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Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064088/asylum-seekers-alleging-torture-in-their-countries-evaluation-of-a-french-center
#1
Renaud Clément, David Lebossé, Lucia Barrios, Olivier Rodat
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 6-year period, 570 survivors gave consent to this study and were examined by forensic medical doctors in academic French hospital. They evaluated with the aim of cataloguing the physical evidence of torture. Sociological data, declared violence (single physical altercation, repeated physical violence less than one year or more than one year, incarceration not more than one week or more than 1 week), and method of violence (blows by blunt object, crushing, burns, electrical shocks, attempted drowning, smothering, incision, or gunshot) were studied...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039764/a-ten-year-experience-of-physical-intimate-partner-violence-ipv-in-a-french-forensic-unit
#2
Frédéric Savall, Agathe Lechevalier, Fabrice Hérin, Marion Vergnault, Norbert Telmon, Christophe Bartoli
Forensic units have a central role to play in healthy public policy, by the collection and management of violence. This study aims to describe the characteristics of physical Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against men reported over 10 years in the forensic unit of Toulouse (France) and to compare them with the characteristics of physical IPV against women over the same period. All the medico-legal reports of male victims over 18 years of age between 2005 and 2014 were analyzed. Female victims over 18 years of age in the same period were randomized by year in order to study a similar number of individuals...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040666/post-mortem-ct-evaluation-of-atlanto-occipital-dissociation
#3
Mohammed Madadin, Ravindra Priyalal Samaranayake, Chris O'Donnell, Stephen Cordner
Atlanto-occipital dissociation injury is an important injury in forensic pathology practice. Radiological diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation clinically is assessed by direct measurement of occipito-vertebral skeletal relationships. Different measurements may be used to diagnose atlanto-occipital dissociation, including the basion-dens interval (BDI) and basion-axial interval (BAI). It is not known whether the normal ante-mortem measurements of BDI and BAI described in the literature are applicable to post-mortem CT images of the occipito-cervical junction (OCJ) or whether these measurements could be affected by early post-mortem changes...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024267/sexual-homicide-brief-review-of-the-literature-and-case-report-involving-rape-genital-mutilation-and-human-arson
#4
REVIEW
Maria-Valeria Karakasi, Epameinondas Vasilikos, Polichronis Voultsos, Aikaterini Vlachaki, Pavlos Pavlidis
The objective of the current paper is to report a new case of sexual murder involving human arson and summarize the literature on the phenomenon of sexual homicide. The present case study is unprecedented in Greece and a rarity in international literature due to the fact that the victim suffered genital mutilation and incineration while still alive. The evaluation consisted of 176 articles; 53 were reviewed by the authors. The results revealed sparse, but significant, research findings. The authors discuss the limitations regarding research, incidence of the phenomenon, crime-scene patterns, offender characteristics (killing methods, motive inferences, sociodemographic data, classifications, psychopathology, modus operandi), and victim selection...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040667/multivariate-linear-regression-modelling-of-lung-weight-in-24-056-swedish-medico-legal-autopsy-cases
#5
T Gustafsson, A Eriksson, C J Wingren
Heavy combined lung weight at autopsy is a non-specific autopsy finding associated with certain causes of death such as intoxication. There is however no clear definition of what constitutes "heavy" lung weight. Different reference values have been suggested but previous studies have been limited by small select populations and only univariate regression has been attempted. The aim of this study was to create a model to estimate lung weight from decedent parameters. We identified all cases >18 years age autopsied at the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine from 2000 through 2013, excluding cases with a post-mortem interval >5 days as well as cases with extreme values, totalling 24,056 cases...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821309/sleepiness-driving-and-motor-vehicle-accidents-a-questionnaire-based-survey
#6
Daniel Zwahlen, Christian Jackowski, Matthias Pfäffli
In Switzerland, the prevalence of an excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in drivers undergoing a driving capacity assessment is currently not known. In this study, private and professional drivers were evaluated by means of a paper-based questionnaire, including Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Berlin Questionnaire, and additional questions to sleepiness-related accidents, near-miss accidents, health issues, and demographic data. Of the 435 distributed questionnaires, 128 completed were returned. The response rate was 29%...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816789/identification-of-a-discordant-genotype-at-the-d2s1338-locus-between-identifiler-plus-%C3%A2-16-kit-and-power-plex-%C3%A2-21-system-kit
#7
Lin Zhang, Hongyan Wu, Kejie Wang, Aiying Fan, Jiafeng Niu, Zhendong Zhu
