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Zoonoses and Public Health

T C Anderson, N Marsden-Haug, J F Morris, W Culpepper, N Bessette, J K Adams, S Bidol, S Meyer, J Schmitz, M M Erdman, T M Gomez, C Barton Behravesh
Zoonotic Salmonella infections cause approximately 130 000 illnesses annually in the United States. Of 72.9 million US households owning at least one pet, five million own small mammals; 3000 hedgehogs were documented by USDA in USDA-licensed breeding facilities and pet stores in 2012. State health department collaborators and PulseNet, the national bacterial subtyping network, identified human infections of a Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak strain, which were investigated by CDC, USDA-APHIS and state public and animal health officials...
October 13, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
T Kantala, P M Kinnunen, S Oristo, P Jokelainen, O Vapalahti, L Maunula
We investigated hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Finnish veterinarians engaged in different practice specialties and evaluated the effect of different background factors on HEV exposure by examining total HEV antibodies in samples collected from the participants of the 2009 National Veterinary Congress in Helsinki, Finland. Finnish veterinarians commonly have total HEV antibodies with seroprevalence of 10.2%. Of the non-veterinarians, 5.8% were seropositive. Increasing age was associated with HEV seropositivity, and, surprisingly, the highest HEV seroprevalence (17...
September 13, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
A J Shapiro, J M Norris, K L Bosward, J Heller
A Q fever outbreak in a small animal veterinary hospital, associated with a cat caesarean section, initiated a cat seroprevalence study (n = 712) that found circulating antibodies to Coxiella burnetii was highest in cattery-confined breeding cats (9.3%). These findings stimulated interest about potential sources of C. burnetii infection for cats and humans associated with cats. Cat breeders are potentially a group at increased risk of C. burnetii infection, and this study sought to identify potential risk factors...
September 13, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
J White, C Noonan-Toly, G Lukacik, N Thomas, A Hinckley, S Hook, P B Backenson
Despite the mandatory nature of Lyme disease (LD) reporting in New York State (NYS), it is believed that only a fraction of the LD cases diagnosed annually are reported to public health authorities. Lack of complete LD case reporting generally stems from (i) lack of report of provider-diagnosed cases where supportive laboratory testing is not ordered or results are negative (i.e. provider underreporting) and (ii) incomplete case information (clinical laboratory reporting only with no accompanying clinical information) such that cases are considered 'suspect' and not included in national and statewide case counts (i...
September 10, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
L Collineau, C Belloc, K D C Stärk, A Hémonic, M Postma, J Dewulf, C Chauvin
An increasing variety of indicators of antimicrobial usage has become available in human and veterinary medicine, with no consensus on the most appropriate indicators to be used. The objective of this review is therefore to provide guidance on the selection of indicators, intended for those aiming to quantify antimicrobial usage based on sales, deliveries or reimbursement data. Depending on the study objective, different requirements apply to antimicrobial usage quantification in terms of resolution, comprehensiveness, stability over time, ability to assess exposure and comparability...
September 4, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
J H Leibler, K Dalton, A Pekosz, G C Gray, E K Silbergeld
While technological advances in animal husbandry have facilitated increases in global meat production, the high density and geographic concentration of food animal production facilities pose risks of infectious disease transmission. The scale of the 2014-2015 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 outbreak in the United States demonstrates the challenges in achieving pathogen control within and around industrial animal facilities using existing technologies. We discuss gaps in current practice in two specific systems within these facilities - ventilation and waste management - which are under-recognized as important drivers of microbial porosity...
September 4, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
S Saunders, K Smith, R Schott, G Dobbins, J Scheftel
Campylobacteriosis is an enteric illness caused by bacteria of the genus Campylobacter. There are approximately 900 culture-confirmed cases of campylobacteriosis reported annually to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). Case patients are interviewed about risk factors, including foods eaten, recreational and drinking water exposures and animal contact. In September 2013, MDH identified two Campylobacter jejuni cases who reported working at the same wildlife rehabilitation centre before illness onset. This report describes the investigation, which used a case-control study design, and identified 16 additional ill persons, for a total of 18 ill persons...
August 30, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
A Casanova-Higes, S Andrés-Barranco, R C Mainar-Jaime
The risk of Salmonella shedding among pigs at slaughter with regard to their previous on-farm Salmonella status was assessed in a group of pigs from a farm from NE of Spain. A total of 202 pigs that had been serologically monitored monthly during the fattening period and from which mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and faecal (SFEC) samples were collected at slaughter for Salmonella isolation were included. A repeated-measures anova was used to assess the relationship between mean OD% values during the fattening period and sampling time and bacteriology on MLN and SFEC...
August 23, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
R J Brooke, P F M Teunis, M E E Kretzschmar, C C H Wielders, P M Schneeberger, L A Waller
The Netherlands underwent a large Q fever outbreak between 2007 and 2009. In this paper, we study spatial and temporal Coxiella burnetii exposure trends during this large outbreak as well as validate outcomes against other published studies and provide evidence to support hypotheses on the causes of the outbreak. To achieve this, we develop a framework using a dose-response model to translate acute Q fever case incidence into exposure estimates. More specifically, we incorporate a geostatistical model that accounts for spatial and temporal correlation of exposure estimates from a human Q fever dose-response model to quantify exposure trends during the outbreak...
