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Zoonoses and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659194/detection-of-hepatitis-e-virus-rna-in-saliva-for-diagnosis-of-acute-infection
#1
A Rivero-Juarez, M Frias, P Lopez-Lopez, A Martinez-Peinado, M Á Risalde, T Brieva, I Machuca, Á Camacho, I García-Bocanegra, J C Gomez-Villamandos, A Rivero
Diagnosis of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is established by detection of anti-HEV IgM antibodies by ELISA or by amplification of serum viral RNA. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic value of testing HEV RNA in saliva to identify patients with acute HEV infection. Prospective proof-of-concept study including patients with acute hepatitis. Whole blood and neat saliva samples were obtained from all patients. Saliva samples were processed and analysed for HEV RNA by RT-PCR within 2 hr after collection...
April 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654656/giardia-duodenalis-in-primates-classification-and-host-specificity-based-on-phylogenetic-analysis-of-sequence-data
#2
O Brynildsrud, K R Tysnes, L J Robertson, J J Debenham
Giardia duodenalis colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of a wide range of hosts, including humans and other primates. It is grouped into eight different Assemblages and, beyond that, into a number of sub-Assemblages, defined ad hoc on the basis of genetic differences; these various groups are often considered to be associated with a specific restricted host range. The aim of this study was to use publicly available genotyping data to investigate the relatedness of human and non-human primate (NHP) Giardia isolates in order to evaluate the usefulness of current taxonomic classification and to assess whether there is potential for zoonotic transmission between humans and NHP...
April 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633545/challenges-to-controlling-rabies-in-skunk-populations-using-oral-rabies-vaccination-a-review
#3
REVIEW
A Wohlers, E W Lankau, E H Oertli, J Maki
Controlling rabies in skunk populations is an important public health concern in many parts of the United States due to the potential for skunk rabies outbreaks in urban centres and the possible role for skunks in raccoon rabies variant circulation. Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes have supported wildlife rabies control efforts globally but using ORV to control rabies in skunk populations has proven more challenging than with other target species, like foxes, coyotes and raccoons. A review of published studies found that some ORV constructs are immunogenic in skunks and protect against virulent rabies virus challenges, especially when delivered by direct installation into the oral cavity...
April 6, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603886/raccoon-roundworm-baylisascaris-procyonis-as-an-occupational-hazard-2-use-of-personal-protective-equipment-and-infection-control-practices-among-raccoon-rehabilitators
#4
S G H Sapp, B Murray, E R Hoover, G T Green, M J Yabsley
Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, is a zoonotic ascarid of importance to human and animal health. Wildlife rehabilitators who care for raccoons may be at an increased risk for exposure to the parasite, especially if proper precautions are not taken. In a wider effort to evaluate awareness regarding B. procyonis in the wildlife rehabilitation community, an online survey (38-39 questions) including questions about B. procyonis knowledge and attitudes was developed and administered to wildlife rehabilitators...
March 30, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602269/risk-for-interspecies-transmission-of-zoonotic-pathogens-during-poultry-processing-and-pork-production-in-peru-a-qualitative-study
#5
A M Carnero, K Kitayama, D A Diaz, M Garvich, N Angulo, V A Cama, R H Gilman, A M Bayer
Interspecies transmission of pathogens is an unfrequent but naturally occurring event and human activities may favour opportunities not previously reported. Reassortment of zoonotic pathogens like influenza A virus can result from these activities. Recently, swine and birds have played a central role as "mixing vessels" for epidemic and pandemic events related to strains like H1N1 and H5N1. Unsafe practices in poultry markets and swine farms can lead to interspecies transmission, favouring the emergence of novel strains...
