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Developmental Neurobiology

Kaci L Pickett, Paxton S Stein, Michael A Vincen-Brown, Jason Q Pilarski
The medullary portion of the embryonic zebra finch hindbrain was isolated and superfused with physiologically relevant artificial cerebral spinal fluid. This in vitro preparation produced uninterrupted rhythmic episodes of neural activity via cranial nerve IX (glossopharyngeal) from embryonic day 4 (E4) through hatching on E14. Cranial nerve IX carries motor activity to the glottis during the inspiratory phase of breathing, and we focused on the role of synaptic inhibition during the embryonic and perinatal maturation of this branchiomotor outflow...
August 29, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Jillian Mei-Ling Liu, Summer Rose Fair, Behiye Kaya, Jessica Nabile Zuniga, Hasnaa Rashad Mostafa, Michele Joana Alves, Julie A Stephens, Mikayla Jones, M Tahir Aslan, Catherine Czeisler, José Javier Otero
The emergence of systems neuroscience tools requires parallel generation of objective analytical workflows for experimental neuropathology. We developed an objective analytical workflow that we used to determine how specific autonomic neural lineages change during postnatal development. While a wealth of knowledge exists regarding postnatal alterations in respiratory neural function, how these neural circuits change and develop in the weeks following birth remains less clear. In this study, we developed our workflow by combining genetic mouse modeling and quantitative immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and used this to examine the postnatal development of neural circuits derived from the transcription factors NKX2...
August 23, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Ashley N Brandebura, Michael Morehead, Daniel T Heller, Paul Holcomb, Douglas R Kolson, Garrett Jones, Peter H Mathers, George A Spirou
Neural circuit formation involves maturation of neuronal, glial and vascular cells, as well as cell proliferation and cell death. A fundamental understanding of cellular mechanisms is enhanced by quantification of cell types during key events in synapse formation and pruning and possessing qualified genetic tools for cell type-specific manipulation. Acquiring this information in turn requires validated cell markers and genetic tools. We quantified changing proportions of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) during neural circuit development...
August 23, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Shivani C Kharod, Brandon M Carter, Shilpa D Kadam
Neonatal seizures are harmful to the developing brain and are associated with mortality and long-term neurological comorbidities. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) seizures represent a significant proportion of such seizures. Phenobarbital (PB) remains the first line anti-seizure drug (ASD) treatment but fails ~50% of the time. Translational models of neonatal seizures are crucial to investigating mechanisms underlying PB-resistance. A model of PB-resistant ischemic seizures in postnatal day 7 (P7) CD-1 mice reported K-Cl cotransporter 2 (KCC2) degradation that has been shown to be due to activation of the TrkB pathway...
August 23, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Paige M Dingess, Amit Thakar, Zhaojie Zhang, Francis W Flynn, Travis E Brown
Excess consumption of dietary sodium during pregnancy has been shown to impair offspring cardiovascular function and enhance salt preference in adulthood, but little is known regarding the long-term impact of this nutritional surplus on offspring brain morphology and behavior. Using a combination of cellular and behavioral approaches, we examined the impact of maternal salt intake during the perinatal period on structural plasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in weanling and adult offspring as well as reward- and stress-driven behaviors in adult offspring...
August 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Sahil H Shah, Jeffrey L Goldberg
Retinal ganglion cells and other central nervous system neurons fail to regenerate after injury. Understanding the obstacles to survival and regeneration, and overcoming them, is key to preserving and restoring function. While comparisons in the cellular changes seen in these non-regenerative cells with those that do have intrinsic regenerative ability has yielded many candidate genes for regenerative therapies, complete visual recovery has not yet been achieved. Insights gained from neurodegenerative diseases, like glaucoma, underscore the importance of axonal transport of organelles, mRNA, and effector proteins in injury and disease...
