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Zoonoses and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816022/assessing-human-risk-of-illness-with-west-nile-virus-mosquito-surveillance-data-to-improve-public-health-preparedness
#1
S Karki, N E Westcott, E J Muturi, W M Brown, M O Ruiz
Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other mosquito-borne pathogens involves costly and time-consuming collection and testing of mosquito samples. One difficulty faced by public health personnel is how to interpret mosquito data relative to human risk, thus leading to a failure to fully exploit the information from mosquito testing. The objective of our study was to use the information gained from historic West Nile virus mosquito testing to determine human risk relative to mosquito infection and to assess the usefulness of our mosquito infection forecasting models to give advance warning...
August 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795513/the-economic-implications-of-sylvatic-rabies-eradication-in-italy
#2
S Sartore, P Mulatti, S Trestini, M Lorenzetto, L Gagliazzo, S Marangon, L Bonfanti
After more than 10 years of absence, sylvatic rabies re-appeared in Italy in 2008. To prevent disease spread, three oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns targeting red foxes were performed through manual distribution of vaccine baits between January and September 2009. As these campaigns proved unsuccessful, at the end of December 2009, baits started being distributed using helicopters, allowing uniform coverage of larger areas in a shorter time period. From winter 2009 to autumn 2016, a total of 15 ORV campaigns (four emergency, four regular and seven preventive ORV) were implemented through aerial distribution of baits...
August 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791803/genetic-analysis-of-human-and-swine-influenza-a-viruses-isolated-in-northern-italy-during-2010-2015
#3
C Chiapponi, E Ebranati, E Pariani, S Faccini, A Luppi, L Baioni, R Manfredi, V Carta, M Merenda, P Affanni, M E Colucci, L Veronesi, G Zehender, E Foni
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in swine plays an important role in the ecology of influenza viruses. The emergence of new IAVs comes through different mechanisms, with the genetic reassortment of genes between influenza viruses, also originating from different species, being common. We performed a genetic analysis on 179 IAV isolates from humans (n. 75) and pigs (n. 104) collected in Northern Italy between 2010 and 2015, to monitor the genetic exchange between human and swine IAVs. No cases of human infection with swine strains were noticed, but direct infections of swine with H1N1pdm09 strains were detected...
August 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782905/dog-ecology-and-its-implications-for-rabies-control-in-gwagwalada-federal-capital-territory-abuja-nigeria
#4
P P Mshelbwala, D K Akinwolemiwa, B V Maikai, R G Otolorin, N A Maurice, J S Weese
The objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics of a dog population, including their accessibility to vaccination and health care, in urban and semiurban areas of Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. Direct street counts and a house-to-house survey of city streets were performed. A total of 451 households were surveyed comprising 43.7% urban and 53.3% semiurban areas. A total of 848 owned dogs were identified, along with 3,115 corresponding humans. With a dog-to-human ratio of 1:3.7, the dog population in the study area was estimated as 103,758...
August 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771956/knowledge-risk-perception-and-mitigation-measures-towards-ebola-virus-disease-by-potentially-exposed-bushmeat-handlers-in-north-central-nigeria-any-critical-gap
#5
N B Alhaji, S Yatswako, E Y Oddoh
The bushmeat industry has been a topic of increasing importance among public health officials for its influence on zoonotic diseases transmission, such as Ebola virus disease (EVD), a rare and severe infectious disease of humans and non-human primates. This survey assessed knowledge/awareness, risk perceptions and mitigation practices towards EVD among bushmeat handlers in north-central Nigeria. These characteristics are premise to level of preparedness against appropriate risk prevention and control. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted between January and December 2015 on 395 bushmeat handlers...
August 3, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766871/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-in-ontario-smallholder-chicken-flocks
#6
L Lebert, S-L Martz, N Janecko, A E Deckert, A Agunos, A Reid, J E Rubin, R J Reid-Smith, S A McEwen
Surveillance is an important component of an overall strategy to address antimicrobial resistant bacteria in food animals and the food chain. The poultry market has many points of entry into the Canadian food chain, and some production practices are underrepresented in terms of surveillance. For example, pathogen carriage and antimicrobial resistance surveillance data are limited in smallholder chicken flocks raised for slaughter at provincially inspected abattoirs. In Canada, antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from commercial broiler chicken flocks, slaughtered at federally inspected abattoirs, is monitored by the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS)...
