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Brain Imaging and Behavior

Anna Miró-Padilla, Elisenda Bueichekú, Noelia Ventura-Campos, María-Jesús Flores-Compañ, Maria Antònia Parcet, César Ávila
Neurobehavioral effects of cognitive training have become a popular research issue. Specifically, behavioral studies have demonstrated the long-term efficacy of cognitive training of working memory functions, but the neural basis for this training have been studied only at short-term. Using fMRI, we investigate the cerebral changes produced by brief single n-back training immediately and 5 weeks after finishing the training. We used the data from a sample of 52 participants who were assigned to either an experimental condition (training group) or a no-contact control condition...
July 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Valeria Saccà, Alessia Sarica, Fabiana Novellino, Stefania Barone, Tiziana Tallarico, Enrica Filippelli, Alfredo Granata, Carmelina Chiriaco, Roberto Bruno Bossio, Paola Valentino, Aldo Quattrone
Machine Learning application on clinical data in order to support diagnosis and prognostic evaluation arouses growing interest in scientific community. However, choice of right algorithm to use was fundamental to perform reliable and robust classification. Our study aimed to explore if different kinds of Machine Learning technique could be effective to support early diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis and which of them presented best performance in distinguishing Multiple Sclerosis patients from control subjects...
July 11, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Peng Liu, Ningbo Fei, Shudan Gao, Xuejuan Yang, Jinbo Sun, Peng Liu, Wei Qin
Several studies have investigated the trait-like characteristics of conflict processing at different levels. Our study extends these findings by reporting a practice-based improvement in within-trial conflict processing across two sessions. Eighty-three participants performed the same flanker task on two occasions 2 weeks apart. A subset of 37 subjects also underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning the day before the first behavioral task. Despite the trait-like characteristics of conflict processing, within-trial conflict processing in the second behavioral session was significantly shorter than that in the first session, indicating a practice-based improvement in conflict processing...
July 10, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Theresa Hauck, Monika Probst, Claus Zimmer, Florian Ringel, Bernhard Meyer, Afra Wohlschlaeger, Sandro M Krieg
In preoperative planning, fMRI and repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) repeatedly revealed differences in the detected language sites, which can be attributed to tumor-induced oxygenation changes impairing the accuracy of fMRI. We therefore compared the accordance of those techniques in healthy subjects using exactly the same tasks in both investigations. 19 healthy right-handed subjects performed object naming, pseudoword reading, verb generation, and action naming during fMRI at 3 T and rTMS...
July 6, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kim Blom, Huiberdina L Koek, Yolanda van der Graaf, Maarten H T Zwartbol, Laura E M Wisse, Jeroen Hendrikse, Geert Jan Biessels, Mirjam I Geerlings
Hippocampal sulcal cavities (HSCs) are frequently observed on MRI, but their etiology and relevance is unclear. HSCs may be anatomical variations, or result from pathology. We assessed the presence of HSCs, and their cross-sectional association with demographics, vascular risk factors and cognitive functioning in two study samples. Within a random sample of 92 patients with vascular disease from the SMART-Medea study (mean age = 62, SD = 9 years) and 83 primary care patients from the PREDICT-MR study (mean age = 62, SD = 12 years) one rater manually scored HSCs at 1...
July 6, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Josefien Dedoncker, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Jonathan Remue, Sara De Witte, Guo-Rong Wu, Jill M Hooley, Rudi De Raedt, Chris Baeken
The mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) influences emotional processing - and whether this is related to individual vulnerability for psychopathology - are still poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate if one prefrontal tDCS session modulates mood and neural functional connectivity after being exposed to negative information differently in individuals low or high in perceived criticism (PC), which has been related to vulnerability for psychiatric illness. In a randomized cross-over design, one session of MRI-compatible prefrontal tDCS (neuronavigated placement of the anodal electrode at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the cathodal electrode at the right supraorbital region; vs...
