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Brain Imaging and Behavior

Mikhail Popov, Samantha A Molsberry, Fabrizio Lecci, Brian Junker, Lawrence A Kingsley, Andrew Levine, Eileen Martin, Eric Miller, Cynthia A Munro, Ann Ragin, Eric Seaberg, Ned Sacktor, James T Becker
There are distinct trajectories to cognitive impairment among participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Here we analyzed the relationship between regional brain volumes and the individual trajectories to impairment in a subsample (n = 302) of the cohort. 302 (167 HIV-infected; mean age = 55.7 yrs.; mean education: 16.2 yrs.) of the men enrolled in the MACS MRI study contributed data to this analysis. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to segment the brain images to analyze gray and white matter volume at the voxel-level...
January 9, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kyriakos Dalamagkas, Magdalini Tsintou, Yogesh Rathi, Lauren J O'Donnell, Ofer Pasternak, Xue Gong, Anne Zhu, Peter Savadjiev, George M Papadimitriou, Marek Kubicki, Edward H Yeterian, Nikos Makris
The corticospinal tract (CST) is one of the most well studied tracts in human neuroanatomy. Its clinical significance can be demonstrated in many notable traumatic conditions and diseases such as stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). With the advent of diffusion MRI and tractography the computational representation of the human CST in a 3D model became available. However, the representation of the entire CST and, specifically, the hand motor area has remained elusive. In this paper we propose a novel method, using manually drawn ROIs based on robustly identifiable neuroanatomic structures to delineate the entire CST and isolate its hand motor representation as well as to estimate their variability and generate a database of their volume, length and biophysical parameters...
January 8, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Gregory L Wallace, Emily Richard, Cynthia S Peng, Annchen R Knodt, Ahmad R Hariri
Behavioral traits associated with various forms of psychopathology are conceptualized as dimensional, varying from those present in a frank disorder to subclinical expression. Demonstrating links between these behavioral traits and neurobiological indicators, such as brain structure, provides one form of validation for this view. However, unlike behavioral dimensions associated with other forms of psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, antisocial disorders), eating disorder traits have not been investigated in this manner in spite of the potential that such an approach has to elucidate etiological mechanisms...
January 8, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Landrew Sevel, Jeff Boissoneault, Meryl Alappattu, Mark Bishop, Michael Robinson
Analgesic treatments that aim to eliminate pain display marginal success in relieving chronic pain and may increase pain vulnerability. Repeated exposure to pain may result in increased pain modulation via engagement of anti-nociceptive brain regions. It was hypothesized that repeated exposure to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) would result in increased pain modulatory capacity (PMC) via functional neural adaptation. 23 healthy participants completed Baseline and Follow Up resting-state fMRI and quantitative sensory testing (QST) visits 40 days apart...
January 8, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Hikaru Takeuchi, Hiroaki Tomita, Yasuyuki Taki, Yoshie Kikuchi, Chiaki Ono, Zhiqian Yu, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Rui Nouchi, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Kunio Iizuka, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Takamitsu Shinada, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Keiko Kunitoki, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima
Numerous studies have reported that the Met allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphism reduces neural plasticity. A reduction in mean diffusivity (MD) in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characteristically reflects the neural plasticity that involves increased tissue components. In this study, we revealed that the number of Met-BDNF alleles was negatively associated with MD throughout the whole-brain gray and white matter areas of 743 subjects using DTI and whole-brain multiple regression analyses...
January 7, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Maarten Mennes, Peter Stiers, Lieven Lagae, Bea R H Van den Bergh
Evidence is building for an association between the level of anxiety experienced by a mother during pregnancy and offspring cognition and structural and functional brain correlates. The current study uses fMRI to examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety and brain activity associated with endogenous versus exogenous cognitive control in 20-year-old males. Endogenous cognitive control refers to the ability to generate control over decisions, strategies, conflicting information and so on, from within oneself without external signals, while exogenous control is triggered by external signals...
