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Zoonoses and Public Health

Kornélia Kurucz, Dávid Hederics, Dominika Bali, Gábor Kemenesi, Győző Horváth, Ferenc Jakab
Hepatitis E virus is a major causative agent of acute hepatitis worldwide. Despite its zoonotic potential, there is limited information about the natural chain of hepevirus infection in wildlife, and the potential reservoir species. In this study, we performed a HEV survey by heminested RT-PCR on rodent samples from an urban environment (in the city of Pécs, Hungary) and investigated the prevalence of the virus among these native rodent species (Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus)...
November 29, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Carine K Souza, Daiane P Oldiges, Ana Paula S Poeta, Itabajara da S Vaz, Rejane Schaefer, Danielle Gava, Janice R Ciacci-Zanella, Cláudio W Canal, Luís G Corbellini
Backyard pig populations are not monitored for influenza A virus (IAV) in Brazil and there are limited data about seroprevalence and risk factors in these populations. Our goal was to assess possible factors associated with IAV seroprevalence in backyard pig populations using an indirect ELISA protocol based on a recombinant nucleoprotein. Following the IAV screening using NP-ELISA, subtype-specific serology based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay of the ELISA-positive pigs was conducted. The survey comprised a total of 1,667 sera samples collected in 2012 and 2014 in 479 holdings and the estimated seroprevalence was 5...
November 28, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Julianne Meisner, Kellie Curtis, Thomas W Graham, Michael B Apamaku, Lisa E Manhart, Peter M Rabinowitz
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading infectious cause of human death worldwide. In cattle, TB infection results in productivity losses, trade barriers and zoonotic transmission via milk, meat or direct contact. We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural communities in Uganda between 2014 and 2016 to evaluate the association between tuberculosis skin test (TST) positivity in humans and cattle-associated risk factors: household herd positivity and raw milk consumption. Human and cattle TSTs were performed in communities followed by a survey of household practices...
November 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Veronique Beven, Edouard Hirchaud, Cédric Guillaume, Gérald Larcher, Emmanuelle Robardet, Alexandre Servat, Yannick Blanchard, Florence Cliquet
Bat rabies cases are attributed in Europe to five different Lyssavirus species of 16 recognized Lyssavirus species causing rabies. One of the most genetically divergent Lyssavirus spp. has been detected in a dead Miniopterus schreibersii bat in France. Brain samples were found positive for the presence of antigen, infectious virus and viral RNA by classical virological methods and molecular methods respectively. The complete genome sequence was determined by next-generation sequencing. The analysis of the complete genome sequence confirmed the presence of Lleida bat lyssavirus (LLEBV) in bats in France with 99...
November 20, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Sina Rehbein, Christian Klotz, Ralf Ignatius, Elisabeth Müller, Anton Aebischer, Barbara Kohn
Giardia duodenalis is a relevant gastrointestinal protozoan pathogen of humans and animals. This species complex consists of eight genetically different assemblages. Assemblages A and B are pathogenic to humans and pets, thus confer zoonotic potential. The risk of zoonotic transmission has been controversially discussed. The aim of this monocentric cross-sectional pilot study was to investigate G. duodenalis assemblages in humans and pets living in common households in Berlin/Brandenburg (Germany). Samples from dogs, cats and humans sharing the same households were screened for Giardia infection by antigen-detecting assays...
November 20, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Alyssa McDonagh, Jessica H Leibler, Jean Mukherjee, Anil Thachil, Laura B Goodman, Cassidy Riekofski, Amanda Nee, Khrysti Smyth, Janet Forrester, Marieke H Rosenbaum
The backyard chicken (BYC) movement in the USA has increased human contact with poultry and subsequently, human contact with the pathogen Salmonella. However, to date, there have been few studies assessing prevalence of Salmonella in backyard flocks, despite the known public health risk this zoonotic bacterium poses. The objective of this study was to characterize human-BYC interactions and assess the prevalence of Salmonella among BYC flocks. We interviewed 50 BYC owners using a structured questionnaire to determine flock and household characteristics that facilitate contact with BYC and that may be associated with Salmonella in the BYC environment...
