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Developmental Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925106/myelin-development-plasticity-and-pathology-in-the-auditory-system
#1
REVIEW
Patrick Long, Guoqiang Wan, Michael T Roberts, Gabriel Corfas
Myelin allows for the rapid and precise timing of action potential propagation along neuronal circuits and is essential for healthy auditory system function. In this review we discuss what is currently known about myelin in the auditory system with a focus on the timing of myelination during auditory system development, the role of myelin in supporting peripheral and central auditory circuit function, and how various myelin pathologies compromise auditory information processing. Additionally, in keeping with the increasing recognition that myelin is dynamic and is influenced by experience throughout life, we review the growing evidence that auditory sensory deprivation alters myelin along specific segments of the brain's auditory circuit...
September 19, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925069/myelin-plasticity-neural-activity-and-traumatic-neural-injury
#2
REVIEW
Bethany R Kondiles, Philip J Horner
The possibility that adult organisms exhibit myelin plasticity has recently become a topic of great interest. Many researchers are exploring the role of myelin growth and adaptation in daily functions such as memory and motor learning. Here we consider evidence for three different potential categories of myelin plasticity: the myelination of previously bare axons, remodeling of existing sheaths, and the removal of a sheath with replacement by a new internode. We also review evidence that points to the importance of neural activity as a mechanism by which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are cued to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes, which may potentially be an important component of myelin plasticity...
September 19, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913981/age-dependent-expression-of-nav1-9-channels-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mpfc-pyramidal-neurons-in-rats
#3
Maciej Gawlak, Bartłomiej Szulczyk, Adam Berlowski, Katarzyna Grzelka, Anna Stachurska, Justyna Pelka, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Maciej Malecki, Przemyslaw Kurowski, Ewa Nurowska, Pawel Szulczyk
Developmental changes that occur in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence alter behavior. These behavioral alterations likely stem from changes in prefrontal cortex neuronal activity, which may depend on the properties and expression of ion channels. Nav1.9 sodium channels conduct a Na(+) current that is TTX resistant with a low threshold and noninactivating over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of Nav1.9 channels in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) layer II and V pyramidal neurons in young (20-day-old), late adolescent (60-day-old) and adult (6-7-month-old) rats...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901728/gaba-type-a-receptor-trafficking-and-the-architecture-of-synaptic-inhibition
#4
REVIEW
Joshua M Lorenz-Guertin, Tija C Jacob
Ubiquitous expression of GABA type A receptors (GABAA R) in the central nervous system establishes their central role in coordinating most aspects of neural function and development. Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission manifests in a number of human health disorders and conditions that in certain cases can be alleviated by drugs targeting these receptors. Precise changes in the quantity or activity of GABAA Rs localized at the cell surface and at GABAergic postsynaptic sites directly impact the strength of inhibition...
September 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901718/chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-negatively-regulate-the-positioning-of-mitochondria-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-distal-axons
#5
Rajiv Sainath, Lorena Armijo-Weingart, Andrea Ketscheck, Zhuxuan Xu, Shuxin Li, Gianluca Gallo
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are components of the extracellular matrix that inhibit the extension and regeneration of axons. However, the underlying mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are functionally inter-linked organelles important to axon development and maintenance. We report that CSPGs impair the targeting of mitochondria and ER to the growth cones of chicken embryonic sensory axons. The effect of CSPGs on the targeting of mitochondria is blocked by inhibition of the LAR receptor for CSPGs...
September 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884925/widespread-transcriptional-alternations-in-oligodendrocytes-in-the-adult-mouse-brain-following-chronic-stress
#6
Jia Liu, Karen Dietz, Georgia E Hodes, Scott J Russo, Patrizia Casaccia
Emerging evidence shows that oligodendrogenesis and myelination are highly responsive to behavioral experience, including physical activity and social experience. This form of myelin plasticity is being increasingly appreciated and examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a critical brain region involved in complex emotional and cognitive behavior. However, it remains unclear whether myelination in other brain regions is affected by behavioral experience. Here we report that exposure to 4 weeks of chronic variable stress induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in male adult mice...
September 8, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884504/the-where-what-and-when-of-membrane-protein-degradation-in-neurons
#7
REVIEW
Eugene Jennifer Jin, Ferdi Ridvan Kiral, Peter Robin Hiesinger
Membrane protein turnover and degradation are required for the function and health of all cells. Neurons may live for the entire lifetime of an organism and are highly polarized cells with spatially segregated axonal and dendritic compartments. Both longevity and morphological complexity represent challenges for regulated membrane protein degradation. To investigate how neurons cope with these challenges, an increasing number of recent studies investigated local, cargo-specific protein sorting and degradation at axon terminals and in dendritic processes...
