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Zoonoses and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239118/zoonotic-origin-and-transmission-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-the-uae
#1
C R Paden, M F B M Yusof, Z M Al Hammadi, K Queen, Y Tao, Y M Eltahir, E A Elsayed, B A Marzoug, O K A Bensalah, A I Khalafalla, M Al Mulla, K A Elkheir, Z B Issa, K Pradeep, F N Elsaleh, H Imambaccus, J Sasse, S Weber, M Shi, J Zhang, Y Li, H Pham, L Kim, A J Hall, S I Gerber, F I Al Hosani, S Tong, S S M Al Muhairi
Since the emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, there have been a number of clusters of human-to-human transmission. These cases of human-to-human transmission involve close contact and have occurred primarily in healthcare settings, and they are suspected to result from repeated zoonotic introductions. In this study, we sequenced whole MERS-CoV genomes directly from respiratory samples collected from 23 confirmed MERS cases in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). These samples included cases from three nosocomial and three household clusters...
December 13, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235263/detection-and-genetic-characterization-of-diverse-bartonella-genotypes-in-the-small-mammals-of-singapore
#2
E S Neves, I H Mendenhall, S A Borthwick, Y C F Su, G J D Smith
Bartonella species are arthropod-borne bacterial pathogens that infect numerous mammalian species. Small mammals play an important role as natural reservoirs of many Bartonella species, maintaining the greatest diversity of Bartonella described to date. Although Bartonella research has been conducted in Southeast Asia, no studies have been undertaken on small mammals in Singapore. Here, we report the detection and description of Bartonella in small mammals in Singapore during the period of November 2011 to May 2014...
December 12, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226606/the-challenges-of-implementing-an-integrated-one-health-surveillance-system-in-australia
#3
I Johnson, A Hansen, P Bi
As 75 per cent of emerging infectious diseases are of animal origin, a One Health approach that integrates the health of humans, animals and the environment could provide an earlier opportunity for zoonotic disease detection and prevention. In Australia, human, animal and ecological health are managed by separate sectors with limited communication. This study aims to explore how professionals in these fields perceive a One Health approach to zoonotic disease surveillance, aiming to identify the challenges to the implementation of an integrated system in Australia...
December 10, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218859/looking-for-new-approaches-for-the-use-of-serology-in-the-context-of-control-programmes-against-pig-salmonellosis
#4
R C Mainar-Jaime, A Casanova-Higes, S Andrés-Barranco, J P Vico
Most swine Salmonella national control programmes in Europe have been based on the categorization of herds according to risk levels based on serological results. However, none of the non-Scandinavian countries have reported of any significant success on Salmonella infection reduction in fattening pigs or the number of human cases attributable to pigs or pork. The limited accuracy of the tests used, the small number of animals sampled and the likely lack of herd representativeness of the samples used could be major factors affecting the suitability of these programmes...
December 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218847/potential-exposure-to-australian-bat-lyssavirus-is-unlikely-to-prevent-future-bat-handling-among-adults-in-south-east-queensland
#5
M K Young, S Banu, B J McCall, S Vlack, H Carroll, S Bennett, R Davison, D Francis
Despite ongoing public health messages about the risks associated with bat contact, the number of potential exposures to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) due to intentional handling by members of the general public in Queensland has remained high. We sought to better understand the reasons for intentional handling among these members of the public who reported their potential exposure to inform future public health messages. We interviewed adults who resided in a defined geographic area in South East Queensland and notified potential exposure to ABLV due to intentional handling of bats by telephone between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013...
December 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218843/potential-of-saprophage-diptera-to-acquire-culturable-livestock-associated-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#6
S M Russell, V A Chittick, D T Sangweme, E C Lampert
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria is one of the most intractable challenges in 21st-century public health. Dipterans that associate with livestock, livestock waste products and cadavers have the potential to acquire livestock-associated antibiotic-resistant bacteria (LA-ARB) and transmit them to humans. In this study, piglet cadavers were used to attract saprophage dipterans from the environment and those dipterans were sampled for the presence of LA-ARB. In the first trial, culturable microbes resistant to both aminoglycoside and β-lactam antibiotics were found in all cadavers and masses of dipteran larvae, and in three-quarters of adult dipterans...
December 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218781/in-vitro-invasion-capacity-of-salmonella-typhimurium-dt9-isolates-sourced-from-humans-and-layer-hen-environments
#7
A R McWhorter, G Phan, H Hocking, K K Chousalkar
In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 9 is frequently isolated during foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) trace back investigations frequently identify isolate distribution patterns that may be epidemiologically linked to disease outbreaks. In this study, the in vitro virulence potential of S. Typhimurium DT9 isolates possessing different MLVA patterns (03 15 07 11 550, 03 24 11 10 523, 03 15 08 11 550 and 03 14 08 11 550) isolated from either humans or layer hens was assessed using a human colon carcinoma cell line...
