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Developmental Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989351/the-virtuous-cycle-of-axon-growth-axonal-transport-of-growth-promoting-machinery-as-an-intrinsic-determinant-of-axon-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Veselina Petrova, Richard Eva
Injury to the brain and spinal cord has devastating consequences because adult central nervous system (CNS) axons fail to regenerate. Injury to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) has a better prognosis, because adult PNS neurons support robust axon regeneration over long distances. CNS axons have some regenerative capacity during development, but this is lost with maturity. Two reasons for the failure of CNS regeneration are extrinsic inhibitory molecules, and a weak intrinsic capacity for growth. Extrinsic inhibitory molecules have been well characterized, but less is known about the neuron-intrinsic mechanisms which prevent axon re-growth...
July 10, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923678/calcium-rises-induced-by-ampa-and-nicotine-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-show-differences-in-mouse-brain-slices-prenatally-exposed-to-nicotine
#2
Theis H Ipsen, Filip S Polli, Kristi A Kohlmeier
Nicotine exposure during gestation is associated with a higher risk of adverse behavioral outcomes including a heightened liability for dependency to drugs of abuse, which can exhibit drug-specificity influenced by gender. This enhanced liability suggests that nicotine use during pregnancy alters neural development in circuits involved in motivation and reward learning. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is critical in motivated behaviors and we hypothesized that gestational exposure to nicotine could alter the development of excitatory circuits in this nucleus...
June 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923318/intraspinal-serotonergic-signaling-suppresses-locomotor-activity-in-larval-zebrafish
#3
Jacob E Montgomery, Sarah Wahlstrom-Helgren, Timothy D Wiggin, Brittany M Corwin, Christina Lillesaar, Mark A Masino
Serotonin (5HT) is a modulator of many vital processes in the spinal cord (SC), such as production of locomotion. In the larval zebrafish, intraspinal serotonergic neurons (ISNs) are a source of spinal 5HT that, despite the availability of numerous genetic and optical tools, has not yet been directly shown to affect the spinal locomotor network. In order to better understand the functions of ISNs, we used a combination of strategies to investigate ISN development, morphology, and function. ISNs were optically isolated from one another by photoconverting Kaede fluorescent protein in individual cells, permitting morphometric analysis as they developed in vivo...
June 19, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786974/embryonic-exposure-to-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-a-brominated-flame-retardant-reduces-the-size-of-song-control-nuclei-in-a-songbird
#4
Margaret L Eng, Viktoria Winter, John E Elliott, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Tony D Williams
Environmental contaminants have the potential to act as developmental stressors and impair development of song and the brain of songbirds, but they have been largely unstudied in this context. 2,2',4,4',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) is a brominated flame retardant congener that has demonstrated endocrine disrupting effects, and has pervaded the global environment. We assessed the effects of in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 on the neuroanatomy of the song-control system in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786967/developmental-chromatin-restriction-of-pro-growth-gene-networks-acts-as-an-epigenetic-barrier-to-axon-regeneration-in-cortical-neurons
#5
Ishwariya Venkatesh, Vatsal Mehra, Zimei Wang, Ben Califf, Murray G Blackmore
Axon regeneration in the central nervous system is prevented in part by a developmental decline in the intrinsic regenerative ability of maturing neurons. This loss of axon growth ability likely reflects widespread changes in gene expression, but the mechanisms that drive this shift remain unclear. Chromatin accessibility has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism in other cellular contexts, raising the possibility that chromatin structure may contribute to the age-dependent loss of regenerative potential. Here we establish an integrated bioinformatic pipeline that combines analysis of developmentally dynamic gene networks with transcription factor regulation and genome-wide maps of chromatin accessibility...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738096/neuronal-intrinsic-regenerative-capacity-the-impact-of-microtubule-organization-and-axonal-transport
#6
REVIEW
Blanca Murillo, Mónica Mendes Sousa
In the adult vertebrate central nervous system, axons generally fail to regenerate. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons are able to form a growth cone and regenerate upon lesion. Among the multiple intrinsic mechanisms leading to the formation of a new growth cone and to successful axon regrowth, cytoskeleton organization and dynamics is central. Here we discuss how multiple pathways that define the regenerative capacity converge into the regulation of the axonal microtubule cytoskeleton and transport...