July 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Efstratios Karavasilis, Foteini Christidi, Georgios Velonakis, Dimitrios Tzanetakos, Ioannis Zalonis, Constantin Potagas, Elisabeth Andreadou, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Constantinos Kilidireas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
The increasing evidence for a pure amnestic-like profile in multiple sclerosis (MS) introduces the role of hippocampal formation in MS episodic memory function. The aim of the present study was to investigate structural and functional hippocampal changes in mildly-disabled MS patients with and without memory impairment. Thirty-one MS patients with or without memory impairment and 16 healthy controls (HC) underwent MRI in a 3.0 T MRI scanner. Patients were categorized as memory preserved (MP) and memory impaired (MI) based on verbal and visual memory scores extracted from the Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery...
July 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Alexander S Mihaescu, Mario Masellis, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Jinhee Kim, Marion Criaud, Sang Soo Cho, Christine Ghadery, Mikaeel Valli, Antonio P Strafella
Cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common sequela of the disease, with its severity increasing as the neurodegenerative process advances. The present meta-analysis used anisotropic effect size seed-based d mapping software to perform analyses using both functional and structural brain imaging data. The analyses were between PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and PD patients with dementia (PDD) compared to PD cognitively unimpaired patients (PD-CU) and PD patients without dementia (PD-ND) respectively...
July 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Avner Thaler, Tal Gonen, Anat Mirelman, Rick C Helmich, Tanya Gurevich, Avi Orr-Urtreger, Bastiaan R Bloem, Nir Giladi, Talma Hendler
Disturbances in reward processing occur in Parkinson's disease (PD) however it is unclear whether these are solely drug-related. We applied an event-related fMRI gambling task to a group of non-manifesting carriers (NMC) of the G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 gene, in order to assess the reward network in an "at risk" population for future development of PD. Sixty-eight non-manifesting participants, 32 of which were non-manifesting non-carriers (NMNC), performed a gambling task which included defined intervals of anticipation and response to both reward and punishment in an fMRI setup...
July 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Travis D Masterson, Wendy M Stein, Emma Beidler, Maria Bermudez, Laural K English, Kathleen L Keller
Food branding is ubiquitous, however, not all children are equally susceptible to its effects. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine whether food brands evoke differential response than non-food brands in brain areas related to motivation and inhibitory control using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 2) determine the association between brain response and energy intake at test-meals presented with or without brands. Twenty-eight 7-10 year-old children completed four visits as part of a within-subjects design where they consumed three multi-item test-meals presented with familiar food brands, novel food brand, and no brand...
July 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Leona Pascoe, Deanne Thompson, Megan Spencer-Smith, Richard Beare, Chris Adamson, Katherine J Lee, Claire Kelly, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Chiara Nosarti, Elisha Josev, Gehan Roberts, Lex W Doyle, Marc L Seal, Peter J Anderson
Intrinsic motivation is essential for academic success and cognitive growth, but limited work has examined the neuroanatomical underpinnings of intrinsic motivation from a network perspective, particularly in early childhood. Using graph theoretical analysis, this study investigated global and local properties of structural connectivity networks in relation to intrinsic motivation within a vulnerable group of children at early school age. Fifty-three 7 year-old children born extremely preterm (<28 weeks' gestational age)/extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) underwent T1 and diffusion weighted imaging...
June 30, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Rong Li, Liangcheng Wang, Heng Chen, Xiaonan Guo, Wei Liao, Ye-Lei Tang, Huafu Chen
Converging evidence has shown the link between benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) and abnormal functional connectivity among distant brain regions. However, prior research in BECTS has not examined the dynamic changes in functional connectivity as networks form. We combined functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping and sliding windows correlation analyses, to fully capture the functional dynamics in patients with respect to the presence of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs). Resting-state fMRI was performed in 43 BECTS patients and 28 healthy controls (HC)...
June 28, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Chris Gaiteri, Robert Dawe, Sara Mostafavi, Katherine D Blizinsky, Shinya Tasaki, Vitalina Komashko, Lei Yu, Yanling Wang, Julie A Schneider, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett
Cognitive function relies on both molecular levels and cellular structures. However, systematic relationships between these two components of cognitive function, and their joint contribution to disease, are largely unknown. We utilize postmortem neuroimaging in tandem with gene expression and DNA methylation, from 222 deeply-phenotyped persons in a longitudinal aging cohort. Expression of hundreds of genes and methylation at thousands of loci are related to the microstructure of extensive regions of this same set of brains, as assessed by MRI...