December 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205899/systematic-review-impact-of-point-sources-on-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-in-the-natural-environment
#8
I Bueno, J Williams-Nguyen, H Hwang, J M Sargeant, A J Nault, R S Singer
Point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and agricultural facilities may have a role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). To analyse the evidence for increases in ARB in the natural environment associated with these point sources of ARB and ARG, we conducted a systematic review. We evaluated 5,247 records retrieved through database searches, including both studies that ascertained ARG and ARB outcomes. All studies were subjected to a screening process to assess relevance to the question and methodology to address our review question...
December 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205887/role-ownership-and-presence-of-domestic-animals-in-peri-urban-households-of-kisumu-kenya
#9
A N Barnes, J Mumma, O Cumming
Low- and middle-income countries are experiencing rapid urban population growth, particularly in peri-urban informal settlements. In these urban areas, animal husbandry remains a valuable source of income and protein-rich foods but may also present a risk of zoonotic disease threat. To date, there have been studies that have assessed the prevalence and nature of animal ownership in these communities. This cross-sectional survey assessed the geographical, sociocultural and economic factors behind the presence, ownership and purpose of domestic animals in three informal peri-urban communities of Kisumu, Kenya...
December 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193894/phenotypic-and-genotypic-comparison-of-salmonellae-from-diarrhoeic-and-healthy-humans-and-cattle-nigeria
#10
K Fashae, P Leekitcharoenphon, R S Hendriksen
The sources and modes of transmission of non-typhoidal Salmonella particularly zoonotic transmission are poorly understood in Africa. This study compared phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Salmonellae isolated from cattle and humans. Faecal samples of diarrhoeic patients (n = 234), and a healthy population (n = 160), beef cattle at slaughter (n = 250), farms (n = 72) and market (n = 100) were cultured for salmonellae and serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined. Whole-genome sequence typing (WGST) of selected isolates and bioinformatic analysis were used to identify the multilocus sequence type (MLST), plasmid replicons, antimicrobial resistance genes and genetic relatedness by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis...
November 28, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181886/salmonella-in-breeding-pigs-shedding-pattern-transmission-of-infection-and-the-role-of-environmental-contamination-in-irish-commercial-farrow-to-finish-herds
#11
H Lynch, K Walia, F C Leonard, P G Lawlor, E G Manzanilla, J Grant, G Duffy, G E Gardiner, M Cormican, J King, B K Markey, S Fanning, H Argüello
This study aimed to provide new insights into the epidemiology of Salmonella in pig production, focusing on potential shedding patterns in breeding pigs throughout a full production cycle and the risk of transmission of infection from the sow to her offspring. A longitudinal study was conducted on five farrow-to-finish commercial pig farms. In each herd, shedding of Salmonella in faeces was monitored in breeders through service, gestation and lactation. Swabs of the farrowing room floor and pools of faeces from piglets were collected on two occasions during lactation...
November 27, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150910/educating-youth-swine-exhibitors-on-influenza-a-virus-transmission-at-agricultural-fairs
#12
J M Nolting, J Midla, M S Whittington, S D Scheer, A S Bowman
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major zoonotic pathogen that threatens global public health. Novel strains of influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to public health due to their pandemic potential, and transmission of influenza A viruses from animals to humans is an important mechanism in the generation and introduction of IAVs that threaten human health. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to develop real-life training scenarios to better inform swine exhibitors of the risks they may encounter when influenza A viruses are present in swine...
November 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143489/spatial-variation-in-the-parasite-communities-and-genomic-structure-of-urban-rats-in-new-york-city
#13
L P Angley, M Combs, C Firth, M J Frye, I Lipkin, J L Richardson, J Munshi-South
Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are a globally distributed pest. Urban habitats can support large infestations of rats, posing a potential risk to public health from the parasites and pathogens they carry. Despite the potential influence of rodent-borne zoonotic diseases on human health, it is unclear how urban habitats affect the structure and transmission dynamics of ectoparasite and microbial communities (all referred to as "parasites" hereafter) among rat colonies. In this study, we use ecological data on parasites and genomic sequencing of their rat hosts to examine associations between spatial proximity, genetic relatedness and the parasite communities associated with 133 rats at five sites in sections of New York City with persistent rat infestations...
November 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143461/do-animal-exhibitors-support-and-follow-recommendations-to-prevent-transmission-of-variant-influenza-at-agricultural-fairs-a-survey-of-animal-exhibitor-households-after-a-variant-influenza-virus-outbreak-in-michigan
#14
R J Stewart, J Rossow, J T Conover, E E Lobelo, S Eckel, K Signs, M G Stobierski, S C Trock, A M Fry, S J Olsen, M Biggerstaff
Influenza A viruses circulate in swine and can spread rapidly among swine when housed in close proximity, such as at agricultural fairs. Youth who have close and prolonged contact with influenza-infected swine at agricultural fairs may be at increased risk of acquiring influenza virus infection from swine. Animal and human health officials have issued written measures to minimize influenza transmission at agricultural exhibitions; however, there is little information on the knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of these measures among animal exhibitors...
