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Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

Cristian Gherman, Alexandra Enache, Cristian Delcea
The topic proposed by this research is the complex determinism or requesting forensic expertise for the purpose of postponing or interrupting a sentence in medical ground. Within the topic, it was necessary to perform a complex analysis on several aspects of inmate life, from the point of view of their rights and especially the right to medical assistance. We have included aspects related to the evolution of the legal framework and current regulations, to the status of medical assistance in the penitentiary environment (illustrating realities related to morbidity and mortality) and to the doctor-patient relationship during a forensic expertise...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Guido Reijnen, Petra Vos, Marcel Buster, Udo Reijnders
It is difficult to differentiate drowning from postmortem submersion. Pulmonary foam can be found in bodies retrieved from water. It is unknown whether foam is a result of drowning or if it also forms after postmortem submersion. We divided deceased piglets into three groups: postmortem saltwater submersion (N = 20), postmortem freshwater submersion (N = 20) and dry-land controls (N = 20). All carcasses underwent endoscopic examination within 24 h of death and the presence of external and internal pulmonary foam was scored...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
C Michael Bowers
The forensic sciences are a combination of laboratory procedures and physical comparisons of objects associated with victims, perpetrators, and crime scenes. The former is largely university-based protocols adopted by crime labs. The latter is predominantly pattern-matching tools originally developed by police examiners or experts deemed by courts to be relevant to forensic matters. These Court accepted experts bring their reasoning and conclusions into the legal arena. This subgroup of forensics has undergone significant scrutiny in regards to its history of exaggerated claims and weak scientific foundations...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Rahim Dehghan Simakani
This paper seeks to provide an ethical assessment of kidney sale based on the theories of a contemporary Shiite theologian, Muḥammad Ḥussain Ṭabāṭabā'ī. It aims to offer a mechanism to decide the justifiability or unjustifiability of kidney sale in ethical terms. Ṭabāṭabā'ī considers ''Divine Consent'' as the criterion for the morality of an action. An action meets the "Divine Consent" requirement if it is done with a sincere intention, confirmed by reason and Divine revelations, brings about an internal peace for the agent, and preserves the agent's dignity and autonomy...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Abdurrahim Türkoğlu, Kerem Sehlikoğlu, Mehmet Tokdemir
INTRODUCTION: and Objective: Falling from a height is one of the main causes of blunt force trauma. Frequently seen in accidents or for the purpose of suicide, it can result in disability or death. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of fatalities due to falling from a height. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively examines 213 cases of fatal falls from a height that had occurred in and around Elazığ province between January 2005 and December 2016...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Natalie F Runtuwene, Marcel C A Buster
This study describes the domestic-setting corpses that remain unnoticed for two weeks or more. It compares the occurrence of this phenomenon in the city of Amsterdam with the surrounding municipalities of Amsterdam (SMA). Data of 437 cases were extracted from the forensic medical register of Amsterdam. Data of size and household situation of the population were extracted from Statistics Netherlands. A 3.7 (95%CI 2.8-4.9) times higher incidence rate, was observed in the city of Amsterdam (n = 379; 5.3/100,000 personyears) compared to the SMA (n = 58; 1...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Gaia Giordano, Cristina Cattaneo
Breast carcinoma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women. The study of bone pathologies presents considerable potential in anthropology, paleopathology, forensic science and medicine. In this paper, we present and discuss metastatic lesions found in the skeletons of known individuals from the CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection, clinically diagnosed with breast cancer during life. Fourteen skeletons from a contemporary and identified collection were macroscopically studied and metastases were identified by comparison with clinical literature...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Meriem Gharbaoui, Mehdi Ben Khelil, Hana Harzallah, Anis Benzarti, Mongi Zhioua, Moncef Hamdoun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to discuss the epidemiological features of self-poisoning suicide in Northern Tunisia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study, including all the cases of fatal self-poisoning suicide occurring between January 2005 and December 2015. RESULTS: In the study period, 204 cases of self-poisoning suicide occurred in northern Tunisia, with a prevalence of 0.44 cases/100 000 inhabitants/year...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Asit Kumar Sikary
This review has analysed various studies and case reports on homicide by poison from different parts of India till date. This review shows that homicidal poisoning prevalence varies from 0.3% to 3.7% having varied prevalence from different regions with no homicidal cases too. The poisons used in homicide were mainly organophosphates, aluminium phosphide, paraquat, and arsenic. No age-group or gender was spared and the perpetrators were first degree relatives.
October 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Kenan Karbeyaz, Yeşim Yeti Ş, Ayhan Güneş, Ümit Şi Mşek
INTRODUCTION: and Objective: Femicide can be defined as violence caused by gender discrimination which results in the death of a woman. In this study, the characteristics of the femicide cases of the last 25 years that have been encountered in Eskisehir, Turkey will be evaluated. It is intended for this article to make a valuable contribution to the existing literature on femicide by adding new data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Female subjects in Eskişehir who were killed by their partner (husband, boyfriend, ex-husband or ex-boyfriend) during the 25-year period between 1992 and 2016 were included in this study...
November 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Astrid Kerstine Buch, Johannes Busch, Seija Ylijoki-Sørensen, Jytte Banner
On average, two suicides occur in Denmark every day. In order to prevent suicides, it is important to understand their nature. The forensic autopsy plays an important role by providing detailed knowledge of the cause and manner of death. Unfortunately, the autopsy rate for suicides in Denmark is very low. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors that may affect the decision to perform a forensic autopsy and thereby affect the autopsy rate of suicidal deaths in the Capital area of Copenhagen. Data from 6211 death certificates from the Capital area of Copenhagen, Denmark, over a study period of six years, were investigated...