June 22, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Marjolein Verly, Robin Gerrits, Charlotte Sleurs, Lieven Lagae, Stefan Sunaert, Inge Zink, Nathalie Rommel
This study aims to detect the neural substrate underlying the language impairment in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. Deterministic DTI tractography was performed in a group of right-handed children with DLD (N = 17; mean age 10;07 ± 2;01 years) and a typically developing control group matched for age, gender and handedness (N = 22; mean age 11;00 ± 1;11 years) to bilaterally identify the superior longitudinal fascicle, arcuate fascicle, anterior lateral segment and posterior lateral segment (also called dorsal language network) and the middle and inferior longitudinal fascicle, extreme capsule fiber system and uncinate fascicle (also called ventral language network)...
June 22, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Shuzhi Zhao, Yangding Li, Min Li, Ruonan Wang, Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Xiaoqi Lu, Dahua Yu, Likun Yang, Kai Yuan
Studying the neural correlates of craving to smoke is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes in smoking addiction. According to previous studies, the critical roles of striatum and frontal brain regions had been revealed in addiction. However, few studies focused on the hub of brain regions in the 12 h abstinence induced craving in young smokers. Thirty-one young male smokers were enrolled in the present study. A within-subject experiment design was carried out to compare functional connectivity density between 12-h smoking abstinence and smoking satiety conditions during resting state in young adult smokers by using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM)...
June 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Alessandro Arrigo, Alessandro Calamuneri, Demetrio Milardi, Enricomaria Mormina, Michele Gaeta, Francesco Corallo, Viviana Lo Buono, Gaetana Chillemi, Silvia Marino, Alberto Cacciola, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina Rizzo, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Angelo Quartarone
The claustrum is a thin grey matter structure which is involved in a wide brain network. Previous studies suggested a link between claustrum and Parkinson's Disease (PD), showing how α-synuclein pathology may affect claustral neurons as well as how α-synuclein immunoreactivity may correlate with the onset of cognitive dysfunctions. Our aim is to investigate, via diffusion MRI, claustral structural network changes in drug naïve PD patients, with the goal to understand whether such changes may contribute to cognitive decline in PD...
June 18, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Alejandro Daniel Meruelo, Joanna Jacobus, Erick Idy, Tam Nguyen-Louie, Gregory Brown, Susan Frances Tapert
Academic performance in adolescence strongly influences adult prospects. Intelligence quotient (IQ) has historically been considered a strong predictor of academic performance. Less objectively explored have been morphometric features. We analyzed brain MRI morphometry metrics in early adolescence (age 12-14 years) as quantitative predictors of academic performance over high school using a naïve Bayesian classifier approach with n = 170 subjects. Based on the mean GPA, subjects were divided into high (GPA ≥3...
June 18, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Venkateswaran Rajagopalan, Abhijit Das, Luduan Zhang, Frank Hillary, Glenn R Wylie, Guang H Yue
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disability in people younger than 35 in the United States. The mechanisms of TBI are complex resulting in both focal and diffuse brain damage. Fractal dimension (FD) is a measure that can characterize morphometric complexity and variability of brain structure especially white matter (WM) structure and may provide novel insights into the injuries evident following TBI. FD-based brain morphometry may provide information on WM structural changes after TBI that is more sensitive to subtle structural changes post injury compared to conventional MRI measurements...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Linling Li, Erni Ji, Fei Tang, Yunhai Qiu, Xue Han, Shengli Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Haichen Yang
Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have been conducted to elucidate emotion processing of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but due to different inclusion criteria used, especially for the history of medication use, the results for euthymic BD patients are inconsistent. For this reason, brain functional effects of psychopharmacological treatments on BD patients have been investigated by numerous fMRI studies, but there is no existing report for brain functional effects of different mood stabilizers...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Elizabeth Joe, Luis D Medina, John M Ringman, Joseph O'Neill
1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can reveal changes in brain biochemistry in vivo in humans and has been applied to late onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Carriers of mutations for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may show changes in levels of metabolites prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Proton MR spectra were acquired at 1.5 T for 16 cognitively asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic mutation carriers (CDR < 1) and 11 non-carriers as part of a comprehensive cross-sectional study of preclinical ADAD...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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