a-one-health-approach
#4
Andrew K Hennenfent, Preetha Iyengar, John Davies-Cole
Once a person is exposed to the rabies virus, it is universally fatal unless postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is administered promptly. In the United States, determining whether PEP recommeded is often a collaborative effort where health departments work with both animal and human healthcare professionals to enact animal quarantines (or rabies testing), recommending PEP when appropriate. A failure in the knowledge base of either profession can result in incorrect PEP recommendations and an increased risk of adverse outcomes...
August 11, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099841/a-scoping-review-on-the-prevalence-of-shiga-toxigenic-escherichia-coli-in-wild-animal-species
#5
REVIEW
Laura Espinosa, Aimée Gray, Geraldine Duffy, Séamus Fanning, Barry J McMahon
Zoonotic pathogens constitute the major source (60.3%) of emerging infectious diseases. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) among wild animal species, but comprehensive data are needed to assess the role that these animals have in the transmission of STEC infections to the human population via faecal contamination of the environment, agri-food or water chain. Due to the nature of these microorganisms in which this human-animal-environment interface plays a relevant role on the disease's dynamics, a "One Health" approach is needed to prevent and control the worldwide spread...
August 11, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079632/epidemiology-of-campylobacter-salmonella-and-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-free-living-canada-geese-branta-canadensis-from-three-sources-in-southern-ontario
#6
Nadine A Vogt, David L Pearl, Eduardo N Taboada, Steven K Mutschall, Nicol Janecko, Richard Reid-Smith, Bryan Bloomfield, Claire M Jardine
Antimicrobial resistant bacteria and zoonotic pathogens have previously been isolated from Canada geese. We examined the prevalence of three enteric bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia coli) among Canada geese from three sampling sources in southern Ontario from 2013 through 2015. Samples were obtained by convenience from hunting groups, diagnostic birds submitted for post-mortem, and fresh faeces from live birds in parks. Escherichia coli isolates were isolated and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance test panel...
August 5, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076681/health-workers-knowledge-of-zoonotic-diseases-in-an-endemic-region-of-western-uganda
#7
Asiimwe B Benon, Kiguli Juliet, Majalija Samuel, Kansiime Catherine, Sunday Benjamin, Mahero Michael, Rwego B Innocent
Many factors, including lack of knowledge, influence diagnosis and reporting of disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health Care workers (HCWs) are in constant interaction with communities and play an important role in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, including zoonoses. We determined knowledge of HCWs regarding cause, vector, transmission, diagnosis and clinical symptoms of five zoonotic diseases: anthrax, brucellosis, rabies as well as Ebola and marburg haemorrhagic fevers in endemic western Uganda...
August 3, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027554/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-human-non-typhoidal-salmonella-infections-an-emerging-public-health-problem-in-the-united-states
#8
Beth E Karp, Davina Campbell, Jessica C Chen, Jason P Folster, Cindy R Friedman
Invasive Salmonella infections in adults are commonly treated with fluoroquinolones, a critically important antimicrobial class. Historically, quinolone resistance was the result of chromosomal mutations, but plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has emerged and is increasingly being reported in Enterobacteriaceae worldwide. PMQR may facilitate the spread of quinolone resistance, lead to higher-level quinolone resistance, and make infections harder to treat. To better understand the epidemiology of PMQR in non-typhoidal Salmonella causing human infections in the United States, we looked at trends in quinolone resistance among isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
July 19, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014599/prevalence-of-group-i-salmonella-kentucky-in-domestic-food-animals-from-pennsylvania-and-overlap-with-human-clinical-crispr-sequence-types
#9
Hallie E Rauch, Dorothy Vosik, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Nkuchia M'ikanatha, Nikki W Shariat
Although infrequently associated with illness in humans, Salmonella enterica, subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky is the most common non-clinical, non-human serovar reported in the United States, being largely found in poultry and poultry products, as well as being associated with cattle. This serovar is polyphyletic and can be separated into two groups, Group I and II, based on CRISPR-typing analysis. In Salmonella Kentucky isolates from human clinical samples in Pennsylvania, both lineages are equally represented...