Genotyping errors can perturb estimates of genetic diversity and adversely affects the reliability of forensic identification, which has become increasingly recognized. During our daily laboratory work, we hit upon a discordant short tandem repeat (STR) genotype at the D2S1338 locus between Identifiler Plus(®)16 system kit and Power Plex(®)21 system kit. To figure out the reason of the discordance, nested PCR was performed to amplify the D2S1338 locus and then the final amplicons were sequenced. We found a G to G/A transition at the position on which caused an allele dropout of Identifiler Plus(®)16 kit...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810587/pathways-through-the-criminal-justice-system-for-prisoners-with-acute-and-serious-mental-illness
#8
Karen Slade, Chiara Samele, Lucia Valmaggia, Andrew Forrester
PURPOSE: To evaluate pathways through the criminal justice system for 63 prisoners under the care of prison mental health services. RESULTS: A small number (3%) were acutely mentally ill at prison reception, which may reflect the successful operation of liaison and diversion services at earlier stages in the pathway. However, a third (33%) went onto display acute symptoms at later stages. Cases displaying suicide risk at arrest, with a history of in-patient care, were at increased risk of acute deterioration in the first weeks of imprisonment, with a general absence of health assessments for these cases prior to their imprisonment...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810584/dermal-digital-ridge-density-of-a-penal-population-analysis-of-association-and-individualization
#9
Maninder Kaur, Krishan Sharma
The present study is an attempt to analyze an association between dermal digital ridge density and explosive personality based on the study of 100 male prisoners and 50 controls. The control group had higher ridge density than the prisoners. Bilateral differences revealed higher ridge density on left hand than right hand in both the groups, but differences between two groups for directional asymmetry were not significant. Surface area is not correlated with ridge density in all the digits. About 50% of the variation in ridge density may be explained by a single factor which in all probability is the genetic component of variation...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810583/searching-for-the-mother-missed-since-the-second-world-war
#10
Irena Zupanič Pajnič, Anja Petaros, Jože Balažic, Ksenija Geršak
The aim of the study was to perform the genetic identification of a human cranium from a Second World War gravesite in Slovenia and find out if it belonged to the mother of a woman used as a family reference. Both genetic and anthropological examinations were carried out. The genetic examination was performed on 2 molars and petrous bone. Prior to DNA isolation 0.5 g of tooth and bone powder was decalcified. The DNA was purified in a Biorobot EZ1 (Qiagen) device. The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified and short tandem repeat (STR) typing performed using two different autosomal and Y-STR kits...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002785/usage-of-riot-control-agents-and-other-methods-resulting-in-physical-and-psychological-injuries-sustained-during-civil-unrest-in-turkey-in-2013
#11
Umit Unuvar, Deniz Yilmaz, Ilker Ozyildirim, Erenc Y Dokudan, Canan Korkmaz, Senem Doğanoğlu, Levent Kutlu, Sebnem Korur Fincanci
Turkey has experienced a wave of demonstrations in the summer of 2013, called Gezi Park Demonstrations. Between 31 May and 30 August, 297 people who had been subjected to trauma by several methods of demonstration control and Riot Control Agents applied to the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey Rehabilitation Centers to receive treatment/rehabilitation and/or documentation. 296 patients except one 5-year-old child were included in the study. Of the 296 patients; 175 were male, 120 were female, and one was a transgender individual...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997861/comparative-fly-species-composition-on-indoor-and-outdoor-forensic-cases-in-malaysia
#12
Rizal Abdullah Syamsa, Baharudin Omar, Firdaus Mohd Salleh Ahmad, Othman Hidayatulfathi, Abd Wahid Shahrom
Forensic entomology refers to the science of collection and analysis of insect evidence in order to determine the minimum time period since death. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of forensically important flies on 34 human remains referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre over a period of three years. Entomological specimens were collected at the death scenes and/or during autopsies. Live specimens were reared into adults while preserved specimens were processed for species identification...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987415/characteristics-circumstances-and-pathology-of-sudden-or-unnatural-deaths-of-cases-with-evidence-of-pathological-hoarding
#13
Shane Darke, Johan Duflou
The study aimed to determine the characteristics and circumstances of cases sudden or unnatural death (n = 61) with evidence of pathological hoarding, their major organ pathology and toxicology. The mean age was 65·8 yrs (a mean of 16.1 years of potential life lost), 62·3% were male, and 28·2% were obese. 95·1% lived alone, and 96·7% died in their residence, with no medical intervention. In all cases severe squalor and extensive hoarding were noted. The direct cause of death was attributed to disease in 75·4%, heart disease being a significant factor in 52·5%...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939952/toxico-vigilance-an-inevitable-prerequisite-to-keep-a-watch-on-toxins-around-you
