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Brain Imaging and Behavior

Jiangzhou Sun, Liang Shi, Qunlin Chen, Wenjing Yang, Dongtao Wei, Jinfu Zhang, Qinglin Zhang, Jiang Qiu
Creativity is the ability to produce something novel and useful. Various tasks have been used to explore the neural bases of creativity. However, studies exploring the relationship between the brain regions during divergent thinking are still rare. Given that the brain works in networks, exploring the functional connectivity (FC) patterns during divergent thinking is important. The present study explored the FC patterns during alternative uses task and its relationship with openness to experience. Psychophysiological interaction results corroborated that the inferior parietal lobule was positively connected to the precuneus and middle temporal gyrus...
September 21, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Simona Raimo, Gabriella Santangelo, Alfonsina D'Iorio, Luigi Trojano, Dario Grossi
Apathy is commonly reported in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). In our meta-analysis we analysed a total of 41 studies to identify brain patterns associated with apathy. For these purposes we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses. Our main overall analysis showed that apathy is associated to hypometabolism and a decreased gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45, 46). Disorder-specific analyses, not performed by means of meta-analysis, because of the small number of studies, but by means a label-based review, revealed an altered brain perfusion and decreased gray matter volume in anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24, 32) in AD patients and a decreased gray matter volume in inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44, 45) and parietal cortex (BA 40) in FTD patients...
September 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Alice Trentalange, Adolfo Prochet, Daniele Imperiale, Jessica Cusato, Mariacristina Tettoni, Giuseppe Nunnari, Ambra Barco, Stefano Bonora, Giovanni Di Perri, Andrea Calcagno
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) have been associated with neurological complications including cognitive impairment. WMHs have been often described in HIV positive subjects and they have been linked to neurocognitive impairment, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) residual viral replication and biomarkers of monocyte activation. Aim of this study was to grade WMHs in HIV-positive individuals using a simple visual scale and to explore their severity with clinical, neurocognitive and biomarker characteristics. Brain MRIs were retrospectively evaluated by two reviewers who rated WMHs following the "age-related white matter changes (ARWMC)" scale...
September 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yuefeng Li, Jiasheng Qin, Jinchuan Yan, Ningning Zhang, Yuhao Xu, Yan Zhu, Liangju Sheng, Xiaolan Zhu, Shenghong Ju
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is the main effector of the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is caused by different types of stress that can be divided into two major categories: physical stress and psychological stress. Given the marked presence of GR in the hippocampus, GR-mediated hippocampal injury might be the core event under stress. The aim of this study was to investigate GR expression, hippocampal injury, and behaviors in rats to explore the differences between these types of stressors...
September 18, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Carla L Harenski, Keith A Harenski, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Relative to the general population, criminal offenders have a higher risk of suicide. Neurobiological deficits related to suicidal behavior have been identified in the general population, but unexamined in offenders to date. We examined the association between brain morphology and suicidal behavior in adult male criminal offenders. Brain morphology was examined using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and source-based morphometry (SBM), a multivariate alternative to VBM which analyzes brain volume in between-subject spatially independent networks...
September 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Donghui Song, Da Chang, Jian Zhang, Qiu Ge, Yu-Feng Zang, Ze Wang
Entropy is a fundamental trait of human brain. Using fMRI-based brain entropy (BEN) mapping, interesting findings have been increasingly revealed in normal brain and neuropsychiatric disorders. As BEN is still relatively new, an often-raised question is how much new information can this measure tell about the brain compared to other more established brain activity measures. The study aimed to address that question by examining the relationship between BEN and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), two widely used resting state brain state measures...
September 12, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xiaowan Wang, Chris Baeken, Mengxia Fang, Jiang Qiu, Hong Chen, Guo-Rong Wu
Fear of pain (FOP) can be considered as a product of evolution from overstated negative interpretations of pain and sometimes may cause more damage than the actual pain itself. While trait-like measures of FOP have emerged as predictors for the inception and development of chronic pain, its neural underpinnings are not well understood. To investigate the relationship between gray matter volumes (GMV) and trait-like individual differences in FOP, we analyzed structural magnetic resonance imaging data in a sample of healthy young adults...
September 11, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Shuqin Zhou, Jing Xu, Zihui Su, Yuezhen Li, Yan Shao, Hongqiang Sun, Huaiqiu Zhu, Qihong Zou, Jia-Hong Gao
Recent neuroimaging studies have indicated that inter-individual variability in dream recall frequency (DRF) is associated with both resting-state regional cerebral blood flow and task-induced brain activations. However, the brain structure underpinning this inter-individual variability in DRF remains unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between brain structural characteristics and DRF. We collected both T1-weighted and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data from 43 healthy volunteers...