July 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009528/sporotrichosis-in-southern-brazil-towards-an-epidemic
#10
Vanice Rodrigues Poester, Antonella Souza Mattei, Isabel Martins Madrid, Juliana Tavora Bertazo Pereira, Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Karine Ortiz Sanchotene, Tchana Martinez Brandolt, Melissa Orzechowski Xavier
Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is the second highest state with respect to sporotrichosis incidence in Brazil, with most cases occurring in the southern region. Given the importance of epidemiologic monitoring in hyperendemic areas, this study evaluated the spatial, geographical and annual sporotrichosis incidence over a period of 7 years in the southern region of RS, as well as the disease evolution over the last two decades. Data were collected from the Mycology Laboratory of the Federal University of Rio Grande (FAMED-FURG) and from the Centre for Zoonosis Control (CZC) of the Prefeitura Municipal of Pelotas city...
July 15, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998551/persistence-of-escherichia-coli-in-the-soil-of-an-organic-mixed-crop-livestock-farm-that-integrates-sheep-grazing-within-vegetable-fields
#11
Laura Patterson, Nora Navarro-Gonzalez, Michele T Jay-Russell, Peiman Aminabadi, Elizabeth Antaki-Zukoski, Alda F A Pires
Mixed crop-livestock farms (MCLF) integrate livestock and crops using their animals to graze crop residues and/or cover crops. MCLF are considered sustainable because grazing and the manure deposited by livestock enhance soil fertility and recycles farm nutrients. However, livestock manure may introduce enteric foodborne pathogens to the soil, which could contaminate fresh produce. Organic farmers in the United States follow the USDA National Organic Program (NOP) standards, which require 90 or 120 days between incorporating raw manure into the soil and harvest...
July 11, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998484/exposure-to-whole-chicken-carcasses-may-present-a-greater-risk-of-campylobacteriosis-compared-to-exposure-to-chicken-drumsticks
#12
Antoine Nohra, Alex Grinberg, Anne C Midwinter, Jonathan C Marshall, Julie M Collins-Emerson, Nigel P French
In New Zealand, the major risk factor for campylobacteriosis has been identified as poultry consumption. New Zealanders consume different types of chicken meat which undergo different processing before entering the retail chain. The manipulations and jointing of chicken carcasses into pieces and the subsequent processing and packaging have the potential to cross-contaminate and reshuffle bacterial pathogens among the different products sold. The aim of this study was to analyse: (a) the differences in the viable count and population genetic structure between Campylobacter isolated from chicken drumsticks and whole carcass meat for retail sale over a 1-year period; and (b) the genetic relatedness of human and chicken isolates collected concurrently...
July 11, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984530/occurrence-and-characterization-of-seven-major-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serotypes-from-healthy-cattle-on-cow-calf-operations-in-south-africa
#13
Alfred O Mainga, Beniamino T Cenci-Goga, Mogaugedi N Malahlela, Takula Tshuma, Alan Kalake, Musafiri Karama
Cattle are a major reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. This study investigated the occurrence of seven major STEC serogroups including O157, O145, O103, O121, O111, O45 and O26 among 578 STEC isolates previously recovered from 559 cattle. The isolates were characterized for serotype and major virulence genes. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that 41.7% (241/578) of isolates belonged to STEC O157, O145, O103, O121, O45 and O26, and 33 distinct serotypes. The 241 isolates corresponded to 16...
July 8, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984469/wild-and-domestic-bird-faeces-likely-source-of-psittacosis-transmission-a-case-control-study-in-sweden-2014-2016
#14
Fanny Chereau, Moa Rehn, Alessandro Pini, Sharon Kühlmann-Berenzon, Elsie Ydring, Håkan Ringberg, Arne Runehagen, Gunilla Ockborn, Leif Dotevall, Anders Wallensten
Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted by birds. In Sweden, where psittacosis is notifiable, an average of eight cases per year were reported between 2002 and 2012. In 2013, an unusual increase in cases in southern Sweden was associated with exposure to wild birds. To further explore specific risk factors connected to wild birds and identify other risk factors for sporadic psittacosis, we conducted a case-control study including all domestically acquired psittacosis cases reported between December 2014 and April 2016 in Sweden...
