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Brain Imaging and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234959/olfactory-cortex-and-olfactory-bulb-volume-alterations-in-patients-with-post-infectious-olfactory-loss
#1
Linyin Yao, Xiaoli Yi, Jayant Marian Pinto, Xiandao Yuan, Yichen Guo, Yifan Liu, Yongxiang Wei
Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is one of the most common etiology of olfactory loss. Previous studies demonstrated that both olfactory bulb (OB) volume and sulcus (OS) depth decreased in patients with post-infectious olfactory loss (PIOL) compared to normal controls. The aim of our study was to observe alterations of central olfactory pathways in patients with PIOL. T1 weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired in 19 PIOL patients and 19 age- and sex-matched control subjects on a 3 T scanner...
December 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234958/the-relationship-between-putamen-sma-functional-connectivity-and-sensorimotor-abnormality-in-esrd-patients
#2
Dun Ding, Peng Li, Xue-Ying Ma, Wang-Huan Dun, Shi-Feng Yang, Shao-Hui Ma, Hong-Juan Liu, Ming Zhang
The basal ganglia (BG) are composed of several nuclei involved in neural processing associated with integration of sensory and motor information. Recent neuroimaging studies implicated its key role in control of voluntary motor function. As the sensorimotor abnormality is common among the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population, in the current study, we aimed to investigate the abnormal structure and functional connectivity patterns of BG in ESRD patients. Twenty-nine ESRD and twenty-nine age and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to compare the volume of the subsets in the BG (e...
December 12, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188492/investigating-the-effects-of-subconcussion-on-functional-connectivity-using-mass-univariate-and-multivariate-approaches
#3
Bryson B Reynolds, Amanda N Stanton, Sauson Soldozy, Howard P Goodkin, Max Wintermark, T Jason Druzgal
There are concerns about the effects of subconcussive head impacts in sport, but the effects of subconcussion on brain connectivity are not well understood. We hypothesized that college football players experience changes in brain functional connectivity not found in athletes competing in lower impact sports or healthy controls. These changes may be spatially heterogeneous across participants, requiring analysis methods that go beyond mass-univariate approaches commonly used in functional MRI (fMRI). To test this hypothesis, we analyzed resting-state fMRI data from college football (n = 15), soccer (n = 12), and lacrosse players (n = 16), and controls (n = 29) collected at preseason and postseason time points...
November 29, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181695/memri-reveals-altered-activity-in-brain-regions-associated-with-anxiety-locomotion-and-cardiovascular-reactivity-on-the-elevated-plus-maze-in-the-wky-vs-shr-rats
#4
Jasenka Zubcevic, Jacqueline Watkins, Pablo D Perez, Luis M Colon-Perez, Maureen T Long, Marcelo Febo, Linda Hayward
Individuals with anxiety/depression often have exaggerated cardiovascular responses to stressful stimuli and a comorbidity with hypertension. Alternatively, individuals with hypertension can be more anxious. In the present study cardiovascular changes were evaluated during behavioral testing of anxious behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a rodent model of neurogenic hypertension, and compared to the response of the more anxious, but normotensive, Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY)...
November 27, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170944/deep-tms-of-the-insula-using-the-h-coil-modulates-dopamine-release-a-crossover-11-c-phno-pet-pilot-trial-in-healthy-humans
#5
Saima Malik, Mark Jacobs, Sang-Soo Cho, Isabelle Boileau, Daniel Blumberger, Markus Heilig, Alan Wilson, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Antonio P Strafella, Abraham Zangen, Bernard Le Foll
Modulating the function of the insular cortex could be a novel therapeutic strategy to treat addiction to a variety of drugs of abuse as this region has been implicated in mediating drug reward and addictive processes. The recent advent of the H-coil has permitted the targeting of deeper brain structures which was not previously feasible. The goal of this study was to bilaterally target the insular region using the H-coil with repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and subsequently measure changes in dopamine levels using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [11C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin (PHNO)...
November 23, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168086/increased-white-matter-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#6
Serge A Mitelman, Monte S Buchsbaum, Derek S Young, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Marie-Cecile Bralet
Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are often characterized as disorders of white matter integrity. Multimodal investigations have reported elevated metabolic rates, cerebral perfusion and basal activity in various white matter regions in schizophrenia, but none of these functions has previously been studied in ASD. We used (18)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to compare white matter metabolic rates in subjects with ASD (n = 25) to those with schizophrenia (n = 41) and healthy controls (n = 55) across a wide range of stereotaxically placed regions-of-interest...
November 22, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164505/network-level-dysconnectivity-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-npc-early-post-radiotherapy-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#7
Yingwei Qiu, Zheng Guo, Lujun Han, Yadi Yang, Jing Li, Shiliang Liu, Xiaofei Lv
In this study, we seek to longitudinally investigate the network-level functional connectivity (FC) alternations and its association with irradiation dose and cognition changes in the early stage post radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. We performed independent component analysis (ICA) of resting state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) from 39 newly diagnosed NPC patients before receiving treatment (baseline), and 3 months post-RT. the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN) were extracted with well-validated software (GIFT)...