November 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139241/porcine-respiratory-disease-complex-after-the-introduction-of-h1n1-2009-influenza-virus-in-brazil
#15
R R Rech, D Gava, M C Silva, L T Fernandes, V Haach, J R Ciacci-Zanella, R Schaefer
From 2009 to 2015, 74 lungs from suckling (6.8%), nursing (70.3%), fattening (20.3%) pigs and pregnant sows (2.7%) with respiratory signs from pig farms in Southern Brazil were submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for necropsy and/or histologic examination and screening for respiratory agents by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), virus isolation (VI) and subtyping for influenza A virus (IAV), IHC and nested PCR for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo), PCR for porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), RT-qPCR for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and bacterial culture...
November 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139222/serological-evidence-for-the-co-circulation-of-two-lineages-of-influenza-d-viruses-in-equine-populations-of-the-midwest-united-states
#16
H Nedland, J Wollman, C Sreenivasan, M Quast, A Singrey, L Fawcett, J Christopher-Hennings, E Nelson, R S Kaushik, D Wang, F Li
Influenza D virus (IDV) is a newly described influenza type of the Orthomyxoviridae virus family that was first isolated from diseased swine in 2011 and has subsequently been detected in cattle around the world in 2014. In addition, serological evidence for IDV infection in humans has been recently established. Despite all the progress, the full range of susceptible hosts for this novel virus has yet to be determined, but includes swine, bovine, small ruminants and human. This study was designed to determine if equine is a possible host to this newly emerging influenza virus...
November 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131528/the-design-of-a-social-cost-benefit-analysis-of-preventive-interventions-for-toxoplasmosis-an-example-of-the-one-health%C3%A2-approach
#17
A W M Suijkerbuijk, P F van Gils, A A Bonačić Marinović, T L Feenstra, L M Kortbeek, M-J J Mangen, M Opsteegh, G A de Wit, J W B van der Giessen
Toxoplasma gondii infections cause a large disease burden in the Netherlands, with an estimated health loss of 1,900 Disability Adjusted Life Years and a cost-of-illness estimated at €44 million annually. Infections in humans occur via exposure to oocysts in the environment and after eating undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, leading to asymptomatic or mild symptoms, but potentially leading to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. Infection in pregnant women can lead to stillbirth and disorders in newborns...
November 12, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124901/raccoon-roundworm-baylisascaris-procyonis-as-an-occupational-hazard-1-knowledge-of-b-%C3%A2-procyonis-and-attitudes-towards-it-and-other-zoonoses-among-wildlife-rehabilitators
#18
S G H Sapp, B A Murray, E R Hoover, G T Green, M J Yabsley
Wildlife rehabilitators are at risk of zoonotic diseases because they often have prolonged contact with many species of wildlife and their bodily fluids. Raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) is a common zoonotic parasite of raccoons that has the potential to cause severe or fatal neurologic disease in a broad variety of hosts if the eggs within raccoon faeces are ingested. We administered an online survey to wildlife rehabilitators to assess their knowledge regarding aspects of transmission, biology and disease caused by B...
November 10, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115743/survivability-of-low-pathogenic-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-in-water-in-the-presence-of-atyopsis-moluccensis-bamboo-shrimp
#19
A P Pathak, H V Murugkar, S Nagarajan, R Sood, C Tosh, M Kumar, C K Athira, A Praveen
Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) exhibits an ecological climax with the aquatic ecosystem. The most widely prevalent subtype of LPAIV is H9N2. Wild aquatic birds being the natural reservoirs and ducks, the "Trojan horses" for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), can contaminate the natural water bodies inhabited by them. The virus can persist in the contaminated water from days to years depending upon the environmental conditions. Various aquatic species other than ducks can promote the persistence and transmission of AIV; however, studies on the role of aquatic fauna in persistence and transmission of avian influenza virus are scarce...
November 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110404/antimicrobial-resistance-trends-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diseased-food-producing-animals-in-france-a-14-year-period-time-series-study
#20
C Boireau, É Morignat, G Cazeau, N Jarrige, É Jouy, M Haenni, J-Y Madec, A Leblond, É Gay
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacteria isolated from food-producing animals is a growing concern with implications for public health. AMR surveillance is essential to identify resistance trends and help in the design of effective and efficient control strategies. The aim of the study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from three livestock productions in France (cattle, swine and poultry). The trend in resistance to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in animal health was analysed as follows: amoxicillin (penicillin), spectinomycin or streptomycin (aminoglycoside), tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/Enrofloxacin and ceftiofur were also taken into account as members of critically important antimicrobial families in human and veterinary medicine, that is fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, respectively...
November 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
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