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Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926822/role-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-interleukin-6-expression-in-estimation-of-skin-burn-age-and-vitality
#1
Mona M Abo El-Noor, Fatma M Elgazzar, Hanan A Alshenawy
Estimation of age and vitality of burn injury both in the living and dead is essential in forensic practice. Nitric oxide and interleukin-6 (IL-6) play an important role in skin burn healing. In this study, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and IL-6 proteins during skin burn healing in rats was studied for purposes of burn dating and to differentiate between ante-mortem and post-mortem burn. Ante-mortem skin burns were created on forty five rats. Normal and burnt skin samples were taken at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 21 days following burn induction (5 rats for each stage)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926821/autopsies-in-the-elderly-erzurum-study
#2
Ozge Timur, Pinar Tosun Tasar, Merve Gulsah Ulusoy, Azem Irez, Filiz Yildirim, Dogan Nasir Binici, Sevnaz Sahin, Ahmet Nezih Kok
INTRODUCTION: Clinical and forensic autopsies are the best methods for determining cause of death. The aim of this study was to determine demographic and etiologic characteristics in geriatric forensic cases analyzed in Erzurum, Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Autopsy reports and prosecution documents of decedents aged 65 and older autopsied in the Morgue Specialization Department of the Forensic Medicine Institute, Erzurum Division between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015 were screened retrospectively...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922653/is-willems-method-universal-for-age-estimation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Jian Wang, Fang Ji, Yue Zhai, Hyun Park, Jiang Tao
Dental age (DA) has been widely accepted as a way to evaluate chronological age (CA) in recent years. However, the applicability of Willems method, as one of the most popular radiographic ways, still remains controversial in different areas. The aim of this study is to assess the difference between DA and CA with Willems method. Relevant studies published up to February 28th, 2017 were selected via PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, CBM and manual search. Studies that examined Willems dental age and chronological age were selected...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938228/sex-determination-from-chest-measurements-in-a-sample-of-egyptian-adults-using-multislice-computed-tomography
#4
Ragaa T Darwish, Manal H Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz M El Nekiedy, Zahraa K Sobh
BACKGROUND: In forensic sciences to determine one's sex is quite important during the identity defining stage. The reliability of sex determination depends on the completeness of the remains and the degree of sexual dimorphism inherent in the population. Computed Tomography is the imaging modality of choice for two- and three-dimensional documentation and analysis of many autopsy findings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to assess the reliability of Three-dimensional Multislice Computed Tomography (3D MSCT) to determine sexual dimorphism from certain chest measurements; sternum and fourth rib using the 3D MSCT and to develop equations for sex determination from these bones among adult Egyptians sample...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922654/student-s-perception-about-innovative-teaching-learning-practices-in-forensic-medicine
#5
Sanjay Gupta, Utsav N Parekh, Jaishree D Ganjiwale
BACKGROUND: Since decades, Forensic Medicine is mainly taught by didactic methods but in last couple of years some other teachinglearning and assessment methods are also introduced at some places which also lacks uniformity. Feedback from learners is most fundamental aspect to assess effectiveness of applied methods, but is not implemented in practice at most medical schools in India. Unfortunately, medical students are deprived of this practical empowerment and thus may not be efficient enough to contribute potentially to the justice system during their professional life...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918370/a-metric-study-of-insole-foot-impressions-in-footwear-of-identical-twins
#6
Michael S Nirenberg, Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan
Foot impressions are of utmost importance in crime scene investigations. Foot impressions are available in the form of barefoot prints, sock-clad footprints, and as impressions within footwear. Sometimes suspects leave their footwear at the crime scene, and the insole of this footwear may contain the foot impression of the suspect which may be important evidence linking him or her to the crime. The task of identification based on the analysis of footprints can be challenging when the footprints belonging to one of the identical twin is available for examination...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866283/traumatic-brain-injury-comparison-between-autopsy-and-ante-mortem-ct
#7
Stephanie Panzer, Lidia Covaliov, Peter Augat, Oliver Peschel
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare pathological findings after traumatic brain injury between autopsy and ante-mortem computed tomography (CT). A second aim was to identify changes in these findings between the primary posttraumatic CT and the last follow-up CT before death. METHODS: Through the collaboration between clinical radiology and forensic medicine, 45 patients with traumatic brain injury were investigated. These patients had undergone ante-mortem CT as well as autopsy...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865387/exploring-the-relationship-between-stride-stature-and-hand-size-for-forensic-assessment
