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Developmental Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589698/wnt-and-shh-signals-regulate-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-the-optic-tectum-of-adult-zebrafish
#1
Shiori Shitasako, Yoko Ito, Ryoichi Ito, Yuto Ueda, Yuki Shimizu, Toshio Ohshima
Adult neurogenesis occurs more commonly in teleosts, represented by zebrafish, than in mammals. Zebrafish is therefore considered a suitable model to study adult neurogenesis, for which the regulatory molecular mechanisms remain little known. Our previous study revealed that neuroepithelial-like neural stem cells (NSCs) are located at the edge of the dorsomedial region. We also showed that Notch signaling inhibits NSC proliferation in this region. In the present study, we reported the expression of Wnt and Shh signaling components in this region of the optic tectum...
June 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589675/cdk5-activity-is-required-for-purkinje-cell-dendritic-growth-in-cell-autonomous-and-non-cell-autonomous-manners
#2
Bozong Xu, Ayumi Kumazawa, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Shin-Ichi Hisanaga, Takafumi Inoue, Toshio Ohshima
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is recognized as a unique member among other Cdks due to its versatile roles in many biochemical processes in the nervous system. The proper development of neuronal dendrites is required for the formation of complex neural networks providing the physiological basis of various neuronal functions. We previously reported that sparse dendrites were observed on cultured Cdk5-null Purkinje cells and Purkinje cells in Wnt1(cre) -mediated Cdk5 conditional knockout (KO) mice. In the present study, we generated L7(cre) -mediated p35; p39 double KO (L7(cre) -p35(f/f) ; p39(-/-) ) mice whose Cdk5 activity was eliminated specifically in Purkinje cells of the developing cerebellum...
June 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589616/cellular-and-molecular-attributes-of-neural-stem-cell-niches-in-adult-zebrafish-brain
#3
REVIEW
Surendra Kumar Anand, Amal Chandra Mondal
Adult neurogenesis is a complex, presumably conserved phenomenon in vertebrates with a broad range of variations regarding neuronal progenitor/stem cell niches, cellular composition of these niches, migratory patterns of progenitors, etc. among different species. Current understanding of the reasons underlying the inter-species differences in adult neurogenic potential, the identification and characterization of various neural progenitors, characterization of the permissive environment of neural stem cell niches and other important aspects of adult neurogenesis is insufficient...
June 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388831/estrogen-signaling-is-necessary-for-exercise-mediated-enhancement-of-motoneuron-participation-in-axon-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-mice
#4
Melina C Acosta, Patricia A Copley, Jamie R Harrell, Jennifer C Wilhelm
Thousands of people each year suffer from peripheral nerve injury. Treatment options are limited, and recovery is often incomplete. Treadmill exercise can enhance nerve regeneration; however, this appears to occur in a sex-dependent manner. Females respond best to short duration, high speed interval training; whereas, males respond best to slower, continuous training. Previous studies have shown a role for testosterone in this process, but the role of estrogen is unknown. To evaluate the role of estrogen signaling in treadmill exercise, we blocked estrogen receptor (ER) signaling during treadmill exercise in males and female wild type mice...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388016/remodeling-of-peripheral-nerve-ensheathment-during-the-larval-to-adult-transition-in-drosophila
#5
Aswati Subramanian, Matthew Siefert, Soumya Banerjee, Kumar Vishal, Kayla A Bergmann, Clay C M Curts, Meredith Dorr, Camillo Molina, Joyce Fernandes
Over the course of a four-day period of metamorphosis, the Drosophila larval nervous system is remodeled to prepare for adult-specific behaviors. One example is the reorganization of peripheral nerves in the abdomen, where five pairs of abdominal nerves (A4-A8) fuse to form the terminal nerve trunk. This reorganization is associated with selective remodeling of four layers that ensheath each peripheral nerve. The neural lamella (NL), is the first to dismantle; its breakdown is initiated by 6 hours after puparium formation, and is completely removed by the end of the first day...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388013/protracted-and-asynchronous-accumulation-of-psd95-family-maguks-during-maturation-of-nascent-dendritic-spines
#6
Jason T Lambert, Travis C Hill, Deborah K Park, Julie H Culp, Karen Zito
The formation and stabilization of new dendritic spines is a key component of the experience-dependent neural circuit plasticity that supports learning, but the molecular maturation of nascent spines remains largely unexplored. The PSD95-family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (PSD-MAGUKs), most notably PSD95, has a demonstrated role in promoting spine stability. However, nascent spines contain low levels of PSD95, suggesting that other members of the PSD-MAGUK family might act to stabilize nascent spines in the early stages of spiny synapse formation...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380680/progranulin-regulates-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-vertebrate-retina
#7
Caroline E Walsh, Peter F Hitchcock
We evaluated the expression and function of the microglia-specific growth factor, Progranulin-a (Pgrn-a) during developmental neurogenesis in the embryonic retina of zebrafish. At 24 hpf pgrn-a is expressed throughout the forebrain, but by 48 hpf pgrn-a is exclusively expressed by microglia and/or microglial precursors within the brain and retina. Knockdown of Pgrn-a does not alter the onset of neurogenic programs or increase cell death, however, in its absence, neurogenesis is significantly delayed - retinal progenitors fail to exit the cell cycle at the appropriate developmental time and postmitotic cells do not acquire markers of terminal differentiation, and microglial precursors do not colonize the retina...
