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Developmental Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276653/the-building-of-the-neocortex-with-non-hyperpolarizing-neurotransmitters
#1
REVIEW
M Ascenzi, G Bony
The development of the neocortex requires the synergic action of several secreted molecules to achieve the right amount of proliferation, differentiation and migration of neural cells. Neurons are well known to release neurotransmitters (NTs) in adult and a growing body of evidences describes the presence of NTs already in the embryonic brain, long before the generation of synapses. NTs are classified as inhibitory or excitatory based on the physiological responses of the target neuron. However, this view is challenged by the fact that glycine and GABA NTs are excitatory during development...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276652/worker-brain-development-and-colony-organization-in-ants-does-division-of-labor-influence-neuroplasticity
#2
J Frances Kamhi, Aynsley Sandridge-Gresko, Christina Walker, Simon K A Robson, James F A Traniello
Brain compartment size allometries may adaptively reflect cognitive needs associated with behavioral development and ecology. Ants provide an informative system to study the relationship of neural architecture and development because worker tasks and sensory inputs may change with age. Additionally, tasks may be divided among morphologically and behaviorally differentiated worker groups (subcastes), reducing repertoire size through specialization and aligning brain structure with task-specific cognitive requirements...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245532/volume-and-density-of-microglomeruli-in-the-honey-bee-mushroom-bodies-do-not-predict-performance-on-a-foraging-task
#3
Byron N Van Nest, Ashley E Wagner, Glen S Marrs, Susan E Fahrbach
The mushroom bodies (MBs) are insect brain regions important for sensory integration, learning, and memory. In adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), the volume of neuropil associated with the MBs is larger in experienced foragers compared with hive bees and less experienced foragers. In addition, the characteristic synaptic structures of the calycal neuropils, the microglomeruli, are larger but present at lower density in 35-day-old foragers relative to 1-day-old workers. Age- and experience-based changes in plasticity of the MBs are assumed to support performance of challenging tasks, but the behavioral consequences of brain plasticity in insects are rarely examined...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245531/rack1-is-necessary-for-the-formation-of-point-contacts-and-regulates-axon-growth
#4
Leah Kershner, Kristy Welshhans
Receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is a multi-functional ribosomal scaffolding protein that can interact with multiple signaling molecules concurrently through its seven WD40 repeats. We recently found that RACK1 is localized to mammalian growth cones, prompting an investigation into its role during neural development. Here we show for the first time that RACK1 localizes to point contacts within mouse cortical growth cones. Point contacts are adhesion sites that link the actin network within growth cones to the extracellular matrix, and are necessary for appropriate axon guidance...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245529/synchrony-and-so-much-more-diverse-roles-for-electrical-synapses-in-neural-circuits
#5
REVIEW
Barry W Connors
Electrical synapses are gap junctions between neurons that are ubiquitous across brain regions and species. The biophysical properties of most electrical synapses are relatively simple-transcellular channels allow nearly ohmic, bidirectional flow of ionic current. Yet these connections can play remarkably diverse roles when placed into different neural circuit contexts. Here I review recent findings illustrating how electrical synapses may excite or inhibit, synchronize or desynchronize, augment or diminish rhythms, phase-shift, detect coincidences, enhance signals relative to noise, adapt, and interact with nonlinear membrane and transmitter-release mechanisms...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188699/maturation-dependent-control-of-vocal-temporal-plasticity-in-a-songbird
#6
Ryosuke O Tachibana, Miki Takahasi, Neal A Hessler, Kazuo Okanoya
Birdsong is a unique model to address learning mechanisms of the timing control of sequential behaviors, with characteristic temporal structures consisting of serial sequences of brief vocal elements (syllables) and silent intervals (gaps). Understanding the neural mechanisms for plasticity of such sequential behavior should be aided by characterization of its developmental changes. Here, we assessed the level of acute vocal plasticity between young and adult Bengalese finches, and also quantified developmental change in variability of temporal structure...
February 11, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188695/electrical-transmission-two-structures-same-functions
#7
EDITORIAL
Alberto E Pereda, Eduardo Macagno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188691/zebrafish-transgenic-constructs-label-specific-neurons-in-xenopus-laevis-spinal-cord-and-identify-frog-v0v-spinal-neurons
#8
José L Juárez-Morales, Reyna I Martinez-De Luna, Michael E Zuber, Alan Roberts, Katharine E Lewis
A correctly functioning spinal cord is crucial for locomotion and communication between body and brain but there are fundamental gaps in our knowledge of how spinal neuronal circuitry is established and functions. To understand the genetic program that regulates specification and functions of this circuitry, we need to connect neuronal molecular phenotypes with physiological analyses. Studies using Xenopus laevis tadpoles have increased our understanding of spinal cord neuronal physiology and function, particularly in locomotor circuitry...