#8
Richard Guest, Oscar Miguel-Hurtado, Sarah Stevenage, Sue Black
Forensic evidence often relies on a combination of accurately recorded measurements, estimated measurements from landmark data such as a subject's stature given a known measurement within an image, and inferred data. In this study a novel dataset is used to explore linkages between hand measurements, stature, leg length and stride. These three measurements replicate the type of evidence found in surveillance videos with stride being extracted from an automated gait analysis system. Through correlations and regression modelling, it is possible to generate accurate predictions of stature from hand size, leg length and stride length (and vice versa), and to predict leg and stride length from hand size with, or without, stature as an intermediary variable...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918371/willems-method-of-dental-age-estimation-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
J S Sehrawat, Monika Singh
BACKGROUND: Age estimation from dental developmental stages is considered comparatively more accurate, reliable and precise than other methods used in forensic sciences. Willems method is the revised version of Demirjian method, based on modified dental maturity scores to estimate age of children in years for both the sexes. AIMS: To test the applicability and accuracy level of Willems method of dental age estimation in diverse population samples by quantifying the variations between the chronological and estimated ages of an individual...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892750/neuropathology-and-brain-weight-in-traumatic-crush-asphyxia
#10
Safa Al-Sarraj, Ross Laxton, Ben Swift, Alexander J Kolar, Rob C Chapman, Ashley W Fegan-Earl, Nat R B Cary
Traumatic (crush) asphyxia is a rare condition caused by severe compression of the chest and trunk leading to often extreme so-called asphyxial signs, including cyanosis in head and neck regions, multiple petechiae, and subconjunctival haemorrhage as well as neurological manifestations. AIMS: To investigate the neuropathology and brain weight in traumatic asphyxia caused by different accidents such as industrial accidents and road traffic collision. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Post mortem records of 20 cases of traumatic asphyxia (TA) resulting from different causes of which four brains are available for comprehensive neuropathological examination...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865388/post-mortem-findings-in-22-fatal-taxus-baccata-intoxications-and-a-possible-solution-to-its-detection
#11
REVIEW
Guido Reijnen, Corine Bethlehem, Jacquo M B L van Remmen, Hans J M Smit, Matthijs van Luin, Udo J L Reijnders
BACKGROUND: The yew (Taxus baccata) is a common evergreen tree containing the toxin taxine B. Between 42 and 91 g of yew leaf is lethal to a 70-kg adult. The objective of this article is to present an overview of findings in fatal yew intoxications. METHODS: A search using MeSH terms was performed in PubMed for yew intoxications in the period between January 1960 and August of 2016. RESULTS: We describe a total of 22 cases. Fatal intoxications can be divided into intoxications by leaves, by pulp, by bark and by yew tea...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888186/acquired-body-marks-a-mode-of-identification-in-forensics
#12
Monika Kulshreshtha, P R Mondal
Each individual regardless of sex, age and caste has a particular identification mark present on their body. This study is mainly an attempt to understand the distribution pattern of different types of acquired body marks present on the body which can be used as a marker for individual identification in Forensics. Data was collected by means of observation, interview schedule and interviews from 160 individuals of 6 multi-caste villages of Udaipur in Rajasthan, India. A wide variation was observed in the distribution patterns of various acquired body marks...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886433/sudden-death-in-a-child-caused-by-a-giant-cavernous-hemangioma-of-the-anterior-mediastinum
#13
Yui Igari, Shirushi Takahashi, Akihito Usui, Yusuke Kawasumi, Masato Funayama
A 4-year-old girl who had been treated for asthma since the age of 2 years had a severe coughing fit and died suddenly. The patient had a history of occasional severe coughing fits, and these fits had been worsening in severity during the week before her death. Prior to death, she was taken to a clinician, and thymic hypertrophy was suspected based on chest X-ray findings. The clinician recommended that she visit a general hospital at a later date; however, she died that night. Postmortem radiology and autopsy revealed a large mass in the anterior mediastinum compressing the heart and airway, and no other findings attributable to sudden death were observed...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886432/traumatic-lower-extremity-and-lumbosacral-peripheral-nerve-injuries-in-adults-electrodiagnostic-studies-and-patients-symptoms
#14
Arash Babaei-Ghazani, Bina Eftekharsadat, Bahram Samadirad, Vida Mamaghany, Saeed Abdollahian
