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Brain Imaging and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464531/the-relationship-between-voxel-based-metrics-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-performance-in-cognitively-healthy-elderly-adults
#1
Haobo Zhang, Perminder S Sachdev, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Yong He, Mingrui Xia, Nicole A Kochan, John D Crawford, Julian N Trollor, Henry Brodaty, Wei Wen
In previous studies, resting-state functional connectivity (FC) metrics of specific brain regions or networks based on prior hypotheses have been correlated with cognitive performance. Without constraining our analyses to specific regions or networks, we employed whole-brain voxel-based weighted degree (WD), a measure of local FC strength, to be correlated with three commonly used neuropsychological assessments of language, executive function and memory retrieval in both positive and negative directions in 67 cognitively healthy elderly adults...
February 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464530/difference-in-regional-neural-fluctuations-and-functional-connectivity-in-crohn-s-disease-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#2
Chunhui Bao, Peng Liu, Huirong Liu, Xiaoming Jin, Yin Shi, Luyi Wu, Xiaoqing Zeng, Jianye Zhang, Di Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Jie Tian, Huangan Wu
Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are shown to have abnormal changes in brain structures. This study aimed to further investigate whether these patients have abnormal brain activities and network connectivity. Sixty patients with CD and 40 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) were used to assess differences in spontaneous regional brain activity and functional connectivity...
February 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460167/alzheimer-disease-detection-from-structural-mr-images-using-fcm-based-weighted-probabilistic-neural-network
#3
Baskar Duraisamy, Jayanthi Venkatraman Shanmugam, Jayanthi Annamalai
An early intervention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is highly essential due to the fact that this neuro degenerative disease generates major life-threatening issues, especially memory loss among patients in society. Moreover, categorizing NC (Normal Control), MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment) and AD early in course allows the patients to experience benefits from new treatments. Therefore, it is important to construct a reliable classification technique to discriminate the patients with or without AD from the bio medical imaging modality...
February 19, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460166/common-and-distinct-changes-of-default-mode-and-salience-network-in-schizophrenia-and-major-depression
#4
Junming Shao, Chun Meng, Masoud Tahmasian, Felix Brandl, Qinli Yang, Guangchun Luo, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao, Lianli Gao, Valentin Riedl, Afra Wohlschläger, Christian Sorg
Brain imaging reveals schizophrenia as a disorder of macroscopic brain networks. In particular, default mode and salience network (DMN, SN) show highly consistent alterations in both interacting brain activity and underlying brain structure. However, the same networks are also altered in major depression. This overlap in network alterations induces the question whether DMN and SN changes are different across both disorders, potentially indicating distinct underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. To address this question, we acquired T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and resting-state functional MRI in patients with schizophrenia, patients with major depression, and healthy controls...
February 19, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442274/congenital-olfactory-impairment-is-linked-to-cortical-changes-in-prefrontal-and-limbic-brain-regions
#5
Helena Gásdal Karstensen, Martin Vestergaard, William F C Baaré, Arnold Skimminge, Bjarki Djurhuus, Bjarki Ellefsen, Norbert Brüggemann, Camilla Klausen, Anne-Mette Leffers, Niels Tommerup, Hartwig R Siebner
The human sense of smell is closely associated with morphological differences of the fronto-limbic system, specifically the piriform cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Still it is unclear whether cortical volume in the core olfactory areas and connected brain regions are shaped differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI) matched with sixteen normosmic controls...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442273/a-comparative-study-of-segmentation-techniques-for-the-quantification-of-brain-subcortical-volume
#6
Theophilus N Akudjedu, Leila Nabulsi, Migle Makelyte, Cathy Scanlon, Sarah Hehir, Helen Casey, Srinath Ambati, Joanne Kenney, Stefani O'Donoghue, Emma McDermott, Liam Kilmartin, Peter Dockery, Colm McDonald, Brian Hallahan, Dara M Cannon
Manual tracing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the gold standard for segmentation in clinical neuropsychiatric research studies, however automated approaches are increasingly used due to its time limitations. The accuracy of segmentation techniques for subcortical structures has not been systematically investigated in large samples. We compared the accuracy of fully automated [(i) model-based: FSL-FIRST; (ii) patch-based: volBrain], semi-automated (FreeSurfer) and stereological (Measure®) segmentation techniques with manual tracing (ITK-SNAP) for delineating volumes of the caudate (easy-to-segment) and the hippocampus (difficult-to-segment)...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442272/the-way-to-left-piazza-del-popolo-damage-to-white-matter-tracts-in-representational-neglect-for-places
#7
Maddalena Boccia, Antonella Di Vita, Liana Palermo, Giorgia Committeri, Laura Piccardi, Cecilia Guariglia
The ability of seeing with the mind's eye, the visual mental imagery, is peculiarly compromised in patients with representational neglect. Representational neglect affects the processing of the left side of a mental image and may selectively concern the ability to imagine places and/or objects. Right-brain damaged patients with representational neglect for places (RN+) lose the ability to imagine themselves within a familiar place and fail in transforming an egocentric representation of the environment into an allocentric one and vice-versa...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442271/exploring-variability-in-basal-ganglia-connectivity-with-functional-mri-in-healthy-aging
