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Brain Imaging and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516336/changes-of-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-women-with-primary-dysmenorrhea
#1
Peng Liu, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Ru Li, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Yang Yu, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), a common gynecological disorder, is associated with structural and functional alterations in several subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, systematic functional connectivity of the ACC subregions in PDM has not been clarified. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from forty-eight PDM patients and thirty-eight matched female healthy controls to investigate the functional connectivity of ACC subregions in PDM. Compared to healthy controls, PDM patients exhibited increased connectivity between the caudal ACC (cACC) and primary somatosensory cortex (SI), between the perigenual ACC (pACC) and caudate, and between the subgenual ACC (sACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
May 17, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466439/high-sensitivity-neuroimaging-biomarkers-for-the-identification-of-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-based-on-resting-state-fmri-and-a-triple-network-model
#2
Enyan Yu, Zhengluan Liao, Yunfei Tan, Yaju Qiu, Junpeng Zhu, Zhang Han, Jue Wang, Xinwei Wang, Hong Wang, Yan Chen, Qi Zhang, Yumei Li, Dewang Mao, Zhongxiang Ding
Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have indicated that Granger causality analysis (GCA) is a suitable method for revealing causal effects between brain regions. The purpose of the present study was to identify neuroimaging biomarkers with a high sensitivity to amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The resting-state fMRI data of 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 14 patients with aMCI, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated using GCA. This study focused on the "triple networks" concept, a recently proposed higher-order functioning-related brain network model that includes the default-mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN)...
May 3, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466438/a-mechanistic-cohort-study-evaluating-cognitive-impairment-in-women-treated-for-breast-cancer
#3
Janette L Vardy, Myrle M Stouten-Kemperman, Gregory Pond, Christopher M Booth, Sean B Rourke, Haryana M Dhillon, Anna Dodd, Adrian Crawley, Ian F Tannock
Some women report cognitive impairment after adjuvant chemotherapy (CTh) for breast cancer. Here we explore cognitive function, and underlying mechanisms with blood tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Women treated for early breast cancer were recruited to three groups based on self-reported cognitive symptoms (CS) using FACT-Cog scores. CTh + CS+ (n = 44) had received chemotherapy and self-reported cognitive symptoms; CTh + CS- (n = 52) had chemotherapy but did not report cognitive problems; CTh- (n = 30) had not received chemotherapy...
May 2, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456880/altered-segregation-between-task-positive-and-task-negative-regions-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Chandler Sours, Joshua Kinnison, Srikanth Padmala, Rao P Gullapalli, Luiz Pessoa
Changes in large-scale brain networks that accompany mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the N-back working memory task at two cognitive loads (1-back and 2-back). Thirty mTBI patients were examined during the chronic stage of injury and compared to 28 control participants. Demographics and behavioral performance were matched across groups. Due to the diffuse nature of injury, we hypothesized that there would be an imbalance in the communication between task-positive and Default Mode Network (DMN) regions in the context of effortful task execution...
April 29, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451921/conflict-related-dorsomedial-frontal-cortex-activation-during-healthy-food-decisions-is-associated-with-increased-cravings-for-high-fat-foods
#5
Ryan Smith, Anna Alkozei, William D S Killgore
Previous studies suggest obesity is associated with altered function within the insula and dorsomedial frontal cortex (including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; DMFC/dACC), reflecting abnormal reward processing and reduced sensitivity to feelings of satiety. Given the proposed roles of DMFC/dACC in monitoring response conflict and reward-based decision making, the present study examined DMFC/dACC activation, and functional connectivity between the DMFC/dACC and the anterior insula (AI), during food-related decision-making...
April 27, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451920/cortical-thickness-reductions-associate-with-abnormal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#6
Chen Niu, Xiangliang Tan, Xiaojin Liu, Kai Han, Meiqi Niu, Jun Xu, Ling Zhao, Yuankui Wu, Feng Deng, Qin Huang, Xiaoyan Wu, Huiyuan Huang, Yikai Xu, Ruiwang Huang
To detect the abnormal cortical thickness and disrupted brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE). Using T1-weighted 3D brain structural data, we first determined the regions with abnormal cortical thickness in a cohort of 33 adult female non-NPSLE patients. By taking brain regions with significantly reduced cortical thickness as the seeds, we calculated their RSFC based on the resting-fMRI data and detected the relationship between the RSFC and cortical thickness in the non-NPSLE patients...