November 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Benjamín Gaya-Sancho, Inmaculada Alemán Aguilera, Juan Jesús Navarro-Muñoz, Miguel Botella López
Sex determination is one of the essential steps when it comes to establishing an individual's biological profile. It is important in both archaeology and forensic studies. The sacrum is not generally conserved, but in cases where it is, it can be used for determination of the sex of skeletal remains. Furthermore, the sacrum is not a commonly studied bone and has not been studied in a Spanish population. For this study, measurements of 170 sacra of individuals from the contemporary osteological collection of San José from Granada including only the adults were taken...
November 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Abdulsallam Bakdash, Sachil Kumar, Kirti Amresh Gautam, Vikash C Mishra
Several methodologies are being used on different biological, physical and chemical indicators to determine the postmortem interval (PMI); however, most of them are not completely accurate. Flow cytometry is an emerging technology widely used for single cell analysis in the field of clinical pathology. Studies on flow cytometry and its application in the field of forensic medicine were retrieved from systematic web searched of different databases including "MEDLINE", "ScienceDirect", "PubMed" and "Google Scholar" using keywords forensic science; forensic medicine; forensic investigation; flow cytometry; DNA; postmortem interval; vitreous humour with the last search performed in January 2018...
November 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Hajime Tsuboi, Ryutaro Takazakura, Nozomi Idota, Marin Takaso, Hiroshi Ikegaya
We report the autopsy of a traffic accident victim with a rare atlas fracture. The deceased was 52-year-old man found dead on the road because of a traffic accident. We performed a postmortem computed tomography and an autopsy on the body. The sagittal reformation image of postmortem computed tomography showed a vertically separated anterior arch of atlas, suggesting a "horizontal fracture." Therefore, we assumed that cervical hyperextension may have been one of the forces that affected him during the accident...
November 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Stefano D'Errico
Novel synthetic opioid overdose deaths have been rising largely worldwide as a result of fentanyl adulteration in the illegal drug supply. Interpretation of post mortem analytical results concerning fentanyl can be challenging in particular due to redistribution phenomena. Lacking of resources, infrastructures and expertise to perform forensic toxicological investigation when an unknown drug or complex mixture of drugs is suspected can affect failure in exactly reporting cause in drug related death. Public safety and public health entities are called working together to enhance the timeliness and accuracy of the analytical characterization and toxicology testing of novel synthetic opioids...
November 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Ana Catarina Anastácio, Cristina Serras, Rui Filipe Vargas de Sousa Santos, Cristiana Palmela Pereira
The goal of this project is to validate the Cameriere's method applied to the upper and lower second premolars in a Portuguese population, regarding the forensic estimate of age. The applied sample consisted in 100 panoramic radiographs, of 60 males and 40 females, patients of the Faculty of Dental Medicine of the University of Lisbon, whose ages vary between 15 and 35 years old. Thus, a total of 400 teeth were investigated (200 upper second premolars and 200 lower second premolars). Each radiograph was analysed using draw and measurement tools featured in Adobe Photoshop, applying the Cameriere's method, and then the pulp/tooth ratio was computed for the 15, 25, 35 and 45 teeth...
November 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Nadia A Kotb, Samah F Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated deaths are a widely recognized phenomenon, that warrants in-depth investigation. Of the 319 suspicious deaths of adult women (>20 years) autopsied during 2011-2012, in the Cairo and Giza governorates, 37 (11.7%) women were pregnant at the time of the autopsy. This paper analyzes the corresponding demographic data, autopsy findings, and toxicological screening. THE RESULTS: Reveal that the number of deaths of pregnant women were higher in 2012 than in 2011...
November 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Magda Mokhtar, Sonya M S Azab, Shaimaa Hassan, Hanan Said Ez-Elarab
Medico-legal case (MLC) represents an integral part of medical practice in the emergency departments and causalities. Therefore, the physicians should have the sufficient knowledge of their roles and responsibilities while handling these cases to aid legal justice. This study on the physicians working in governmental hospitals in Cairo aimed to assess physicians' knowledge, practice and attitude regarding handling of MLCs. The study included 452 physicians working in 7 governmental hospitals in Cairo. There were non-significant differences in physicians' knowledge, practice and attitude scores according to their age groups, gender, job titles or duration of work experience...
November 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Emma Raynor, Praveen Konala, Anthony Freemont
OBJECTIVE: Skeletal survey is a commonly used means of detecting fractures in infants, and is used as a screen in suspected cases of physical abuse. It is recognised that in live infants, a repeat survey some days after a suspected episode of injury will detect more fractures than one taken shortly after the suspected injury, indicating that the latter lacks sensitivity. In infants who die soon after a suspected episode of physical abuse, the managing clinicians do not have the option of a second survey; however there is the opportunity for the microscopic examination of bones removed at autopsy...
November 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Ana Miguel Fonseca Pego, Sarah Carobini Werner de Souza Eller Franco de Oliveira, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, Vilma Leyton, Ivan Miziara, Mauricio Yonamine
Violence is a dreadful phenomenon spread throughout the world, resulting in unfortunate events that can ultimately cause death. It is known that some countries play a much worrying role in this scenario than others. Brazil is one of them. The present work has focused on identifying the use of cocaine in 105 postmortem cases arriving at the Institute of Legal Medicine of Sao Paulo (IML-SP), the largest Brazilian city. Both blood and hair samples have been analyzed through ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) in order to distinguish between recent or chronic cocaine use...
November 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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