November 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Tamás Ferenci, Zita Sulyok, Josua Kegele, Hardy Richter, István Vályi-Nagy, Mihály Sulyok
BACKGROUND: Online activity-based epidemiological surveillance and forecasting is getting more and more attention. To date, Google search volumes have not been assessed for forecasting of tick-borne diseases. Thus, we performed an analysis of forecasting of the Lyme disease incidence based on the traditional data extended with Google Trends. METHODS: Data on the weekly incidence of Lyme disease in Germany from 16 June 2013 to 27 May 2018 were obtained from the database of the Robert Koch Institute...
November 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Elaine T Lawson, Jesse S Ayivor, Fidelia Ohemeng, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu
Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans, affecting various aspects of human development on a global scale. The significance of bats as a source of emerging infectious diseases is being progressively appreciated. This study was undertaken post-Ebola virus disease in West Africa and assessed the public health implications of human-bat interactions by exploring the reasons for contact between humans and bats, as well as reported actions taken upon experiencing bat bites or scratches...
November 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Emma G Gardner, David Kelton, Zvonimir Poljak, Sophie von Dobschuetz, Amy L Greer
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen discovered in 2012. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarize the empirical evidence for MERS-CoV in animals in order to map knowledge gaps and to extract data for modelling disease transmission in dromedary camels. A review protocol was developed a priori, and a systematic search, data extraction and summary were conducted using the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Ninety-nine publications were identified for full review out of 1,368 unique records...
November 12, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Maged G Hemida, Ranawaka A P M Perera, Daniel K W Chu, Ronald L W Ko, Abdelmohsen A Alnaeem, Malik Peiris
West Nile virus (WNV) is an important emerging zoonotic arbovirus giving rise to clinical syndromes of varying severity in humans and horses. Culex mosquitoes are the main vector. Although WNV has been reported in many countries in the Middle East and Asia, little is known about its prevalence in equine populations in the Arabian Peninsula. We have carried out a serological study on 200 horses to assess WNV infection in the Eastern and Central regions of Saudi Arabia in 2013-2015. Sera were tested for the presence of WNV antibodies in parallel using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and microneutralization (MN) tests...
November 6, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Myrna M T De Rooij, Jeroen P G Van Leuken, Arno Swart, Mirjam E E Kretzschmar, Mirjam Nielen, Aline A De Koeijer, Ingmar Janse, Inge M Wouters, Dick J J Heederik
From 2007 through 2010, the Netherlands experienced the largest Q fever epidemic ever reported. This study integrates the outcomes of a multidisciplinary research programme on spatial airborne transmission of Coxiella burnetii and reflects these outcomes in relation to other scientific Q fever studies worldwide. We have identified lessons learned and remaining knowledge gaps. This synthesis was structured according to the four steps of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA): (a) Rapid source identification was improved by newly developed techniques using mathematical disease modelling; (b) source characterization efforts improved knowledge but did not provide accurate C...
November 6, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Joost van Herten, Bernice Bovenkerk, Marcel Verweij
During the last decade, the concept of One Health has become the international standard for zoonotic disease control. This call for transdisciplinary collaboration between professionals in human, animal and environmental health has produced several successes in zoonotic disease control, surveillance and research. Despite the lack of a clear definition, a shared agenda or institutional governance, One Health has proven to be a fruitful idea. Due to its ambiguity, the One Health concept functions as a boundary object: by leaving room for interpretation to fit different purposes, it facilitates cooperation...
November 2, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Raies A Mir, Indira T Kudva
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens that can cause severe diseases, including bloody diarrhoea and kidney failure, in humans, while remaining harmless to its primary reservoir hosts, cattle. Antibiotics such as azithromycin, fosfomycin and meropenem are being used and recommended in the treatment of early-stage STEC (mainly E. coli O157:H7) infections, as these are reportedly effective in preventing Shiga toxin release and kidney failure while eliminating the pathogen. However, antibiotic resistance among STEC isolates could negatively impact these and other similar treatment options while contributing towards the spread of antibiotic resistance genes especially if encoded on mobile genetic elements like plasmids...
