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Zoonoses and Public Health

Niels Willemse, Arie van der Ende, Constance Schultsz
A butcher with chronic dermatitis presented with a second episode of Streptococcus suis meningitis, 8 years after the first episode. To distinguish between reinfection and persistent carriage, we compared the two S. suis isolates using whole genome sequencing. We investigated whole genome sequences of the S. suis isolates by means of substitution rates and population structure of closely related strains in addition to available clinical information. Genome-wide analyses revealed an inserted region consisting of 12 genes in the first isolate and the calculated substitution rate between the isolates suggested infections were caused by highly similar, but unrelated strains...
October 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Nadine A Vogt, David L Pearl, Eduardo N Taboada, Richard J Reid-Smith, Michael R Mulvey, Nicol Janecko, Steven K Mutschall, Claire M Jardine
From May through October 2016, we conducted a repeated cross-sectional study examining the effects of temporal, spatial, flock and demographic factors (i.e. juvenile vs. adult) on the prevalence of Campylobacter and antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae among 344 fresh faecal samples collected from Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from four locations where birds nested in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter among all fresh faecal samples was 9.3% and was greatest in the fall when these birds became more mobile following the nesting season...
October 4, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Ivanete Kotait, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Maria Luiza Carrieri, Juliana G Castilho, Carla Isabel Macedo, Patrícia Mariano Cruz Pereira, Vanner Boere, Lúcia Montebello, Charles E Rupprecht
Rabies virus (RABV) does not persist in the environment as it is a very fragile agent. The primary hosts are mammalian species in the orders Carnivora and Chiroptera. Since the late 1980s, RABV has been isolated from non-human primates, Callithrix jacchus (the white-tufted marmoset), in four coastal states (Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Piauí and Pernambuco) in north-eastern Brazil, where this species is indigenous. The original habitat of C. jacchus consisted of two Brazilian biomes, the Atlantic Forest and the Caatinga...
October 4, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Magaly Toro, Dácil Rivera, Viviana Toledo, Reinaldo Campos-Vargas, Marc W Allard, Christopher Hamilton-West, Andrea I Moreno-Switt
Animals raised in backyard productive systems (BPS) have been frequently associated with Salmonella outbreaks. Several serovars have caused these events, showing that different BPSs can be contaminated by distinct Salmonella serovars. The aim of this study was to characterize the genomic diversity of Salmonella isolates obtained from BPSs in Central Chile to understand their genomic relatedness. A whole-genome SNP-based phylogenetic analysis of 22 Salmonella isolates from 12 locations revealed that S. Typhimurium isolates clustered based on the BPS that they were originally isolated from, and the same was established for S...
September 27, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Heather Rutz, Brenna Hogan, Sarah Hook, Alison Hinckley, Katherine Feldman
In Maryland, Lyme disease (LD) is the most widely reported tickborne disease. All laboratories and healthcare providers are required to report LD cases to the local health department. Given the large volume of LD reports, the nuances of diagnosing and reporting LD, and the effort required for investigations by local health department staff, surveillance for LD is burdensome and subject to underreporting. To determine the degree to which misclassification occurs in Maryland, we reviewed medical records for a sample of LD reports from 2009...
September 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Esther Kamau, Juliette Ongus, George Gitau, Tura Galgalo, Sara A Lowther, Austine Bitek, Peninah Munyua
Dromedary camels are implicated as reservoirs for the zoonotic transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with the respiratory route thought to be the main mode of transmission. Knowledge and practices regarding MERS among herders, traders and slaughterhouse workers were assessed at Athi-River slaughterhouse, Kenya. Questionnaires were administered, and a check list was used to collect information on hygiene practices among slaughterhouse workers. Of 22 persons, all washed hands after handling camels, 82% wore gumboots, and 65% wore overalls/dustcoats...
September 20, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Kevin J Cummings, Paul D Virkler, Bettina Wagner, Elizabeth A Lussier, Belinda S Thompson
Salmonella Dublin is an important cause of salmonellosis among dairy cattle and poses a considerable threat to public health. This serotype is increasingly being identified among bovine Salmonella isolates from clinical samples in the north-eastern United States, and these isolates are generally multidrug resistant. Our objective was to estimate the herd-level prevalence of Salmonella Dublin among dairy cattle herds throughout New York. Bulk tank milk samples from nearly all commercial dairy herds in New York were collected from milk quality testing laboratories during the first half of 2013...