July 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Bartosz Caban, Agata Staszelis, Paulina Kazmierska, Tomasz Kowalczyk, Jan Konopacki
Theta rhythms have been recorded from rat brain slices of the posterior hypothalamic area (PHa), including the supramammillary and posterior hypothalamic nuclei. Additionally, in numerous studies theta-related neurons were identified in the PHa according to the classification of Bland and Colom (Progress in Neurobiology, 41, 157-208, 1993). It is currently widely accepted that the PHa contributes to the process of HPC theta frequency programming at least in certain behavioral states. The postnatal development of the HPC and its ability to generate theta has also been a subject of studies...
July 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Lawrence David Falcon Moon
After axonal injury, chromatolysis (fragmentation of Nissl substance) can occur in the soma. Electron microscopy shows that chromatolysis involves fission of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. In CNS neurons (which do not regenerate axons back to their original targets) or in motor neurons or dorsal root ganglion neurons denied axon regeneration (e.g., by transection and ligation), chromatolysis is often accompanied by degranulation (loss of ribosomes from rough endoplasmic reticulum), disaggregation of polyribosomes and degradation of monoribosomes into dust-like particles...
July 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Camille Di Palma, Romain Goulay, Sebastien Chagnot, Sara Martinez De Lizarrondo, Antoine Anfray, Jean-Philippe Salaun, Eric Maubert, Emmanuèle Lechapt-Zalcman, Felipe Andreiuolo, Clément Gakuba, Evelyne Emery, Denis Vivien, Maxime Gauberti, Thomas Gaberel
Solute transport through the brain is of major importance for the clearance of toxic molecules and metabolites, and it plays key roles in the pathophysiology of the central nervous system. This solute transport notably depends on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, which circulates in the subarachnoid spaces, the ventricles and the perivascular spaces. We hypothesized that the CSF flow may be different in the perinatal period compared to the adult period. Using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF), we assessed the dynamic of the CSF flow in rodents at different ages...
July 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Suzanne Rohrback, Benjamin Siddoway, Christine S Liu, Jerold Chun
Since the discovery of DNA, the normal developing and functioning brain has been assumed to be composed of cells with identical genomes, which remains the dominant view even today. However, this pervasive assumption is incorrect, as proven by increasing numbers of reports within the last 20 years that have identified multiple forms of somatically produced genomic mosaicism (GM), wherein brain cells-especially neurons-from a single individual show diverse alterations in DNA, distinct from the germline. Critically, these changes alter the actual DNA nucleotide sequences-in contrast to epigenetic mechanisms-and almost certainly contribute to the remarkably diverse phenotypes of single brain cells, including single-cell transcriptomic profiles...
July 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Clayton Gordy, Hans Straka, Douglas W Houston, Bernd Fritzsch, Karen L Elliott
Numerous tissue transplantations have demonstrated that otocysts can develop into normal ears in any location in all vertebrates tested thus far, though the pattern of innervation of these transplanted ears has largely been understudied. Here, expanding on previous findings that transplanted ears demonstrate capability of local brainstem innervation and can also be innervated themselves by efferents, we show that inner ear afferents grow toward the spinal cord mostly along existing afferent and efferent fibers and preferentially enter the dorsal spinal cord...
July 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Baoling Lai, Miao Li, Wanling Hu, Wei Li, Wen-Biao Gan
The cyclic nucleotide cGMP is an intracellular second messenger with important roles in neuronal functions and animals' behaviors. The phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that hydrolyze the second messengers cGMP and cAMP. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 9 (PDE9), a main isoform of PDEs hydrolyzing cGMP, has been shown to improve learning and memory as well as cognitive function in rodents. However, the role of PDE9 in regulating neuronal structure and function in vivo remains unclear. Here we used in vivo two-photon microscopy to investigate the effect of a selective PDE9 inhibitor PF-04449613 on the activity and plasticity of dendritic spines of layer V pyramidal neurons in the mouse primary motor cortex...
July 18, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Marie-Pier Girouard, Mardja Bueno, Victoria Julian, Sienna Drake, Alexandra B Byrne, Alyson E Fournier
Neurons face a series of morphological and molecular changes following trauma and in the progression of neurodegenerative disease. In neurons capable of mounting a spontaneous regenerative response, including invertebrate neurons and mammalian neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), axons regenerate from the proximal side of the injury and degenerate on the distal side. Studies of Wallerian degeneration slow (WldS /Ola) mice have revealed that a level of coordination between the processes of axon regeneration and degeneration occurs during successful repair...