March 30, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577661/cross-sectional-study-to-estimate-the-prevalence-of-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-on-hides-of-market-beef-cows-at-harvest
#6
L G Schneider, Z R Stromberg, G L Lewis, R A Moxley, D R Smith
Cattle hides are an important source of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) carcass contamination at slaughter. Seven EHEC serogroups are adulterants in raw, non-intact beef: EHEC O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157. The objective of this study was to estimate the probability for hide contamination with EHEC among US market beef cows at slaughter and to test the effects of season and geographic region on prevalence of hide contamination. Hides (n = 800) of market cows were swabbed at slaughter immediately after exsanguination, prior to hide removal...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577655/first-insights-into-puumala-orthohantavirus-circulation-in-a-rodent-population-in-alsace-france
#7
E Monchatre-Leroy, S Murri, G Castel, D Calavas, F Boué, V Hénaux, P Marianneau
In-depth knowledge on the mechanisms that maintain infection by a zoonotic pathogen in an animal reservoir is the key to predicting and preventing transmission to humans. The Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV), the most prevalent orthohantavirus in Western Europe, causes a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. In France, this endemic illness affects the north-eastern part of the country. We conducted a 4-year capture-mark-recapture study in a bank vole population, combined with molecular analyses, to explore the epidemiological situation of PUUV in Alsace, a French region where human cases have occurred, but for which no studies have been conducted on this reservoir host...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577654/flea-market-finds-and-global-exports-four-multistate-outbreaks-of-human-salmonella-infections-linked-to-small-turtles-united-states-2015
#8
K Gambino-Shirley, L Stevenson, J Concepción-Acevedo, E Trees, D Wagner, L Whitlock, J Roberts, N Garrett, S Van Duyne, G McAllister, B Schick, L Schlater, V Peralta, R Reporter, L Li, H Waechter, T Gomez, J Fernández Ordenes, S Ulloa, C Ragimbeau, J Mossong, M Nichols
Zoonotic transmission of Salmonella infections causes an estimated 11% of salmonellosis annually in the United States. This report describes the epidemiologic, traceback and laboratory investigations conducted in the United States as part of four multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections linked to small turtles. Salmonella isolates indistinguishable from the outbreak strains were isolated from a total of 143 ill people in the United States, pet turtles, and pond water samples collected from turtle farm A, as well as ill people from Chile and Luxembourg...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577634/molecular-epidemiology-of-shiga-toxin-producing-o113-h21-isolates-from-cattle-and-meat
#9
A M Sanso, A V Bustamante, A Krüger, J S Cadona, R Alfaro, M E Cáceres, D Fernández, P M A Lucchesi, N L Padola
The serotype O113:H21 is considered one of the relevant non-O157 STEC serotypes associated with severe human infections. Due to the increased detection of O113 strains and their relationship with clinical cases, which emphasizes the importance of this serogroup as an emerging pathogen, our aim was to determine the characteristics of STEC O113:H21 strains circulating in bovine cattle and retail meat from Argentina. For this purpose, we determined the presence and combinations of various virulence genes (and their variants) related to adhesion and toxicity in a collection of 34 isolates...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575785/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-common-vampire-bats-desmodus-rotundus-and-livestock-in-peru
#10
J A Benavides, C Shiva, M Virhuez, C Tello, A Appelgren, J Vendrell, J Solassol, S Godreuil, D G Streicker
Antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) is a global threat to public health. ESBL resistance is most commonly hospital-acquired; however, infections acquired outside of hospital settings have raised concerns over the role of livestock and wildlife in the zoonotic spread of ESBL-producing bacteria. Only limited data are available on the circulation of ESBL-producing bacteria in animals. Here, we report ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in wild common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and livestock near Lima, Peru...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575700/antimicrobial-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-recovered-from-companion-animal-and-livestock-environments
#11
R J Adams, S S Kim, D F Mollenkopf, D A Mathys, G M Schuenemann, J B Daniels, T E Wittum
Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria represent an important concern impacting both veterinary medicine and public health. The rising prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC beta-lactamase, carbapenemase (CRE) and fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae continually decreases the efficiency of clinically important antibiotics. Moreover, the potential for zoonotic transmission of antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria increases the risk to public health. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria on human contact surfaces in various animal environments...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575672/serological-evidence-of-widespread-exposure-of-grenada-fruit-bats-to-chikungunya-virus
#12
D Stone, A C Lyons, Y-J S Huang, D L Vanlandingham, S Higgs, B J Blitvich, A A Adesiyun, S E Santana, L Leiser-Miller, S Cheetham
Antibody detection against selected potentially zoonotic vector-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses was conducted on sera from bats from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were tested for (i) antibodies to flaviviruses West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Ilhéus virus, Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Rio Bravo virus and all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT); (ii) antibodies to alphaviruses western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and (iii) antibodies to the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) by PRNT...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573177/a-four-season-longitudinal-study-of-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-in-beef-cow-calf-herds-in-mississippi-and-nebraska
#13
L G Schneider, G L Lewis, R A Moxley, D R Smith
Our objective was to describe the probability of detecting seven serogroups of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC-7) of public health importance in faecal samples from beef cow-calf herds and to test for factors associated with their detection. Fresh faecal samples (n = 85) from two Mississippi and two Nebraska herds were collected in each of four seasons. Samples were tested for each EHEC-7 serogroup by a molecular screening assay. Separate management groups within herds were sampled, and group-level factors were recorded...
March 24, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532636/human-noroviruses-in-the-faeces-of-wild-birds-and-rodents-new-potential-transmission-routes
#14
M Summa, H Henttonen, L Maunula
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading global causes of diarrhoeal diseases and are transmitted mainly from person to person but also through contaminated food, water and fomites. The possible zoonotic nature of NoVs has occasionally been discussed, although the viruses are generally considered to be host-species-specific. We investigated whether wild birds and rodents could serve as carriers of HuNoVs, thereby transmitting the virus to humans directly or indirectly by contaminating foods. All samples, 115 avian and 100 rat faeces collected in springs 2009-2013 from dump sites, and 85 faeces from yellow-necked mice trapped in late autumn 2008 and 2009 after the rodents entered human settlements due to the first night frosts, were screened for HuNoV using real-time reverse transcription PCR...
