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Zoonoses and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328183/seroprevalence-of-bartonella-species-coxiella-burnetii-and-toxoplasma-gondii-among-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-a-pilot-study-in-romania
#1
C J Messinger, E S Gurzau, E B Breitschwerdt, C I Tomuleasa, S J Trufan, M M Flonta, R G Maggi, I B Neagoe, P M Rabinowitz
Patients receiving immunosuppressive cancer treatments in settings where there is a high degree of human-animal interaction may be at increased risk for opportunistic zoonotic infections or reactivation of latent infections. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of selected zoonotic pathogens among patients diagnosed with haematologic malignancies and undergoing chemotherapeutic treatments in Romania, where much of the general population lives and/or works in contact with livestock. A convenience sample of 51 patients with haematologic cancer undergoing chemotherapy at a referral clinic in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, was surveyed regarding animal exposures...
March 22, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318148/barriers-to-innovation-in-human-rabies-prophylaxis-and-treatment-a-causal-analysis-of-insights-from-key-opinion-leaders-and-literature
#2
L H M van de Burgwal, A M G Neevel, C A C M Pittens, A D M E Osterhaus, C E Rupprecht, E Claassen
Rabies is an essentially 100% fatal, zoonotic disease, caused by Lyssaviruses. Currently, the disease is vaccine-preventable with pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP). Still, rabies virus is estimated to cause up to 60,000 human deaths annually, of which the vast majority occurs in rural Asia and Africa, due to the inaccessibility of prophylaxis and non-existence of treatment. Despite these unmet clinical needs, rabies control mainly focuses on the sylvatic reservoir and drug innovation receives relatively little attention compared to other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)...
March 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296192/inferring-source-attribution-from-a-multiyear-multisource-data-set-of-salmonella-in-minnesota
#3
C Ahlstrom, P Muellner, S E F Spencer, S Hong, A Saupe, A Rovira, C Hedberg, A Perez, U Muellner, J Alvarez
Salmonella enterica is a global health concern because of its widespread association with foodborne illness. Bayesian models have been developed to attribute the burden of human salmonellosis to specific sources with the ultimate objective of prioritizing intervention strategies. Important considerations of source attribution models include the evaluation of the quality of input data, assessment of whether attribution results logically reflect the data trends and identification of patterns within the data that might explain the detailed contribution of different sources to the disease burden...
March 13, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236361/rural-habitat-as-risk-factor-for-hepatitis-e-virus-seroconversion-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#4
A Rivero-Juarez, F Cuenca-Lopez, A Martinez-Peinado, A Camacho, L M Real, M Frias, A Gordon, S Cantisán, J Torre-Cisneros, J A Pineda, A Rivero
Our objective was to determine the incidence and clinical manifestations of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) in HIV-infected patients. A prospective longitudinal study including HIV-infected HEV-seronegative patients was conducted; HEV seroconversion (to IgG and/or IgM) was the main outcome variable. All patients were tested for HEV antibodies every 3-6 months. For patients who developed HEV seroconversion, a data collection protocol was followed to identify associated clinical manifestations and analytical alterations...
February 25, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233464/antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-pigeons-from-public-parks-in-costa-rica
#5
K Blanco-Peña, F Esperón, A M Torres-Mejía, A de la Torre, E de la Cruz, M Jiménez-Soto
Antimicrobial resistance is known to be an emerging problem, but the extent of the issue remains incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of nine resistance genes (blaTEM , catI, mecA, qnrS, sulI, sulII, tet(A), tet(Q), vanA) in the faeces of 141 pigeons from four urban parks in Alajuela, Guadalupe, Tres Ríos and San José in Costa Rica. The genes were identified by real-time PCR directly from enema samples. About 30% of the samples were positive for genes catI and sulI; between 13% and 17% were positive for qnrS, sulII, tet(A) and tet(Q); and 4% were positive for blaTEM ...
February 24, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220658/serological-evidence-for-exposure-to-avian-influenza-viruses-within-poultry-workers-in-southern-china
#6
E de Bruin, X Zhang, C Ke, R Sikkema, M Koopmans
The risk of infection with avian influenza viruses for poultry workers is relatively unknown in China, and study results are often biased by the notification of only the severe human cases. Protein microarray was used to detect binding antibodies to 13 different haemagglutinin (HA1-part) antigens of avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N7), A(H7N9) and A(H9N2) viruses, in serum samples from poultry workers and healthy blood donors collected in the course of 3 years in Guangdong Province, China. Significantly higher antibody titre levels were detected in poultry workers when compared to blood donors for the most recent H5 and H9 strains tested...