November 21, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164504/basal-ganglia-cerebral-blood-flow-associates-with-psychomotor-speed-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#8
John P Ryan, Howard J Aizenstein, Trevor J Orchard, Karen A Nunley, Helmet Karim, Caterina Rosano
Type 1 diabetes is associated with slower psychomotor speed, but the neural basis of this relationship is not yet understood. The basal ganglia are a set of structures that are vulnerable to small vessel disease, particularly in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Thus, we examined the relationship between psychomotor speed and resting state resting cerebral blood flow in a sample of adults with diabetes onset during childhood (≤ 17 years of age). The sample included 77 patients (39 M, 38 F) with a mean age of 47...
November 21, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152692/left-frontoparietal-network-activity-is-modulated-by-drug-stimuli-in-cocaine-addiction
#9
Víctor Costumero, Patricia Rosell-Negre, Juan Carlos Bustamante, Paola Fuentes-Claramonte, Juan José Llopis, Cesar Ávila, Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales
Cocaine addicts present reduced activity in the left frontoparietal network, a brain network associated with cognitive control, during the processing of non-drug reward related stimuli (Costumero et al., Addiction Biology 22:479-489, 2015). However, the involvement of this network in drug-related stimuli processing remains unclear. Here, fifteen cocaine-dependent men and fifteen healthy matched controls viewed cocaine-related, erotic, aversive, and neutral pictures during an fMRI session. Group independent component analysis was then performed to investigate how functional networks were modulated by the different emotional images...
November 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143911/decreased-interhemispheric-coordination-in-the-posterior-default-mode-network-and-visual-regions-as-trait-alterations-in-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Wenbin Guo, Xilong Cui, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Guangrong Xie, Renrong Wu, Zhikun Zhang, Huafu Chen, Xiangyang Zhang, Jingping Zhao
Decreased homotopic connectivity has been implicated in the neurophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) with inconsistent findings. A combination of clinical and methodological variabilities may account for the inconsistency, and thus limiting the reproducibility of the findings. The present study aims to examine voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) alterations in two independent samples of patients with first-episode, drug-naive MDD. The samples included 59 patients and 31 controls from Sample 1 and 29 patients and 24 controls from Sample 2...
November 16, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134612/altered-connectivity-patterns-among-resting-state-networks-in-patients-with-ischemic-white-matter-lesions
#11
Ju-Rong Ding, Xin Ding, Bo Hua, Xingzhong Xiong, Yuqiao Wen, Zhongxiang Ding, Qingsong Wang, Paul Thompson
White matter lesions (WMLs) have been associated with cognitive and motor decline. Resting state networks (RSNs) are spatially coherent patterns in the human brain and their interactions sustain our daily function. Therefore, investigating the altered intra- and inter-network connectivity among the RSNs may help to understand the association of WMLs with impaired cognitive and motor function. Here, we assessed alterations in functional connectivity patterns based on six well-defined RSNs-the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal control network (FPCN), auditory network (AN), sensory motor network (SMN) and visual network (VN)-in 15 patients with ischemic WMLs and 15 controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134611/exploring-white-matter-microstructure-and-olfaction-dysfunction-in-early-parkinson-disease-diffusion-mri-reveals-new-insight
#12
Soheila Sobhani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Alireza Vafaei Sadr
Olfaction dysfunction is considered as a robust marker of prodromal Parkinson disease (PD). Measurement of olfaction function as a screening test is unsatisfactory due to long lead time interval and low specificity for detection of PD. Use of imaging markers might yield more accurate predictive values and provide bases for combined use of imaging and clinical markers for early PD. Diffusion MRI connectometry was conducted on 85 de novo PD patients in and 36 healthy controls to find: first, white matter tracts with significant difference in quantitative anisotropy between PD groups with various degrees of olfaction dysfunction and second, second fibers with correlation with University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) score in each group using a multiple regression analysis considering age, sex, GDS and MoCA score...
November 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110194/white-matter-fiber-bundle-lengths-are-shorter-in-cart-naive-hiv-an-analysis-of-quantitative-diffusion-tractography-in-south-africa
#13
Jodi M Heaps-Woodruff, John Joska, Ryan Cabeen, Laurie M Baker, Lauren E Salminen, Jacqueline Hoare, David H Laidlaw, Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Chun-Zi Peng, Susan Engelbrecht, Soraya Seedat, Dan J Stein, Robert H Paul
This study examines white matter microstructure using quantitative tractography diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (qtdMRI) in HIV+ individuals from South Africa who were naïve or early in the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Fiber bundle length (FBL) metrics, generated from qtdMRI, for whole brain and six white matter tracts of interest (TOI) were assessed for 135 HIV+ and 21 HIV- individuals. The association between FBL metrics, measures of disease burden, and neuropsychological performance were also investigated...