August 2, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755469/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-dietary-fibre-from-distillers-grains-on-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-detection-from-the-rectoanal-mucosa-and-hides-of-feedlot-steers
#7
L G Schneider, T J Klopfenstein, Z R Stromberg, G L Lewis, G E Erickson, R A Moxley, D R Smith
Feeding high levels (≥40% dry matter) of distillers grains may increase the risk for cattle to carry enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157. The mechanism for the increased risk is not known nor whether non-O157 EHEC are similarly affected. Our objective was to test whether the fibre content or other components of modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) affects the probability for cattle to carry EHEC serogroups of public health importance. A 2 × 2 plus 1 factorial treatment arrangement within a randomized block design was utilized...
July 28, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755449/population-structure-and-attribution-of-human-clinical-campylobacter-jejuni-isolates-from-central-europe-to-livestock-and-environmental-sources
#8
J Kovac, B Stessl, N Čadež, I Gruntar, M Cimerman, K Stingl, M Lušicky, M Ocepek, M Wagner, S Smole Možina
Campylobacter jejuni is among the most prevalent causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Domesticated animals and, especially, chicken meat are considered to be the main sources of infections. However, the contribution of surface waters and wildlife in C. jejuni transmission to humans is not well understood. We have evaluated the source attribution potential of a six-gene multiplex PCR (mPCR) method coupled with STRUCTURE analysis on a set of 410 C. jejuni strains isolated from environment, livestock, food and humans in central Europe...
July 28, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722329/prevalence-of-salmonella-among-waterfowl-along-the-texas-gulf-coast
#9
M K Grigar, K J Cummings, S C Rankin
Migratory waterfowl may play a role in the ecology and transmission of zoonotic pathogens, given their ability to travel long distances and their use of varied habitats. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella among waterfowl along the Texas Gulf coast and to characterize the isolates. Faecal samples were collected from hunter-harvested waterfowl at four wildlife management areas from September through November, 2016. Standard bacteriologic culture methods were used to isolate Salmonella from samples, and isolates were characterized by serotyping and anti-microbial susceptibility testing...
July 19, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714127/high-hepatitis-e-virus-antibody-positive-rates-in-dogs-and-humans-exposed-to-dogs-in-the-south-west-of-china
#10
M Y Zeng, H Gao, X X Yan, W J Qu, Y K Sun, G W Fu, Y L Yan
Hepatitis E (HE) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HEV infection among dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west region of China. A total of 4,490 dog serum samples and 2,206 relative practitioner serum samples were collected from 18 pet hospitals and dog farms in Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou province, and the anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA. The results showed that the total positive rate of anti-HEV antibodies was 36...
July 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707827/cat-scratch-disease-u-s-clinicians-experience-and-knowledge
#11
C A Nelson, A R Moore, A E Perea, P S Mead
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a zoonotic infection caused primarily by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. An estimated 12,000 outpatients and 500 inpatients are diagnosed with CSD annually, yet little is known regarding clinician experience with and treatment of CSD in the United States. Questions assessing clinical burden, treatment and prevention of CSD were posed to 3,011 primary care providers (family practitioners, internists, paediatricians and nurse practitioners) during 2014-2015 as part of the annual nationwide DocStyles survey...
July 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688117/serologic-evidence-of-west-nile-virus-and-usutu-virus-infections-in-eurasian-coots-in-the-netherlands
#12
S M Lim, M Geervliet, J H Verhagen, G J D M Müskens, F A Majoor, A D M E Osterhaus, B E E Martina
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are arboviruses that are maintained in enzootic transmission cycles between mosquitoes and birds and are occasionally transmitted to mammals. As arboviruses are currently expanding their geographic range and emerging in often unpredictable locations, surveillance is considered an important element of preparedness. To determine whether sera collected from resident and migratory birds in the Netherlands as part of avian influenza surveillance would also represent an effective source for proactive arbovirus surveillance, a random selection of such sera was screened for WNV antibodies using a commercial ELISA...
July 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686001/recreational-sandboxes-for-children-and-dogs-can-be-a-source-of-epidemic-ribotypes-of-clostridium-difficile
#13
Cristina Orden, Carlos Neila, José L Blanco, Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Celine Harmanus, Ed J Kuijper, Marta E García
Different studies have suggested that the sand of public playgrounds could have a role in the transmission of infections, particularly in children. Furthermore, free access of pets and other animals to the playgrounds might increase such a risk. We studied the presence of Clostridium difficile in 20 pairs of sandboxes for children and dogs located in different playgrounds within the Madrid region (Spain). Clostridium difficile isolation was performed by enrichment and selective culture procedures. The genetic (ribotype and amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP]) diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was also studied...