April 5, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371543/upregulation-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-triggers-transdifferentiation-of-retinal-pigmented-epithelial-cells-in-xenopus-laevis-a-link-between-inflammatory-response-and-regeneration
#8
Hanako Naitoh, Yukari Suganuma, Yoko Ueda, Takahiko Sato, Yosuke Hiramuki, Atsuko Fujisawa-Sehara, Shigeru Taketani, Masasuke Araki
In adult Xenopus eyes, when the whole retina is removed, retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells become activated to be retinal stem cells and regenerate the whole retina. In the present study, using a tissue culture model, we examined whether upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) triggers retinal regeneration. Soon after retinal removal, Xmmp9 and Xmmp18 were strongly upregulated in the tissues of the RPE and the choroid. In the culture, Mmp expression in the RPE cells corresponded with their migration from the choroid...
April 2, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371371/zebrafish-mecp2-is-required-for-proper-axonal-elongation-of-motor-neurons-and-synapse-formation
#9
Keisuke Nozawa, Yanbin Lin, Ryota Kubodera, Yuki Shimizu, Hideomi Tanaka, Toshio Ohshima
Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. It is caused by a mutation in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MecP2), a transcriptional regulator that recruits protein complexes involved in histone modification and chromatin remodeling. However, the role of Mecp2 in Rett syndrome remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of Mecp2 in neuronal development using zebrafish embryos. Mecp2 expression was detected ubiquitously in the central nervous system and muscles at 28 h postfertilization (hpf)...
April 2, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470844/introduction-to-the-special-volume-on-axonal-development-and-disorders
#10
EDITORIAL
Sarah Guthrie, Alain Chédotal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033651/axons-get-ahead-insights-into-axon-guidance-and-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders
#11
REVIEW
John K Chilton, Sarah Guthrie
Cranial nerves innervate head muscles in a well-characterized and highly conserved pattern. Identification of genes responsible for human congenital disorders of these nerves, combined with the analysis of their role in axonal development in animal models, has advanced understanding of how neuromuscular connectivity is established. Here, we focus on the ocular motor system, as an instructive example of the success of this approach in unravelling the aetiology of human strabismus. The discovery that ocular motility disorders can arise from mutations in transcription factors, including HoxA1, HoxB1, MafB, Phox2A, and Sall4, has revealed gene regulatory networks that pattern the brainstem and/or govern the differentiation of cranial motor neurons...
July 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033646/the-robo3-receptor-a-key-player-in-the-development-evolution-and-function-of-commissural-systems
#12
REVIEW
François Friocourt, Alain Chédotal
Roundabout receptors are known to mediate Slit-dependent repulsive signaling. However in vertebrates, mounting evidence suggest that Robo3 is an unconventional Robo receptor regarding both its expression and function. From its initial description, the Robo3 receptor has been tightly associated with the development of specific axons, called commissural, that connect both sides of the nervous system. Many studies using transgenic mouse models showed that Robo3 expression is mandatory for commissural axon guidance to the floor plate...
July 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907266/retinal-axon-guidance-at-the-midline-chiasmatic-misrouting-and-consequences
#13
REVIEW
Delphine S Prieur, Alexandra Rebsam
The visual representation of the outside world relies on the appropriate connectivity between the eyes and the brain. Retinal ganglion cells are the sole neurons that send an axon from the retina to the brain, and thus the guidance decisions of retinal axons en route to their targets in the brain shape the neural circuitry that forms the basis of vision. Here, we focus on the choice made by retinal axons to cross or avoid the midline at the optic chiasm. This decision allows each brain hemisphere to receive inputs from both eyes corresponding to the same visual hemifield, and is thus crucial for binocular vision...