September 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842943/to-mdivi-1-or-not-to-mdivi-1-is-that-the-question
#8
REVIEW
George Smith, Gianluca Gallo
The fission/division and fusion of mitochondria are fundamental aspects of mitochondrial biology. The balance of fission and fusion sets the length of mitochondria in cells to serve their physiological requirements. The fission of mitochondria is markedly induced in many disease states and in response to cellular injury, resulting in the fragmentation of mitochondria into dysfunctional units. The mechanism that drives fission is dependent on the dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) GTPase. mdivi-1 is a quinazolinone originally described as a selective inhibitor of Drp1, over other dynamin family members, and reported to inhibit mitochondrial fission...
August 26, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834358/intrinsic-and-adaptive-myelination-a-sequential-mechanism-for-smart-wiring-in-the-brain
#9
REVIEW
Marie E Bechler, Matthew Swire, Charles Ffrench-Constant
The concept of adaptive myelination-myelin plasticity regulated by activity-is an important advance for the field. What signals set up the adaptable pattern in the first place? Here we review work that demonstrates an intrinsic pathway within oligodendrocytes requiring only an axon-shaped substrate to generate multilayered and compacted myelin sheaths of a physiological length. Based on this, we discuss a model we proposed in 2015 which argues that myelination has two phases-intrinsic and then adaptive-which together generate "smart wiring," in which active axons become more myelinated...
August 22, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799288/neuroprotective-activity-of-cannabinoid-receptor-2-against-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-rat-pups-having-experimentally-induced-congenital-hypothyroidism
#10
Mehmet Eray Alcigir, Halef Okan Dogan, Sevil Atalay Vural, Fatma Meriç Yilmaz
In this study, it was aimed to show the cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) role, which is a part of neuroprotective endocannabinoidal system, against increasing nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS, eNOS) levels and the apoptotic activity (caspase-3, caspase-9 and DNA in situ fragmentation) within the postnatal critical period in pups of pregnant rats with artificially induced maternal thyroid hormone (TH) deficiency. Each of the 3 groups established comprised 1 male and 2 female rats, and they were coupled. Their pups were used...
August 11, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799266/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-during-early-vertebrate-neural-development
#11
REVIEW
David Brafman, Karl Willert
The vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) is comprised of vast number of distinct cell types arranged in a highly organized manner. This high degree of complexity is achieved by cellular communication, including direct cell-cell contact, cell-matrix interactions, and cell-growth factor signaling. Among the several developmental signals controlling the development of the CNS, Wnt proteins have emerged as particularly critical and, hence, have captivated the attention of many researchers. With Wnts' evolutionarily conserved function as primordial symmetry breaking signals, these proteins and their downstream effects are responsible for simultaneously establishing cellular diversity and tissue organization...
August 11, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719141/neonatal-infection-produces-significant-changes-in-immune-function-with-no-associated-learning-deficits-in-juvenile-rats
#12
Brittany F Osborne, Jasmine I Caulfield, Samantha A Solomotis, Jaclyn M Schwarz
The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719137/neocortical-developmental-analysis-of-vasculature-and-their-growth-factors-offer-new-insight-into-fragile-x-syndrome-abnormalities
#13
Amogh P Belagodu, Stephen Fleming, Roberto Galvez
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common single gene cause for Autism Spectrum Disorder and the most prevalent form of inherited mental retardation. Our prior studies have demonstrated that adult FXS mice have abnormal blood vessel density (BVD) and elevated Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A expression (VEGF-A). VEGF-A is one of the most prominent regulators of BVD, and its abnormal expression is the most likely cause for FXS BVD abnormalities. We have demonstrated that attenuating elevated VEGF-A expression can ameliorate many non-vascular FXS abnormalities (Belagodu, Zendeli Slater and Galvez: Dev Neurobiol 77 (2017) 14-25), suggesting that abnormal VEGF-A expression is an underlying cause for some FXS abnormalities...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719101/neuronal-degeneration-and-regeneration-induced-by-axotomy-in-the-olfactory-epithelium-of-xenopus-laevis
#14
A S Cervino, D A Paz, J L Frontera
The olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capability to constantly replace olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) due to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs). For this reason, the OE provides an excellent model to study neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. In the present work, we induced neuronal degeneration in the OE of Xenopus laevis larvae by bilateral axotomy of the olfactory nerves. We found that axotomy induces specific- neuronal death through apoptosis between 24 and 48h post-injury. In concordance, there was a progressive decrease of the mature-ORN marker OMP until it was completely absent 72h post-injury...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707354/additive-neurogenesis-supported-by-multiple-stem-cell-populations-mediates-adult-spinal-cord-development-a-spatio-temporal-statistical-mapping-analysis-in-a-teleost-model-of-indeterminate-growth
#15
Ruxandra F Sîrbulescu, Iulian Ilieş, Annette Meyer, Günther K H Zupanc
The knifefish Apteronotus leptorhynchus exhibits indeterminate growth throughout adulthood. This phenomenon extends to the spinal cord, presumably through the continuous addition of new neurons and glial cells. However, little is known about the developmental dynamics of cells added during adult growth. The present work characterizes the structural and functional development of the adult spinal cord in this model organism through a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the spatial and temporal dynamics of new cells at various developmental stages...