September 11, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Bhim M Adhikari, Neda Jahanshad, Dinesh Shukla, Jessica Turner, Dominik Grotegerd, Udo Dannlowski, Harald Kugel, Jennifer Engelen, Bruno Dietsche, Axel Krug, Tilo Kircher, Els Fieremans, Jelle Veraart, Dmitry S Novikov, Premika S W Boedhoe, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Odile A van den Heuvel, Jonathan Ipser, Anne Uhlmann, Dan J Stein, Erin Dickie, Aristotle N Voineskos, Anil K Malhotra, Fabrizio Pizzagalli, Vince D Calhoun, Lea Waller, Ilja M Veer, Hernik Walter, Robert W Buchanan, David C Glahn, L Elliot Hong, Paul M Thompson, Peter Kochunov
Large-scale consortium efforts such as Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) and other collaborative efforts show that combining statistical data from multiple independent studies can boost statistical power and achieve more accurate estimates of effect sizes, contributing to more reliable and reproducible research. A meta- analysis would pool effects from studies conducted in a similar manner, yet to date, no such harmonized protocol exists for resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) data. Here, we propose an initial pipeline for multi-site rsfMRI analysis to allow research groups around the world to analyze scans in a harmonized way, and to perform coordinated statistical tests...
September 6, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yunglin Gazes, Peipei Li, Emily Sun, Qolamreza Razlighi, Angeliki Tsapanou
Both white and grey matter atrophy with age, but it is still unclear how decline in white matter relates to decline in grey matter, and how this relationship varies with age. In a group of healthy adults from 20 to 80 years old, divided into three age groups by tertiles, we cross-sectionally examined the white-to-grey matter associations in the fornix and the hippocampus, and tested if and how the fornix-to-hippocampus relationship differs across the age groups. Both structures were also tested as predictors for performance on a memory test, the Selective Reminding Task (SRT)...
September 5, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Inessa Kraft, Joana Bisol Balardin, João Ricardo Sato, Jens Sommer, Patricia Tobo, Carla Barrichello, Edson Amaro, Elisa Harumi Kozasa
Quality of life is an important issue concerning people all over the world and affecting patients in the mental health field. When considering the potential neural links between quality of life and the brain, a brain network that comes into mind is the default mode network (DMN). Its architecture and function has been investigated in relation to various research fields including social and emotional cognition, meditation and neuropsychiatric disorders as well as happiness. In this cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between various quality of life domains (physiological, psychological, social and environmental) and the functional connectivity of the default mode network at rest in a sample of 42 healthy working female managers...
September 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Shu Zhang, Xi Jiang, Wei Zhang, Tuo Zhang, Hanbo Chen, Yu Zhao, Jinglei Lv, Lei Guo, Brittany R Howell, Mar M Sanchez, Xiaoping Hu, Tianming Liu
Discovery and representation of common structural and functional cortical architectures has been a significant yet challenging problem for years. Due to the remarkable variability of structural and functional cortical architectures in human brain, it is challenging to jointly represent a common cortical architecture which can comprehensively encode both structure and function characteristics. In order to better understand this challenge and considering that macaque monkey brain has much less variability in structure and function compared with human brain, in this paper, we propose a novel computational framework to apply our DICCCOL (Dense Individualized and Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks) and HAFNI (Holistic Atlases of Functional Networks and Interactions) frameworks on macaque brains, in order to jointly represent structural and functional connectome-scale profiles for identification of a set of consistent and common cortical landmarks across different macaque brains based on multimodal DTI and resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) data...
September 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yawen Sun, Yao Wang, Xu Han, Wenqing Jiang, Weina Ding, Mengqiu Cao, Yasong Du, Fuchun Lin, Jianrong Xu, Yan Zhou
Although evidence has shown that the prevalence rates of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) differ between males and females, few studies have examined whether such sex differences extend to brain function. This study aimed to explore the sex differences in resting-state cerebral activity alterations in IGD. Thirty male participants with IGD (IGDm), 23 female participants with IGD (IGDf), and 30 male and 22 female age-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent resting-state functional MRI. Maps of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and functional connectivity (FC) were constructed...
