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Brain Imaging and Behavior

Dongjin Kwon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Kilian M Pohl
Adolescence is a time of continued cognitive and emotional evolution occurring with continuing brain development involving synaptic pruning and cortical myelination. The hypothesis of this study is that heavy myelination occurs in cortical regions with relatively direct, predetermined circuitry supporting unimodal sensory or motor functions and shows a steep developmental slope during adolescence (12-21 years) until young adulthood (22-35 years) when further myelination decelerates. By contrast, light myelination occurs in regions with highly plastic circuitry supporting complex functions and follows a delayed developmental trajectory...
November 8, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Joy Perrier, Armelle Viard, Christelle Levy, Nastassja Morel, Djelila Allouache, Sabine Noal, Florence Joly, Francis Eustache, Bénédicte Giffard
Cognitive deficits are a major complaint in breast cancer patients, even before chemotherapy. Comprehension of the cerebral mechanisms related to cognitive impairment in breast cancer patients remains difficult due to the scarcity of studies investigating both cognitive and anatomical imaging changes. Furthermore, only some of the patients experienced cognitive decline following chemotherapy, yet few studies have identified risk factors for cognitive deficits in these patients. It has been shown that education level could impact cognitive abilities during the recovery phase following chemotherapy...
November 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ruonan Wang, Min Li, Meng Zhao, Dahua Yu, Yu Hu, Corinde E Wiers, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow, Kai Yuan
The original version of this article contained mistakes, and the authors would like to correct them. The correct details are given below.
November 5, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Clarisse F de Vries, Roger T Staff, Kimberly G Noble, Ryan L Muetzel, Meike W Vernooij, Tonya White, Gordon D Waiter, Alison D Murray
Variation in the klotho gene is linked to differences in health outcomes: klotho allele KL-VS heterozygosity is associated with longevity, better cognition and greater right frontal grey matter volume in late life. Contradicting reports, however, suggest that KL-VS's effect on health might be age-dependent. Here we examine the relationship between KL-VS genotype, cognition and brain structure in childhood and adolescence. We hypothesized that KL-VS has early influences on cognitive and brain development. We investigated the associations of KL-VS carrier status with cognition and brain morphology in a cohort of 1387 children and adolescents aged 3-21 years, examining main effects and interactions between age, sex and socioeconomic circumstance...
November 5, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Seun Jeon, Jae Wook Cho, Hosung Kim, Alan C Evans, Seung Bong Hong, Eun Yeon Joo
Narcolepsy with cataplexy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and other REM sleep phenomena. Previous MRI studies were cross-sectional in design and could not adequately address if disease progression leads the brain structural abnormalities in narcolepsy. Our analysis in patients using longitudinally collected brain MRIs (n = 17; 2 scans per patient; scan interval: 4.7 ± 1.9 years) revealed widespread progressive cortical thinning in bilateral dorsolateral frontal and fusiform cortices, right anterior cingulate (corrected p < 0...
November 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Junjing Wang, Ying Wang, Xia Wu, Huiyuan Huang, Yanbin Jia, Shuming Zhong, Xiaoyan Wu, Lianping Zhao, Yuan He, Li Huang, Ruiwang Huang
Bipolar disorder (BD) is frequently misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD) in clinical practice, especially during depressive episodes. A unifying triple-network model, involving the default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN) and salience network (SN), has been proposed to explain the neural physiopathology of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Although several studies revealed shared and specific alterations between BD and MDD in key regions of DMN, CEN, and SN, and a few studies used different measures to detect detailed alterations in the triple networks in BD and MDD, their shared and specific patterns of altered functional connectivity (FC) in the triple networks has remained unclear...
