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Journal of Clinical Lipidology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927896/niacin-and-heart-disease-prevention-engraving-its-tombstone-is-a-mistake
#1
REVIEW
Harold Robert Superko, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Howard N Hodis, John R Guyton
Niacin (nicotinic acid) has been used for primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention for over 40 years. Until recently clinical trials incorporating niacin as part of an intervention strategy consistently demonstrated reduction in clinical events and lesion improvement, including ≥6% absolute mortality reduction. Two large clinical event trials in 2011 (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and 2014 (Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) concluded that niacin added to statin therapy did not provide clinical event benefit over statin alone...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927895/adherence-to-a-mediterranean-diet-is-associated-with-the-presence-and-extension-of-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-middle-aged-asymptomatic-adults-the-aragon-workers-health-study
#2
Rocío Mateo-Gallego, Irina Uzhova, Belén Moreno-Franco, Montserrat León-Latre, José A Casasnovas, Martín Laclaustra, José L Peñalvo, Fernando Civeira
BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is known to prevent cardiovascular events but the mechanisms mediating this association are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between MeDi adherence and the presence and extent of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid, femoral, and aorta territories and its relationship with risk factors in asymptomatic middle-aged adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the Aragon Workers' Health Study, a cohort of 2588 subjects (94...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869141/marine-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-cardiac-death
#3
EDITORIAL
John R Guyton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916403/a-case-of-severe-acquired-hypertriglyceridemia-in-a-7-year-old-girl
#4
Jessica S Lilley, MacRae F Linton, Jennifer C Kelley, T Brent Graham, Sergio Fazio, Hagai Tavori
We report a case of severe type I hyperlipoproteinemia caused by autoimmunity against lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the context of presymptomatic Sjögren's syndrome. A 7-year-old mixed race (Caucasian/African American) girl was admitted to the intensive care unit at Vanderbilt Children's Hospital with acute pancreatitis and shock. She was previously healthy aside from asthma and history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Admission triglycerides (TGs) were 2191 mg/dL but returned to normal during the hospital stay and in the absence of food intake...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887086/the-effects-of-cinnamon-supplementation-on-blood-lipid-concentrations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Serban M Maierean, Maria-Corina Serban, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Sorin Ursoniu, Alexandru Serban, Peter Penson, Maciej Banach
BACKGROUND: Cinnamon is a rich botanical source of polyphenols, whose positive effects on blood lipid concentrations have been hypothesized, but have not been conclusively studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to systematically review and evaluate the effect of administration of cinnamon on blood lipid concentrations. METHODS: We assessed 13 randomized controlled trials with 750 participants investigating the effect of cinnamon supplementation on blood lipid concentrations...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882587/low-levels-of-apolipoprotein-cii-in-normotriglyceridemic-patients-with-very-premature-coronary-artery-disease-observations-from-the-mission-intervention-study
#6
Maaike P J Hermans, Mathijs C Bodde, J Wouter Jukema, Martin J Schalij, Arnoud van der Laarse, Christa M Cobbaert
BACKGROUND: While the overall acute myocardial infarction rates declined in women and men, premature acute myocardial infarction rates remained stable in men and increased in women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether baseline apolipoprotein (apo) levels, clinical characteristics, and follow-up of patients with very premature coronary artery disease (CAD) could provide novel clues for the identification of high-risk individuals. METHODS: Apos were measured with a validated quantification liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method in a well-defined cohort of 38 patients aged ≤45 years admitted with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867451/postprandial-triglyceride-responses-and-endothelial-function-in-prediabetic-first-degree-relatives-of-patients-with-diabetes
#7
Srivenkata Madhu, Bineet Sinha, Mohammad Aslam, Gopesh Mehrotra, Shridhar Dwivedi
BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have reported on postprandial lipid responses and endothelial function in prediabetic subjects. None of the study has compared role of familial predisposition in determining postprandial endothelial dysfunction and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in subjects with prediabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the postprandial triglyceride (PPTG) responses and endothelial function in prediabetic first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818347/use-of-supplemental-long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-risk-for-cardiac-death-an-updated-meta-analysis-and-review-of-research-gaps