May 8, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717546/the-dorsal-column-lesion-model-of-spinal-cord-injury-and-its-use-in-deciphering-the-neuron-intrinsic-injury-response
#7
REVIEW
Callan L Attwell, Mike van Zwieten, Joost Verhaagen, Matthew R J Mason
The neuron-intrinsic response to axonal injury differs markedly between neurons of the peripheral and central nervous system. Following a peripheral lesion, a robust axonal growth program is initiated, whereas neurons of the central nervous system do not mount an effective regenerative response. Increasing the neuron-intrinsic regenerative response would therefore be one way to promote axonal regeneration in the injured central nervous system. The large-diameter sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglia are pseudo-unipolar neurons that project one axon branch into the spinal cord, and, via the dorsal column to the brain stem, and a peripheral process to the muscles and skin...
May 1, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704318/roles-of-microglia-in-nervous-system-development-plasticity-and-disease
#8
EDITORIAL
Beth Stevens, Dorothy P Schafer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318762/microglial-interactions-with-the-neurovascular-system-in-physiology-and-pathology
#9
REVIEW
Xiaoliang Zhao, Ukpong B Eyo, Madhuvika Murugan, Long-Jun Wu
Microglia as immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) play significant roles not only in pathology but also in physiology, such as shaping of the CNS during development and its proper maintenance in maturity. Emerging research is showing a close association between microglia and the neurovasculature that is critical for brain energy supply. In this review, we summarize the current literature on microglial interaction with the vascular system in the normal and diseased brain. First, we highlight data that indicate interesting potential involvement of microglia in developmental angiogenesis...
June 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285893/cerebellar-microglia-are-dynamically-unique-and-survey-purkinje-neurons-in-vivo
#10
Rianne D Stowell, Elissa L Wong, Hanna N Batchelor, Monique S Mendes, Cassandra E Lamantia, Brendan S Whitelaw, Ania K Majewska
Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system and are also important participants in normal development and synaptic plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that the microglia of the mouse cerebellum represent a unique population compared to cortical microglia. Microglia are more sparsely distributed within the cerebellum and have a markedly less ramified morphology compared to their cortical counterparts. Using time-lapse in vivo imaging, we found that these differences in distribution and morphology ultimately lead to decreased parenchymal surveillance by cerebellar microglia...
June 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271125/microglial-modulation-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-healthy-brain
#11
REVIEW
Elisa M York, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Brian A MacVicar
Investigations on the role of microglia in the brain have traditionally been focused on their contributions to disease states. However, recent observations have now convincingly shown that microglia in the healthy brain are not passive bystanders, but instead play a critical role in both central nervous system development and homeostasis of synaptic circuits in the adult. Here, we review the various mechanisms by which microglia impact neuronal communication in the healthy adult brain, both by sensing nearby synaptic responses and by actively modulating neuronal function...
June 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243403/microglia-driving-critical-periods-and-sexual-differentiation-of-the-brain
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan W VanRyzin, Lindsay A Pickett, Margaret M McCarthy
The proverbial role of microglia during brain development is shifting from passive members of the brain's immune system to active participants that are able to dictate enduring outcomes. Despite these advances, little attention has been paid to one of the most critical components of early brain development-sexual differentiation. Mounting evidence suggests that the normal developmental functions microglia perform-cell number regulation and synaptic connectivity-may be involved in the sex-specific patterning of the brain during these early sensitive periods, and may have lasting sex-dependent and sex-independent effects on behavior...
June 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239126/sexual-dimorphism-of-microglia-and-synapses-during-mouse-postnatal-development
#13
Laetitia Weinhard, Urte Neniskyte, Auguste Vadisiute, Giulia di Bartolomei, Nil Aygün, Laurie Riviere, Francesca Zonfrillo, Susan Dymecki, Cornelius Gross
Microglia participate in synapse remodeling in the cortex and hippocampus during mouse postnatal development. Although sex differences in microglia activity during embryonic development have been reported in these regions, it remains unexplored whether microglia show sexually dimorphic features during the early postnatal period, a critical window for synapse formation and maturation. Here, we investigated morphological and functional features of microglia across early postnatal development as well as morphological features of both pre- and postsynaptic neuronal compartments in the mouse hippocampus...