October 31, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Lucy V Hiscox, Curtis L Johnson, Matthew D J McGarry, Hillary Schwarb, Edwin J R van Beek, Neil Roberts, John M Starr
Episodic memory is particularly sensitive to normative aging; however, studies investigating the structure-function relationships that support episodic memory have primarily been limited to gross volumetric measures of brain tissue health. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an emerging non-invasive, high-resolution imaging technique that uniquely quantifies brain viscoelasticity, and as such, provides a more specific measure of neural microstructural integrity. Recently, a significant double dissociation between orbitofrontal cortex-fluid intelligence and hippocampal-relational memory structure-function relationships was observed in young adults, highlighting the potential of sensitive MRE measures for studying brain health and its relation to cognitive function...
October 31, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Diana O Svaldi, Chetas Joshi, Emily C McCuen, Jacob P Music, Robert Hannemann, Larry J Leverenz, Eric A Nauman, Thomas M Talavage
Mitigating the effects of repetitive exposure to head trauma has become a major concern for the general population, given the growing body of evidence that even asymptomatic exposure to head accelerations is linked with increased risk for negative life outcomes and that risk increases as exposure is prolonged over many years. Among women's sports, soccer currently exhibits the highest growth in participation and reports the largest number of mild traumatic brain injuries annually, making female soccer athletes a relevant population in assessing the effects of repetitive exposure to head trauma...
October 30, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
John S Hutton, Jonathan Dudley, Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Tom DeWitt, Scott K Holland
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that parents begin reading to their children soon after birth, and limits on screen-based media. Benefits of traditional book-sharing are well documented in children, while cited deleterious effects of animated content on narrative processing are controversial. The influence of story format on underlying functional brain networks has not previously been studied. Thirty-three healthy children were recruited for this study via advertisement at an academic medical center, which involved functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at a single visit...
October 30, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Laura Bonzano, Ludovico Pedullà, Matteo Pardini, Andrea Tacchino, Paola Zaratin, Mario Alberto Battaglia, Giampaolo Brichetto, Marco Bove
Cognitive impairment and related abnormal brain activity are common in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Adaptive training based on working memory (WM) has been shown to ameliorate cognitive symptoms, although the effects at a neural level are unclear. The aim of this study was to expand the existing research on the effects of an adaptive WM rehabilitative intervention on brain functional activity in PwMS. A sample of eighteen PwMS performed an 8-week home-based cognitive rehabilitation treatment based on adaptive WM training...
October 30, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Christopher Holmes, Max Owens, Steven R H Beach, Michael McCormick, Emily Hallowell, Uraina S Clark, Allen W Barton, Gene H Brody, James MacKillop, Lawrence H Sweet
Prior research has demonstrated the importance of delay discounting in adverse health behaviors, such as addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, risk taking, and obesity. Nevertheless, the functional connectivity of neural circuitry associated with delay discounting and the ways in which the social environment may influence frontostriatal connectivity remain largely unknown, particularly in African Americans. Building on recent literature implicating frontostriatal connectivity during active delay discounting decision making and at rest, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the association between delay discounting and frontostriatal resting state connectivity (rsFC)...
October 30, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Brian Johnson, Andrew Dodd, Andrew R Mayer, Mark Hallett, Semyon Slobounov
Accurate identification and classification of patients suffering from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a significant challenge faced by clinicians and researchers. To examine if there are different pathophysiological responses to concussive injury in different populations, evaluated here comparing collegiate athletes versus age-matched non-athletes. Resting-state fMRI data were acquired in the acute phase of concussion from 30 collegiate athletes and from 30 injury and age matched non-athletes. Resting-state functional connectivity measures revealed group differences with reduced connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex (p < ...
October 25, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jinliang Zhang, Gaoyan Zhang, Xianglin Li, Peiyuan Wang, Bin Wang, Baolin Liu
2Sound decoding is important for patients with sensory loss, such as the blind. Previous studies on sound categorization were conducted by estimating brain activity using univariate analysis or voxel-wise multivariate decoding methods and suggested some regions were sensitive to auditory categories. It is proposed that feedback connections between brain areas may facilitate auditory object selection. Therefore, it is important to explore whether functional connectivity among regions can be used to decode sound category...