January 7, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yujie Zhang, Yu-Chen Chen, Lanyue Hu, Jia You, Wei Gu, Qian Li, Huiyou Chen, Cunnan Mao, Xindao Yin
Previous studies have demonstrated that cognitive impairment is associated with neurophysiological changes in lung cancer following chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) pattern within the default mode network (DMN) and its associations with cognitive impairment in patients with lung cancer revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting-state fMRI scans were acquired from 21 post-chemotherapy and 27 non-chemotherapy lung cancer patients and 30 healthy controls...
January 7, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Christina Mueller, Joanne C Lin, Sulaiman Sheriff, Andrew A Maudsley, Jarred W Younger
Previous neuroimaging studies have detected markers of neuroinflammation in patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is suitable for measuring brain metabolites linked to inflammation, but has only been applied to discrete regions of interest in ME/CFS. We extended the MRS analysis of ME/CFS by capturing multi-voxel information across the entire brain. Additionally, we tested whether MRS-derived brain temperature is elevated in ME/CFS patients...
January 7, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Zehra Çakmak Çelik, Çiğdem Çolak, Maria A Di Biase, Andrew Zalesky, Nabi Zorlu, Emre Bora, Ömer Kitiş, Zeki Yüncü
Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) have become increasingly popular in the last few years, especially among adolescents. Given ADHD is overrepresented in patients with substance use across adolescents compared to the general population, the current study aims were two-fold: i) examine structural brain network topology in SC users compared to healthy controls and, ii) examine the influence of ADHD on network topology in SC users. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 27 SC users (14 without ADHD and 13 with ADHD combined type) and 13 controls...
January 7, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Rong Li, Chongyu Hu, Liangcheng Wang, Ding Liu, Dingyang Liu, Wei Liao, Bo Xiao, Huafu Chen, Li Feng
Growing evidence has demonstrated widespread brain network alterations in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the relatively accurate portrait of the subcortical-cortical relationship for impaired consciousness in TLE remains unclear. We proposed that consciousness-impairing seizures may invade subcortical arousal system and corresponding cortical regions, resulting in functional abnormalities and information flow disturbances between subcortical and cortical networks. We performed resting-state fMRI in 26 patients with TLE and 30 matched healthy controls...
January 7, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yu Mao, Jie Meng, Cody Ding, Dongtao Wei, Jinfu Zhang, Jiang Qiu
Shyness is often characterized by the avoidance of social contact, the fear of other people's evaluations and a lack of self-esteem. Generally, individuals with high levels of shyness are more likely to suffer from psychosomatic stress and social anxiety. However, the structural brain basis of individual shyness among healthy people has not yet been investigated with DTI (diffusion tensor imaging). Thus, in this study, we investigated the relationship between FA (fractional anisotropy), WMV (white matter volume), GMV (gray matter volume) and shyness in a large healthy sample of 318 college students...
January 7, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ju Gao, Xiaowei Tang, Congjie Wang, Miao Yu, Weiwei Sha, Xiang Wang, Hongying Zhang, Xiangrong Zhang, Xiaobin Zhang
Deficit schizophrenia (DS) is a distinct subtype of schizophrenia characterized by primary and enduring negative symptoms. More severe executive dysfunctions were observed in DS patients, however, the associated neuroimaging characteristics, especially cerebellar functional anomalies in DS, remain largely unknown. We employed resting-state functional and structural MRI data of 106 male participants, including data from 29 DS patients, 39 non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS) patients and 38 healthy controls (HCs)...
January 5, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Limei Song, Qinmu Peng, Shuwei Liu, Jiaojian Wang
The hubs of the brain network play a key role in integrating and transferring information between different functional modules. However, the effects of long-term practice on functional network hubs in chess experts are largely undefined. Here, we investigated whether alterations of hubs can be detected in chess experts using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and graph theory methods. We first mapped the whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectivity and calculated the functional connectivity strength (FCS) map in each of the 28 chess players and 27 gender- and age-matched healthy novice players...
