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Developmental Neurobiology

Rishab S Chawla, Mark Züchner, Maria Mastrangelopoulou, François M Lambert, Joel C Glover, Jean-Luc Boulland
Following incomplete spinal cord injuries, neonatal mammals display a remarkable degree of behavioral recovery. Previously, we have demonstrated in neonatal mice a wholesale re-establishment and reorganization of synaptic connections from some descending axon tracts (Boulland et al., 2013). To assess the potential cellular mechanisms contributing to this recovery, we have here characterized a variety of cellular sequelae following thoracic compression injuries, focusing particularly on cell loss and proliferation, inflammation and reactive gliosis, and the dynamics of specific types of synaptic terminals...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Pablo José Barrecheguren, Oriol Ros, Tiziana Cotrufo, Beat Kunz, Eduardo Soriano, Fausto Ulloa, Esther T Stoeckli, Sofia J Araújo
Axonal growth and guidance rely on correct growth cone responses to guidance cues, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the periphery. Unlike the signaling cascades that link axonal growth to cytoskeletal dynamics, little is known about the crosstalk mechanisms between guidance and membrane dynamics and turnover in the axon. Our studies have shown that Netrin-1/Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) signaling triggers exocytosis through the SNARE Syntaxin-1 (STX-1) during the formation of commissural pathways...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Hangze Ruan, Juanmei Gao, Xianjie Qi, Yi Tao, Xia Guo, Zhaoyi Guo, Lijun Zheng, Yaling Song, Yuan Liao, Wanhua Shen
Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is thought to play pivotal roles in neurogenesis and neurodegeneration. However, the role of HDAC1 in neuronal growth and structural plasticity in the developing brain in vivo remains unclear. Here, we show that in the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis, HDAC1 knockdown dramatically decreased the frequency of AMPAR-mediated synaptic currents and increased the frequency of GABAAR-mediated currents, whereas HDAC1 overexpression significantly decreased the frequency of GABAAR-mediated synaptic currents...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Xuejun Cheng, Binghua Xie, Jiajun Qi, Xiaofeng Zhao, Zunyi Zhang, Mengsheng Qiu, Junlin Yang
Mouse primary OPCs are increasingly used to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotype changes in oligodendrocyte differentiation and axonal myelination observed in transgenic or mutant mouse models. However, mouse OPCs are much more difficult to be isolated by the simple dissociation culture of brain tissues than their rat counterparts. To date, the mechanisms underlying the species difference in OPC preparation remain obscure. In this study, we showed that astrocytes from rats have a stronger effect than those from mouse in promoting OPC proliferation and survival in vitro...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
John K Chilton, Sarah Guthrie
Cranial nerves innervate head muscles in a well-characterised and highly conserved pattern. Identification of genes responsible for human congenital disorders of these nerves, combined with the analysis of their role in axonal development in animal models has advanced understanding of how neuromuscular connectivity is established. Here we focus on the ocular motor system, as an instructive example of the success of this approach in unravelling the aetiology of human strabismus. The discovery that ocular motility disorders can arise from mutations in transcription factors, including HoxA1, HoxB1, MafB, Phox2A and Sall4, has revealed gene regulatory networks that pattern the brainstem and/or govern the differentiation of cranial motor neurons...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
François Friocourt, Alain Chédotal
Roundabout receptors are known to mediate Slit-dependent repulsive signaling. However in vertebrates, mounting evidence suggest that Robo3 is an unconventional Robo receptor regarding both its expression and function. From its initial description, Robo3 receptor has been tightly associated with the development of specific axons, called commissural, that connect both sides of the nervous system. Many studies using transgenic mouse models showed that Robo3 expression is mandatory for commissural axon guidance to the floor plate...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Octavio Amancio-Belmont, Antonio Romano-López, Alejandra Evelin Ruiz-Contreras, Mónica Méndez-Díaz, Oscar Prospéro-García
To analyze motivation, food self-administration and decision-making was evaluated in adolescent, adult and aged rats. Subjects were trained to press a lever (fixed ratio, FR1 and FR5) in an operant chamber, to obtain chocolate flavor pellets. We assessed the progressive ratio (PR), extinction and reinstatement of the behavior. To estimate decision-making for food, rats were trained in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm: a) associating one compartment with lab chow (LCh) one day and the other compartment with rice krisspies (RK), the next day...