October 25, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xiaoshu Li, Xiaohu Li, Shujuan Chen, Jiajia Zhu, Haibao Wang, Yanghua Tian, Yongqiang Yu
Emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) is thought to modulate memory recollection rather than familiarity. However, the contributing factors and neural mechanisms are not well understood. To address these issues, we investigated how valence, arousal, and the amount of devoted attention influence the EEM effect on recollection. We also compared the topological properties among hippocampus- and perirhinal and entorhinal cortex-mediated emotional memory processing networks. Finally, we evaluated the correlations between emotional memory/EEM and inherent properties (i...
October 25, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ce Li, Xue-Qin Wang, Can-Hong Wen, Hai-Zhu Tan
Loss-aversion behaviors reflect individuals' personal preference bias when they meet uncertainties and measure the potential gains and losses of the uncertain situations before making a decision. Such behaviors are common and well documented in daily life; one example is irrational financial investments. The exact neural mechanisms for these loss-aversion behaviors have been widely discussed. In this study, we explored the neural mechanisms of loss-aversion behaviors by using voxel-based morphometry of brain regions based on two datasets...
October 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Tobias Talanow, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Julia V Lippold, Bernd Weber, Ulrich Ettinger
Although research on goal-directed, proactive inhibitory control (IC) and stimulus-driven, reactive IC is growing, no previous study has compared proactive IC in conditions of uncertainty with regard to upcoming inhibition to conditions of certain upcoming IC. Therefore, we investigated effects of certainty and uncertainty on behavior and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in proactive and reactive IC. In two studies, healthy adults performed saccadic go/no-go and prosaccade/antisaccade tasks. The certainty manipulation had a highly significant behavioral effect in both studies, with inhibitory control being more successful under certain than uncertain conditions on both tasks (p ≤ 0...
October 8, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Bun Yamagata, Takashi Itahashi, Junya Fujino, Haruhisa Ohta, Motoaki Nakamura, Nobumasa Kato, Masaru Mimura, Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto, Yuta Aoki
Endophenotype refers to a measurable and heritable component between genetics and diagnosis, and the same endophenotype is present in both individuals with a diagnosis and their unaffected siblings. Determination of the neural correlates of an endophenotype and diagnosis is important in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, prior studies enrolling individuals with ASD and their unaffected siblings have generally included only one group of typically developing (TD) subjects; they have not accounted for differences between TD siblings...
October 2, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Andrius Radziunas, Vytenis Pranas Deltuva, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Rymante Gleizniene, Aiste Pranckeviciene, Danguole Surkiene, Adomas Bunevicius
Psychiatric complications after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease patients are common. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible role of cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume for neuropsychiatric complications after STN-DBS implantation surgery. Twenty-two Parkinson's disease patients underwent STN-DBS. Control group consisted of 18 healthy volunteers who were matched by age and gender. All Parkinson's disease patients and control subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain MRI...
September 28, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ivonne Suridjan, Robert A Comley, Eugenii A Rabiner
As drug discovery and development in Neuroscience push beyond symptom management to disease modification, neuroimaging becomes a key area of translational research that enables measurements of the presence of drugs and downstream physiological consequences of drug action within the living brain. As such, neuroimaging can be used to help optimize decision-making processes throughout the various phases of drug development. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique that allows the quantification and visualization of biochemical processes, by monitoring the time dependent distribution of molecules labelled with short-lived positron-emitting isotopes...
September 27, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Bo Liu, Li Wen, Qian Ran, Si Zhang, Junhao Hu, Mingfu Gong, Dong Zhang
This study investigated the aberrant connectivity of the salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN) and the relevance between these abnormalities and symptom improvement in hyperthyroid patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses were performed on state fMRI data to reveal possible differences in critical node connectivity in the SN and DMN between 41 new-onset, untreated hyperthyroid patients and 41 healthy controls...
September 26, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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