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Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171796/increased-recovery-of-touch-dna-evidence-using-fta-paper-compared-to-conventional-collection-methods
#1
Irina A Kirgiz, Cassandra Calloway
Tape lifting and FTA paper scraping methods were directly compared to traditional double swabbing for collecting touch DNA from car steering wheels (n = 70 cars). Touch DNA was collected from the left or right side of each steering wheel (randomized) using two sterile cotton swabs, while the other side was sampled using water-soluble tape or FTA paper cards. DNA was extracted and quantified in duplicate using qPCR. Quantifiable amounts of DNA were detected for 100% of the samples (n = 140) collected independent of the method...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160665/geospatial-analysis-of-suicidal-bridge-jumping-in-the-metro-vancouver-regional-district-from-2006-to-2014
#2
Vienna C Lam, J Bryan Kinney, Lynne S Bell
In the past decade, there have been many structural changes implemented to Vancouver's largest bridges as a means of deterring criminogenic and suicidal behaviors. Guided by an environmental criminology theoretical framework, this research examines the patterns and trends of 201 cases of successful suicide jumping in the Metro Vancouver Regional District (MVRD) of British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to 2014. To evaluate these trends and to bolster the existing literature on deterrence measures through environmental design, this research will examine the spatial relationship between preferential bridge jumping locations and the home addresses of the deceased...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131012/uniqueness-of-the-anterior-dentition-three-dimensionally-assessed-for-forensic-bitemark-analysis
#3
A Franco, G Willems, Phc Souza, W Coucke, P Thevissen
The uniqueness of the human dentition (UHD) is an important concept in the comparative process in bitemark analysis. During this analysis, the incisal edges of the suspects' teeth are matched with the bitemarks collected from the victim's body or crime scenes. Despite playing an essential part to exclude suspects, the UHD contained in the involved incisal tooth edges remains an assumption on bitemark level. The present study was aimed, first, to investigate three-dimensionally (3D) the UHD within different quantities of dental material from the incisal edges; second, to test these outcomes in a bidimensional (2D) simulation...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131011/estimation-of-stature-from-radiographic-measurement-of-foot-dimensions-truncated-foot-length-may-be-more-reliable-than-full-foot-length
#4
Abdullahi Suleiman Gwani, Abubakar Tijjani Salihu, Isa Sa'idu Garba, Adamu Ahmad Rufa'i
Foot length has been shown to be a reliable dimension for estimation of stature. However, phalanges of the foot are very small bones and their length may not be proportional to person's stature. Thus, we hypothesized that foot length measured excluding the phalanges, the truncated foot length, may be more reliable in stature estimation than full foot length. This study, therefore, aimed at comparing the accuracy of the regression equations derived from the truncated foot length and the full foot length. The study recruited a sample of 32 young adults (16 males and 16 females) aged from 20 to 35 years...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157592/morphometric-evaluation-of-the-foramen-magnum-for-sex-determination-a-study-from-saudi-arabia
#5
Mohammed Madadin, Ritesh G Menezes, Hind S Al Saif, Hossain Abu Alola, Afnan Al Muhanna, Abid H Gullenpet, K R Nagesh, Magdy A Kharoshah, Bander Al Dhafery
The present study provides a database of various morphometric dimensions of the foramen magnum region in the Saudi population. The objective of this study was to evaluate various measurements of the foramen magnum region for sex determination in the Saudi population by using computed tomography (CT) images. The various radiological measurements of the foramen magnum region were measured in a total of 200 adult subjects of Saudi origin including 100 males and 100 females. Sexual dimorphism was observed in five parameters related to the foramen magnum, namely length of the right occipital condyle (LROC), length of the left occipital condyle (LLOC), width of the foramen magnum (WFM), area of the foramen magnum (AFM) and length of the foramen magnum (LFM)...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119211/a-mixture-detection-method-based-on-separate-amplification-using-primer-specific-alleles-of-indels-a-study-based-on-two-person-s-dna-mixture
#6
Jinding Liu, Jiaqi Wang, Xiaojia Zhang, Zeqin Li, Keming Yun, Zhizhen Liu, Gengqian Zhang
Samples containing unbalanced DNA mixtures from individuals often occur in forensic DNA examination and clinical detection. Because of the PCR amplification bias, the minor contributor DNA is often masked by the major contributor DNA when using traditional STR or SNP typing techniques. Here we propose a method based in allele-specific Insertion/Deletion (INDEL) genotyping to detect DNA mixtures in forensic samples. Fourteen INDELs were surveyed in the Chinese Han population of Shanxi Province. The INDELs were amplified using two separate primer-specific reactions by real-time PCR...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064088/asylum-seekers-alleging-torture-in-their-countries-evaluation-of-a-french-center
#7
Renaud Clément, David Lebossé, Lucia Barrios, Olivier Rodat
