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Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292648/fitness-to-fly-in-those-being-forcibly-removed-or-deported-from-the-uk
#1
REVIEW
Hilary Pickles, Naomi Hartree
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278437/a-new-mathematical-modelling-based-shape-extraction-technique-for-forensic-odontology
#2
Jaffino G, Banumathi A, Ulaganathan Gurunathan, Vijayakumari B, Prabin Jose J
Forensic Odontology is a specific means for identifying a person in which deceased, and particularly in fatality incidents. The algorithm can be proposed to identify a person by comparing both postmortem (PM) and antemortem (AM) dental radiographs and photographs. This work aims to introduce a new mathematical algorithm for photographs in addition with radiographs. Isoperimetric graph partitioning method is used to extract the shape of dental images in forensic identification. Shape matching is done by comparing AM and PM dental images using both similarity and distance measures...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273502/ruptured-berry-aneurysm-with-minimal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#3
Tyler J Gardner, Joseph A Prahlow
Cerebral artery aneurysm rupture is usually associated with significant subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, there are rare cases where there is a lack of hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space. While subdural hemorrhage can occur with ruptured aneurysms, isolated subdural hemorrhage is more often associated with trauma. In this case, a 51-year-old obese woman, who recently visited an Urgent Care Center for elevated blood pressure, was found dead roughly a month later. She had been complaining of headaches, and received medication for her blood pressure at the visit...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284121/a-global-epidemiological-perspective-on-the-toxicology-of-drug-facilitated-sexual-assault-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Laura Jane Anderson, Asher Flynn, Jennifer Lucinda Pilgrim
PURPOSE: A systematic review was undertaken to determine the current global prevalence of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) reported in adults in order to identify trends in the toxicology findings in DFSA around the world over the past 20 years. METHODS: Databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus were systematically searched using the terms: "drug-facilitated sexual assault", "chemical submission", "date rape", "rape drugs" and "drink-spiking" to identify relevant studies for inclusion in the review...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259020/chlorpyrifos-poisoning-and-its-implications-in-human-fatal-cases-a-forensic-perspective-with-reference-to-indian-scenario
#5
REVIEW
Ankush L Rathod, R K Garg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235678/kerosene-a-toddler-s-sin-a-five-years-study-at-tertiary-care-hospital-in-western-india
#6
Utsav Parekh, Sanjay Gupta
Acute kerosene poisoning is a preventable health problem in children perceived mainly in developing countries. It influences socioeconomic and cultural status of country due to its contribution in morbidity and mortality. As kerosene is widely used as household energy source in India at rural areas as well as urban, it accounts for significant number of poisoning cases mainly accidental in manner. As there are only handful studies from India on kerosene poisoning in children, we planned this study to evaluate incidence of kerosene poisoning in Western Indian population and its clinico-epidemiotoxicological profile...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171796/increased-recovery-of-touch-dna-evidence-using-fta-paper-compared-to-conventional-collection-methods
#7
Irina A Kirgiz, Cassandra Calloway
Tape lifting and FTA paper scraping methods were directly compared to traditional double swabbing for collecting touch DNA from car steering wheels (n = 70 cars). Touch DNA was collected from the left or right side of each steering wheel (randomized) using two sterile cotton swabs, while the other side was sampled using water-soluble tape or FTA paper cards. DNA was extracted and quantified in duplicate using qPCR. Quantifiable amounts of DNA were detected for 100% of the samples (n = 140) collected independent of the method...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235677/optimizing-direct-amplification-of-forensic-commercial-kits-for-str-determination
#8
M Caputo, M C Bobillo, A Sala, D Corach
Direct DNA amplification in forensic genotyping reduces analytical time when large sample sets are being analyzed. The amplification success depends mainly upon two factors: on one hand, the PCR chemistry and, on the other, the type of solid substrate where the samples are deposited. We developed a workflow strategy aiming to optimize times and cost when starting from blood samples spotted onto diverse absorbent substrates. A set of 770 blood samples spotted onto Blood cards, Whatman(®) 3 MM paper, FTA™ Classic cards, and Whatman(®) Grade 1 was analyzed by a unified working strategy including a low-cost pre-treatment, a PCR amplification volume scale-down, and the use of the 3500 Genetic Analyzer as the analytical platform...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160665/geospatial-analysis-of-suicidal-bridge-jumping-in-the-metro-vancouver-regional-district-from-2006-to-2014