#8
Kevin C Maki, Orsolya M Palacios, Marjorie Bell, Peter P Toth
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing use of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-OM3), primarily eicosapentaenoic acid, and/or docosahexaenoic acid have shown mixed results. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were to update and further explore the available RCT data regarding LC-OM3 supplementation and risk for cardiac death and to propose testable hypotheses for the mixed results obtained in RCTs regarding supplemental LC-OM3 use and cardiac risk...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807458/caveolin-3-deficiency-myopathy-associated-with-dyslipidemia-treatment-challenges-and-possible-pathophysiological-association
#9
Daiana Ibarretxe, Joan Pellejà, Nicolau Ortiz, Luis Masana
We report the case of a patient treated at the lipid clinic because of high cholesterol levels with consistently elevated creatine kinase concentrations that precluded statin treatment. Electromyography showed a rippling muscle disease pattern. A muscle biopsy confirmed caveolin 3 deficiency, and a missense mutation in the CAV3 gene was identified. The patient could be properly managed with ezetimibe and cholestyramine, which reduced the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 30%. He remains asymptomatic after 10 years of follow-up...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802864/%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-regulates-hepatic-apolipoprotein-a-i-gene-expression
#10
Xiaojing Cao, Yanfang Li
BACKGROUND: β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) was shown to upregulate hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) expression and reverse atherosclerotic plaques in vivo experiments. However, the effect of β3-AR on apoA-I expression in vitro is unknown. The specific mechanism underlying β3-AR prevention of atherosclerosis is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanism of β3-AR-mediated regulation of hepatic apoA-I gene expression...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801029/cardiovascular-disease-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-validation-and-refinement-of-the-montreal-fh-score
#11
Martine Paquette, Diane Brisson, Robert Dufour, Étienne Khoury, Daniel Gaudet, Alexis Baass
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a disease characterized by increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) but there is marked individuality in the occurrence of CVD events. Recently, the Montreal-FH-SCORE (MFHS) has been shown to stratify CVD frequency in FH subjects, but this score has not yet been validated. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present study were to conduct an independent external validation of the MFHS in a retrospective cohort of heterozygous FH and to identify additional variables that could significantly improve the prediction of prevalent CVD...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822714/cardiovascular-disease-leads-to-a-new-algorithm-for-diabetes-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Valentina Rodriguez, Matthew C Weiss, Howard Weintraub, Ira J Goldberg, Arthur Schwartzbard
Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased rates of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure (HF). This increase occurs despite optimal lipid-lowering therapies. We reviewed clinical trials of diabetes treatments and their effects on circulating plasma lipoproteins and CVD. Several earlier studies failed to demonstrate clear CVD benefit from diabetes therapies. In addition, triglyceride-reducing agents did not reduce overall CVD in large clinical trials although these trials were not conducted in cohorts selected as hypertriglyceridemic...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807459/rapidly-progressive-atherosclerosis-after-domino-liver-transplantation-from-a-teenage-donor-with-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#13
Jessica R Golbus, Linda Farhat, Robert J Fontana, Melvyn Rubenfire
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by impaired clearance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Given limitations in pharmacologic therapy and the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, liver transplantation may be offered to select homozygous FH patients in childhood in an effort to slow progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In rare cases, domino liver transplantation can be performed, transplanting the livers of patients with various metabolic disorders into elderly recipients whose projected survival precludes prolonged waiting on the transplant list...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801030/lipoprotein-a-screening-in-patients-with-controlled-traditional-risk-factors-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#14
Matthew C Weiss, Jeffrey S Berger, Eugenia Gianos, Edward Fisher, Arthur Schwartzbard, James Underberg, Howard Weintraub