February 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220657/a-geographic-study-of-west-nile-virus-in-humans-dead-corvids-and-mosquitoes-in-ontario-using-spatial-scan-statistics-with-a-survival-time-application
#7
A L Thomas-Bachli, D L Pearl, O Berke, E J Parmley, I K Barker
Surveillance of West Nile virus (WNv) in Ontario has included passive reporting of human cases and testing of trapped mosquitoes and dead birds found by the public. The dead bird surveillance programme was limited to testing within a public health unit (PHU) until a small number of birds test positive. These dead corvid and mosquito surveillance programmes have not been compared for their ability to provide early warning in geographic areas where human cases occur each year. Spatial scan statistics were applied to time-to-event survival data based on first cases of WNv in found dead corvids, mosquitoes and humans...
February 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220635/kyasanur-forest-disease-virus-breaking-the-endemic-barrier-an%C3%A2-investigation-into-ecological-effects-on-disease-emergence-and-future-outlook
#8
K Ajesh, B K Nagaraja, K Sreejith
Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) is found in a limited range of India, but is epidemiologically understudied. The seasonal patterns of KFD are well known; however, the significant concern is on the extent to which changes in epidemiology happen especially under the influence of ecological destructions and by the eventual effects of resulting climate change. Presently, a southward and northward spread of the Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) along the Western Ghats has been reported in the adjoining states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Maharashtra...
February 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220620/prevalence-of-ampc-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-harbouring-enterobacteriaceae-in-faecal-flora-of-a-healthy-domestic-canine-population
#9
D A Mathys, D F Mollenkopf, C A Bremer, J B Daniels, T E Wittum
In order to estimate the prevalence of AmpC- and ESBL β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the faecal flora of a healthy domestic canine population, faecal samples were obtained from healthy dogs receiving routine parasitology screening at the Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center, between January 2013 and April 2013. Samples were screened for the presence of AmpC and ESBL β-lactamase phenotypes, and the clinically important genotypes, blaCMY and blaCTX-M , were confirmed via conventional PCR...
February 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206705/erysipelothrix-rhusiopathiae-bloodstream-infection-a-22-year-experience-at-mayo-clinic-minnesota
#10
E M Tan, J R Marcelin, N Adeel, R J Lewis, M J Enzler, P K Tosh
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus found mostly in swine, fish and sheep. E. rhusiopathiae classically causes cutaneous eruptions in butchers, fish handlers and veterinarians. Based solely on case reports, 90% of E. rhusiopathiae bloodstream infections (BSI) have been associated with infective endocarditis (IE). To assess the true frequency of IE in E. rhusiopathiae BSI as well as other clinical associations, we performed a retrospective cohort analysis of E...
February 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176495/serosurvey-of-coxiella-burnetii-q-fever-in-dromedary-camels-camelus-dromedarius-in-laikipia-county-kenya
#11
A S Browne, E M Fèvre, M Kinnaird, D M Muloi, C A Wang, P S Larsen, T O'Brien, S L Deem
Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are an important protein source for people in semi-arid and arid regions of Africa. In Kenya, camel populations have grown dramatically in the past few decades resulting in the potential for increased disease transmission between humans and camels. An estimated four million Kenyans drink unpasteurized camel milk, which poses a disease risk. We evaluated the seroprevalence of a significant zoonotic pathogen, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), among 334 camels from nine herds in Laikipia County, Kenya...
February 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169507/predictive-factors-for-fatal-tick-borne-spotted-fever-in-brazil
#12
S V de Oliveira, M C A Willemann, G S Gazeta, R N Angerami, R Gurgel-Gonçalves
In Brazil, two pathogenic Rickettsia species have been identified causing tick-borne spotted fever (SF). The aetiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii causes serious illness, particularly in the south-eastern region of the country. Moreover, the Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic Rainforest cause milder clinical manifestations in south-eastern, south and north-east regions. This study has sought to analyse predictive factors for fatal SF. A case-control study was performed using disease notification records in Brazil...
February 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117947/seroprevalence-and-factors-associated-with-coxiella-burnetii-infection-in-small-ruminants-in-baringo-county-kenya
#13
J Muema, S M Thumbi, M Obonyo, S Wanyoike, M Nanyingi, E Osoro, A Bitek, S Karanja
To improve estimates of C. burnetii epidemiology in Kenya, a survey was undertaken in small ruminants in Baringo County, where acute cases of Q fever in humans had been reported in 2014. From 140 household herds selected, 508 (60.5%) goats and 332 (39.5%) sheep were included and an indirect ELISA assay for C. burnetii IgG antibodies performed. In addition, epidemiological information at both herd and animal level was collected. Generalized mixed-effects multivariable logistic model using herd as the random effect was used to determine variables correlated to the outcome...