August 23, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
M Viswanathan, D L Pearl, E N Taboada, E J Parmley, S K Mutschall, C M Jardine
Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms (eight beef, eight swine and nine dairy) in 2010, we assessed clustering of molecular subtypes of C. jejuni based on a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative genomic fingerprinting assay (CGF40) subtypes, using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis, and multiple correspondence analysis. Exact logistic regression was used to determine which genes differentiate wildlife and livestock subtypes in our study population...
August 5, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
J Bjork, C Brown, H Friedlander, E Schiffman, D Neitzel
Many disease surveillance programs, including the Massachusetts Department of Public Health and the Minnesota Department of Health, are challenged by marked increases in Lyme disease (LD) reports. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyse LD reports from 2005 through 2012 to determine whether key epidemiologic characteristics were statistically indistinguishable when an estimation procedure based on sampling was utilized. Estimates of the number of LD cases were produced by taking random 20% and 50% samples of laboratory-only reports, multiplying by 5 or 2, respectively, and adding the number of provider-reported confirmed cases...
August 3, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
T F Landers, D F Mollenkopf, R L Faubel, A Dent, P Pancholi, J B Daniels, T E Wittum
The dissemination of Enterobacteriaceae expressing resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, which are therapeutically used in both human and veterinary medicine, is of critical concern. The normal commensal flora of food animals may serve as an important reservoir for the zoonotic food-borne transmission of Enterobacteriaceae harbouring β-lactam resistance. We hypothesized that the predominant AmpC and ESBL genes reported in US livestock and fresh retail meat products, blaCMY -2 and blaCTX -M , would also be predominant in human enteric flora...
August 3, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Petra Bandelj, Majda Golob, Matjaz Ocepek, Irena Zdovc, Modest Vengust
A significant risk factor for developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in humans and animals is associated with the antimicrobial use. It has often been hypothesized that farm animals could be the source for human infection with Clostridium difficile (CD). In the European Union, family-run dairy farms are the predominant farming model, which are more interlinked within the community compared to large-scale intensive dairy or beef farms. Therefore, it is important to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of CD in such environment...
August 3, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
A Straily, I Trevino-Garrison
Rabies is a deadly zoonoses endemic in the United States, including Kansas. Animal control programmes that emphasize vaccination of dogs and cats, removal of stray animals and enforcement of licensure programmes have historically been essential in reducing the risk of rabies exposures to humans (Beran, 1991). Kansas does not mandate the use of animal control officers [ACOs] and in areas where there is no designated animal control officer, law enforcement officers [LEOs] are required to fill that role. Little is known about LEOs' knowledge of rabies, their current practices in responding to animal-related calls or if they receive any specialized training to perform the duties of an ACO...
July 31, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
H J Rutz, Sb Wee, K A Feldman
Lyme disease (LD) is the most common vector-borne disease in Maryland and the United States. Surveillance for LD is valuable for understanding the burden of the disease, particularly to assess whether the disease is spreading and to appreciate who is affected. However, not all cases of LD in Maryland are reported, and surveillance practices vary across each of Maryland's 24 local health departments (LHDs). To better understand this variability and to systematically characterize the surveillance process, we surveyed Maryland's LHDs regarding LD surveillance...
July 29, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
G A Medhanie, D L Pearl, S A McEwen, M T Guerin, C M Jardine, J Schrock, J T LeJeune
European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) have been implicated in the dispersal of zoonotic enteric pathogens. However, their role in disseminating antimicrobial-resistant organisms through their home range has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to determine whether starling night roosts served as foci for spreading organisms with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials among dairy cattle farms. Bovine faecal pats were collected from 150 dairy farms in Ohio. Each farm was visited twice (in summer and fall) between 2007 and 2009...
July 27, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
M Viswanathan, D L Pearl, E N Taboada, E J Parmley, S Mutschall, C M Jardine
The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the carriage of Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter among livestock and mammalian wildlife on Ontario farms, and (ii) investigate the potential sharing of Campylobacter subtypes between livestock and wildlife. Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms in 2010, we assessed associations, using mixed logistic regression models, between Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter carriage and the following explanatory variables: animal species (beef, dairy, swine, raccoon, other), farm type (swine, beef, dairy), type of sample (livestock or wildlife) and Campylobacter species (jejuni, coli, other)...
July 27, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
P Talley, P Snippes-Vagnone, K Smith
During October 2014, the Minnesota Department of Health was notified of five Hospital A patients with Pasteurella multocida bacteraemia; three had died. Human soft tissue infection with P. multocida typically results from cat or dog bites or scratches. Invasive infection, defined as a P. multocida isolate from a usually sterile site, is rare. We evaluated P. multocida isolations at Hospital A, compared with other Minnesota hospitals to understand invasive infection trends. A case was defined as clinically confirmed P...
September 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
R de A Cordeiro, N F H Duarte, B N Rolim, F A Soares Júnior, I C F Franco, L L Ferrer, C P Almeida, B H Duarte, D B de Araújo, M F G Rocha, R S N Brilhante, S R Favoretto, J J C Sidrim
Rabies is an endemic disease in Brazil, where it is considered a serious public health problem. Although the number of human and dog-transmitted cases has declined in recent decades, rabies in wildlife has emerged considerably. Among the sylvatic animals, wild canids have been considered important hosts of the rabies virus. We performed a retrospective study of reported cases of rabies in wild canids and human victims in Ceará state (Northeast Brazil) during 2003 to 2013. Information was provided by governmental laboratories involved in rabies detection and by the Ministry of Health...
September 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
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