July 8, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984468/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-temporally-related-nontyphoidal-salmonella-strains-isolated-from-humans-and-food-animals-in-central-ethiopia
#15
Tadesse Eguale, Daniel Asrat, Haile Alemayehu, Ismael Nana, Wondwossen A Gebreyes, John S Gunn, Ephrem Engidawork
Salmonella is one of the common causes of food-borne bacterial illnesses. The primary sources of human nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection are food animals. This study characterized temporally and spatially related Salmonella isolated during April 2013 to March 2014 from faeces of diarrhoeic human patients in Addis Ababa (n = 68) and food animals (n = 84) in Addis Ababa and surrounding districts (dairy cattle, n = 30; slaughtered cattle, n = 20; poultry, n = 26; swine n = 8). Isolates were serotyped, page typed and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
July 8, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978578/practical-inter-sectoral-linking-tool-to-rabies-one-health-coordination-to-the-grass-roots-level
#16
Toni Rose Barroga, Mary Joy Gordoncillo, Maria Glofezita Lagayan, Rona Bernales, Mardi Caniban, Emelinda Lopez, Ronello Abila
Rabies is an endemic disease in the Philippines. Addressing the disease at source, massive efforts towards dog vaccination and public awareness on rabies have been pursued by various Local Government Units (LGUs) in the country. While marked improvements have been seen, rabies continues to persist where it exists, largely owing to poor surveillance of the disease in animals and weak coordination between the human and animal health sectors. To bridge these critical gaps, the BAI-OIE STANDZ Rabies Project in the Philippines, together with the key rabies stakeholders in Bicol Region, developed the "Practical Inter-sectoral Linking"-an operational protocol and practical network of local key players (human health, animal health and LGUs) involved in rabies detection, reporting and implementation of appropriate interventions...
July 5, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974677/detection-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-bone-marrow-of-healthy-young-wild-birds-collected-in-1997-2000-in-central-italy
#17
Silvia Preziuso, Subeide Mari, Francesca Mariotti, Giacomo Rossi
Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a flavivirus responsible for an important zoonotic, vector-borne disease included in the OIE list. JEV is endemic in a large area of Asia. In Italy, JEV has been found in dead birds collected in 1997-2000 and in a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected in 2010. Viral ecology in the inter-epidemic periods is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate JEV in FFPE archival samples of healthy birds collected in 1997-2000 in Tuscany (Italy) in the same area and a few months after collection of birds resulted infected by JEV...
July 4, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931738/baited-vaccines-a-strategy-to-mitigate-rodent-borne-viral-zoonoses-in-humans
#18
Emelissa J Mendoza, Bryce Warner, Gary Kobinger, Nicholas H Ogden, David Safronetz
Rodents serve as the natural reservoir and vector for a variety of pathogens, some of which are responsible for severe and life-threatening disease in humans. Despite the significant impact in humans many of these viruses, including Old and New World hantaviruses as well as Arenaviruses, most have no specific vaccine or therapeutic to treat or prevent human infection. The recent success of wildlife vaccines to mitigate rabies in animal populations offers interesting insight into the use of similar strategies for other zoonotic agents of human disease...
June 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911344/powassan-virus-a-scoping-review-of-the-global-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Tricia Corrin, Judy Greig, Shannon Harding, Ian Young, Mariola Mascarenhas, Lisa A Waddell
BACKGROUND: Powassan virus (POWV), a flavivirus discovered in 1958, causes sporadic but severe cases of encephalitis in humans. Since 2007, the number of human Powassan cases diagnosed each year in the USA has steadily increased. This is in agreement with predictions that Powassan cases may increase in North America as a result of increased exposure to infected ticks. However, the increase may also reflect improved diagnostics and reporting among other factors. METHODS: A scoping review was prioritized to identify and characterize the global literature on POWV...
June 17, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896884/detection-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-astroviruses-in-insectivorous-bats-from-central-southern-italy
#20
Maria Grazia Amoroso, Danilo Russo, Gianvito Lanave, Luca Cistrone, Annamaria Pratelli, Vito Martella, Giorgio Galiero, Nicola Decaro, Giovanna Fusco
In recent years, bats have been found to harbour many viruses, raising several questions about their role as reservoirs and potential disseminators of zoonotic viruses. We investigated the presence of six virus families in bats in three regions of Central-Southern Italy. Astroviruses were identified in seven of 13 bat species. Sequence analysis revealed marked genetic heterogeneity among the astroviruses identified, with nucleotide identity ranging between 60.26% and 87.62%. Astrovirus diversity was not associated with the bat species, the geographic areas or the bat colony, suggesting the circulation of several astrovirus strains in Italian ecosystems...
June 12, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
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