January 24, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084673/applying-the-one-health-concept-to-mycobacterial-research-overcoming-parochialism
#14
REVIEW
S Thirunavukkarasu, K M Plain, K de Silva, B J Marais, R J Whittington
Mycobacterial infections remain a public health problem. Historically important, globally ubiquitous and with a wide host range, we are still struggling to control mycobacterial infections in humans and animals. While previous reviews have focused on individual mycobacterial infections in either humans or animals, a comprehensive review of the zoonotic aspect of mycobacteria in the context of the One Health initiative is lacking. With the purpose of providing a concise and comprehensive resource, we have collated literature to address the zoonotic potential of different mycobacterial species and elaborate on the necessity for an inter-sectorial approach to attain a new vision to combat mycobacterial infections...
January 13, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068003/brucella-abortus-is-prevalent-in-both-humans-and-animals-in-bangladesh
#15
A K M A Rahman, C Saegerman, D Berkvens, F Melzer, H Neubauer, D Fretin, E Abatih, N Dhand, M P Ward
To determine the role of different Brucella (B.) spp. in Bangladesh, 62 animal samples and 500 human sera were tested. Animal samples from cattle, goats and sheep (including milk, bull semen, vaginal swabs and placentas) were cultured for Brucella spp. Three test-positive human sera and all animal samples were screened by Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and positive samples were then tested by IS711 RT-PCR to detect B. abortus and B. melitensis DNA. Only B. abortus DNA was amplified from 13 human and six animal samples...
January 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068002/response
#16
LETTER
L V Wicker, P J Canfield, D P Higgins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067995/antibody-prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-women-from-multan-pakistan
#17
M M Nazir, M Akhtar, A Maqbool, A Waheed, M A Sajid, M A Ali, M Oneeb, M A Alam, A N Ahmad, N Nazir, S Fatima, D S Lindsay
Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in humans and warm-blooded animals. Maternal infections during pregnancy may have devastating consequences for transplacentally infected neonates. This study was conducted to examine the seroprevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in pregnant women of childbearing age and determine risk factors associated with pregnancy history, pet ownership, social and cultural factors at Nishtar Hospital, Multan. Samples were collected from 403 women and examined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067990/familial-hepatitis-e-outbreak-linked-to-wild-boar-meat-consumption
#18
A Rivero-Juarez, M Frias, A Martinez-Peinado, M A Risalde, D Rodriguez-Cano, A Camacho, I García-Bocanegra, F Cuenca-Lopez, J C Gomez-Villamandos, A Rivero
An HIV-infected patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E infection in our hospital. An epidemiological inquiry was performed to collect demographic, food and animal exposure variables in order to identify the potential route of transmission. The patient reported that his family traditionally hunted wild boar for food. All family members were analysed for hepatitis E virus infection. Additionally, route of transmission by wild boar meat consumption and prevalence of HEV infection among wild boar from the same hunting area were investigated...
January 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045227/severe-outbreak-of-sorbitol-fermenting-escherichia-coli-o157-via-unpasteurized-milk-and-farm-visits-finland-2012
#19
A Jaakkonen, S Salmenlinna, R Rimhanen-Finne, H Lundström, S Heinikainen, M Hakkinen, S Hallanvuo
Shiga toxin-producing, sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157 (SF O157) has emerged as a cause of severe human illness. Despite frequent human findings, its transmission routes and reservoirs remain largely unknown. Foodborne transmission and reservoir in cattle have been suspected, but with limited supporting evidence. This study describes the outbreak of SF O157 that occurred in Finland in 2012. The outbreak originated from a recreational farm selling unpasteurized milk, as revealed by epidemiologic and microbiological investigations, and involved six hospitalized children and two asymptomatic adults with culture-confirmed infection...
January 3, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032696/high-incidence-of-respiratory-involvement-in-a-cluster-of-brucella-suis-infected-workers-from-a-pork-processing-plant-in-argentina
#20
J C Wallach, J L García, P S Cardinali, A P Seijo, A G Benchetrit, S E Echazarreta, S L Garro, B Deodato, P C Baldi
Epidemiological and clinical aspects of Brucella suis infection in 17 workers from a pork processing plant in Argentina occurring between January 2014 and July 2015 are presented. All patients reported working 9 h daily without adequate personal protection garment. Blood cultures were positive for Brucella spp. in 14 of the 17 patients (82.3%). All isolates were identified as B. suis biovar 1. Although fever, sweats, asthenia, myalgia and hepatic involvement were the most frequent clinical manifestations, an unusually high incidence of respiratory involvement was found...
December 29, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
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