January 5, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Frederic Sampedro, Juan Marín-Lahoz, Saul Martínez-Horta, Javier Pagonabarraga, Jaime Kulisevsky
The COMT Val158 Met polymorphism has recently been identified as a predictor for cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it remains unknown whether an early brain structural compromise could be involved in this clinical association. Here, in a cohort of 120 cognitively preserved de novo PD patients from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database, we found a widespread reduction in cerebral gray matter volume (GMV) in patients harboring the Val/Val genotype. The atrophic pattern included fronto-subcortical and parieto-temporal territories...
January 5, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xin Tan, Yi Liang, Hui Zeng, Chunhong Qin, Yifan Li, Jinquan Yang, Shijun Qiu
The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) has been suggested to be a cortical hub of the default mode network (DMN). Our goal in the current study was to determine whether there were alterations in the PCC's functional connectivity (FC) with whole brain regions in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to determine their relationships with cognitive dysfunction. In this study, the FC of the PCC was characterized by using resting-state functional MRI and a seed-based whole-brain correlation method in 24 T2DM patients and compared with 24 well-matched healthy controls...
January 5, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Lijie Wang, Qiang Wei, Chao Wang, Jinping Xu, Kai Wang, Yanghua Tian, Jiaojian Wang
Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an efficient treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), however, it also brings memory impairment. The insula is a critical brain structure for coordinating affective, cognitive memory, saliency processing, and attention switching suggesting functional activity of insula maybe an important indicator to delineate the treatment and side effects of ECT. Here, Resting-state functional connectivity analyses of insular subregions were performed to reveal the changes of connectivity in 23 MDD patients before and after ECT and 25 healthy control (HC) and identified significantly increased functional connectivity of the right ventral anterior insular subregion with bilateral caudate, angular gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after ECT...
January 4, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ashley L Ware, Elisabeth A Wilde, Mary R Newsome, Paolo Moretti, Tracy Abildskov, Gregory S Vogt, Stephen R McCauley, Gerri Hanten, Jill V Hunter, Zili D Chu, Harvey S Levin
Microstructural neuropathology occurs in the corpus callosum (CC) after repetitive sports concussion in boxers and can be dose-dependent. However, the specificity and relation of CC changes to boxing exposure extent and post-career psychiatric and neuropsychological outcomes are largely unknown. Using deterministic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques, boxers and demographically-matched, noncontact sport athletes were compared to address literature gaps. Ten boxers and 9 comparison athletes between 26 and 59 years old (M = 44...
December 18, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Qingxia Lin, Xuan Bu, Meihao Wang, Yan Liang, Hong Chen, Weiqian Wang, Yanhong Yi, Haixi Lin, Jiaxiu Zhou, Lu Lu, Xinyu Hu, Chuang Yang, Xiaoqi Huang
Aberrant microstructure of the callosal tracts has been found in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is unclear whether the previously identified white matter (WM) alterations in boys with ADHD are also present in girls with ADHD. Thus, we applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate WM alterations in the callosal tracts in girls with ADHD. In this study, twenty-four adolescent girls (fourteen ADHD patients and ten typically developed girls) were recruited for high-resolution DTI...
December 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Michele Porcu, Davide Craboledda, Paolo Garofalo, Giulio Columbano, Luigi Barberini, Roberto Sanfilippo, Fulvio Zaccagna, Max Wintermark, Roberto Montisci, Luca Saba
This research investigated local brain connectivity changes following Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA) by connectometry. Seventeen subjects (15 males and 2 females, mean age 74.1 years), all eligible for CEA, were prospectively recruited in this exploratory study. On the same day within the week before the CEA, each patient underwent a cognitive evaluation with a Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) exam that included a DTI sequence for the connectometry analysis. A second MMSE and the same MRI protocol were performed on follow-up, 3-6 months after CEA...
December 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Albert Wabnegger, Carina Schlintl, Carina Höfler, Andreas Gremsl, Anne Schienle
'Super smellers' are those individuals who show a heightened sense of smell. Data on the structural neuroanatomy of this phenomenon are still missing. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted in order to compare gray matter volume (GMV) in specific brain regions of the olfactory network (piriform/entorhinal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, hippocampus) between 25 male 'super smellers' and 20 normosmic men. Participants were assigned to these groups based on their scores on a standardized olfactory performance test...
December 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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