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Journal of Clinical Lipidology

William Virgil Brown, Ira Goldberg, Barton Duell, Daniel Gaudet
Plasma triglyceride concentrations are normally below 150 mg/dL in the fasting state. However, these lipids can reach values of several thousand mg/dL. Elevations in this range are due to a massive retention of chylomicrons and usually result from multiple genetic variants with superimposed influences such as diabetes and immune disorders. Less commonly, major gene defects in lipoprotein metabolism can be the cause. These may present soon after birth with strong evidence of familial penetrance. The causes of this syndrome have been discussed in a Roundtable published in the most recent issue of this Journal...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Guglielmo Maulucci, Francesco Cipriani, Dolores Russo, Grazia Casavecchia, Carlo Di Staso, Luigi Di Martino, Antonio Ruggiero, Matteo Di Biase, Natale Daniele Brunetti
BACKGROUND: The reduction of cholesterol levels with cholesterol-lowering therapy may improve endothelial function. Lipid-lowering therapy has been greatly enhanced by the introduction of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibodies. Less is known of the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on endothelial function of subjects with hypercholesterolemia. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether treatment with PCSK9 inhibitors may improve endothelial function evaluated by brachial artery vasoreactivity test...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Aya Hirata, Daisuke Sugiyama, Makoto Watanabe, Akiko Tamakoshi, Hiroyasu Iso, Kazuhiko Kotani, Masahiko Kiyama, Michiko Yamada, Shizukiyo Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Murakami, Katsuyuki Miura, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Tomonori Okamura
BACKGROUND: The effect of very high or extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well described. Although a few recent studies have reported the adverse effects of extremely high levels of HDL-C on CVD events, these did not show a statistically significant association between extremely high levels of HDL-C and cause-specific CVD mortality. In addition, Asian populations have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We examine the impact of extremely high levels of HDL-C on cause-specific CVD mortality using pooled data of Japanese cohort studies...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Jeanne M Dobrzynski, John B Kostis, Davit Sargsyan, Stavros Zinonos, William J Kostis
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether statins or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibodies are associated with cataract and whether very low achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering may cause cataract. OBJECTIVE: To examine two questions: whether statins and/or PCSK9 antibodies cause or prevent cataracts and whether very low LDL-C is associated with increased risk of cataract. METHODS: Systematic searches of PubMed, ClinicalTrials...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Charles J Glueck, Alan Brown, Anne C Goldberg, James M McKenney, Louis Kantaros, John Stewart, Joseph Elassal, Andrew Koren
BACKGROUND: The alirocumab expanded use program provided open-label access to alirocumab before its commercial availability to patients with severe hypercholesterolemia not controlled with maximally tolerated doses of standard-of-care lipid-lowering therapy. OBJECTIVE: To describe the safety and lipid-lowering efficacy of alirocumab in high-risk patients who were likely to be early users of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors after approval...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Aleksandra Uruska, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Pawel Niedzwiecki, Monika Pietrzak, Bogna Wierusz-Wysocka
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is an important clinical issue in patients with type 1 diabetes due to worse metabolic control and risk of development of chronic complications. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate simple and easily available parameters as indirect markers of IR in adults with type 1 diabetes and correlate it with the results of hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. METHODS: The study included 88 patients (62 men), aged 34...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Tae Ik Chang, Elani Streja, Melissa Soohoo, Gang Jee Ko, Connie M Rhee, Csaba P Kovesdy, Moti L Kashyap, Nosratola D Vaziri, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Hamid Moradi
BACKGROUND: Elevated serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has not been associated with better cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, the association between change in HDL over time and mortality has not been fully examined. OBJECTIVE: In a nationally representative cohort of incident hemodialysis patients who had available HDL data at baseline and 6 months after dialysis initiation, we studied the association of change in HDL-C during the first 6 months of dialysis with all-cause and CV mortality...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Marcus E Kleber, Graciela E Delgado, Christine Dawczynski, Stefan Lorkowski, Winfried März, Clemens von Schacky
BACKGROUND: Saturated fatty acids are thought to be harmful by increasing the risk for cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of erythrocyte saturated fatty acids with total and cardiovascular mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography. METHODS: Red blood cell saturated fatty acid (RBC SFA) proportions were measured by gas chromatography at baseline in 3259 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Martine Paquette, Robert A Hegele, Guillaume Paré, Alexis Baass
Familial chylomicronemia syndrome is characterized by severe elevation in serum triglycerides and an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Although familial chylomicronemia syndrome is mainly caused by mutations in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene, few causal mutations in other genes (ie, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1, and GPIHBP1) have also been reported. In this case report, we present the discovery of a novel mutation in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) gene and discuss its pathogenicity through a familial segregation study...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Sunyoung Cho, Euna Han
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dyslipidemia, particularly hypercholesterolemia, has been reported to increase after pregnancy and menopause in Korea. This suggests the importance of the management of dyslipidemia in women for preventing cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association of breastfeeding with 5 subtypes of dyslipidemia in Korean women aged over 20 years, by using the nationally representative Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2014...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Prasad Katulanda, Harsha Anuruddhika Dissanayake, S D Neomal De Silva, Gaya Wijeweera Katulanda, Isurujith Kongala Liyanage, Godwin Roger Constantine, Rezvi Sheriff, David R Matthews