July 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388831/estrogen-signaling-is-necessary-for-exercise-mediated-enhancement-of-motoneuron-participation-in-axon-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-mice
#16
Melina C Acosta, Patricia A Copley, Jamie R Harrell, Jennifer C Wilhelm
Thousands of people each year suffer from peripheral nerve injury. Treatment options are limited, and recovery is often incomplete. Treadmill exercise can enhance nerve regeneration; however, this appears to occur in a sex-dependent manner. Females respond best to short duration, high speed interval training; whereas, males respond best to slower, continuous training. Previous studies have shown a role for testosterone in this process, but the role of estrogen is unknown. To evaluate the role of estrogen signaling in treadmill exercise, we blocked estrogen receptor (ER) signaling during treadmill exercise in males and female wild type mice...
October 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388013/protracted-and-asynchronous-accumulation-of-psd95-family-maguks-during-maturation-of-nascent-dendritic-spines
#17
Jason T Lambert, Travis C Hill, Deborah K Park, Julie H Culp, Karen Zito
The formation and stabilization of new dendritic spines is a key component of the experience-dependent neural circuit plasticity that supports learning, but the molecular maturation of nascent spines remains largely unexplored. The PSD95-family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (PSD-MAGUKs), most notably PSD95, has a demonstrated role in promoting spine stability. However, nascent spines contain low levels of PSD95, suggesting that other members of the PSD-MAGUK family might act to stabilize nascent spines in the early stages of spiny synapse formation...
October 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380680/progranulin-regulates-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-vertebrate-retina
#18
Caroline E Walsh, Peter F Hitchcock
We evaluated the expression and function of the microglia-specific growth factor, Progranulin-a (Pgrn-a) during developmental neurogenesis in the embryonic retina of zebrafish. At 24 hpf pgrn-a is expressed throughout the forebrain, but by 48 hpf pgrn-a is exclusively expressed by microglia and/or microglial precursors within the brain and retina. Knockdown of Pgrn-a does not alter the onset of neurogenic programs or increase cell death, however, in its absence, neurogenesis is significantly delayed-retinal progenitors fail to exit the cell cycle at the appropriate developmental time and postmitotic cells do not acquire markers of terminal differentiation, and microglial precursors do not colonize the retina...
September 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371543/upregulation-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-triggers-transdifferentiation-of-retinal-pigmented-epithelial-cells-in-xenopus-laevis-a-link-between-inflammatory-response-and-regeneration
#19
Hanako Naitoh, Yukari Suganuma, Yoko Ueda, Takahiko Sato, Yosuke Hiramuki, Atsuko Fujisawa-Sehara, Shigeru Taketani, Masasuke Araki
In adult Xenopus eyes, when the whole retina is removed, retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells become activated to be retinal stem cells and regenerate the whole retina. In the present study, using a tissue culture model, it was examined whether upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) triggers retinal regeneration. Soon after retinal removal, Xmmp9 and Xmmp18 were strongly upregulated in the tissues of the RPE and the choroid. In the culture, Mmp expression in the RPE cells corresponded with their migration from the choroid...
September 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371371/zebrafish-mecp2-is-required-for-proper-axonal-elongation-of-motor-neurons-and-synapse-formation
#20
Keisuke Nozawa, Yanbin Lin, Ryota Kubodera, Yuki Shimizu, Hideomi Tanaka, Toshio Ohshima
Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. It is caused by a mutation in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MecP2), a transcriptional regulator that recruits protein complexes involved in histone modification and chromatin remodeling. However, the role of Mecp2 in Rett syndrome remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of Mecp2 in neuronal development using zebrafish embryos. Mecp2 expression was detected ubiquitously in the central nervous system and muscles at 28 h postfertilization (hpf)...
September 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
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