September 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Marcin Smreczak, Anna Orłowska, Anna Marzec, Paweł Trębas, Thomas Müller, Conrad M Freuling, Jan F Żmudziński
In recent years, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), a member of the novel lyssavirus genus Bokeloh bat lyssavirus in the family Rhabdoviridae, has been detected in Germany (five cases) and France (two cases). Here, we report the isolation of BBLV in a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) in Poland. The bat brain tested positive for rabies using classical diagnostics tests (FAT and RTCIT) and then subsequently confirmed by molecular techniques. Viral RNA was found in all peripheral organs tested, and the highest viral loads were detected in brain, the salivary gland and bladder...
September 9, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Silvia Paulos, Pamela C Köster, Aida de Lucio, Marta Hernández-de-Mingo, Guillermo A Cardona, Juan C Fernández-Crespo, Christen R Stensvold, David Carmena
Blastocystis sp. is probably the most common enteric parasite in humans globally. Although the role of Blastocystis in human disease is still controversial, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that pathogenicity may be associated with certain subtypes of the protist. Since the life cycle of Blastocystis is maintained through still elusive pathways, companion animals have attracted the attention of researchers as potential reservoirs of human infections. In order to evaluate the risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis, we investigated the occurrence and molecular diversity of this microorganism in human, canine and feline populations sharing temporal and spatial settings in the province of Álava, northern Spain...
September 9, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Colleen P Murphy, Carolee Carson, Ben A Smith, Brennan Chapman, Jayme Marrotte, Maggie McCann, Courtney Primeau, Parth Sharma, E Jane Parmley
Antimicrobial resistance is a complex issue with a large volume of published literature, and there is a need for synthesis of primary studies for an integrated understanding of this topic. Our research team aimed to have a more complete understanding of antimicrobial resistance in Canada (IAM.AMR Project) using multiple methods including the literature reviews and quantitative modelling. To accomplish this goal, qualitative features of publications (e.g., geographical location, study population) describing potential relationships between the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and factors (e...
September 5, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Vilaysone Khounvisith, Silvia Tritz, Latdavone Khenkha, Vannaphone Phoutana, Amphone Keosengthong, Sisavath Pommasichan, Phonethipsavanh Nouanthong, Judith M Hübschen, Chantal J Snoeck, Daniel Reinharz, Claude P Muller, Antony P Black, Maude Pauly
Epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E Virus (HEV) differ due to the vast spatial heterogeneity in sanitation status, dietary habits and extent of exposure to animals. Although HEV infections are mostly asymptomatic, prognosis is poor for patients with compromised immune systems or pre-existing liver disease and during pregnancy. In developing countries, low hygienic standards and close human-animal interactions at farms and slaughterhouses likely favour zoonotic transmission of the virus. In this cross-sectional study from Lao People's Democratic Republic, anti-HEV IgG was detected by ELISA in 54...
August 27, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Rupesh Shrestha, Joanna S McKenzie, Milan Gautam, Ramesh Adhikary, Kedarraj Pandey, Pragya Koirala, Gyan Bahadur Bc, Laurie C Miller, Julie Collins-Emerson, Scott B Craig, Sanjaya Shrestha, Cord Heuer
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in Nepal; however, there is a lack of information on sources of leptospirosis infection for people and associated risk factors. We implemented a case-control study nested within a cross-sectional survey to investigate zoonotic risks of human leptospirosis among adult, febrile patients seeking treatment in healthcare centres in Kaski District, Nepal, from April to October 2013. The study population was 239 febrile patients; the data consisted of paired blood samples; questionnaires on clinical symptoms; occupational, environmental and animal exposures; and a blood sample from animals in the household...
August 24, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Vidya Sunil, Andrew W Harris, Bob Sine, Anne Marie Holt, A Lynn Noseworthy, Doug Sider, Frances B Jamieson, Shelley White, Cassandra Johnston, Olivia Spohn
In July 2015, a cluster of five suspect cases of clinically diagnosed Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum) skin infections were reported to the Haliburton, Kawartha, Pine Ridge District Health Unit (HKPRDHU), Ontario, Canada, with two additional cases subsequently identified through case finding. All seven cases presented with cutaneous lesions located on the finger, hand and/or elbow regions typical of M. marinum infection. Specimens were collected by skin biopsy for two of the seven cases; both cases tested positive for M...