February 11, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170164/perineuronal-nets-and-vocal-plasticity-in-songbirds-a-proposed-mechanism-to-explain-the-difference-between-closed-ended-and-open-ended-learning
#9
Gilles Cornez, Farrah N Madison, Annemie Van der Linden, Charlotte Cornil, Kathleen M Yoder, Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart
Perineuronal nets (PNN) are aggregations of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans surrounding the soma and proximal processes of neurons, mostly GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin. They limit the plasticity of their afferent synaptic connections. In zebra finches PNN develop in an experience-dependent manner in the song control nuclei HVC and RA (nucleus robustus arcopallialis) when young birds crystallize their song. Because songbird species that are open-ended learners tend to recapitulate each year the different phases of song learning until their song crystallizes at the beginning of the breeding season, we tested whether seasonal changes in PNN expression would be found in the song control nuclei of a seasonally breeding species such as the European starling...
February 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170151/the-electrical-synapse-molecular-complexities-at-the-gap-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Adam C Miller, Alberto E Pereda
Gap junctions underlie electrical synaptic transmission between neurons. Generally perceived as simple intercellular channels, "electrical synapses" have demonstrated to be more functionally sophisticated and structurally complex than initially anticipated. Electrical synapses represent an assembly of multiple molecules, consisting of channels, adhesion complexes, scaffolds, regulatory machinery, and trafficking proteins, all required for their proper function and plasticity. Additionally, while electrical synapses are often viewed as strictly symmetric structures, emerging evidence has shown that some components forming electrical synapses can be differentially distributed at each side of the junction...
February 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033684/cellular-reactions-and-compensatory-tissue-re-organization-during-spontaneous-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-neonatal-mice
#11
Rishab S Chawla, Mark Züchner, Maria Mastrangelopoulou, François M Lambert, Joel C Glover, Jean-Luc Boulland
Following incomplete spinal cord injuries, neonatal mammals display a remarkable degree of behavioral recovery. Previously, we have demonstrated in neonatal mice a wholesale re-establishment and reorganization of synaptic connections from some descending axon tracts (Boulland et al., 2013). To assess the potential cellular mechanisms contributing to this recovery, we have here characterized a variety of cellular sequelae following thoracic compression injuries, focusing particularly on cell loss and proliferation, inflammation and reactive gliosis, and the dynamics of specific types of synaptic terminals...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033683/snare-proteins-play-a-role-in-motor-axon-guidance-in-vertebrates-and-invertebrates
#12
Pablo José Barrecheguren, Oriol Ros, Tiziana Cotrufo, Beat Kunz, Eduardo Soriano, Fausto Ulloa, Esther T Stoeckli, Sofia J Araújo
Axonal growth and guidance rely on correct growth cone responses to guidance cues, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the periphery. Unlike the signaling cascades that link axonal growth to cytoskeletal dynamics, little is known about the crosstalk mechanisms between guidance and membrane dynamics and turnover in the axon. Our studies have shown that Netrin-1/Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) signaling triggers exocytosis through the SNARE Syntaxin-1 (STX-1) during the formation of commissural pathways...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033671/visual-experience-dependent-regulation-of-neuronal-structure-and-function-by-histone-deacetylase-1-in-developing-xenopus-tectum-in-vivo
#13
Hangze Ruan, Juanmei Gao, Xianjie Qi, Yi Tao, Xia Guo, Zhaoyi Guo, Lijun Zheng, Yaling Song, Yuan Liao, Wanhua Shen
Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is thought to play pivotal roles in neurogenesis and neurodegeneration. However, the role of HDAC1 in neuronal growth and structural plasticity in the developing brain in vivo remains unclear. Here, we show that in the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis, HDAC1 knockdown dramatically decreased the frequency of AMPAR-mediated synaptic currents and increased the frequency of GABAAR-mediated currents, whereas HDAC1 overexpression significantly decreased the frequency of GABAAR-mediated synaptic currents...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033654/rat-astrocytes-are-more-supportive-for-mouse-opc-self-renewal-than-mouse-astrocytes-in-culture
#14
Xuejun Cheng, Binghua Xie, Jiajun Qi, Xiaofeng Zhao, Zunyi Zhang, Mengsheng Qiu, Junlin Yang
