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Developmental Neurobiology

Alysson Renato Muotri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Isabella R Fernandes, Ana C P Cruz, Adriano Ferrasa, Dylan Phan, Roberto H Herai, Alysson R Muotri
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the number of identified ASD-related genes have increased in recent years. The SETD5 gene encodes a SET-containing-domain 5 protein, a likely reader enzyme. Genetic evidences suggest that SETD5 malfunction contributes to ASD phenotype, such as on intellectual disability (ID) and facial dysmorphism. In this review, we mapped the clinical phenotypes of individuals carrying mutations on the SETD5 gene that are associated with ASD and other chromatinopathies (mutation in epigenetic modifiers that leads to the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD)...
February 26, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Nynke J van den Hoogen, Roel Ri van Reij, Jacob Patijn, Dick Tibboel, Elbert Aj Joosten
Clinical and experimental data suggests that noxious stimulation at critical stages of development results in long-term changes on nociceptive processing in later life. Here, we use an established, well-documented rat model of repetitive noxious procedures closely mimicking the clinical situation in the NICU. In order to understand molecular changes underlying the long-term consequences of repetitive stimulation of the developing nociceptive system the present study aims to analyse the presence of the µ-opioid-receptor-1 (OPRM1)...
February 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Brittany D Needham, Weiyi Tang, Wei-Li Wu
Social impairment is one of the major symptoms in multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Accumulated studies indicate a crucial role for the gut microbiota in social development, but these mechanisms remain unclear. This review focuses on two strategies adopted to elucidate the complicated relationship between gut bacteria and host social behavior. In a top-down approach, researchers have attempted to correlate behavioral abnormalities with altered gut microbial profiles in rodent models of ASD, including BTBR mice, maternal immune activation (MIA), maternal valproic acid (VPA) and maternal high-fat diet (MHFD) offspring...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Marcela Lauková, Jana Velíšková, Libor Velíšek, Michael P Shakarjian
Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a synthetic neurotoxic rodenticide considered a chemical threat agent. Symptoms of intoxication include seizures leading to status epilepticus and death. While children and women have been often the victims, no studies exist investigating the neurotoxic effects of TMDT in developing individuals or females. Thus, we performed such an investigation in developing Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes in order to identify potential age- or sex-dependent vulnerability to TMDT exposure...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Keiu Kask, Laura Tikker, Katrin Ruisu, Sirje Lulla, Eva-Maria Oja, Riho Meier, Raivo Raid, Teet Velling, Tambet Tõnissoo, Margus Pooga
Autosomal recessive disorders such as Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, Walker-Warburg syndrome, and the muscle-eye-brain disease are characterized by defects in the development of patient's brain, eyes, and skeletal muscles. These syndromes are accompanied by brain malformations like type II lissencephaly in the cerebral cortex with characteristic overmigrations of neurons through the breaches of the pial basement membrane. The signaling pathways activated by laminin receptors, dystroglycan and integrins, control the integrity of the basement membrane, and their malfunctioning may underlie the pathologies found in the rise of defects reminiscent of these syndromes...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Olga A Balashova, Olesya Visina, Laura N Borodinsky
The vitamin folic acid has been recognized as a crucial environmental factor for nervous system development. From the early fetal stages of the formation of the presumptive spinal cord and brain to the maturation and maintenance of the nervous system during infancy and childhood, folate levels and its supplementation have been considered influential in the clinical outcome of infants and children affected by neurological diseases. Despite the vast epidemiological information recorded on folate function and neural tube defects, neural development and neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms of folate action in the developing neural tissue have remained elusive...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Xiaoliang Zhao, Ukpong B Eyo, Madhuvika Murguan, Long-Jun Wu
Microglia as immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) play significant roles not only in pathology but also in physiology, such as shaping of the CNS during development and its proper maintenance in maturity. Emerging research is showing a close association between microglia and neurovasculature that is critical for brain energy supply. In this review, we summarize the current literature on microglial interaction with the vascular system in the normal and diseased brain. First, we highlight data that indicate interesting potential involvement of microglia in developmental angiogenesis...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
S J Van Driesche, K C Martin
RNA localization to neuronal dendrites and axons is increasingly recognized as a significant and widespread mechanism of gene expression control in neurons. High-throughput RNA sequencing is rapidly expanding the universe of known localized mRNAs. Although there are inherent difficulties in preparing sequencing libraries from dendrites and axons in the context of intact brain, genetic labeling strategies have paved the way for improved studies of this type. As the list of localized mRNAs grows, there is increasing need for functional validation of localized transcripts - that is, do particular localized transcripts serve demonstrable physiologic functions in axons or dendrites? Finally, specific details about what localized mRNAs do once they reach distal processes have long been elusive...