June 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030904/development-and-maintenance-of-the-brain-s-immune-toolkit-microglia-and-non-parenchymal-brain-macrophages
#14
REVIEW
Jose P Lopez-Atalaya, Katharine E Askew, Amanda Sierra, Diego Gomez-Nicola
Microglia and non-parenchymal macrophages located in the perivascular space, the meninges and the choroid plexus are independent immune populations that play vital roles in brain development, homeostasis, and tissue healing. Resident macrophages account for a significant proportion of cells in the brain and their density remains stable throughout the lifespan thanks to constant turnover. Microglia develop from yolk sac progenitors, later evolving through intermediate progenitors in a fine-tuned process in which intrinsic factors and external stimuli combine to progressively sculpt their cell type-specific transcriptional profiles...
June 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575775/recurrent-reciprocal-copy-number-variants-roles-and-rules-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Aditi Deshpande, Lauren A Weiss
Deletions and duplications, called reciprocal CNVs when they occur at the same locus, are implicated in neurodevelopmental phenotypes ranging from morphological to behavioral. In this article, we propose three models of how differences in gene expression in deletion and duplication genotypes may result in deleterious phenotypes. To explore these models, we use examples of the similarities and differences in clinical phenotypes of five reciprocal CNVs known to cause neurodevelopmental disorders: 1q21.1, 7q11...
May 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516662/autism-spectrum-disorders-challenges-and-perspectives
#16
EDITORIAL
Alysson Renato Muotri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484850/genetic-variations-on-setd5-underlying-autistic-conditions
#17
REVIEW
Isabella R Fernandes, Ana C P Cruz, Adriano Ferrasa, Dylan Phan, Roberto H Herai, Alysson R Muotri
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the number of identified ASD-related genes have increased in recent years. The SETD5 gene encodes a SET-containing-domain 5 protein, a likely reader enzyme. Genetic evidences suggest that SETD5 malfunction contributes to ASD phenotype, such as on intellectual disability (ID) and facial dysmorphism. In this review, we mapped the clinical phenotypes of individuals carrying mutations on the SETD5 gene that are associated with ASD and other chromatinopathies (mutation in epigenetic modifiers that leads to the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD)...
May 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411548/searching-for-the-gut-microbial-contributing-factors-to-social-behavior-in-rodent-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Brittany D Needham, Weiyi Tang, Wei-Li Wu
Social impairment is one of the major symptoms in multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Accumulated studies indicate a crucial role for the gut microbiota in social development, but these mechanisms remain unclear. This review focuses on two strategies adopted to elucidate the complicated relationship between gut bacteria and host social behavior. In a top-down approach, researchers have attempted to correlate behavioral abnormalities with altered gut microbial profiles in rodent models of ASD, including BTBR mice, maternal immune activation (MIA), maternal valproic acid (VPA) and maternal high-fat diet (MHFD) offspring...
May 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266810/multimodal-approaches-to-functional-connectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-an-integrative-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Lisa E Mash, Maya A Reiter, Annika C Linke, Jeanne Townsend, Ralph-Axel Müller
Atypical functional connectivity has been implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, the literature to date has been largely inconsistent, with mixed and conflicting reports of hypo- and hyper-connectivity. These discrepancies are partly due to differences between various neuroimaging modalities. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) measure distinct indices of functional connectivity (e.g., blood-oxygenation level-dependent [BOLD] signal vs...
May 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239145/line-1-retrotransposons-in-healthy-and-diseased-human-brain
#20
REVIEW
Nicole A Suarez, Angela Macia, Alysson R Muotri
Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a transposable element with the ability to self-mobilize throughout the human genome. The L1 elements found in the human brain is hypothesized to date back 56 million years ago and has survived evolution, currently accounting for 17% of the human genome. L1 retrotransposition has been theorized to contribute to somatic mosaicism. This review focuses on the presence of L1 in the healthy and diseased human brain, such as in autism spectrum disorders. Throughout this exploration, we will discuss the impact L1 has on neurological disorders that can occur throughout the human lifetime...
May 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
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