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Zoonoses and Public Health

Emelissa J Mendoza, Bryce Warner, Gary Kobinger, Nicholas H Ogden, David Safronetz
Rodents serve as the natural reservoir and vector for a variety of pathogens, some of which are responsible for severe and life-threatening disease in humans. Despite the significant impact in humans many of these viruses, including Old and New World hantaviruses as well as Arenaviruses, most have no specific vaccine or therapeutic to treat or prevent human infection. The recent success of wildlife vaccines to mitigate rabies in animal populations offers interesting insight into the use of similar strategies for other zoonotic agents of human disease...
June 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Tricia Corrin, Judy Greig, Shannon Harding, Ian Young, Mariola Mascarenhas, Lisa A Waddell
BACKGROUND: Powassan virus (POWV), a flavivirus discovered in 1958, causes sporadic but severe cases of encephalitis in humans. Since 2007, the number of human Powassan cases diagnosed each year in the USA has steadily increased. This is in agreement with predictions that Powassan cases may increase in North America as a result of increased exposure to infected ticks. However, the increase may also reflect improved diagnostics and reporting among other factors. METHODS: A scoping review was prioritized to identify and characterize the global literature on POWV...
June 17, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Maria Grazia Amoroso, Danilo Russo, Gianvito Lanave, Luca Cistrone, Annamaria Pratelli, Vito Martella, Giorgio Galiero, Nicola Decaro, Giovanna Fusco
In recent years, bats have been found to harbour many viruses, raising several questions about their role as reservoirs and potential disseminators of zoonotic viruses. We investigated the presence of six virus families in bats in three regions of Central-Southern Italy. Astroviruses were identified in seven of 13 bat species. Sequence analysis revealed marked genetic heterogeneity among the astroviruses identified, with nucleotide identity ranging between 60.26% and 87.62%. Astrovirus diversity was not associated with the bat species, the geographic areas or the bat colony, suggesting the circulation of several astrovirus strains in Italian ecosystems...
June 12, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Silvia E Tritz, Vilaysone Khounvisith, Sisavath Pommasichan, Khampasong Ninnasopha, Amphone Keosengthong, Vannaphone Phoutana, Margot Camoin, Judith M Hübschen, Antony P Black, Claude P Muller, Chantal J Snoeck, Maude Pauly
Although pigs are the main reservoir, ruminants have also been shown to be susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV). We investigated zoonotic transmission of HEV in rural settings of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) where humans are in close contacts with ruminants and where pigs are rare. Villagers with (n = 171, risk group) and without (n = 155, control group) cattle were recruited in seven villages in Vientiane Capital. Owners of pigs were excluded. Blood, as well as information on socio-demographics, animal contact, dietary habits and awareness of zoonoses were collected to assess risk factors...
June 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Ratchagadasse Vimal Raj, Kirubakaran Vinod Kumar, Chandan Lall, Kumaresan Vedhagiri, Attayur Purushothaman Sugunan, Ittoop Pulikkottil Sunish, Sameer Sharma, Paluru Vijayachari
Seroprevalence of leptospirosis among a healthy population of the South Andaman Island was assessed through random sampling. Previous studies have high seroprevalences of up to 55% in general population and 65% in agricultural labourers. The study subjects (1,181 in total, 781 rural and 400 urban) were interviewed and tested for antibodies against Leptospira. Multivariate models were developed to determine the risk factors in the rural and the urban population. The overall seroprevalence was 10.9%, with rural (12...
June 6, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Jeong Rae Yoo, Keun Hwa Lee, Sang Taek Heo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 3, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Jennifer L Harcourt, Nir Rudoler, Azaibi Tamin, Eyal Leshem, Michal Rasis, Michael Giladi, Lia M Haynes
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, MERS-CoV, was identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012, and as of January 29, 2018, there were 2,123 laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases reported to WHO (WHO, 2018, Multiple studies suggest that dromedary camels are a source for human MERS-CoV infection. MERS-CoV-specific antibodies have been detected in the serum of dromedary camels across Northern Africa and across the Arabian Peninsula. Israel's geographic location places Israel at risk for MERS-CoV infection...
May 31, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Hume Ernest Field
Historically, Australia was considered free of rabies and rabieslike viruses. Thus, the identification of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in 1996 in a debilitated bat found by a member of the public precipitated both public health consternation and a revision of lyssavirus taxonomy. Subsequent observational studies sought to elaborate the occurrence and frequency of ABLV infection in Australian bats. This paper describes the taxonomic diversity of bat species showing evidence of ABLV infection to better inform public health considerations...
May 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Alexander J Howard, Kapil K Chousalkar, Andrea R McWhorter
Vaccination of chicks with Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium aroA deletion mutants has previously been shown to inhibit intestinal colonization of wild-type S. Typhimurium strains. In Australia, Bioproperties VaxSafe™ STM1 strain is the only licensed and commercially available S. Typhimurium vaccine. This vaccine is a live attenuated aroA deletion mutant. Currently, it is recommended that the first dose of the STM1 vaccine is administered through coarse spray. It is unclear whether this mode of administration effectively permits intestinal colonization...
May 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
E Ferroglio, E Battisti, S Zanet, C Bolla, E Concialdi, A Trisciuoglio, S Khalili, A Biglino
Leishmania infantum infection had been expanding into new areas due to changes in vector and host biology. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis has become endemic in previously unsuitable areas as vectors find favourable climatic conditions and an increasing number of reservoir dogs are moved between traditionally and new endemic areas. Monitoring vector and disease expansion in areas of recent colonization is needed to understand transmission mechanisms and patterns of disease establishment. Here, we studied the infection status of 815 human blood donors and of 803 sympatric dogs from five, newly endemic, areas in Northwestern Italy...