April 27, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447246/brain-size-bias-compensated-graph-theoretical-parameters-are-also-better-in-women-s-structural-connectomes
#7
Balázs Szalkai, Bálint Szalkai, Vince Grolmusz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447245/neuroanatomical-variations-as-a-function-of-experience-in-a-complex-daily-task-a-vbm-and-dti-study-on-driving-experience
#8
Alberto Megías, D Petrova, J F Navas, A Cándido, A Maldonado, A Catena
Complex tasks require the learning and integration of multiple cognitive, sensory, and psychomotor skills for correct execution. Driving-related skills are developed step by step through the increase of mileage driven and the accumulation of practice in different traffic situations. The acquisition of these skills should be reflected in the brain structure. However, no previous studies have explored brain structural variations associated with driving experience. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether driving frequency, defined as average annual driving mileage, is related to neuroanatomical variations in gray matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) integrity using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and DTI-based fractional anisotropy (FA), respectively...
April 26, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444556/thalamo-cortical-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#9
Kristina C Skåtun, Tobias Kaufmann, Christine L Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Siren Tønnesen, Guido Biele, Anja Vaskinn, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
The thalamus is a highly connected subcortical structure that relays and integrates sensory and cortical information, which is critical for coherent and accurate perceptual awareness and cognition. Thalamic dysfunction is a classical finding in schizophrenia (SZ), and resting-state functional MRI has implicated somatomotor and frontal lobe thalamic dysconnectivity. However, it remains unclear whether these findings generalize to different psychotic disorders, are confined to specific thalamic sub-regions, and how they relate to structural thalamic alterations...
April 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434160/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-is-not-associated-with-volumetric-differences-in-former-high-school-football-players
#10
Douglas P Terry, L Stephen Miller
We investigated potential brain volumetric differences in a sample of former high school football players many years after these injuries. Forty community-dwelling males ages 40-65 who played high school football, but not college or professional sports, were recruited. The experimental group (n = 20) endorsed experiencing two or more mTBIs on an empirically validated mTBI assessment tool (median = 3, range = 2-15). The control group (n = 20) denied ever experiencing an mTBI. Participants completed a self-report index of current mTBI symptomatology and underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scanning, which were analyzed using the Freesurfer software package...
April 22, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434159/decreased-hemispheric-connectivity-and-decreased-intra-and-inter-hemisphere-asymmetry-of-resting-state-functional-network-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#11
O Agcaoglu, R Miller, E Damaraju, B Rashid, J Bustillo, M S Cetin, T G M Van Erp, S McEwen, A Preda, J M Ford, K O Lim, D S Manoach, D H Mathalon, S G Potkin, V D Calhoun
Many studies have shown that schizophrenia patients have aberrant functional network connectivity (FNC) among brain regions, suggesting schizophrenia manifests with significantly diminished (in majority of the cases) connectivity. Schizophrenia is also associated with a lack of hemispheric lateralization. Hoptman et al. (2012) reported lower inter-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia patients compared to controls using voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity. In this study, we merge these two points of views together using a group independent component analysis (gICA)-based approach to generate hemisphere-specific timecourses and calculate intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere FNC on a resting state fMRI dataset consisting of age- and gender-balanced 151 schizophrenia patients and 163 healthy controls...
April 22, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429160/neural-mechanisms-of-risky-decision-making-in-adolescents-reporting-frequent-alcohol-and-or-marijuana-use
#12
Eric D Claus, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Renee E Magnan, Erika Montanaro, Kent E Hutchison, Angela D Bryan
Because adolescence is a period of heightened exploration of new behaviors, there is a natural increase in risk taking including initial use of alcohol and marijuana. In order to better understand potential differences in neurocognitive functioning among adolescents who use drugs, the current study aimed to identify the neural substrates of risky decision making that differ among adolescents who are primary users of alcohol or marijuana, primary users of both alcohol and marijuana, and controls who report primary use of neither drug...