July 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677886/dogs-on-livestock-farms-a-cross-sectional-study-investigating-potential-roles-in-zoonotic-pathogen-transmission
#14
N E Moran, A K Ferketich, T E Wittum, J W Stull
Dogs are often present on livestock farms, where they serve important management and companion roles, yet may be involved in zoonotic pathogen transmission. Numerous factors can potentially alter the risk of exposure to zoonotic pathogens, such as the dog's access to livestock, close dog-human contact and an increasing immunocompromised human population. The objective of this study was to quantify and qualify dog ownership among livestock owners, their dog husbandry and biosecurity practices, the dogs' access to livestock and potential risks for zoonotic pathogen transmission...
July 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670851/serological-evidence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-pigs-and-jaundice-among-pig-handlers-in-bangladesh
#15
N Haider, M S U Khan, M B Hossain, H M S Sazzad, M Z Rahman, F Ahmed, N S Zeidner
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011...
July 2, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670749/the-severely-under-recognized-public-health-risk-of-strongyloidiasis-in-north-american-cities-a-one-health-approach
#16
REVIEW
S Jariwala, L Redding, D Hewitt
Strongyloides and other soil-transmitted helminths represent a severely under-recognized zoonotic public health risk, especially in North American cities. They are present throughout North America, including in urban areas, causing morbidity and mortality in human and non-human animals. Epidemiological "masking" of strongyloidiasis due to overlapping symptoms with other systemic diseases, including allergies, and diagnostic limitations complicate our understanding of the epidemiological extent of this disease, and auto-infection allows long-term persistence of individual infections...
July 2, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646559/pandemic-h1n1-2009-influenza-a-virus-infection-associated-with-respiratory-signs-in-sloth-bears-melursus-ursinus
#17
N C Boedeker, M I Nelson, M L Killian, M K Torchetti, T Barthel, S Murray
In 2009, a pandemic influenza A virus (pH1N1) spread globally in humans and infected a broad range of captive animals with close human contact. In February 2014, a pH1N1 virus was isolated from a sloth bear with respiratory signs at a US zoo, demonstrating that recurring epidemics present an ongoing threat to animals, including threatened species. This is the first report of pH1N1 infection in sloth bears. To understand the sloth bear virus within the global context of pH1N1, phylogenetic trees were inferred including full-length sequences from available non-human, non-swine hosts, representing four families in the order Carnivora and one order of birds...
June 23, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631423/pet-ownership-increases-human-risk-of-encountering-ticks
#18
E H Jones, A F Hinckley, S A Hook, J I Meek, B Backenson, K J Kugeler, K A Feldman
We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1...
June 19, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598034/hepatitis-e-in-southern-vietnam-seroepidemiology-in-humans-and-molecular-epidemiology-in-pigs
#19
A Berto, H A Pham, T T N Thao, N H T Vy, S L Caddy, R Hiraide, N T Tue, I Goodfellow, J J Carrique-Mas, G E Thwaites, S Baker, M F Boni
Viral pathogens account for a significant proportion of the burden of emerging infectious diseases in humans. The Wellcome Trust-Vietnamese Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (WT-VIZIONS) is aiming to understand the circulation of viral zoonotic pathogens in animals that pose a potential risk to human health. Evidence suggests that human exposure and infections with hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes (GT) 3 and 4 results from zoonotic transmission. Hypothesising that HEV GT3 and GT4 are circulating in the Vietnamese pig population and can be transmitted to humans, we aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of HEV exposure in a population of farmers and the general population...
June 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597535/epidemiology-of-campylobacteriosis-in-denmark-2000-2015
#20
K G Kuhn, E M Nielsen, K Mølbak, S Ethelberg
Campylobacter is the most frequently occurring cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Europe. Unlike other zoonotic diseases, European-wide incidences of Campylobacter infections have increased during the past decade, resulting in a significant disease burden. In Denmark, campylobacteriosis is notifiable by laboratory and a unique registration system of electronic transfer and storage of notified Campylobacter cases linked to the national person register of age, gender and geographical location allows collection of comprehensive case data...
June 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
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