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 6-year period, 570 survivors gave consent to this study and were examined by forensic medical doctors in academic French hospital. They evaluated with the aim of cataloguing the physical evidence of torture. Sociological data, declared violence (single physical altercation, repeated physical violence less than one year or more than one year, incarceration not more than one week or more than 1 week), and method of violence (blows by blunt object, crushing, burns, electrical shocks, attempted drowning, smothering, incision, or gunshot) were studied...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039764/a-ten-year-experience-of-physical-intimate-partner-violence-ipv-in-a-french-forensic-unit
#8
Frédéric Savall, Agathe Lechevalier, Fabrice Hérin, Marion Vergnault, Norbert Telmon, Christophe Bartoli
Forensic units have a central role to play in healthy public policy, by the collection and management of violence. This study aims to describe the characteristics of physical Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against men reported over 10 years in the forensic unit of Toulouse (France) and to compare them with the characteristics of physical IPV against women over the same period. All the medico-legal reports of male victims over 18 years of age between 2005 and 2014 were analyzed. Female victims over 18 years of age in the same period were randomized by year in order to study a similar number of individuals...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122285/evaluation-of-forensic-medical-history-taking-from-the-child-in-cases-of-child-physical-and-sexual-abuse-and-neglect
#9
Rachel Drummond, John A M Gall
BACKGROUND: Suspected child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are not uncommon presentations. As part of the assessment of these cases, a forensic medical history may be taken. This forensic history is used not only to determine the steps necessary to address the child's wellbeing but also to direct the forensic examination. Currently, there is no clear consensus on whether or not a forensic medical history should consistently be considered an integral element within the paediatric forensic evaluation...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040666/post-mortem-ct-evaluation-of-atlanto-occipital-dissociation
#10
Mohammed Madadin, Ravindra Priyalal Samaranayake, Chris O'Donnell, Stephen Cordner
Atlanto-occipital dissociation injury is an important injury in forensic pathology practice. Radiological diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation clinically is assessed by direct measurement of occipito-vertebral skeletal relationships. Different measurements may be used to diagnose atlanto-occipital dissociation, including the basion-dens interval (BDI) and basion-axial interval (BAI). It is not known whether the normal ante-mortem measurements of BDI and BAI described in the literature are applicable to post-mortem CT images of the occipito-cervical junction (OCJ) or whether these measurements could be affected by early post-mortem changes...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122286/does-the-forensic-physician-have-a-role-beyond-injury-documentation-and-specimen-collection-in-australia-a-personal-view
#11
John A M Gall
Clinical forensic medicine (CFM), as a single discipline, encompasses a number of areas of medico-legal practice including injury interpretation, management of sexual and physical assault cases (both adult and child; alleged victim and offender), mental health issues, traffic medicine, custodial medicine and toxicology. The cases are usually alive but in some jurisdictions the forensic practitioner also engages in death investigation with some undertaking autopsies. During the last 20-30 years, the discipline has fragmented with areas being hived off to other medical specialist disciplines and, importantly, to nurses...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024267/sexual-homicide-brief-review-of-the-literature-and-case-report-involving-rape-genital-mutilation-and-human-arson
#12
REVIEW
Maria-Valeria Karakasi, Epameinondas Vasilikos, Polichronis Voultsos, Aikaterini Vlachaki, Pavlos Pavlidis
The objective of the current paper is to report a new case of sexual murder involving human arson and summarize the literature on the phenomenon of sexual homicide. The present case study is unprecedented in Greece and a rarity in international literature due to the fact that the victim suffered genital mutilation and incineration while still alive. The evaluation consisted of 176 articles; 53 were reviewed by the authors. The results revealed sparse, but significant, research findings. The authors discuss the limitations regarding research, incidence of the phenomenon, crime-scene patterns, offender characteristics (killing methods, motive inferences, sociodemographic data, classifications, psychopathology, modus operandi), and victim selection...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040667/multivariate-linear-regression-modelling-of-lung-weight-in-24-056-swedish-medico-legal-autopsy-cases
#13
T Gustafsson, A Eriksson, C J Wingren
Heavy combined lung weight at autopsy is a non-specific autopsy finding associated with certain causes of death such as intoxication. There is however no clear definition of what constitutes "heavy" lung weight. Different reference values have been suggested but previous studies have been limited by small select populations and only univariate regression has been attempted. The aim of this study was to create a model to estimate lung weight from decedent parameters. We identified all cases >18 years age autopsied at the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine from 2000 through 2013, excluding cases with a post-mortem interval >5 days as well as cases with extreme values, totalling 24,056 cases...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002785/usage-of-riot-control-agents-and-other-methods-resulting-in-physical-and-psychological-injuries-sustained-during-civil-unrest-in-turkey-in-2013