July 18, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Juhi Sardana, Cristina Organisti, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow
Deciphering the mechanisms of sensory neural map formation is a central aim in neurosciences. Failure to form a correct map frequently leads to defects in sensory processing and perception. The olfactory map develops in subsequent steps initially forming a rough and later a precise map of glomeruli in the antennal lobe (AL), mainly consisting of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) axons and projection neuron (PN) dendrites. The mechanisms underpinning the later stage of class-specific glomerulus formation are not understood...
July 18, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Veselina Petrova, Richard Eva
Injury to the brain and spinal cord has devastating consequences because adult central nervous system (CNS) axons fail to regenerate. Injury to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) has a better prognosis, because adult PNS neurons support robust axon regeneration over long distances. CNS axons have some regenerative capacity during development, but this is lost with maturity. Two reasons for the failure of CNS regeneration are extrinsic inhibitory molecules, and a weak intrinsic capacity for growth. Extrinsic inhibitory molecules have been well characterized, but less is known about the neuron-intrinsic mechanisms which prevent axon re-growth...
July 10, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Michal Kielbinski, Zuzanna Setkowicz, Kinga Gzielo, Krzysztof Janeczko
Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are a common cause of intractable seizures in humans. Among these, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) poses an outstanding challenge. There are several subtypes of FCD that show significant variation in pathology and clinical presentation. All types exhibit disturbed cortical cytoarchitecture and increased propensity for seizures. The etiology is likely heterogenous, with mutations, specifically in genes related to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), identified in only a subset of cases...
July 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Dhani Biscocho, Jayce G Cook, Joshua Long, Nishant Shah, Esther M Leise
The marine mud snail, Tritia (=Ilyanassa) obsoleta, displays a biphasic life cycle. During the initial phase of early development, embryos hatch from benthic egg capsules to become weakly swimming veliger larvae. In the second phase, adult T. obsoleta are facultative carnivores and major agents of community disturbance. Metamorphosis is the irreversible developmental event that links these two life history stages. When physiologically competent, larvae can respond to appropriate environmental cues by settling onto their mudflat habitat and transforming themselves into miniature adult snails...
July 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Wei Guo, Guhan Nagappan, Bai Lu
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serves a pleiotropic role in the central nervous system, ranging from promoting neuronal survival and differentiation during development and synaptic modulation in the adult. An important, yet unanswered question is how BDNF could serve such diverse functions, sometimes in the same cell. At least two modes of BDNF actions have been elucidated so far based on BDNF signaling kinetics and/or the activity status of the responding neurons. Acute and gradual increases in extracellular BDNF concentrations elicit, respectively, transient and sustained activation of TrkB receptor and its downstream signaling, leading to differential molecular and cellular functions...
July 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Alice Grison, Carine Gaiser, Andrea Bieder, Constanze Baranek, Suzana Atanasoski
Little is known about the molecular players driving proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) during embryonic mouse development. Here, we demonstrate that proliferation of NPCs in the developing forebrain depends on a particular combination of cell cycle regulators. We have analyzed the requirements for members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) family using cdk-deficient mice. In the absence of either cdk4 or cdk6, which are both regulators of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, we found no significant effects on the proliferation rate of cortical progenitor cells...
July 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Devin P Merullo, Chinweike N Asogwa, Miguel Sanchez-Valpuesta, Shin Hayase, Bikash R Pattnaik, Kazuhiro Wada, Lauren V Riters
Learned vocalizations are important for communication in some vertebrate taxa. The neural circuitry for the learning and production of vocalizations is well known in songbirds, many of which learn songs initially during a critical period early in life. Dopamine is essential for motor learning, including song learning, and dopamine-related measures change throughout development in song-control regions such as HVC, the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), Area X, and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA)...
July 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
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