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) are relatively common pathologies in clinical practice. PNIs are rare in the lower extremity but have worse prognosis than those in the upper extremity. Electrodiagnostic studies could help better understanding PNIs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of lower extremity PNI in traumatic patients in northwest of Iran. METHODS: In this prospective study, 74 patients (62 male and 12 female with mean age of 38...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869850/the-incidence-and-epidemiology-of-eldercide-in-the-city-of-johannesburg-south-africa
#15
Sizakele Buthelezi, Lu-Anne Swart, Mohamed Seedat
The current study describes the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of eldercide (homicides among victims aged 60 years and older) in Johannesburg for the period 2001 to 2010. A retrospective population-based study was conducted on cases drawn from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. A total of 557 eldercides were recorded by NIMSS for the study period with an average annual rate of 23.1 per 100 000. The average annual rate for males was 42.4 per 100 000 and 8.9 per 100 000 for females...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866285/sex-determination-from-the-femur-in-portuguese-populations-with-classical-and-machine-learning-classifiers
#16
F Curate, C Umbelino, A Perinha, C Nogueira, A M Silva, E Cunha
The assessment of sex is of paramount importance in the establishment of the biological profile of a skeletal individual. Femoral relevance for sex estimation is indisputable, particularly when other exceedingly dimorphic skeletal regions are missing. As such, this study intended to generate population-specific osteometric models for the estimation of sex with the femur and to compare the accuracy of the models obtained through classical and machine-learning classifiers. A set of 15 standard femoral measurements was acquired in a training sample (100 females; 100 males) from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection (University of Coimbra, Portugal) and models for sex classification were produced with logistic regression (LR), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machines (SVM), and reduce error pruning trees (REPTree)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866284/intracardiac-electrocardiographic-assessment-of-precordial-taser-shocks-in-human-subjects-a-pilot-study
#17
Jason P Stopyra, James E Winslow, David M Fitzgerald, William P Bozeman
BACKGROUND: Case reports of cardiac arrest in temporal proximity to Conducted Electrical Weapon(CEW) exposure raise legitimate concerns about this as a rare possibility. In this pilot study, we respectfully navigate the oversight and regulatory hurdles and demonstrate the intra-shock electrocardiographic effects of an intentional transcardiac CEW discharge using subcutaneous probes placed directly across the precordium of patients with a previously implanted intracardiac EKG sensing lead...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858689/ethanol-levels-in-legally-autopsied-subjects-analytical-approach-and-epidemiological-relevance-in-a-prospective-study-in-the-touristic-region-of-the-canary-islands-spain
#18
Maira Almeida-González, Luis A Henríquez-Hernández, Octavio P Luzardo, Manuel Zumbado, Enrique Zaragoza, María J Meilán, María Camacho, Luis D Boada
The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of alcohol in individuals (137) that were subjected to a mandatory medico-legal autopsy in the Institute of Legal Medicine of Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain) during 2015. Blood and vitreous humor samples (232) were analyzed by gas chromatography. 46.0% of the individuals were positive for alcohol, being half of them tourists. Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) was higher in men over 60 years (p = 0.041). 10.2% of the series died in a traffic accident, and victims had the highest proportion of positives to alcohol (64...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850861/volatile-lipophilic-substances-management-in-case-of-fatal-sniffing
#19
Francesco Saverio Romolo, Natale Mario di Luca, Costantino Ciallella, Edoardo Bottoni, Paola Antonella Fiore, Simone Cappelletti, Nicole Giuliani, Marc Augsburger, Vincent Varlet
Death due to inhalation of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as butane and propane is a particularly serious problem worldwide, resulting in several fatal cases of sniffing these volatile substances in order to "get high". Despite the number of cases published, there is not a unique approach to case management of fatal sniffing. In this paper we illustrate the volatile lipophilic substances management in a case of a prisoner died after sniffing a butane-propane gas mixture from prefilled camping stove gas canisters, discussing the comprehensive approach of the crime scene, the autopsy, histology and toxicology...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850860/cardiac-injuries-caused-by-trauma-review-and-case-reports
#20
REVIEW
Luís Leite, Lino Gonçalves, Duarte Nuno Vieira
Assessment of suspected cardiac injuries in a trauma setting is a challenging and time-critical matter, with clinical and imaging findings having complementary roles in the formation of an accurate diagnosis. In this article, we review the supporting literature for the pathophysiology, classification and evaluation of cardiac injuries caused by trauma. We also describe 4 cardiac trauma patients seen at a tertiary referral hospital.
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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