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Developmental Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318762/microglial-interaction-with-the-neurovascular-system-in-physiology-and-pathology
#1
REVIEW
Xiaoliang Zhao, Ukpong B Eyo, Madhuvika Murguan, Long-Jun Wu
Microglia as immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) play significant roles not only in pathology but also in physiology, such as shaping of the CNS during development and its proper maintenance in maturity. Emerging research is showing a close association between microglia and neurovasculature that is critical for brain energy supply. In this review, we summarize the current literature on microglial interaction with the vascular system in the normal and diseased brain. First, we highlight data that indicate interesting potential involvement of microglia in developmental angiogenesis...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314718/new-frontiers-in-rna-transport-and-local-translation-in-neurons
#2
REVIEW
S J Van Driesche, K C Martin
RNA localization to neuronal dendrites and axons is increasingly recognized as a significant and widespread mechanism of gene expression control in neurons. High-throughput RNA sequencing is rapidly expanding the universe of known localized mRNAs. Although there are inherent difficulties in preparing sequencing libraries from dendrites and axons in the context of intact brain, genetic labeling strategies have paved the way for improved studies of this type. As the list of localized mRNAs grows, there is increasing need for functional validation of localized transcripts - that is, do particular localized transcripts serve demonstrable physiologic functions in axons or dendrites? Finally, specific details about what localized mRNAs do once they reach distal processes have long been elusive...
January 5, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285893/cerebellar-microglia-are-dynamically-unique-and-survey-purkinje-neurons-in-vivo
#3
Rianne D Stowell, Elissa L Wong, Hanna N Batchelor, Monique S Mendes, Cassandra E Lamantia, Brendan S Whitelaw, Ania K Majewska
Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system and are also important participants in normal development and synaptic plasticity. Here we demonstrate that the microglia of the mouse cerebellum represent a unique population compared to cortical microglia. Microglia are more sparsely distributed within the cerebellum and have a markedly less ramified morphology compared to their cortical counterparts. Using time-lapse in vivo imaging, we found that these differences in distribution and morphology ultimately lead to decreased parenchymal surveillance by cerebellar microglia...
December 29, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271125/microglial-modulation-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-healthy-brain
#4
REVIEW
Elisa M York, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Brian A MacVicar
Investigations on the role of microglia in the brain have traditionally been focused on their contributions to disease states. However, recent observations have now convincingly shown that microglia in the healthy brain are not passive bystanders, but instead play a critical role in both central nervous system development and homeostasis of synaptic circuits in the adult. Here, we review the various mechanisms by which microglia impact neuronal communication in the healthy adult brain, both by sensing nearby synaptic responses and by actively modulating neuronal function...
December 22, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266810/multimodal-approaches-to-functional-connectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-an-integrative-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Lisa E Mash, Maya A Reiter, Annika C Linke, Jeanne Townsend, Ralph-Axel Müller
Atypical functional connectivity has been implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, the literature to date has been largely inconsistent, with mixed and conflicting reports of hypo- and hyper-connectivity. These discrepancies are partly due to differences between various neuroimaging modalities. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) measure distinct indices of functional connectivity (e.g., blood-oxygenation level-dependent [BOLD] signal vs...