December 9, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Ron Stoop, Xiang Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Benjamin W Dean, Thalia J Rashid, Michael G Jonz
In zebrafish, cutaneous neuroepithelial cells (NECs) contain serotonin (5-HT) and are believed to initiate physiological and behavioral responses to hypoxia during embryonic and early larval development, when mature gills and O2 chemoreceptors are not yet present. The number of skin NECs rapidly declines as embryos develop into larvae, but acclimation to hypoxia leads to retention of a greater number of these cells. We hypothesized that reduction of the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ) in water would stimulate mitosis in cutaneous NECs in zebrafish...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Delphine S Prieur, Alexandra Rebsam
The visual representation of the outside world relies on the appropriate connectivity between the eyes and the brain. Retinal ganglion cells are the sole neurons that send an axon from the retina to the brain, and thus the guidance decisions of retinal axons en route to their targets in the brain shape the neural circuitry that forms the basis of vision. Here, we focus on the choice made by retinal axons to cross or avoid the midline at the optic chiasm. This decision allows each brain hemisphere to receive inputs from both eyes corresponding to the same visual hemifield, and is thus crucial for binocular vision...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Sebastian Dworkin, Alana Auden, Darren D Partridge, Maria Daglas, Robert L Medcalf, Theo Mantamadiotis, Smitha R Georgy, Charbel Darido, Stephen M Jane, Stephen B Ting
The highly conserved Grainyhead-like (Grhl) family of transcription factors, comprising three members in vertebrates (Grhl1-3), play critical regulatory roles during embryonic development, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Although loss of Grhl function leads to multiple neural abnormalities in numerous animal models, a comprehensive analysis of Grhl expression and function in the mammalian brain has not been reported. Here we show that only Grhl3 expression is detectable in the embryonic mouse brain; particularly within the habenula, an organ known to modulate repressive behaviours...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
William M Kenkel, Allison M Perkeybile, C Sue Carter
Alloparenting, defined as care provided by individuals other than parents, is a universal behavior among humans that has shaped our evolutionary history and remains important in contemporary society. Dysfunctions in alloparenting can have serious and sometimes fatal consequences for vulnerable infants and children. In spite of the importance of alloparenting, we still have much to learn regarding the underlying neurobiological systems governing its expression. Here, we review how a lack of alloparental behavior among traditional laboratory species has led to a blind spot in our understanding of this critical facet of human social behavior and the relevant neurobiology...
November 2, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Meghan A Lockard, Margaret S Ebert, Cornelia I Bargmann
The molecular and functional conservation of oxytocin-related neuropeptides in behavior is striking. In animals separated by at least 600 million years of evolution, from roundworms to humans, oxytocin homologs play critical roles in the modulation of reproductive behavior and other biological functions. Here, we review the roles of oxytocin in invertebrate behavior from an evolutionary perspective. We begin by tracing the evolution of oxytocin through the invertebrate animal lineages, and then describe common themes in invertebrate behaviors that are mediated by oxytocin-related peptides, including reproductive behavior, learning and memory, food arousal, and predator/prey relationships...
November 2, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Samuel U Nummela, Shanna H Coop, Shaun L Cloherty, Chantal J Boisvert, Mathias Leblanc, Jude F Mitchell
The common marmoset has attracted increasing interest as a model for visual neuroscience. A measurement of fundamental importance to ensure the validity of visual studies is spatial acuity. The marmoset has excellent acuity that has been reported at the fovea to be nearly half that of the human (Ordy and Samorajski, 1968), a value that is consistent with them having similar photoreceptor densities combined with their smaller eye size (Troilo et al, 1993). Of interest, the marmoset exhibits a higher proportion of cones than rods in peripheral vision than human or macaque, which in principle could endow them with better peripheral acuity depending on how those signals are pooled in subsequent processing...