August 24, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Hayley D Yaglom, William L Nicholson, Mariana Casal, Nathan C Nieto, Laura Adams
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a severe tick-borne rickettsial illness. In the south-western United States and Mexico, RMSF displays unique epidemiologic and ecologic characteristics, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (brown dog tick) as the primary vector. Expansion and spread of the disease from hyperendemic regions of Arizona or Mexico to new areas is a key public health concern. Dogs are thought to play an important role in the emergence and circulation of R. rickettsii in these regions and are often one of earliest indicators of RMSF presence...
August 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Khwaja A Hasan, Syed A Ali, Marium Rehman, Hassaan Bin-Asif, Sindhu Zahid
This study aimed to investigate the zoonotic potential by virtue of phylogenetic analysis, virulence and resistance gene profiles of Enterococcus faecalis originating from poultry environment. The ERIC, BOX and RAPD PCR analysis showed the clustering of E. faecalis strains (n = 74) into five groups (G1-G5) and fifteen sub-clusters (B1-B15), which share 50%-80% similarities with ATCC E. faecalis and clinical strains of human infection. E. faecalis strains harboured seven enterocins genes including ent1097 (85%), entB (84%), enterolysinA (51%), entSEK4 (51%), entL50 (31%), entA (25...
August 13, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Anna Camilla Birkegård, Mette Ely Fertner, Vibeke Frøkjaer Jensen, Anette Boklund, Nils Toft, Tariq Halasa, Ana Carolina Lopes Antunes
Epidemiological studies often use data from registers. Data quality is of vital importance for the quality of the research. The aim of this study was to suggest a structured workflow to assess the quality of veterinary national registers. As an example of how to use the workflow, the quality of the following three registers was assessed: the Central Husbandry Register (CHR), the database for movement of pigs (DMP) and the national Danish register of drugs for veterinary use (VetStat). A systematic quantitative assessment was performed, with calculation the proportion of farms and observations with "poor quality" of data...
August 13, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Andrew K Hennenfent, Preetha Iyengar, John Davies-Cole
Once a person is exposed to the rabies virus, it is universally fatal unless postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is administered promptly. In the United States, determining whether PEP recommeded is often a collaborative effort where health departments work with both animal and human healthcare professionals to enact animal quarantines (or rabies testing), recommending PEP when appropriate. A failure in the knowledge base of either profession can result in incorrect PEP recommendations and an increased risk of adverse outcomes...
August 11, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Laura Espinosa, Aimée Gray, Geraldine Duffy, Séamus Fanning, Barry J McMahon
Zoonotic pathogens constitute the major source (60.3%) of emerging infectious diseases. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) among wild animal species, but comprehensive data are needed to assess the role that these animals have in the transmission of STEC infections to the human population via faecal contamination of the environment, agri-food or water chain. Due to the nature of these microorganisms in which this human-animal-environment interface plays a relevant role on the disease's dynamics, a "One Health" approach is needed to prevent and control the worldwide spread...
August 11, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Alyson Raschkowan, M Kate Thomas, Joanne Tataryn, Rita Finley, Katarina Pintar, Andrea Nesbitt
Animal companionship can have many physical and psychological benefits; however, animals can also be a source of zoonotic infection, including enteric illnesses; it has been estimated that in Canada, nearly 85,000 enteric illnesses due to eight pathogens occur each year related to animal contact. There is a lack of baseline data on animal-related exposures in Canada and around the world. This information is critical to inform quantitative and qualitative risk assessments to prioritize intervention efforts in public health and reduce the associated burden of enteric illness...
November 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Timothy Erickson, Sarah M Gunter, Jeffrey Starke, Kristy O Murray
We identified six paediatric case-patients from southeast Texas diagnosed with confirmed or probable Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis (SFGR) between 2008 and 2016. Only one case had a history of travel to an endemic area. Clinical and laboratory findings strongly suggest locally acquired Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in one Houston patient. Public health reporting of SFGR is critical for monitoring emergence in nonendemic regions.
November 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
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