#14
Umit Unuvar, Deniz Yilmaz, Ilker Ozyildirim, Erenc Y Dokudan, Canan Korkmaz, Senem Doğanoğlu, Levent Kutlu, Sebnem Korur Fincanci
Turkey has experienced a wave of demonstrations in the summer of 2013, called Gezi Park Demonstrations. Between 31 May and 30 August, 297 people who had been subjected to trauma by several methods of demonstration control and Riot Control Agents applied to the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey Rehabilitation Centers to receive treatment/rehabilitation and/or documentation. 296 patients except one 5-year-old child were included in the study. Of the 296 patients; 175 were male, 120 were female, and one was a transgender individual...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997861/comparative-fly-species-composition-on-indoor-and-outdoor-forensic-cases-in-malaysia
#15
Rizal Abdullah Syamsa, Baharudin Omar, Firdaus Mohd Salleh Ahmad, Othman Hidayatulfathi, Abd Wahid Shahrom
Forensic entomology refers to the science of collection and analysis of insect evidence in order to determine the minimum time period since death. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of forensically important flies on 34 human remains referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre over a period of three years. Entomological specimens were collected at the death scenes and/or during autopsies. Live specimens were reared into adults while preserved specimens were processed for species identification...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987415/characteristics-circumstances-and-pathology-of-sudden-or-unnatural-deaths-of-cases-with-evidence-of-pathological-hoarding
#16
Shane Darke, Johan Duflou
The study aimed to determine the characteristics and circumstances of cases sudden or unnatural death (n = 61) with evidence of pathological hoarding, their major organ pathology and toxicology. The mean age was 65·8 yrs (a mean of 16.1 years of potential life lost), 62·3% were male, and 28·2% were obese. 95·1% lived alone, and 96·7% died in their residence, with no medical intervention. In all cases severe squalor and extensive hoarding were noted. The direct cause of death was attributed to disease in 75·4%, heart disease being a significant factor in 52·5%...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939952/toxico-vigilance-an-inevitable-prerequisite-to-keep-a-watch-on-toxins-around-you
#17
Shweta Sharma, Aruna Dewan, Gyanendra Singh
India has got a handful of poison centers to compensate about 1.25 billion population of India. Hence, a lot of under-reporting of poisoning cases occurs due to limited resources. Gujarat being an upcoming industrial centre of India has got many key industries like textiles, automobiles, chemicals, diamonds, pharmaceuticals etc. This magnificent industrial growth has resulted upon increased exposure of various hazardous chemicals among the general and working population. This study reflects trends of poisoning observed in a poison center named Center For Education Awareness and Research On Chemicals and Health (CEARCH) at Ahmedabad...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918905/dental-age-estimation-of-children-and-adolescents-validation-of-the-maltese-reference-data-set
#18
Hani Alsaffar, Waleed Elshehawi, Graham Roberts, Victoria Lucas, Fraser McDonald, Simon Camilleri
The purpose of this study was to validate a Reference Data Set, developed from the radiographic archives of the Dental Department, Mater Dei Hospital, Malta, for Dental Age Estimation of the Maltese population and to assess the accuracy of the method. Dental Panoramic Tomograms of 100 male and 100 females were selected. Tooth Development Stages were recorded for all 16 permanent teeth on the left and both third molars on the right. Summary and percentile data were calculated for each Tooth Development Stage and the Dental Age of each subject estimated using the unweighted average method...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914998/mathematical-model-in-post-mortem-estimation-of-brain-edema-using-morphometric-parameters
#19
Nemanja Radojevic, Bojana Radnic, Jelena Vucinic, Dragana Cukic, Ranko Lazovic, Bogdan Asanin, Slobodan Savic
Current autopsy principles for evaluating the existence of brain edema are based on a macroscopic subjective assessment performed by pathologists. The gold standard is a time-consuming histological verification of the presence of the edema. By measuring the diameters of the cranial cavity, as individually determined morphometric parameters, a mathematical model for rapid evaluation of brain edema was created, based on the brain weight measured during the autopsy. A cohort study was performed on 110 subjects, divided into two groups according to the histological presence or absence of (the - deleted from the text) brain edema...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865157/allegations-of-maltreatment-in-custody
#20
REVIEW
Hermann Vogel
BACKGROUND: Maltreatment in custody overlaps with torture. Concerned governments avoid informing. These governments withhold information and try to impose definitions. Therefore, reports often cannot be verified, with the consequence being classified as "allegation". The misery of a victim influences the recording. Engaged parties modify their reporting according to their intention. The difficulty to verify reports and the position of governments affects the perception and in consequence the presentation...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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