October 29, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Evonne McCabe, Catherine M Burgess, Dolapo Lawal, Paul Whyte, Geraldine Duffy
Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important group of pathogens and can be transmitted to humans from direct or indirect contact with cattle faeces. This study investigated the shedding of E. coli O157 and O26 in cattle at the time of slaughter and factors associated with super-shedding (SS) animals. Rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) samples were collected from cattle (n = 1,317) at three large Irish commercial beef abattoirs over an 18 month period, and metadata were collected at the time of sampling regarding farm of origin, animal age, breed and gender...
October 22, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Niels Willemse, Arie van der Ende, Constance Schultsz
A butcher with chronic dermatitis presented with a second episode of Streptococcus suis meningitis, 8 years after the first episode. To distinguish between reinfection and persistent carriage, we compared the two S. suis isolates using whole genome sequencing. We investigated whole genome sequences of the S. suis isolates by means of substitution rates and population structure of closely related strains in addition to available clinical information. Genome-wide analyses revealed an inserted region consisting of 12 genes in the first isolate and the calculated substitution rate between the isolates suggested infections were caused by highly similar, but unrelated strains...
October 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Nadine A Vogt, David L Pearl, Eduardo N Taboada, Richard J Reid-Smith, Michael R Mulvey, Nicol Janecko, Steven K Mutschall, Claire M Jardine
From May through October 2016, we conducted a repeated cross-sectional study examining the effects of temporal, spatial, flock and demographic factors (i.e. juvenile vs. adult) on the prevalence of Campylobacter and antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae among 344 fresh faecal samples collected from Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from four locations where birds nested in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter among all fresh faecal samples was 9.3% and was greatest in the fall when these birds became more mobile following the nesting season...
October 4, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Ivanete Kotait, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Maria Luiza Carrieri, Juliana G Castilho, Carla Isabel Macedo, Patrícia Mariano Cruz Pereira, Vanner Boere, Lúcia Montebello, Charles E Rupprecht
Rabies virus (RABV) does not persist in the environment as it is a very fragile agent. The primary hosts are mammalian species in the orders Carnivora and Chiroptera. Since the late 1980s, RABV has been isolated from non-human primates, Callithrix jacchus (the white-tufted marmoset), in four coastal states (Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Piauí and Pernambuco) in north-eastern Brazil, where this species is indigenous. The original habitat of C. jacchus consisted of two Brazilian biomes, the Atlantic Forest and the Caatinga...
October 4, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Heather Rutz, Brenna Hogan, Sarah Hook, Alison Hinckley, Katherine Feldman
In Maryland, Lyme disease (LD) is the most widely reported tickborne disease. All laboratories and healthcare providers are required to report LD cases to the local health department. Given the large volume of LD reports, the nuances of diagnosing and reporting LD, and the effort required for investigations by local health department staff, surveillance for LD is burdensome and subject to underreporting. To determine the degree to which misclassification occurs in Maryland, we reviewed medical records for a sample of LD reports from 2009...
September 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Esther Kamau, Juliette Ongus, George Gitau, Tura Galgalo, Sara A Lowther, Austine Bitek, Peninah Munyua
Dromedary camels are implicated as reservoirs for the zoonotic transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with the respiratory route thought to be the main mode of transmission. Knowledge and practices regarding MERS among herders, traders and slaughterhouse workers were assessed at Athi-River slaughterhouse, Kenya. Questionnaires were administered, and a check list was used to collect information on hygiene practices among slaughterhouse workers. Of 22 persons, all washed hands after handling camels, 82% wore gumboots, and 65% wore overalls/dustcoats...
September 20, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Mahmoud M Naguib, Timm Harder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
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