July 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739248/thalamic-neuronal-specification-and-early-circuit-formation
#14
REVIEW
Henrik Gezelius, Guillermina López-Bendito
The thalamus is a central structure of the brain, primarily recognized for the relay of incoming sensory and motor information to the cerebral cortex but also key in high order intracortical communication. It consists of glutamatergic projection neurons organized in several distinct nuclei, each having a stereotype connectivity pattern and functional roles. In the adult, these nuclei can be appreciated by architectural boundaries, although their developmental origin and specification is only recently beginning to be revealed...
July 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739221/cooperation-and-crosstalk-in-axon-guidance-cue-integration-additivity-synergy-and-fine-tuning-in-combinatorial-signaling
#15
REVIEW
Daniel Morales, Artur Kania
Neural circuit development involves the coordinated growth and guidance of axons to their targets. Following the identification of many guidance cue molecules, recent experiments have focused on the interactions of their signaling cascades, which can be generally classified as additive or non-additive depending on the signal convergence point. While additive (parallel) signaling suggests limited molecular interaction between the pathways, non-additive signaling involves crosstalk between pathways and includes more complex synergistic, hierarchical, and permissive guidance cue relationships...
July 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706924/the-corticospinal-tract-evolution-development-and-human-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Quentin Welniarz, Isabelle Dusart, Emmanuel Roze
The corticospinal tract (CST) plays a major role in cortical control of spinal cord activity. In particular, it is the principal motor pathway for voluntary movements. Here, we discuss: (i) the anatomic evolution and development of the CST across mammalian species, focusing on its role in motor functions; (ii) the molecular mechanisms regulating corticospinal tract formation and guidance during mouse development; and (iii) human disorders associated with abnormal CST development. A comparison of CST anatomy and development across mammalian species first highlights important similarities...
July 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907267/mitogenic-action-of-hypoxia-upon-cutaneous-neuroepithelial-cells-in-developing-zebrafish
#17
Benjamin W Dean, Thalia J Rashid, Michael G Jonz
In zebrafish, cutaneous neuroepithelial cells (NECs) contain serotonin (5-HT) and are believed to initiate physiological and behavioral responses to hypoxia during embryonic and early larval development, when mature gills and O2 chemoreceptors are not yet present. The number of skin NECs rapidly declines as embryos develop into larvae, but acclimation to hypoxia leads to retention of a greater number of these cells. We hypothesized that reduction of the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ) in water would stimulate mitosis in cutaneous NECs in zebrafish...
June 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907249/grainyhead-like-3-grhl3-deficiency-in-brain-leads-to-altered-locomotor-activity-and-decreased-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-aged-mice
#18
Sebastian Dworkin, Alana Auden, Darren D Partridge, Maria Daglas, Robert L Medcalf, Theo Mantamadiotis, Smitha R Georgy, Charbel Darido, Stephen M Jane, Stephen B Ting
The highly conserved Grainyhead-like (Grhl) family of transcription factors, comprising three members in vertebrates (Grhl1-3), play critical regulatory roles during embryonic development, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. Although loss of Grhl function leads to multiple neural abnormalities in numerous animal models, a comprehensive analysis of Grhl expression and function in the mammalian brain has not been reported. Here they show that only Grhl3 expression is detectable in the embryonic mouse brain; particularly within the habenula, an organ known to modulate repressive behaviors...
June 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739256/progesterone-from-maternal-circulation-binds-to-progestin-receptors-in-fetal-brain
#19
Christine K Wagner, Princy Quadros-Mennella
Steroid hormones activate nuclear receptors which, as transcription factors, can regulate critical aspects of neural development. Many regions of the rat forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain express progestin receptors (PR) during perinatal life, suggesting that progesterone may play an important role in the development of the brain. An immunohistochemical approach using two antibodies with differential recognition of ligand-bound PR was used to examine whether fetuses are exposed to maternal progesterone during pregnancy and whether progesterone from maternal circulation can bind to PR within the fetal brain...
June 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706925/minocycline-causes-widespread-cell-death-and-increases-microglial-labeling-in-the-neonatal-mouse-brain
#20
J Alex Strahan, William H Walker, Taylor R Montgomery, Nancy G Forger
Minocycline, an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, inhibits microglia in many paradigms and is among the most commonly used tools for examining the role of microglia in physiological processes. Microglia may play an active role in triggering developmental neuronal cell death, although findings have been contradictory. To determine whether microglia influence developmental cell death, we treated perinatal mice with minocycline (45 mg/kg) and quantified effects on dying cells and microglial labeling using immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 (AC3) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), respectively...
June 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
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