#8
Ludovica Griffanti, Philipp Stratmann, Michal Rolinski, Nicola Filippini, Enikő Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Giovanna Zamboni, Gwenaëlle Douaud, Johannes C Klein, Mika Kivimäki, Archana Singh-Manoux, Michele T Hu, Klaus P Ebmeier, Clare E Mackay
Changes in functional connectivity (FC) measured using resting state fMRI within the basal ganglia network (BGN) have been observed in pathologies with altered neurotransmitter systems and conditions involving motor control and dopaminergic processes. However, less is known about non-disease factors affecting FC in the BGN. The aim of this study was to examine associations of FC within the BGN with dopaminergic processes in healthy older adults. We explored the relationship between FC in the BGN and variables related to demographics, impulsive behavior, self-paced tasks, mood, and motor correlates in 486 participants in the Whitehall-II imaging sub-study using both region-of-interest- and voxel-based approaches...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442270/spatial-distribution-bias-in-subject-specific-abnormalities-analyses
#9
Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Edward J Bedrick, Timothy B Meier, Andrew R Mayer
The neuroimaging community has seen a renewed interest in algorithms that provide a location-independent summary of subject-specific abnormalities (SSA) to assess individual lesion load. More recently, these methods have been extended to assess whether multiple individuals within the same cohort exhibit extrema in the same spatial location (e.g., voxel or region of interest). However, the statistical validity of this approach has not been rigorously established. The current study evaluated the potential for a spatial bias in the distribution of SSA using several common z-transformation algorithms (leave-one-out [LOO]; independent sample [IDS]; Enhanced Z-Score Microstructural Assessment of Pathology [EZ-MAP]; distribution-corrected z-scores [DisCo-Z]) using both simulated data and DTI data from 50 healthy controls...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427064/diagnostic-and-prognostic-value-of-amyloid-pet-textural-and-shape-features-comparison-with-classical-semi-quantitative-rating-in-760-patients-from-the-adni-2-database
#10
Fayçal Ben Bouallègue, Fabien Vauchot, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Pierre Payoux
We evaluated the performance of amyloid PET textural and shape features in discriminating normal and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects, and in predicting conversion to AD in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or significant memory concern (SMC). Subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative with available baseline 18F-florbetapir and T1-MRI scans were included. The cross-sectional cohort consisted of 181 controls and 148 AD subjects. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 431 SMC/MCI subjects, 85 of whom converted to AD during follow-up...
February 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427063/functional-brain-abnormalities-in-major-depressive-disorder-using-the-hilbert-huang-transform
#11
Haibin Yu, Feng Li, Tong Wu, Rui Li, Li Yao, Chuanyue Wang, Xia Wu
Major depressive disorder is a common disease worldwide, which is characterized by significant and persistent depression. Non-invasive accessory diagnosis of depression can be performed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). However, the fMRI signal may not satisfy linearity and stationarity. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is an adaptive time-frequency localization analysis method suitable for nonlinear and non-stationary signals. The objective of this study was to apply the HHT to rs-fMRI to find the abnormal brain areas of patients with depression...
February 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423814/connectivity-based-characterisation-of-subcortical-grey-matter-pathology-in-frontotemporal-dementia-and-als-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#12
Peter Bede, Taha Omer, Eoin Finegan, Rangariroyashe H Chipika, Parameswaran M Iyer, Mark A Doherty, Alice Vajda, Niall Pender, Russell L McLaughlin, Siobhan Hutchinson, Orla Hardiman
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) phenotypes have distinctive and well-established cortical signatures, but their subcortical grey matter profiles are poorly characterised. The comprehensive characterisation of striatal and thalamic pathology along the ALS-FTD spectrum is particularly timely, as dysfunction of frontostriatal and cortico-thalamic networks contribute to phenotype-defining cognitive, behavioral, and motor deficits. Ten patients with behavioral-variant FTD, 11 patients with non-fluent-variant primary progressive aphasia, 5 patients with semantic-variant primary progressive aphasia, 14 ALS-FTD patients with C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansions, 12 ALS-FTD patients without hexanucleotide repeats, 36 ALS patients without cognitive impairment and 50 healthy controls were included in a prospective neuroimaging study...
February 8, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417492/quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-as-a-biomarker-for-evaluating-white-matter-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Xiaojun Guan, Peiyu Huang, Qiaoling Zeng, Chunlei Liu, Hongjiang Wei, Min Xuan, Quanquan Gu, Xiaojun Xu, Nian Wang, Xinfeng Yu, Xiao Luo, Minming Zhang
Myelinated white matter showing diamagnetic susceptibility is important for information transfer in the brain. In Parkinson's disease (PD), the white matter is also suffering degenerative alterations. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel technique for noninvasive assessment of regional white matter ultrastructure, and provides different information of white matter in addition to standard diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In this study, we used QSM to detect spatial white matter alterations in PD patients (n = 65) and age- and sex-matched normal controls (n = 46)...