September 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yang Wang, Andrew S Nencka, Timothy B Meier, Kevin Guskiewicz, Jason P Mihalik, M Alison Brooks, Andrew J Saykin, Kevin M Koch, Yu-Chien Wu, Lindsay D Nelson, Thomas W McAllister, Steven P Broglio, Michael A McCrea
Sport-related concussion (SRC) has become a major health problem, affecting millions of athletes each year. Despite the increasing occurrence and prevalence of SRC, its underlying mechanism and recovery course have yet to be fully elucidated. The National Collegiate Athletic Association-Department of Defense Grand Alliance: Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium is a large-scale, multisite study of the natural history of concussion across multiple sports. The Advanced Research Core (ARC) of CARE is focused on the advanced biomarker assessment of a reduced subject cohort...
August 29, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Charlene L M Lam, Ho-Ling Liu, Chih-Mao Huang, Yau-Yau Wai, Shwu-Hua Lee, Jenny Yiend, Chemin Lin, Tatia M C Lee
Late-life depression is common among older adults. Although white-matter abnormality is highly implicated, the extent to which the corticospinal tract is associated with the pathophysiology of late-life depression is unclear. The current study aims to investigate the white-matter structural integrity of the corticospinal tract and determine its cognitive and functional correlates in older adults with late-life depression. Twenty-eight older adults with clinical depression and 23 healthy age-matched older adults participated in the study...
August 29, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Junhua Li, Yu Sun, Yi Huang, Anastasios Bezerianos, Rongjun Yu
Machine learning technique has long been utilized to assist disease diagnosis, increasing clinical physicians' confidence in their decision and expediting the process of diagnosis. In this case, machine learning technique serves as a tool for distinguishing patients from healthy people. Additionally, it can also serve as an exploratory method to reveal intrinsic characteristics of a disease based on discriminative features, which was demonstrated in this study. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 148 participants (including patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls)...
August 29, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kerstin Bendfeldt, Bernd Taschler, Laura Gaetano, Philip Madoerin, Pascal Kuster, Nicole Mueller-Lenke, Michael Amann, Hugo Vrenken, Viktor Wottschel, Frederik Barkhof, Stefan Borgwardt, Stefan Klöppel, Eva-Maria Wicklein, Ludwig Kappos, Gilles Edan, Mark S Freedman, Xavier Montalbán, Hans-Peter Hartung, Christoph Pohl, Rupert Sandbrink, Till Sprenger, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Jens Wuerfel, Thomas E Nichols
Neuroanatomical pattern classification using support vector machines (SVMs) has shown promising results in classifying Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients based on individual structural magnetic resonance images (MRI). To determine whether pattern classification using SVMs facilitates predicting conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). We used baseline MRI data from 364 patients with CIS, randomised to interferon beta-1b or placebo. Non-linear SVMs and 10-fold cross-validation were applied to predict converters/non-converters (175/189) at two years follow-up based on clinical and demographic data, lesion-specific quantitative geometric features and grey-matter-to-whole-brain volume ratios...
August 28, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Luyan Liu, Han Zhang, Jinsong Wu, Zhengda Yu, Xiaobo Chen, Islem Rekik, Qian Wang, Junfeng Lu, Dinggang Shen
High-grade glioma (HGG) is a lethal cancer with poor outcome. Accurate preoperative overall survival (OS) time prediction for HGG patients is crucial for treatment planning. Traditional presurgical and noninvasive OS prediction studies have used radiomics features at the local lesion area based on the magnetic resonance images (MRI). However, the highly complex lesion MRI appearance may have large individual variability, which could impede accurate individualized OS prediction. In this paper, we propose a novel concept, namely brain connectomics-based OS prediction...
August 28, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sanne Kamps, Odile A van den Heuvel, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Henk W Berendse, Daniel Weintraub, Chris Vriend
Parkinson disease (PD) patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have worse motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms than patients without RBD. The aim of this study was to examine underlying differences in brain structure from a network perspective. Baseline data were obtained from Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) participants. We divided PD patients and healthy controls (HC) into RBD positive and RBD negative using a cutoff score of ≥5 on the RBD screening questionnaire...
August 28, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Linling Li, Erni Ji, Xue Han, Fei Tang, Yuanhan Bai, Daihui Peng, Yiru Fang, Shengli Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Haichen Yang
Reported structural abnormalities of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are inconsistent and the use of psychotropic medication is one of the sources of heterogeneity. A fairly small number of morphometric studies have involved comparison of BD on different mood stabilizers. Here in this study, we aimed to investigate the cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in euthymic BD patients on lithium and valproate and healthy controls (HC), and to elucidate the relationship between the use of medication and brain structure variations...
August 25, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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