January 5, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Rianne D Stowell, Elissa L Wong, Hanna N Batchelor, Monique S Mendes, Cassandra E Lamantia, Brendan S Whitelaw, Ania K Majewska
Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system and are also important participants in normal development and synaptic plasticity. Here we demonstrate that the microglia of the mouse cerebellum represent a unique population compared to cortical microglia. Microglia are more sparsely distributed within the cerebellum and have a markedly less ramified morphology compared to their cortical counterparts. Using time-lapse in vivo imaging, we found that these differences in distribution and morphology ultimately lead to decreased parenchymal surveillance by cerebellar microglia...
December 29, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Huaye Zhang, Bettina Winckler, Qian Cai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Hiroaki Misonou
Neurons are extremely large and complex cells, and they regulate membrane potentials in multiple subcellular compartments using a variety of ion channels. Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels are crucial in regulating neuronal membrane excitability owing to their diversity in subtypes, biophysical properties, and localizations. In particular, specific localizations of Nav and Kv channels in specific membrane compartments are essential to achieve a precise control of local membrane excitability...
March 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Vineet Vinay Kulkarni, Sandra Maday
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that is critical to maintaining neuronal homeostasis and viability. Autophagy sequesters damaged and aged cellular components from the intracellular environment, and shuttles these diverse macromolecules to lysosomes for destruction. This active surveillance of the quality of the cytoplasm and organelles is essential in neurons to sustain their long-term functionality and viability. Indeed, defective autophagy is linked to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and neurodegeneration in mammals...
March 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
George M Smith, Gianluca Gallo
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo transport, fission, and fusion. The three main functions of mitochondria are to generate ATP, buffer cytosolic calcium, and generate reactive oxygen species. A large body of evidence indicates that mitochondria are either primary targets for neurological disease states and nervous system injury, or are major contributors to the ensuing pathologies. However, the roles of mitochondria in the development and regeneration of axons have just begun to be elucidated...
March 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Patrizia Casaccia, Gabriel Corfas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Elisa M York, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Brian A MacVicar
Investigations on the role of microglia in the brain have traditionally been focused on their contributions to disease states. However, recent observations have now convincingly shown that microglia in the healthy brain are not passive bystanders, but instead play a critical role in both central nervous system development and homeostasis of synaptic circuits in the adult. Here, we review the various mechanisms by which microglia impact neuronal communication in the healthy adult brain, both by sensing nearby synaptic responses and by actively modulating neuronal function...
December 22, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Lisa E Mash, Maya A Reiter, Annika C Linke, Jeanne Townsend, Ralph-Axel Müller
Atypical functional connectivity has been implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, the literature to date has been largely inconsistent, with mixed and conflicting reports of hypo- and hyper-connectivity. These discrepancies are partly due to differences between various neuroimaging modalities. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) measure distinct indices of functional connectivity (e.g., blood-oxygenation level-dependent [BOLD] signal vs...
December 21, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Jonathan Van Ryzin, Lindsay A Pickett, Margaret M McCarthy
Recent research is beginning to shift the focus of our understanding of microglia from passive members of the brain's immune system to active participants in brain development. Despite these advances, little attention has been paid to one of the most critical components of early brain development- sexual differentiation. Mounting evidence suggests that the normal developmental functions microglia perform- cell number regulation and synaptic connectivity, may be involved in the sex-specific patterning of the brain during these early critical periods, with lasting sex-dependent and sex-independent effects on behavior...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Nicole A Suarez, Angela Macia, Alysson R Muotri
Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a transposable element with the ability to self-mobilize throughout the human genome. The L1 elements found in the human brain is hypothesized to date back 56 million years ago and has survived evolution, currently accounting for 17% of the human genome. L1 retrotransposition has been theorized to contribute to somatic mosaicism. This review focuses on the presence of L1 in the healthy and diseased human brain, such as in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Throughout this exploration, we will discuss the impact L1 has on neurological disorders that can occur throughout the human lifetime...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Laetitia Weinhard, Urte Neniskyte, Auguste Vadisiute, Giulia di Bartolomei, Nil Aygün, Laurie Riviere, Francesca Zonfrillo, Susan Dymecki, Cornelius Gross
Microglia participate in synapse remodeling in the cortex and hippocampus during mouse postnatal development. Although sex differences in microglia activity during embryonic development have been reported in these regions, it remains unexplored whether microglia show sexually dimorphic features during the early postnatal period, a critical window for synapse formation and maturation. Here, we investigated morphological and functional features of microglia across early postnatal development as well as morphological features of both pre- and postsynaptic neuronal compartments in the mouse hippocampus...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
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