March 12, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524317/determinants-of-health-seeking-behaviour-following-rabies-exposure-in-ethiopia
#15
T J Beyene, M C M Mourits, C W Revie, H Hogeveen
The objective of this study was to identify factors that determine medical treatment seeking behaviour following potential rabies exposure after being bitten by a suspected dog and the likelihood of compliance to receive sufficient doses of post-exposure prophylaxis after the visit to a health centre visit. A detailed survey based on case investigation was conducted on suspected rabid dog bite cases in three areas of Ethiopia. Two multivariable logistic regression models were created with a set of putative variables to explain treatment seeking and compliance outcomes...
March 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516663/serological-surveillance-for-tahyna-virus-california-encephalitis-orthobunyavirus-peribunyaviridae-neutralizing-antibodies-in-wild-ungulates-in-austria-hungary-and-romania
#16
J V Camp, R Haider, D Porea, L E Oslobanu, P Forgách, N Nowotny
A serosurvey for Tahyna virus (TAHV), a mosquito-borne California encephalitis orthobunyavirus (Peribunyaviridae) endemic to Europe, was performed to estimate the activity of TAHV on a broad geographic scale. Sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected from Austria, Hungary and Romania. Samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against TAHV using a virus microneutralization assay. The results demonstrate that TAHV transmission to mammals is widespread in Europe, particularly in the wild boar population where the mean rate of seroconversion is 15...
March 8, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512303/occupational-transmission-of-an-orthopoxvirus-infection-during-an-outbreak-in-a-colony-of-macaca-tonkeana-in-lazio-region-italy-2015
#17
V Puro, F M Fusco, C Castilletti, F Carletti, F Colavita, C Agrati, A Di Caro, M R Capobianchi, G Ippolito
Orthopoxviruses spill over from animal reservoirs to accidental hosts, sometimes causing human infections. We describe the surveillance and infection control measures undertaken during an outbreak due to an Orthopoxvirus occurred in January 2015 in a colony of Macaca tonkeana in the province of Rieti, Latio, Italy, which caused a human asymptomatic infection. According to the epidemiological investigation, the human transmission occurred after an unprotected exposure. The contacts among wild, captive and domestic animals and humans, together with decreased immunity against Orthopoxviruses in the community, may put animal handlers at risk of infection, especially after the cessation of smallpox vaccination...
March 7, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464925/molecular-characterization-of-unusual-bovine-rotavirus-a-strains-having-high-genetic-relatedness-with-human-rotavirus-evidence-for-zooanthroponotic-transmission
#18
N Kumar, Y S Malik, K Sharma, K Dhama, S Ghosh, K Bányai, N Kobayashi, R K Singh
We report here the genomic characterization of two rare rotavirus A (RVAs) G1P[11] and G9P[X] strains detected in cattle calves from two different geographical locations in India during routine rotavirus surveillance. These strains possessed unusual G types (VP7 gene) on a bovine/artiodactyl genotype constellation, G1-P[11]-I2-Rx-Cx-Mx-Ax-N2-T6-E2-H3 (HR-B91) and G9-P[X]-I2-Rx-Cx-Mx-Ax-N2-T6-E2-H3 (WB-H2). This is the first report on molecular characterization of G9 in cattle, and second report on G1 in cattle...
February 20, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451368/public-health-response-to-an-imported-case-of-canine-melioidosis
#19
C W Ryan, K Bishop, D D Blaney, S J Britton, F Cantone, C Egan, M G Elrod, C W Frye, A M Maxted, G Perkins
Melioidosis in humans presents variably as fulminant sepsis, pneumonia, skin infection and solid organ abscesses. It is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, which in the United States is classified as a select agent, with "potential to pose a severe threat to both human and animal health, to plant health or to animal and plant products" (Federal Select Agent Program, http://www.selectagents.gov/, accessed 22 September 2016). Burkholderia pseudomallei is found in soil and surface water in the tropics, especially South-East Asia and northern Australia, where melioidosis is endemic...
February 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441690/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-of-slaughtered-healthy-pigs-in-brazil
#20
A R Amorim, G S Mendes, G P A Pena, N Santos
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that can be transmitted through contaminated raw or undercooked meat derived from domestic pigs. HEV infections have been documented among pig herds, pig products and environmental samples raising concern about the spread of the virus. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are considered zoonotic and have been linked to human cases. HEV was detected in 51 of 335 bile samples (15.2%) from healthy pigs in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences from ORF1 and ORF2 regions yielded discordant results, assigning isolates to subtypes 3c and 3i, respectively, suggesting intragenotypic HEV recombination...
February 13, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
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