#9
Vienna C Lam, J Bryan Kinney, Lynne S Bell
In the past decade, there have been many structural changes implemented to Vancouver's largest bridges as a means of deterring criminogenic and suicidal behaviors. Guided by an environmental criminology theoretical framework, this research examines the patterns and trends of 201 cases of successful suicide jumping in the Metro Vancouver Regional District (MVRD) of British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to 2014. To evaluate these trends and to bolster the existing literature on deterrence measures through environmental design, this research will examine the spatial relationship between preferential bridge jumping locations and the home addresses of the deceased...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157592/morphometric-evaluation-of-the-foramen-magnum-for-sex-determination-a-study-from-saudi-arabia
#10
Mohammed Madadin, Ritesh G Menezes, Hind S Al Saif, Hossain Abu Alola, Afnan Al Muhanna, Abid H Gullenpet, K R Nagesh, Magdy A Kharoshah, Bander Al Dhafery
The present study provides a database of various morphometric dimensions of the foramen magnum region in the Saudi population. The objective of this study was to evaluate various measurements of the foramen magnum region for sex determination in the Saudi population by using computed tomography (CT) images. The various radiological measurements of the foramen magnum region were measured in a total of 200 adult subjects of Saudi origin including 100 males and 100 females. Sexual dimorphism was observed in five parameters related to the foramen magnum, namely length of the right occipital condyle (LROC), length of the left occipital condyle (LLOC), width of the foramen magnum (WFM), area of the foramen magnum (AFM) and length of the foramen magnum (LFM)...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131012/uniqueness-of-the-anterior-dentition-three-dimensionally-assessed-for-forensic-bitemark-analysis
#11
A Franco, G Willems, Phc Souza, W Coucke, P Thevissen
The uniqueness of the human dentition (UHD) is an important concept in the comparative process in bitemark analysis. During this analysis, the incisal edges of the suspects' teeth are matched with the bitemarks collected from the victim's body or crime scenes. Despite playing an essential part to exclude suspects, the UHD contained in the involved incisal tooth edges remains an assumption on bitemark level. The present study was aimed, first, to investigate three-dimensionally (3D) the UHD within different quantities of dental material from the incisal edges; second, to test these outcomes in a bidimensional (2D) simulation...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131011/estimation-of-stature-from-radiographic-measurement-of-foot-dimensions-truncated-foot-length-may-be-more-reliable-than-full-foot-length
#12
Abdullahi Suleiman Gwani, Abubakar Tijjani Salihu, Isa Sa'idu Garba, Adamu Ahmad Rufa'i
Foot length has been shown to be a reliable dimension for estimation of stature. However, phalanges of the foot are very small bones and their length may not be proportional to person's stature. Thus, we hypothesized that foot length measured excluding the phalanges, the truncated foot length, may be more reliable in stature estimation than full foot length. This study, therefore, aimed at comparing the accuracy of the regression equations derived from the truncated foot length and the full foot length. The study recruited a sample of 32 young adults (16 males and 16 females) aged from 20 to 35 years...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122286/does-the-forensic-physician-have-a-role-beyond-injury-documentation-and-specimen-collection-in-australia-a-personal-view
#13
John A M Gall
Clinical forensic medicine (CFM), as a single discipline, encompasses a number of areas of medico-legal practice including injury interpretation, management of sexual and physical assault cases (both adult and child; alleged victim and offender), mental health issues, traffic medicine, custodial medicine and toxicology. The cases are usually alive but in some jurisdictions the forensic practitioner also engages in death investigation with some undertaking autopsies. During the last 20-30 years, the discipline has fragmented with areas being hived off to other medical specialist disciplines and, importantly, to nurses...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122285/evaluation-of-forensic-medical-history-taking-from-the-child-in-cases-of-child-physical-and-sexual-abuse-and-neglect
#14
Rachel Drummond, John A M Gall
BACKGROUND: Suspected child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are not uncommon presentations. As part of the assessment of these cases, a forensic medical history may be taken. This forensic history is used not only to determine the steps necessary to address the child's wellbeing but also to direct the forensic examination. Currently, there is no clear consensus on whether or not a forensic medical history should consistently be considered an integral element within the paediatric forensic evaluation...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119211/a-mixture-detection-method-based-on-separate-amplification-using-primer-specific-alleles-of-indels-a-study-based-on-two-person-s-dna-mixture