#14
Shweta Sharma, Aruna Dewan, Gyanendra Singh
India has got a handful of poison centers to compensate about 1.25 billion population of India. Hence, a lot of under-reporting of poisoning cases occurs due to limited resources. Gujarat being an upcoming industrial centre of India has got many key industries like textiles, automobiles, chemicals, diamonds, pharmaceuticals etc. This magnificent industrial growth has resulted upon increased exposure of various hazardous chemicals among the general and working population. This study reflects trends of poisoning observed in a poison center named Center For Education Awareness and Research On Chemicals and Health (CEARCH) at Ahmedabad...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918905/dental-age-estimation-of-children-and-adolescents-validation-of-the-maltese-reference-data-set
#15
Hani Alsaffar, Waleed Elshehawi, Graham Roberts, Victoria Lucas, Fraser McDonald, Simon Camilleri
The purpose of this study was to validate a Reference Data Set, developed from the radiographic archives of the Dental Department, Mater Dei Hospital, Malta, for Dental Age Estimation of the Maltese population and to assess the accuracy of the method. Dental Panoramic Tomograms of 100 male and 100 females were selected. Tooth Development Stages were recorded for all 16 permanent teeth on the left and both third molars on the right. Summary and percentile data were calculated for each Tooth Development Stage and the Dental Age of each subject estimated using the unweighted average method...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914998/mathematical-model-in-post-mortem-estimation-of-brain-edema-using-morphometric-parameters
#16
Nemanja Radojevic, Bojana Radnic, Jelena Vucinic, Dragana Cukic, Ranko Lazovic, Bogdan Asanin, Slobodan Savic
Current autopsy principles for evaluating the existence of brain edema are based on a macroscopic subjective assessment performed by pathologists. The gold standard is a time-consuming histological verification of the presence of the edema. By measuring the diameters of the cranial cavity, as individually determined morphometric parameters, a mathematical model for rapid evaluation of brain edema was created, based on the brain weight measured during the autopsy. A cohort study was performed on 110 subjects, divided into two groups according to the histological presence or absence of (the - deleted from the text) brain edema...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865157/allegations-of-maltreatment-in-custody
#17
REVIEW
Hermann Vogel
BACKGROUND: Maltreatment in custody overlaps with torture. Concerned governments avoid informing. These governments withhold information and try to impose definitions. Therefore, reports often cannot be verified, with the consequence being classified as "allegation". The misery of a victim influences the recording. Engaged parties modify their reporting according to their intention. The difficulty to verify reports and the position of governments affects the perception and in consequence the presentation...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865156/an-unusual-case-of-murder-suicide-the-importance-of-studying-knots
#18
Cristian D'Ovidio, Enrica Rosato, Aldo Carnevale
An atypical murder-suicide that involved a married couple over 80 years of age was investigated at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University of Chieti-Pescara and is presented and discussed here. The whole story allows us to confront the difficulties involved in the discovery of a dead body in water when the circumstantial evidence does not allow any unique interpretation of the facts. The atypical and misleading element appeared to be how the body of the man was tied, with the interpretation inclined towards a homicidal manner of death...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846452/patterns-of-abuse-amongst-sri-lankan-women-returning-home-after-working-as-domestic-maids-in-the-middle-east-an-exploratory-study-of-medico-legal-referrals
#19
Kolitha Wickramage, Malintha De Silva, Sharika Peiris
OBJECTIVE: Migrant worker abuse is well recognised, but poorly characterised within the scientific literature. This study aimed to explore patterns of abuse amongst Sri Lankan women returning home after working as domestic maids. METHODS: Sri Lanka has over 2 million of its citizens employed overseas as international labor migrants. A cross-sectional study was conducted on Sri Lankan female domestic maids returning from the Middle East region who were referred for medico-legal opinion...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835836/recommendations-for-teaching-upon-sensitive-topics-in-forensic-and-legal-medicine-in-the-context-of-medical-education-pedagogy
#20
Kieran M Kennedy, Stacey Scriver
Undergraduate medical curricula typically include forensic and legal medicine topics that are of a highly sensitive nature. Examples include suicide, child abuse, domestic and sexual violence. It is likely that some students will have direct or indirect experience of these issues which are prevalent in society. Those students are vulnerable to vicarious harm from partaking in their medical education. Even students with no direct or indirect experience of these issues may be vulnerable to vicarious trauma, particularly students who are especially empathetic to cases presented...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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