November 2, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Noemie Mermet-Joret, Nadwa Chatila, Bruno Pereira, Lénaic Monconduit, Radhouane Dallel, Myriam Antri
Protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) interneurons, located in the superficial spinal (SDH) and medullary dorsal horns (MDH), have been shown to play a critical role in cutaneous mechanical hypersensitivity. However, a thorough characterization of their development in the MDH is lacking. Here, it is shown that the number of PKCγ-ir interneurons changes from postnatal day 3 (P3) to P60 (adult) and such developmental changes differ according to laminae. PKCγ-ir interneurons are already present at P3-5 in laminae I, IIo, and III...
January 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Alessia Usardi, Keerthana Iyer, Séverine M Sigoillot, Antoine Dusonchet, Fekrije Selimi
The establishment of a functional brain depends on the fine regulation and coordination of many processes, including neurogenesis, differentiation, dendritogenesis, axonogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Proteins of the immunoglobulin-like superfamily (IGSF) are major regulators during this sequence of events. Different members of this class of proteins play nonoverlapping functions at specific developmental time-points, as shown in particular by studies of the cerebellum. We have identified a member of the little studied EWI subfamily of IGSF, the protein IGSF3, as a membrane protein expressed in a neuron specific- and time-dependent manner during brain development...
January 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Chin-Yi Chen, Yi-Ting Chen, Jen-Yeu Wang, Yi-Shuian Huang, Chin-Yin Tai
Synaptic adhesion molecules, which coordinately control structural and functional changes at both sides of synapses, are important for synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Because they physically form homophilic or heterophilic adhesions across synaptic junctions, these molecules can initiate transsynaptic communication in both anterograde and retrograde directions. Using optical imaging approaches, we investigated whether an increase in postsynaptic N-cadherin could correspondingly alter the function of connected presynaptic terminals...
January 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Timothy C Roth, Kurtis Stocker, Robert Mauck
Maintaining cognitive processes comes with neurological costs. Thus, enhanced cognition and its underlying neural mechanisms should change in response to environmental pressures. Indeed, recent evidence suggests that variation in spatially based cognitive abilities is reflected in the morphology of the hippocampus (Hp), the region of the brain involved in spatial memory. Moreover, recent work on this region establishes a dynamic link between brain plasticity and cognitive experiences both across populations and within individuals...
January 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Fernando Vonhoff, Haig Keshishian
The removal of miswired synapses is a fundamental prerequisite for normal circuit development, leading to clinical problems when aberrant. However, the underlying activity-dependent molecular mechanisms involved in synaptic pruning remain incompletely resolved. Here the dynamic properties of intracellular calcium oscillations and a role for cAMP signaling during synaptic refinement in intact Drosophila embryos were examined using optogenetic tools. We provide In vivo evidence at the single gene level that the calcium-dependent adenylyl cyclase rutabaga, the phosphodiesterase dunce, the kinase PKA, and Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) all operate within a functional signaling pathway to modulate Sema2a-dependent chemorepulsion...
January 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Tibiábin Benítez-Santana, Matthieu Simion, Geneviève Corraze, Françoise Médale, Jean-Stéphane Joly
In zebrafish brains, populations of continuously proliferating cells are present during an entire life span. Under normal conditions, stem cells give rise to rapidly proliferating progenitors that quickly exit the cell cycle and differentiate. Hence fish are favorable models to study what regulates postembryonic neurogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine if optic tectum (OT) cell proliferation is halted during nutritional deprivation (ND) and whether or not it can be restored with refeeding. We examined the effect of ND on the proliferation of Neuroepithelial/Ependymal Progenitor cell (NeEPC) and transitory-amplifying progenitors (TAPs)...
January 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
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