Mouse primary oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are increasingly used to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotype changes in oligodendrocyte differentiation and axonal myelination observed in transgenic or mutant mouse models. However, mouse OPCs are much more difficult to be isolated by the simple dissociation culture of brain tissues than their rat counterparts. To date, the mechanisms underlying the species difference in OPC preparation remain obscure. In this study, we showed that astrocytes from rats have a stronger effect than those from mouse in promoting OPC proliferation and survival in vitro...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033651/axons-get-ahead-insights-into-axon-guidance-and-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders
#15
REVIEW
John K Chilton, Sarah Guthrie
Cranial nerves innervate head muscles in a well-characterised and highly conserved pattern. Identification of genes responsible for human congenital disorders of these nerves, combined with the analysis of their role in axonal development in animal models has advanced understanding of how neuromuscular connectivity is established. Here we focus on the ocular motor system, as an instructive example of the success of this approach in unravelling the aetiology of human strabismus. The discovery that ocular motility disorders can arise from mutations in transcription factors, including HoxA1, HoxB1, MafB, Phox2A and Sall4, has revealed gene regulatory networks that pattern the brainstem and/or govern the differentiation of cranial motor neurons...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033646/the-robo3-receptor-a-key-player-in-the-development-evolution-and-function-of-commissural-systems
#16
REVIEW
François Friocourt, Alain Chédotal
Roundabout receptors are known to mediate Slit-dependent repulsive signaling. However in vertebrates, mounting evidence suggest that Robo3 is an unconventional Robo receptor regarding both its expression and function. From its initial description, Robo3 receptor has been tightly associated with the development of specific axons, called commissural, that connect both sides of the nervous system. Many studies using transgenic mouse models showed that Robo3 expression is mandatory for commissural axon guidance to the floor plate...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316147/erratum-enhanced-susceptibility-to-seizures-modulated-by-high-interleukin-1%C3%AE-levels-during-early-life-malnutrition
#17
Fabrício Simão, Victória Habekost Oliveira, Magda Lahorgue Nunes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503845/dclk1-phosphorylates-the-microtubule-associated-protein-map7d1-to-promote-axon-elongation-in-cortical-neurons
#18
Hiroyuki Koizumi, Hiromi Fujioka, Kazuya Togashi, James Thompson, John R Yates, Joseph G Gleeson, Kazuo Emoto
Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is a member of the neuronal microtubule-associated doublecortin (DCX) family and functions in multiple stages of neural development including radial migration and axon growth of cortical neurons. DCLK1 is suggested to play the roles in part through its protein kinase activity, yet the kinase substrates of DCLK1 remain largely unknown. Here we have identified MAP7D1 (microtubule-associated protein 7 domain containing 1) as a novel substrate of DCLK1 by using proteomic analysis...
April 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503831/the-neurotrophin-receptor-signaling-endosome-where-trafficking-meets-signaling
#19
REVIEW
Kelly Barford, Christopher Deppmann, Bettina Winckler
Neurons are the largest cells in the body and form subcellular compartments such as axons and dendrites. During both development and adulthood building blocks must be continually trafficked long distances to maintain the different regions of the neuron. Beyond building blocks, signaling complexes are also transported, allowing for example, axons to communicate with the soma. The critical roles of signaling via ligand-receptor complexes is perhaps best illustrated in the context of development, where they are known to regulate polarization, survival, axon outgrowth, dendrite development, and synapse formation...
April 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480591/cdk5-is-required-for-the-positioning-and-survival-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-developing-mouse-striatum
#20
Kodai Sasamoto, Jun Nagai, Takeru Nakabayashi, Xiaojuan He, Toshio Ohshima
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a serine/threonine kinase, and its activity is dependent upon an association with a neuron-specific activating subunit. It was previously reported that Cdk5(-/-) mice exhibit perinatal lethality and defective neuronal positioning. In this study, they focused on the analysis of neuronal positioning of GABAergic neurons in the forebrain. Defective formation of the ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercles was found in Cdk5(-/-) embryos. To further study this abnormal development, we generated and analyzed Dlx5/6-Cre p35 conditional KO (cKO); p39(-/-) mice in which forebrain GABAergic neurons have lost their Cdk5 kinase activity...
April 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
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