December 21, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243403/microglia-sculptors-of-sex-differences-and-sensitive-periods
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Van Ryzin, Lindsay A Pickett, Margaret M McCarthy
Recent research is beginning to shift the focus of our understanding of microglia from passive members of the brain's immune system to active participants in brain development. Despite these advances, little attention has been paid to one of the most critical components of early brain development- sexual differentiation. Mounting evidence suggests that the normal developmental functions microglia perform- cell number regulation and synaptic connectivity, may be involved in the sex-specific patterning of the brain during these early critical periods, with lasting sex-dependent and sex-independent effects on behavior...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239145/line-1-retrotransposons-in-healthy-and-diseased-human-brain
#7
REVIEW
Nicole A Suarez, Angela Macia, Alysson R Muotri
Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a transposable element with the ability to self-mobilize throughout the human genome. The L1 elements found in the human brain is hypothesized to date back 56 million years ago and has survived evolution, currently accounting for 17% of the human genome. L1 retrotransposition has been theorized to contribute to somatic mosaicism. This review focuses on the presence of L1 in the healthy and diseased human brain, such as in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Throughout this exploration, we will discuss the impact L1 has on neurological disorders that can occur throughout the human lifetime...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239126/sexual-dimorphism-in-microglia-and-synapses-during-mouse-postnatal-development
#8
Laetitia Weinhard, Urte Neniskyte, Auguste Vadisiute, Giulia di Bartolomei, Nil Aygün, Laurie Riviere, Francesca Zonfrillo, Susan Dymecki, Cornelius Gross
Microglia participate in synapse remodeling in the cortex and hippocampus during mouse postnatal development. Although sex differences in microglia activity during embryonic development have been reported in these regions, it remains unexplored whether microglia show sexually dimorphic features during the early postnatal period, a critical window for synapse formation and maturation. Here, we investigated morphological and functional features of microglia across early postnatal development as well as morphological features of both pre- and postsynaptic neuronal compartments in the mouse hippocampus...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218848/shank1-is-differentially-expressed-during-development-in-ca1-hippocampal-neurons-and-astrocytes
#9
Sean M Collins, Amogh P Belagodu, Samantha L Reed, Roberto Galvez
Recent studies have strongly suggested a role for the synaptic scaffolding protein SHANK1 in normal synaptic structure and signaling. Global SHANK1 knockout (SHANK1-/-) mice demonstrate reduced dendritic spine density, an immature dendritic spine phenotype and impairments in various cognitive tasks. SHANK1 overexpression is associated with increased dendritic spine size and impairments in fear conditioning. These studies suggest proper regulation of SHANK1 is crucial for appropriate synaptic structure and cognition...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218791/a-novel-approach-to-training-attention-and-gaze-in-asd-a-feasibility-and-efficacy-pilot-study
#10
Leanne Chukoskie, Marissa Westerfield, Jeanne Townsend
In addition to the social, communicative and behavioral symptoms that define the disorder, individuals with ASD have difficulty re-orienting attention quickly and accurately. Similarly, fast re-orienting saccadic eye movements are also inaccurate and more variable in both endpoint and timing. Atypical gaze and attention are among the earliest symptoms observed in ASD. Disruption of these foundation skills critically affects development of higher level cognitive and social behavior. We propose that interventions aimed at these early deficits that support social and cognitive skills will be broadly effective...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218789/precise-localizations-of-voltage-gated-sodium-and-potassium-channels-in-neurons
#11
REVIEW
Hiroaki Misonou
Neurons are extremely large and complex cells, and they regulate membrane potentials in multiple subcellular compartments using a variety of ion channels. Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels are crucial in regulating neuronal membrane excitability owing to their diversity in subtypes, biophysical properties, and localizations. In particular, specific localizations of Nav and Kv channels in specific membrane compartments are essential to achieve a precise control of local membrane excitability...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197166/early-postnatal-development-of-electrophysiological-and-histological-properties-of-sensory-sural-nerves-in-male-rats-that-were-maternally-deprived-and-artificially-reared-role-of-tactile-stimulation
#12
Rene Zempoalteca, Mercedes G Porras, Suelem Moreno-Pérez, Gabriela Ramirez-Funez, Elsa L Aguirre-Benítez, Margarita González Del Pliego, Silvia Mariscal-Tovar, Ma Eugenia Mendoza-Garrido, Kurt Leroy Hoffman, Ismael Jiménez-Estrada, Angel I Melo
Early adverse experiences disrupt brain development and behavior, but little is known about how such experiences impact on the development of the peripheral nervous system. Recently, we found alterations in the electrophysiological and histological characteristics of the sensory sural (SU) nerve in maternally-deprived, artificially-reared (AR) adult male rats, as compared to maternally-reared (MR) control rats. In the present study, our aim was to characterize the ontogeny of these alterations. Thus, male pups of 4 postnatal days (PND) were 1) artificially reared (AR group), 2) artificially reared and received daily tactile stimulation to the body and anogenital region (AR-Tactile group); or 3) reared by their mother (MR group)...
December 2, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197160/compartment-specific-dynamics-and-functions-of-autophagy-in-neurons
#13
REVIEW
Vineet Vinay Kulkarni, Sandra Maday
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that is critical to maintaining neuronal homeostasis and viability. Autophagy sequesters damaged and aged cellular components from the intracellular environment, and shuttles these diverse macromolecules to lysosomes for destruction. This active surveillance of the quality of the cytoplasm and organelles is essential in neurons to sustain their long-term functionality and viability. Indeed, defective autophagy is linked to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and neurodegeneration in mammals...