#15
Jinding Liu, Jiaqi Wang, Xiaojia Zhang, Zeqin Li, Keming Yun, Zhizhen Liu, Gengqian Zhang
Samples containing unbalanced DNA mixtures from individuals often occur in forensic DNA examination and clinical detection. Because of the PCR amplification bias, the minor contributor DNA is often masked by the major contributor DNA when using traditional STR or SNP typing techniques. Here we propose a method based in allele-specific Insertion/Deletion (INDEL) genotyping to detect DNA mixtures in forensic samples. Fourteen INDELs were surveyed in the Chinese Han population of Shanxi Province. The INDELs were amplified using two separate primer-specific reactions by real-time PCR...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064088/asylum-seekers-alleging-torture-in-their-countries-evaluation-of-a-french-center
#16
Renaud Clément, David Lebossé, Lucia Barrios, Olivier Rodat
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 6-year period, 570 survivors gave consent to this study and were examined by forensic medical doctors in academic French hospital. They evaluated with the aim of cataloguing the physical evidence of torture. Sociological data, declared violence (single physical altercation, repeated physical violence less than one year or more than one year, incarceration not more than one week or more than 1 week), and method of violence (blows by blunt object, crushing, burns, electrical shocks, attempted drowning, smothering, incision, or gunshot) were studied...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040667/multivariate-linear-regression-modelling-of-lung-weight-in-24-056-swedish-medico-legal-autopsy-cases
#17
T Gustafsson, A Eriksson, C J Wingren
Heavy combined lung weight at autopsy is a non-specific autopsy finding associated with certain causes of death such as intoxication. There is however no clear definition of what constitutes "heavy" lung weight. Different reference values have been suggested but previous studies have been limited by small select populations and only univariate regression has been attempted. The aim of this study was to create a model to estimate lung weight from decedent parameters. We identified all cases >18 years age autopsied at the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine from 2000 through 2013, excluding cases with a post-mortem interval >5 days as well as cases with extreme values, totalling 24,056 cases...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040666/post-mortem-ct-evaluation-of-atlanto-occipital-dissociation
#18
Mohammed Madadin, Ravindra Priyalal Samaranayake, Chris O'Donnell, Stephen Cordner
Atlanto-occipital dissociation injury is an important injury in forensic pathology practice. Radiological diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation clinically is assessed by direct measurement of occipito-vertebral skeletal relationships. Different measurements may be used to diagnose atlanto-occipital dissociation, including the basion-dens interval (BDI) and basion-axial interval (BAI). It is not known whether the normal ante-mortem measurements of BDI and BAI described in the literature are applicable to post-mortem CT images of the occipito-cervical junction (OCJ) or whether these measurements could be affected by early post-mortem changes...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039764/a-ten-year-experience-of-physical-intimate-partner-violence-ipv-in-a-french-forensic-unit
#19
Frédéric Savall, Agathe Lechevalier, Fabrice Hérin, Marion Vergnault, Norbert Telmon, Christophe Bartoli
Forensic units have a central role to play in healthy public policy, by the collection and management of violence. This study aims to describe the characteristics of physical Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against men reported over 10 years in the forensic unit of Toulouse (France) and to compare them with the characteristics of physical IPV against women over the same period. All the medico-legal reports of male victims over 18 years of age between 2005 and 2014 were analyzed. Female victims over 18 years of age in the same period were randomized by year in order to study a similar number of individuals...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024267/sexual-homicide-brief-review-of-the-literature-and-case-report-involving-rape-genital-mutilation-and-human-arson
#20
REVIEW
Maria-Valeria Karakasi, Epameinondas Vasilikos, Polichronis Voultsos, Aikaterini Vlachaki, Pavlos Pavlidis
The objective of the current paper is to report a new case of sexual murder involving human arson and summarize the literature on the phenomenon of sexual homicide. The present case study is unprecedented in Greece and a rarity in international literature due to the fact that the victim suffered genital mutilation and incineration while still alive. The evaluation consisted of 176 articles; 53 were reviewed by the authors. The results revealed sparse, but significant, research findings. The authors discuss the limitations regarding research, incidence of the phenomenon, crime-scene patterns, offender characteristics (killing methods, motive inferences, sociodemographic data, classifications, psychopathology, modus operandi), and victim selection...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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