April 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425061/gray-matter-and-white-matter-changes-in-non-demented-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-with-or-without-cognitive-impairment-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-tract-based-spatial-statistics-whole-brain-analysis
#13
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Franz Riederer, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Georgios Velonakis, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Georgios Argiropoulos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Thomas Zambelis, Athanasios Athanasakos, Panagiotis Toulas, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Spyros Kollias, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
The phenotypic heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) implies that patients show structural changes within but also beyond the motor cortex and corticospinal tract and furthermore outside the frontal lobes, even if frank dementia is not detected. The aim of the present study was to investigate both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with or without cognitive impairment (ALS-motor and ALS-plus, respectively). Nineteen ALS-motor, 31 ALS-plus and 25 healthy controls (HC) underwent 3D-T1-weighted and 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3 T MRI scanner...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#14
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417219/treatment-effect-of-methylphenidate-on-intrinsic-functional-brain-network-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-adhd-children-a-multivariate-analysis
#15
Jae Hyun Yoo, Dohyun Kim, Jeewook Choi, Bumseok Jeong
Methylphenidate is a first-line therapeutic option for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, elicited changes on resting-state functional networks (RSFNs) are not well understood. This study investigated the treatment effect of methylphenidate using a variety of RSFN analyses and explored the collaborative influences of treatment-relevant RSFN changes in children with ADHD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from 20 medication-naïve ADHD children before methylphenidate treatment and twelve weeks later...
April 17, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405888/effects-of-common-grm5-genetic-variants-on-cognition-hippocampal-volume-and-mglur5-protein-levels-in-schizophrenia
#16
Natalie Matosin, Kelly Anne Newell, Yann Quidé, Jessica Lee Andrews, Nina Teroganova, Melissa Jayne Green, Francesca Fernandez
GRM5 (coding for metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, mGluR5) is a promising target for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, but there has been little investigation of its association with cognitive and brain phenotypes within this disorder. We examined the effects of common genetic variation in GRM5 with cognitive function, hippocampal volume, and hippocampal mGluR5 protein levels in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls. Two independent GRM5 variants rs60954128 [C>T] and rs3824927 [G>T] were genotyped in a schizophrenia case/control cohort (n=249/261)...
April 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364401/impaired-engagement-of-the-ventral-attention-system-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#17
Natalie A Pride, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne
Individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) exhibit significant impairments in attention across multiple domains. Very little is known about the contributing neural networks. We used task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine dorsal and ventral attention networks during auditory oddball processing in children and adolescents with NF1 and typically developing controls. Significant differences in neural activation patterns were identified within brain regions supporting the ventral attention system...
March 31, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357535/emotional-intelligence-moderates-the-relationship-between-regional-gray-matter-volume-in-the-bilateral-temporal-pole-and-critical-thinking-disposition
#18
Xiaonan Yao, Shuge Yuan, Wenjing Yang, Qunlin Chen, Dongtao Wei, Yuling Hou, Lijie Zhang, Jiang Qiu, Dong Yang
Critical thinking enables people to form sound beliefs and provides a basis for emotional life. Research has indicated that individuals with better critical thinking disposition can better recognize and regulate their emotions, though the neuroanatomical mechanisms involved in this process remain to be elucidated. Further, the influence of emotional intelligence on the relationship between brain structure and critical thinking disposition has not been examined. The present study utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the neural structures underlying critical thinking disposition in a large sample of college students (N = 296)...
March 29, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357534/the-relationship-between-microstructural-alterations-of-the-brain-and-clinical-measurements-in-children-and-adolescents-with-hair-pulling-disorder
#19
Geon Ho Bahn, Minha Hong, Kyung Mi Lee, Chanhee Lee, Chang-Woo Ryu, Ji-Ah Lee, Soonchan Park, Eui Jong Kim, Geon-Ho Jahng
Several studies have evaluated gray matter abnormalities and white matter integrity in adults with hair pulling disorder (HPD). However, no prior studies have defined the relationship between neuroimaging parameters and clinical measurements in children and adolescents with HPD. The purposes of this study were to determine the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices and clinical measurements in children and adolescents with HPD, and to compare HPD patients with age- and sex- matched healthy controls (HC)...
March 29, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353136/negative-functional-brain-networks
#20
Fabrizio Parente, Marianna Frascarelli, Alessia Mirigliani, Fabio Di Fabio, Massimo Biondi, Alfredo Colosimo
The anticorrelations in fMRI measurements are still not well characterized, but some new evidences point to a possible physiological role. We explored the topology of functional brain networks characterized by negative edgess and their possible alterations in schizophrenia, using functional images of 8 healthy subjects and 8 schizophrenic patients in a resting state condition. In order to minimize the insertion of artifactual negative correlations, the preprocessing of images was carried out by the CompCorr procedure, and the results compared with the Global Signal Regression (GSR) procedure...
March 29, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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