May 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
M O V Osinubi, N Fenelon, J L Dyer, R Franka, M Etheart, A Ali, M Birhane, N Phaimyr Jn Charles, A Destine, N Saleme, C Newman, K Crowdis, C Lutfy, C E Rupprecht, R M Wallace, V R Johnson
The highest rate of human rabies deaths reported in the Americas is in Haiti, and most of these deaths result from rabies virus infections that occur after individuals are bitten by infected dogs and do not receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. One barrier to rabies prevention in Haiti is a lack of knowledge about this disease among healthcare professionals and community members. During the past 4 years, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has collaborated with public health officials and partners to develop, test and refine educational materials aimed at filling this need for rabies education...
May 3, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
E R Campagnolo, D Tewari, T S Farone, J L Livengood, K L Mason
Studies reporting tick infection rates for Powassan virus (POWV), an emerging zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogen responsible for POWV disease in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, are limited. To determine the presence and ascertain a statewide prevalence of POWV, ticks were collected from 9,912 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) heads presented to six regional Pennsylvania Game Commission Chronic Wasting Disease sampling stations in early December of 2013, 2014 and 2015. Of the 2,973 ticks recovered, 1,990 (66...
April 29, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
B San Román, V Garrido, S Sánchez, I Martínez-Ballesteros, J Garaizar, R C Mainar-Jaime, L Migura-Garcia, M J Grilló
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen causing important zoonosis worldwide. Pigs asymptomatically infected in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) can be intermittent shedders of the pathogen through faeces, being considered a major source of human infections. European baseline studies of fattening pig salmonellosis are based on Salmonella detection in MLN. This work studies the relationship between Salmonella infection in MLN and intestinal content (IC) shedding at slaughter and the relationship between the presence of the pathogen and the serologic status at farm level...
April 27, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Sandra Janezic, Sabina Mlakar, Maja Rupnik
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes intestinal infections. Although C. difficile is still predominantly considered as a nosocomial pathogen, there has been an increase in the number of community-associated infections. Since C. difficile is ubiquitous and can be isolated from nearly any environment, one of the possibilities for community acquisition could be exposure to spores in the domestic environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of C. difficile spores on shoes, slippers and on dog paws and to explore the importance of these surfaces as vectors for the dissemination of C...
April 23, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
C Yuan, A Krull, C Wang, M Erdman, P J Fedorka-Cray, C M Logue, A M O'Connor
As Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen of food animals, surveillance programmes for S. enterica serovars have existed for many years in the United States. Surveillance programmes serve many purposes, one of which is to evaluate alterations in the prevalence of serovars that may signal changes in the ecology of the target organism. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the proportion of S. enterica serovars isolated from swine over a near 20-year observation period (1997-2015) using four longitudinal data sets from different food animal species...
April 23, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
E J Mendoza, B Warner, D Safronetz, C Ranadheera
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral zoonosis with a case-fatality rate ranging from 9% to 50% in humans. Although a licensed vaccine to prevent infection by the CCHF virus (CCHFV) exists, its ability to induce neutralizing antibodies is limited and its efficacy against CCHFV remains undetermined. In addition, controlling CCHF infections by eradication of the tick reservoir has been ineffective, both economically and logistically, and the treatment options for CCHF remain limited...
April 20, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
A Rivero-Juarez, M Frias, P Lopez-Lopez, A Martinez-Peinado, M Á Risalde, T Brieva, I Machuca, Á Camacho, I García-Bocanegra, J C Gomez-Villamandos, A Rivero
Diagnosis of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is established by detection of anti-HEV IgM antibodies by ELISA or by amplification of serum viral RNA. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic value of testing HEV RNA in saliva to identify patients with acute HEV infection. Prospective proof-of-concept study including patients with acute hepatitis. Whole blood and neat saliva samples were obtained from all patients. Saliva samples were processed and analysed for HEV RNA by RT-PCR within 2 hr after collection...
April 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
O Brynildsrud, K R Tysnes, L J Robertson, J J Debenham
Giardia duodenalis colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of a wide range of hosts, including humans and other primates. It is grouped into eight different Assemblages and, beyond that, into a number of sub-Assemblages, defined ad hoc on the basis of genetic differences; these various groups are often considered to be associated with a specific restricted host range. The aim of this study was to use publicly available genotyping data to investigate the relatedness of human and non-human primate (NHP) Giardia isolates in order to evaluate the usefulness of current taxonomic classification and to assess whether there is potential for zoonotic transmission between humans and NHP...
April 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
S G H Sapp, B Murray, E R Hoover, G T Green, M J Yabsley
Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, is a zoonotic ascarid of importance to human and animal health. Wildlife rehabilitators who care for raccoons may be at an increased risk for exposure to the parasite, especially if proper precautions are not taken. In a wider effort to evaluate awareness regarding B. procyonis in the wildlife rehabilitation community, an online survey (38-39 questions) including questions about B. procyonis knowledge and attitudes was developed and administered to wildlife rehabilitators...
March 30, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
A M Carnero, K Kitayama, D A Diaz, M Garvich, N Angulo, V A Cama, R H Gilman, A M Bayer
Interspecies transmission of pathogens is an unfrequent but naturally occurring event and human activities may favour opportunities not previously reported. Reassortment of zoonotic pathogens like influenza A virus can result from these activities. Recently, swine and birds have played a central role as "mixing vessels" for epidemic and pandemic events related to strains like H1N1 and H5N1. Unsafe practices in poultry markets and swine farms can lead to interspecies transmission, favouring the emergence of novel strains...
March 30, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
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