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Prevalence patterns and determinants of dyslipidemia in Sri Lanka are unkown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of dyslipidemia among Sri Lankan adults. METHODS: A nationally representative sample was recruited by multistage random cluster sampling in Sri Lanka Diabetes and Cardiovascular Study, a cross-sectional study. Data collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire, physical examination, anthropometric measurements lipid analysis from take 12-hour fasting blood samples were used...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Nivedita Patni, Xilong Li, Beverley Adams-Huet, Abhimanyu Garg
BACKGROUND: Extreme hypertriglyceridemia (eHTG; serum triglycerides ≥ 2000 mg/dL) poses a significant risk for acute pancreatitis. There is paucity of data regarding the prevalence and etiology of eHTG in children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, clinical features and etiologies of patients with eHTG at a tertiary children's hospital in the United States and in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the electronic medical records of the Children's Medical Center, Dallas, from 2000-2015, and the NHANES data from 2005-2014 for eHTG...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Jie Bai, Li-Lin Gong, Qi-Fu Li, Zhi-Hong Wang
BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have been shown to significantly reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of PCSK9 antibodies. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and were searched for relevant studies. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies including 38,235 participants who were treated for at least 48 weeks were included in this meta-analysis...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
James D Otvos, John R Guyton, Margery A Connelly, Sydney Akapame, Vera Bittner, Steven L Kopecky, Megan Lacy, Santica M Marcovina, Joseph B Muhlestein, William E Boden
BACKGROUND: The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes trial showed no incremental benefit of extended-release niacin (ERN) therapy added to simvastatin in subjects with cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ERN treatment on lipoprotein particles and GlycA, a new marker of systemic inflammation, and their relations with incident CVD events including mortality...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Roelof A J Smit, Johan Wouter Jukema, Iris Postmus, Ian Ford, Pieternella Eline Slagboom, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Saskia Le Cessie, Stella Trompet
In recent years, visit-to-visit variability of serum lipids has been linked to both clinical outcomes and surrogate markers for vascular disease. In this article, we present an overview of the current evidence connecting this intraindividual variability to these outcome measures, discuss its interplay with lipid-lowering treatment, and describe the literature regarding genetic factors of possible interest. In addition, we undertook an explorative genome-wide association analysis on visit-to-visit variability of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, examining additive effects in 2530 participants from the placebo arm of the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk trial...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Luis Masana, Josefa Girona, Daiana Ibarretxe, Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo, Roser Rosales, Joan-Carles Vallvé, Cèlia Rodríguez-Borjabad, Montserrat Guardiola, Marina Rodríguez, Sandra Guaita-Esteruelas, Iris Oliva, Neus Martínez-Micaelo, Mercedes Heras, Raimon Ferré, Josep Ribalta, Núria Plana
While the impact of very low concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) on cardiovascular prevention is very reassuring, it is intriguing to know what effect these extremely low LDL-C concentrations have on lipid homoeostasis. The evidence supporting the safety of extremely low LDL levels comes from genetic studies and clinical drug trials. Individuals with lifelong low LDL levels due to mutations in genes associated with increased LDL-LDL receptor (LDLR) activity reveal no safety issues...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Annette M Galema-Boers, Mattie J Lenzen, Sophie R Engelkes, Eric J Sijbrands, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep
BACKGROUND: Despite lipid-lowering therapy (LLT), some patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) still develop cardiovascular events. Data about the quantification and factors contributing to this residual risk are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed how many patients with FH developed a cardiovascular event despite LLT and which factors contribute to this risk. METHODS: We performed a time-dependent analysis in a cohort of consecutive heterozygous FH patients using stable LLT to evaluate first and subsequent cardiovascular events...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Jianhui Liu, Kunimasa Yagi, Atsushi Nohara, Daisuke Chujo, Azusa Ohbatake, Aya Fujimoto, Yukiko Miyamoto, Junji Kobayashi, Masakazu Yamagishi
BACKGROUND: Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) is considered to be metabolically multifunctional. One notable function still to be elucidated definitively is a betatrophic role in protecting and preserving pancreatic beta-cell function. There is, however, a paucity of data regarding the role of ANGPTL8 in the etiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but some findings of human research have suggested the potential for significant involvement. OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency of T2D and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Japanese subjects with the ANGPTL8 R59W variant...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Sho Tanaka, Akira Haketa, Tohru Sakimoto, Masanori Abe
Apolipoprotein A-I deficiency is a rare metabolic disease characterized by an impaired reverse cholesterol transport system resulting in excessive cholesterol accumulation. Here, we discuss a case of apolipoprotein A-I deficiency caused by a carboxyl-terminal truncation mutation p.His186ProfsX46 in APOA1, which might result in increased catabolism of the mutant protein.
December 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Jing Cao, Brian T Steffen, Weihua Guan, Alan T Remaley, Joseph P McConnell, Vikram Palamalai, Michael Y Tsai
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB) is a well-researched lipoprotein marker used in assessing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) development. Despite its continued use at the bedside, ApoB methodologies have not been thoroughly compared and may differentially discriminate CHD risk, resulting in patient misclassification. OBJECTIVE: This study compared 3 ApoB immunoassays and their associations with incident CHD risk over a 12-year follow-up period in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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