December 2, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134778/the-axonal-endoplasmic-reticulum-one-organelle-many-functions-in-development-maintenance-and-plasticity
#14
REVIEW
Alejandro Luarte, Víctor Hugo Cornejo, Francisca Bertin, Javiera Gallardo, Andrés Couve
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is highly conserved in eukaryotes and neurons. Indeed, the localization of the organelle in axons has been known for nearly half a century. However, the relevance of the axonal ER is only beginning to emerge. In this review, we discuss the structure of the ER in axons, examining the role of ER-shaping proteins and highlighting reticulons. We analyze the multiple functions of the ER and their potential contribution to axonal physiology. First, we examine the emerging roles of the axonal ER in lipid synthesis, protein translation, processing, quality control, and secretory trafficking of transmembrane proteins...
November 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134774/identifying-suitable-reference-genes-for-developing-and-injured-mouse-cns-tissues
#15
Dongchao Xu, Ajuan Liu, Xuan Wang, Ming Zhang, Zunyi Zhang, Tan Zhou, Mengsheng Qiu
Accurate quantification of gene expression is fundamental for understanding the molecular, genetic and functional bases of tissue development and diseases. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is now the most widely used method of quantifying gene expression due to its simplicity, specificity, sensitivity and wide quantification range. The use of appropriate reference genes to ensure accurate normalization is crucial for the correct quantification of gene expression from the early development, maturation, aging to injury processes in the central nervous system (CNS)...
November 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134765/developmental-retinal-ganglion-cell-death-and-retinotopicity-of-the-murine-retinocollicular-projection
#16
Jamie Beros, Jennifer Rodger, Alan R Harvey
During mammalian visual system development, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) undergo extensive apoptotic death. In mouse retina, approximately 50% of RGCs present at birth (postnatal day 0; P0) die by P5, at a time when axons innervate central targets such as the superior colliculus (SC). We examined whether RGCs that make short-range axonal targeting errors within the contralateral SC are more likely to be eliminated during the peak period of RGC death (P1-P5), compared with RGCs initially making more accurate retinotopic connections...
November 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115051/to-the-end-of-the-line-axonal-mrna-transport-and-local-translation-in-health-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#17
REVIEW
Christopher J Costa, Dianna E Willis
Axons and growth cones, by their very nature far removed from the cell body, encounter unique environments and require distinct populations of proteins. It seems only natural, then, that they have developed mechanisms to locally synthesize a host of proteins required to perform their specialized functions. Acceptance of this ability has taken decades; however, there is now consensus that axons do indeed have the capacity for local translation, and that this capacity is even retained into adulthood. Accumulating evidence supports the role of locally synthesized proteins in the proper development, maintenance, and function of neurons, and newly emerging studies also suggest that disruption in this process has implications in a number of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases...
November 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106038/the-physical-approximation-of-app-and-bace-1-a-key-event-in-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Jichao Sun, Subhojit Roy
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of insoluble deposits of Amyloid β (Aβ) in brains. Aβ is derived by sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-site secretase enzyme (BACE-1) and γ-secretase. Proteolytic processing of APP by BACE-1 is the rate-limiting step in Aβ production, and this pathway is a prime target for AD drug development. Both APP and BACE-1 are membrane-spanning proteins, transported via secretory and endocytic pathways; and the physical interaction of APP and BACE-1 during trafficking is a key cell biological event initiating the amyloidogenic pathway...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090517/increased-glia-density-in-the-caudate-nucleus-in-williams-syndrome-implications-for-frontostriatal-dysfunction-in-autism
#19
Kari L Hanson, Caroline H Lew, Branka Hrvoj-Mihic, Kimberly M Groeniger, Eric Halgren, Ursula Bellugi, Katerina Semendeferi
Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with a well-described, known genetic etiology. In contrast to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), WS has a unique phenotype characterized by global reductions in IQ and visuospatial ability, with relatively preserved language function, enhanced reactivity to social stimuli and music, and an unusual eagerness to interact socially with strangers. A duplication of the deleted region in WS has been implicated in a subset of ASD cases, defining a spectrum of genetic and behavioral variation at this locus defined by these opposite extremes in social behavior...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090510/regulation-of-plasma-membrane-expansion-during-axon-formation
#20
REVIEW
Santiago Quiroga, Mariano Bisbal, Alfredo Cáceres
Here, will review current evidence regarding the signaling pathways and mechanisms underlying membrane addition at sites of active growth during axon formation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2017.
November 1, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
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