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Developmental Neurobiology

Sarah Guthrie, Alain Chédotal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Melina C Acosta, Patricia A Copley, Jamie R Harrell, Jennifer C Wilhelm
Thousands of people each year suffer from peripheral nerve injury. Treatment options are limited, and recovery is often incomplete. Treadmill exercise can enhance nerve regeneration; however, this appears to occur in a sex-dependent manner. Females respond best to short duration, high speed interval training; whereas, males respond best to slower, continuous training. Previous studies have shown a role for testosterone in this process, but the role of estrogen is unknown. To evaluate the role of estrogen signaling in treadmill exercise, we blocked estrogen receptor (ER) signaling during treadmill exercise in males and female wild type mice...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Aswati Subramanian, Matthew Siefert, Soumya Banerjee, Kumar Vishal, Kayla A Bergmann, Clay C M Curts, Meredith Dorr, Camillo Molina, Joyce Fernandes
Over the course of a four-day period of metamorphosis, the Drosophila larval nervous system is remodeled to prepare for adult-specific behaviors. One example is the reorganization of peripheral nerves in the abdomen, where five pairs of abdominal nerves (A4-A8) fuse to form the terminal nerve trunk. This reorganization is associated with selective remodeling of four layers that ensheath each peripheral nerve. The neural lamella (NL), is the first to dismantle; its breakdown is initiated by 6 hours after puparium formation, and is completely removed by the end of the first day...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Jason T Lambert, Travis C Hill, Deborah K Park, Julie H Culp, Karen Zito
The formation and stabilization of new dendritic spines is a key component of the experience-dependent neural circuit plasticity that supports learning, but the molecular maturation of nascent spines remains largely unexplored. The PSD95-family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (PSD-MAGUKs), most notably PSD95, has a demonstrated role in promoting spine stability. However, nascent spines contain low levels of PSD95, suggesting that other members of the PSD-MAGUK family might act to stabilize nascent spines in the early stages of spiny synapse formation...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Caroline E Walsh, Peter F Hitchcock
We evaluated the expression and function of the microglia-specific growth factor, Progranulin-a (Pgrn-a) during developmental neurogenesis in the embryonic retina of zebrafish. At 24 hpf pgrn-a is expressed throughout the forebrain, but by 48 hpf pgrn-a is exclusively expressed by microglia and/or microglial precursors within the brain and retina. Knockdown of Pgrn-a does not alter the onset of neurogenic programs or increase cell death, however, in its absence, neurogenesis is significantly delayed - retinal progenitors fail to exit the cell cycle at the appropriate developmental time and postmitotic cells do not acquire markers of terminal differentiation, and microglial precursors do not colonize the retina...
April 5, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Hanako Naitoh, Yukari Suganuma, Yoko Ueda, Takahiko Sato, Yosuke Hiramuki, Atsuko Fujisawa-Sehara, Shigeru Taketani, Masasuke Araki
In adult Xenopus eyes, when the whole retina is removed, retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells become activated to be retinal stem cells and regenerate the whole retina. In the present study, using a tissue culture model, we examined whether upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) triggers retinal regeneration. Soon after retinal removal, Xmmp9 and Xmmp18 were strongly upregulated in the tissues of the RPE and the choroid. In the culture, Mmp expression in the RPE cells corresponded with their migration from the choroid...
April 2, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Keisuke Nozawa, Yanbin Lin, Ryota Kubodera, Yuki Shimizu, Hideomi Tanaka, Toshio Ohshima
Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. It is caused by a mutation in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MecP2), a transcriptional regulator that recruits protein complexes involved in histone modification and chromatin remodeling. However, the role of Mecp2 in Rett syndrome remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of Mecp2 in neuronal development using zebrafish embryos. Mecp2 expression was detected ubiquitously in the central nervous system and muscles at 28 h postfertilization (hpf)...
April 2, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Matteo Ascenzi, Guillaume Bony
The development of the neocortex requires the synergic action of several secreted molecules to achieve the right amount of proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural cells. Neurons are well known to release neurotransmitters (NTs) in adult and a growing body of evidences describes the presence of NTs already in the embryonic brain, long before the generation of synapses. NTs are classified as inhibitory or excitatory based on the physiological responses of the target neuron. However, this view is challenged by the fact that glycine and GABA NTs are excitatory during development...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
J Frances Kamhi, Aynsley Sandridge-Gresko, Christina Walker, Simon K A Robson, James F A Traniello
Brain compartment size allometries may adaptively reflect cognitive needs associated with behavioral development and ecology. Ants provide an informative system to study the relationship of neural architecture and development because worker tasks and sensory inputs may change with age. Additionally, tasks may be divided among morphologically and behaviorally differentiated worker groups (subcastes), reducing repertoire size through specialization and aligning brain structure with task-specific cognitive requirements...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Byron N Van Nest, Ashley E Wagner, Glen S Marrs, Susan E Fahrbach
The mushroom bodies (MBs) are insect brain regions important for sensory integration, learning, and memory. In adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), the volume of neuropil associated with the MBs is larger in experienced foragers compared with hive bees and less experienced foragers. In addition, the characteristic synaptic structures of the calycal neuropils, the microglomeruli, are larger but present at lower density in 35-day-old foragers relative to 1-day-old workers. Age- and experience-based changes in plasticity of the MBs are assumed to support performance of challenging tasks, but the behavioral consequences of brain plasticity in insects are rarely examined...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Leah Kershner, Kristy Welshhans
Receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is a multi-functional ribosomal scaffolding protein that can interact with multiple signaling molecules concurrently through its seven WD40 repeats. We recently found that RACK1 is localized to mammalian growth cones, prompting an investigation into its role during neural development. Here we show for the first time that RACK1 localizes to point contacts within mouse cortical growth cones. Point contacts are adhesion sites that link the actin network within growth cones to the extracellular matrix, and are necessary for appropriate axon guidance...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Barry W Connors
Electrical synapses are neuronal gap junctions that are ubiquitous across brain regions and species. The biophysical properties of most electrical synapses are relatively simple-transcellular channels allow nearly ohmic, bidirectional flow of ionic current. Yet these connections can play remarkably diverse roles in different neural circuit contexts. Recent findings illustrate how electrical synapses may excite or inhibit, synchronize or desynchronize, augment or diminish rhythms, phase-shift, detect coincidences, enhance signals relative to noise, adapt, and interact with nonlinear membrane and transmitter-release mechanisms...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Alberto E Pereda, Eduardo Macagno
Electrical synapses are finding increasing representation and importance in our understanding of signaling in the nervous system. In contrast to chemical synapses, at which molecules are evolutionary conserved, vertebrate and invertebrate electrical synapses represent molecularly different structures that share a common communicating strategy that allows them to serve very similar functions. A better understanding of differences and commonalities regarding the structure, function and regulation of vertebrate and invertebrate electrical synapses will lead to a better understanding of the properties and functional diversity of this modality of synaptic communication...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Adam C Miller, Alberto E Pereda
Gap junctions underlie electrical synaptic transmission between neurons. Generally perceived as simple intercellular channels, "electrical synapses" have demonstrated to be more functionally sophisticated and structurally complex than initially anticipated. Electrical synapses represent an assembly of multiple molecules, consisting of channels, adhesion complexes, scaffolds, regulatory machinery, and trafficking proteins, all required for their proper function and plasticity. Additionally, while electrical synapses are often viewed as strictly symmetric structures, emerging evidence has shown that some components forming electrical synapses can be differentially distributed at each side of the junction...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
I Martha Skerrett, Jamal B Williams
Methods such as electron microscopy and electrophysiology led to the understanding that gap junctions were dense arrays of channels connecting the intracellular environments within almost all animal tissues. The characteristics of gap junctions were remarkably similar in preparations from phylogenetically diverse animals such as cnidarians and chordates. Although few studies directly compared them, minor differences were noted between gap junctions of vertebrates and invertebrates. For instance, a slightly wider gap was noted between cells of invertebrates and the spacing between invertebrate channels was generally greater...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Michael W Baker, Eduardo R Macagno
The unique morphology and pattern of synaptic connections made by a neuron during development arise in part by an extended period of growth in which cell-cell interactions help to sculpt the arbor into its final shape, size, and participation in different synaptic networks. Recent experiments highlight a guiding role played by gap junction proteins in controlling this process. Ectopic and overexpression studies in invertebrates have revealed that the selective expression of distinct gap junction genes in neurons and glial cells is sufficient to establish selective new connections in the central nervous systems of the leech (Firme et al...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Shunichi Yoshikawa, Alejandro Vila, Jasmin Segelken, Ya-Ping Lin, Cheryl K Mitchell, Duc Nguyen, John O'Brien
In the mammalian central nervous system, a remarkably small number of connexins is used in electrical synapses, with the majority formed from Cx36. A larger number has been detected in teleosts, with some seeming to serve restricted roles. Here, we report the discovery of a new connexin expressed in the zebrafish lens and a limited set of neurons. Zebrafish cx79.8 (gja8a), previously annotated incorrectly as cx50.5 based on a partial cDNA sequence, is a homologue of mammalian Cx50 (Gja8). We examined its expression through transgenic promoter-reporter constructs, in situ hybridization, and immunolabeling, and examined regulation of coupling in transfected HeLa cells...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Eve Marder, Gabrielle J Gutierrez, Michael P Nusbaum
Electrical coupling in circuits can produce non-intuitive circuit dynamics, as seen in both experimental work from the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion and in computational models inspired by the connectivity in this preparation. Ambiguities in interpreting the results of electrophysiological recordings can arise if sets of pre- or postsynaptic neurons are electrically coupled, or if the electrical coupling exhibits some specificity (e.g. rectifying, or voltage-dependent). Even in small circuits, electrical coupling can produce parallel pathways that can allow information to travel by monosynaptic and/or polysynaptic pathways...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Carola J Maturana, Adam Aguirre, Juan C Sáez
Exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) during early life induces long-lasting neuroinflammation. GCs induce rapid degranulation of mast cells, which release proinflammatory molecules promoting activation of microglia and astrocytes. The possible involvement of oligodendrocytes, however, remains poorly understood. It was studied whether high GC levels during gestation activates the inflammasome in hippocampal oligodendrocytes of mouse offspring. Oligodendrocytes of control pups showed expression of inflammasome components (NLRP3, ACS, and caspase-1) and their levels were increased by prenatal administration of dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic GC...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
David H Hall
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes gap junctions in different fashions in virtually all of its cells. This model animal has a surprisingly large number of innexin genes within its genome, and many nematode cell types can express multiple innexins at once, leading to the formation of diverse junction types and enough redundancy to limit the effect of single gene knockdowns on animal development or behavioral phenotypes. Here, we review the general properties of these junctions, their expression patterns, and their known roles in tissue development and in the animal's connectome...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
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