February 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417491/meditation-and-yoga-practice-are-associated-with-smaller-right-amygdala-volume-the-rotterdam-study
#14
Rinske A Gotink, Meike W Vernooij, M Arfan Ikram, Wiro J Niessen, Gabriel P Krestin, Albert Hofman, Henning Tiemeier, M G Myriam Hunink
To determine the association between meditation and yoga practice, experienced stress, and amygdala and hippocampal volume in a large population-based study. This study was embedded within the population-based Rotterdam Study and included 3742 participants for cross-sectional association. Participants filled out a questionnaire assessing meditation practice, yoga practice, and experienced stress, and underwent a magnetic resonance scan of the brain. 2397 participants underwent multiple brain scans, and were assessed for structural change over time...
February 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417490/motor-and-extra-motor-gray-matter-integrity-may-underlie-neurophysiologic-parameters-of-motor-function-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-transcranial-stimulation-study
#15
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Georgios Velonakis, Michail Rentzos, Thomas Zambelis, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Sophia Xirou, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Nikolaos Karandreas
The association between gray matter (GM) density and neurophysiologic changes is still unclear in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated the relationship between GM density and motor system integrity combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in ALS. We included 17 ALS patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) who underwent 3D-T1-weighted imaging. Among the ALS group, we applied left motor cortex single-pulse TMS. We used whole-brain VBM comparing ALS and HC in GM density...
February 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411240/altered-gray-matter-volume-in-primary-insomnia-patients-a-dartel-vbm-study
#16
Meng Li, Jianhao Yan, Shumei Li, Tianyue Wang, Hua Wen, Yi Yin, Shishun Fu, Luxian Zeng, Junzhang Tian, Guihua Jiang
Previous neuroimaging studies have reported brain morphological alterations and the occurrence of mental disorders in primary insomnia (PI) patients. However, studies of the effect of disrupted sleep on brain structure have showed inconsistent results. In this study, DARTEL-VBM was used to evaluate the changes in gray matter volume from 60 PI patients and 53 controls. Voxel-wise statistics was performed in two ways. One is a more liberal statistical analysis using an uncorrected P < 0. 001 with 25 voxels, and the other one is a more conservative approach using a threshold of P < 0...
February 6, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396739/distinct-neural-correlates-of-episodic-memory-among-apolipoprotein-e-alleles-in-cognitively-normal-elderly
#17
Hao Shu, Yongmei Shi, Gang Chen, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Chunxian Yue, B Douglas Ward, Wenjun Li, Zhan Xu, Guangyu Chen, Qi-Hao Guo, Jun Xu, Shi-Jiang Li, Zhijun Zhang
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and ε2 alleles are acknowledged genetic factors modulating Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk and episodic memory (EM) deterioration in an opposite manner. Mounting neuroimaging studies describe EM-related brain activity differences among APOE alleles but remain limited in elucidating the underlying mechanism. Here, we hypothesized that the APOE ε2, ε3, and ε4 alleles have distinct EM neural substrates, as a manifestation of degeneracy, underlying their modulations on EM-related brain activity and AD susceptibility...
February 2, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383621/diffusion-tensor-imaging-changes-following-mild-moderate-and-severe-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-a-meta-analysis
#18
Erica J Wallace, Jane L Mathias, Lynn Ward
Diffusion tensor imaging quantifies the asymmetry (fractional anisotropy; FA) and amount of water diffusion (mean diffusivity/apparent diffusion coefficient; MD/ADC) and has been used to assess white matter damage following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In healthy brains, diffusion is constrained by the organization of axons, resulting in high FA and low MD/ADC. Following a TBI, diffusion may be altered; however the exact nature of these changes has yet to be determined. A meta-analysis was therefore conducted to determine the location and extent of changes in DTI following adult TBI...
January 30, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374846/structural-and-functional-papez-circuit-integrity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Ana Paula Arantes Bueno, Walter Hugo L Pinaya, Luciana M Moura, Maxime Bertoux, Ratko Radakovic, Matthew C Kiernan, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Michael Hornberger, João Ricardo Sato
Cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is heterogeneous but now recognized as a feature in non-demented patients and no longer exclusively attributed to executive dysfunction. However, despite common reports of temporal lobe changes and memory deficits in ALS, episodic memory has been less explored. In the current study, we examined how the Papez circuit-a circuit known to participate in memory processes-is structurally and functionally affected in ALS patients (n = 20) compared with healthy controls (n = 15), and whether these changes correlated with a commonly used clinical measure of episodic memory...
January 27, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374356/altered-intrinsic-brain-activity-and-memory-performance-improvement-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-during-a-single-dialysis-session
#20
Peng Li, Dun Ding, Xue-Ying Ma, Hua-Wen Zhang, Ji-Xin Liu, Ming Zhang
Memory deficits are considered to have a great influence on self-management, dietary restriction and therapeutic regimen for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with dialysis treatment. This study was aim to investigate the spontaneous brain activity and its relationship with memory performance in ESRD patients before dialysis (T1) and after 24 h (T2) during a single dialysis session. 23 ESRD patients and 25 matched healthy controls (HCs) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at T1, and all patients were also scanned at T2...
January 26, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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