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an inherited atherogenic lipoprotein and an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, its clinical role remains limited. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that Lp(a) screening in high cardiovascular risk patients could provide insight into disease pathogenesis and modify physician behavior for treatment intensification targeting traditional risk factors when Lp(a)-related risk was identified. METHODS: We screened 113 patients presenting electively for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for Lp(a) who met any of the following criteria: (1) premature coronary artery disease (male age <55 years, female age <65 years); (2) family history of premature coronary artery disease; (3) progression to PCI despite well-controlled traditional risk factors (blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL, and HbA1c <7%, and nonsmoker); or (4) progression to PCI despite at least moderate intensity statin use (simvastatin 40, atorvastatin 40-80, or rosuvastatin 20-40 mg daily)...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807461/the-effects-of-statins-on-exercise-and-physical-activity
#15
REVIEW
Adam M Noyes, Paul D Thompson
OBJECTIVE: We sought to review studies examining the effect of statins on symptoms of exercise tolerance, markers of muscle injury and activity levels in physical active individuals. BACKGROUND: Statin therapy reduces atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Regular physical activity is also associated with reduced CVD events, but statin therapy can produce muscle complaints, which may be more frequent in physically active individuals. We reviewed the literature to determine the effects of statins on symptoms, exercise performance and activity levels in physically active individuals...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807462/is-it-time-to-get-serious-about-cholesterol-screening
#16
EDITORIAL
Don P Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826575/apolipoprotein-b-is-associated-with-carotid-atherosclerosis-progression-independent-of-individual-cholesterol-measures-in-a-9-year-prospective-study-of-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-participants
#17
Brian T Steffen, Weihua Guan, Alan T Remaley, James H Stein, Mathew C Tattersall, Joel Kaufman, Michael Y Tsai
BACKGROUND: High blood cholesterol contributes to atherosclerosis, yet reliance on the lipid panel alone may mischaracterize individuals with elevated lipoprotein particle numbers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article was to determine whether elevated lipoprotein or apolipoprotein measures are associated with carotid atherosclerosis and plaque progression independent of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including standard lipids in a subcohort of 2228 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826666/paradoxical-coronary-artery-disease-in-humans-with-hyperalphalipoproteinemia-is-associated-with-distinct-differences-in-the-high-density-lipoprotein-phosphosphingolipidome
#18
William Hancock-Cerutti, Marie Lhomme, Carolane Dauteuille, Sora Lecocq, M John Chapman, Daniel J Rader, Anatol Kontush, Marina Cuchel
BACKGROUND: Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in epidemiologic studies. Despite this, the directionality of this relationship and the underlying biology behind it remain to be firmly established, especially at the extremes of HDL-C levels. OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in the HDL phosphosphingolipidome in a rare population of subjects with premature CAD despite high HDL-C levels to gain insight into the association between the HDL lipidome and CAD disease status in this unusual phenotype...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764958/rationale-for-investigating-metformin-as-a-protectant-against-statin-associated-muscle-symptoms
#19
REVIEW
Ossama Elsaid, Beth Taylor, Amanda Zaleski, Gregory Panza, Paul D Thompson
The mechanisms underlying statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are not understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction and atrogin-1 activation are among the leading possible explanations for SAMS. Interestingly, metformin can enhance mitochondrial function and may affect atrogin-1 expression. Therefore, we sought to perform a systematic search of the literature to explore the relationship among statins, metformin, and SAMS.
July 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807460/metabolic-syndrome-cluster-does-not-provide-incremental-prognostic-information-in-patients-with-stable-cardiovascular-disease-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-aim-high-trial
#20
Radmila Lyubarova, Jennifer G Robinson, Michael Miller, Debra L Simmons, Ping Xu, Beth L Abramson, Marshall B Elam, Todd M Brown, Ruth McBride, Jerome L Fleg, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Woubeshet Ayenew, William E Boden
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a well-known risk factor for the development of cardiovascular (CV) disease; yet, controversy persists whether it adds incremental prognostic value in patients with established CV disease. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to determine if MS is associated with worse CV outcomes in patients with established CV disease treated intensively with statins. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes trial, in which patients with established CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia (n = 3414) were randomly assigned to receive extended release niacin or placebo during a mean 36-month follow-up, to assess whether the presence of MS or the number of MS components contributed to CV outcomes...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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