November 6, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086152/quantitative-analysis-of-grey-matter-degeneration-in-ftd-patients-using-fractal-dimension-analysis
#14
Raghavan Sheelakumari, Venkateswaran Rajagopalan, Anuvitha Chandran, Tinu Varghese, Luduan Zhang, Guang H Yue, Pavagadha S Mathuranath, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
Fractal dimension (FD) is a quantitative parameter that can characterizes the complexity of human brain tissue. Extensive grey matter (GM) pathology has been previously identified in Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and its variants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the GM morphometric abnormalities in the behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA) using FD analysis. Twenty-seven bvFTD, 12 PPA and 20 controls were studied. SPM8 was used to segment the brain into GM tissue...
October 30, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075922/mouse-models-of-neurodegenerative-disease-preclinical-imaging-and-neurovascular-component
#15
Sandra Albanese, Adelaide Greco, Luigi Auletta, Marcello Mancini
Neurodegenerative diseases represent great challenges for basic science and clinical medicine because of their prevalence, pathologies, lack of mechanism-based treatments, and impacts on individuals. Translational research might contribute to the study of neurodegenerative diseases. The mouse has become a key model for studying disease mechanisms that might recapitulate in part some aspects of the corresponding human diseases. Neurodegenerative disorders are very complicated and multifactorial. This has to be taken in account when testing drugs...
October 26, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071465/toward-whole-brain-dopamine-movies-a-critical-review-of-pet-imaging-of-dopamine-transmission-in-the-striatum-and-cortex
#16
Heather Liu, Yasmin Zakiniaeiz, Kelly P Cosgrove, Evan D Morris
The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) circuit, comprising the mesolimbic and mesocortical DA pathways, plays a crucial role in reward, cognitive control, and motivation. The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, [C-11]raclopride, has been used widely to image DA receptors and DA changes in the mesolimbic pathway before and after pharmacological and behavioral challenges. In certain circumstances, properties of traditional kinetic models-used to analyze dynamic PET data-are not well-suited to describing the effects of stimulus-induced DA release...
October 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071464/investigating-the-impact-of-overnight-fasting-on-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-a-double-blind-fmri-study
#17
Stelios Orfanos, Timur Toygar, Mark Berthold-Losleben, Natalya Chechko, Annette Durst, Zacharias G Laoutidis, Sebastian Vocke, Caren Weidenfeld, Frank Schneider, Wolfram Karges, Christian F Beckmann, Ute Habel, Nils Kohn
The human brain depends mainly on glucose supply from circulating blood as an energy substrate for its metabolism. Most of the energy produced by glucose catabolism in the brain is used to support intrinsic communication purposes in the absence of goal-directed activity. This intrinsic brain function can be detected with fMRI as synchronized fluctuations of the BOLD signal forming functional networks. Here, we report results from a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study addressing changes in intrinsic brain activity in the context of very low, yet physiological, blood glucose levels after overnight fasting...
October 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064020/changes-in-dynamic-resting-state-network-connectivity-following-aphasia-therapy
#18
E Susan Duncan, Steven L Small
Resting state magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) permits observation of intrinsic neural networks produced by task-independent correlations in low frequency brain activity. Various resting state networks have been described, with each thought to reflect common engagement in some shared function. There has been limited investigation of the plasticity in these network relationships after stroke or induced by therapy. Twelve individuals with language disorders after stroke (aphasia) were imaged at multiple time points before (baseline) and after an imitation-based aphasia therapy...
October 24, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064019/stability-of-mri-metrics-in-the-advanced-research-core-of-the-ncaa-dod-concussion-assessment-research-and-education-care-consortium
#19
Andrew S Nencka, Timothy B Meier, Yang Wang, L Tugan Muftuler, Yu-Chien Wu, Andrew J Saykin, Jaroslaw Harezlak, M Alison Brooks, Christopher C Giza, John Difiori, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jason P Mihalik, Stephen M LaConte, Stefan M Duma, Steven Broglio, Thomas McAllister, Michael A McCrea, Kevin M Koch
The NCAA-DoD Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) consortium is performing a large-scale, comprehensive study of sport related concussions in college student-athletes and military service academy cadets. The CARE "Advanced Research Core" (ARC), is focused on executing a cutting-edge investigative protocol on a subset of the overall CARE athlete population. Here, we present the details of the CARE ARC MRI acquisition and processing protocol along with preliminary analyzes of within-subject, between-site, and between-subject stability across a variety of MRI biomarkers...
October 24, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063506/opportunities-for-an-enhanced-integration-of-neuroscience-and-genomics
#20
Ashlee A Moore, Chelsea Sawyers, Daniel E Adkins, Anna R Docherty
Neuroimaging and genetics are two rapidly expanding fields of research. Thoughtful integration of these areas is critical for ongoing large-scale research into the genetic mechanisms underlying brain structure, function, and development. Neuroimaging genetics has been slow to evolve relative to psychiatric genetics research, and some may be unaware that new statistical methods allow for the genomic analysis of more modestly-sized imaging samples. We present a broad overview of the extant imaging genetics literature, provide an interpretation of the major problems surrounding the integration of neuroimaging and genetics, discuss the influence and impact of genetics consortia, and suggest statistical genetic analyses that expand the repertoire of imaging researchers amassing rich behavioral data in modestly-sized samples...
October 23, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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