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Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734198/length-of-stay-for-25-791-california-patients-found-incompetent-to-stand-trial
#1
Matthew Renner, Carol Newark, Bradley J Bartos, Richard McCleary, Nicholas Scurich
Referrals and admissions to state psychiatric hospitals of criminal defendants found Incompetent to Stand Trial (IST) are on the rise in the state of California and other parts of the country. Studies of treatment outcomes of this population have primarily focused on factors that determine competency and/or restorability. However, as IST patients place an increasing resource burden on state psychiatric hospital systems, other outcomes such as length of stay (LOS) are becoming increasingly important for practitioners and policy makers to understand...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734199/endosulfan-poisoning-an-overview
#2
REVIEW
Ritesh G Menezes, Tooba Fatima Qadir, Ariba Moin, Huda Fatima, Syed Ather Hussain, Mohammed Madadin, Syed Bilal Pasha, Fatima A Al Rubaish, S Senthilkumaran
Endosulfan, an organochlorine (OC) insecticide, is a widely used agricultural pesticide, despite its life threatening toxic effects. In this review, the pharmacokinetics of endosulfan, mechanism of endosulfan toxicity, clinical presentations and management, histopathological findings, and toxicological analysis are described, in addition to its environmental toxicity. The toxic effects of endosulfan can affect many organs and systems presenting in a wide array of signs and symptoms. Although termed a restricted OC-classed pesticide, it continues to be used, especially in the developing world, owing to its beneficial effects on agriculture...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709048/intentional-burn-injury-assessment-of-allegations-of-self-infliction
#3
Juliet Cohen, Jo Pettitt, Emily Wilbourn
This study investigates the question of whether there is evidence that suggests the possibility of self-infliction, or self-infliction by proxy, of burn injury among a group of asylum claimants in the UK who have attributed such injuries to torture, and how such evidence might be assessed. The question arose from the observations of doctors at the UK-based charity Freedom from Torture that increasing numbers of individuals from Sri Lanka who described a history of torture had suffered severe and disfiguring burn injuries from heated metal objects, and the suggestion from asylum decision-makers that in some cases such injuries could have been acquired deliberately by self-infliction or self-infliction by proxy rather than by torture as claimed...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709047/persistence-of-immersed-blood-and-hair-dna-a-preliminary-study-based-on-casework
#4
Christophe Frippiat, Agathe Gastaldi, Séverine Van Grunderbeeck
In some cases, evidence is collected from rivers, canals, lakes or sink pipes. To determine the utility of analyzing these samples and for cases in which DNA was recovered from submerged bulletproof vest parts, we evaluated the time necessary to degrade the blood and, subsequently, DNA on bulletproof vests. In a second experiment, also based on cases, blood was diluted in water from a kitchen sink pipe and incubated at room temperature for different times. Subsequently, DNA quality was assessed. In a parallel experiment, hair roots were incubated in spring water for different time periods...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708981/a-comparison-of-the-validity-of-the-demirjian-willems-nolla-and-h%C3%A3-%C3%A3-vikko-methods-in-determination-of-chronological-age-of-5-15-year-old-indian-children
#5
Sapna Hegde, Akash Patodia, Uma Dixit
BACKGROUND: Demirjian's method has been the most popular and extensively tested radiographic method of age estimation. More recently, Willems' method has been reported to be a better predictor of age. Nolla's and Häävikko's methods have been used to a lesser extent. Very few studies have compared all four methods in non-Indian and Indian populations. Most Indian research is limited by inadequate sample sizes, age structures and grouping and different approaches to statistical analysis...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704796/prison-mental-health-in-reach-teams-serious-mental-illness-and-the-care-programme-approach-in-england
#6
Charlie Brooker, Russell Webster
The delivery of prison mental health services in England is examined over the last 12 years. Resources for services have grown significantly during this period and improved organisational models for the delivery of services are now in place. During this period however the challenges of working in the prison environment have increased. The paper argues that a history of sexual abuse or violence are common amongst prisoners and the Care Programme Approach (CPA) provides the vehicle to assess these histories through the use of routine enquiry...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704795/endocan-concentrations-in-postmortem-serum-vitreous-humor-and-urine-in-victims-of-lethal-hypothermia
#7
Emilienne Descloux, Marc Augsburger, Grzegorz Teresiński, Petr Hejna, Eric Grouzmann, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Tania Hervet, Cristian Palmiere
Endocan is a soluble molecule secreted from vascular endothelial cells of various organs. Its exact function in humans remains to be elucidated, though it has been postulated that increased tissue expression or serum levels of this molecule may be an indicator of endothelial activation and neovascularization. In the realm of forensic pathology, studies pertaining to endothelial activation following exposure to cold exclusively focused on thrombomodulin, a transmembrane protein specific to endothelial cells...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689029/course-constructions-a-case-base-of-forensic-toxicology
#8
Nan Zhou, Yeda Wu, Terry Su, Liyong Zhang, Kun Yin, Da Zheng, Jingjing Zheng, Lei Huang, Qiuping Wu, Jianding Cheng
Forensic toxicology education in China is limited by insufficient teaching methods and resources, resulting in students with adequate theoretical principles but lacking practice experience. Typical cases used as teaching materials vividly represent intoxication and provide students with an opportunity to practice and hone resolving skills. In 2013, the Department of Forensic Pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine began to construct top-quality courses in forensic toxicology, with its first step, creating a base containing typical cases of intoxication...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683406/crimes-against-the-elderly-in-italy-2007-2014
#9
Claudio Terranova, Greta Bevilacqua, Margherita Zen, Massimo Montisci
Crimes against the elderly have physical, psychological, and economic consequences. Approaches for mitigating them must be based on comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon. This study analyses crimes against the elderly in Italy during the period 2007-2014 from an epidemiological viewpoint. Data on violent and non-violent crimes derived from the Italian Institute of Statistics were analysed in relation to trends, gender and age by linear regression, T-test, and calculation of the odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654804/fatal-and-non-fatal-burn-injuries-with-electrical-weapons-and-explosive-fumes
#10
Mark W Kroll, Mollie B Ritter, Howard E Williams
INTRODUCTION: While generally reducing morbidity and mortality, electrical weapons have risks associated with their usage, including eye injuries and falls. With the presence of explosive fumes or fuels there also exists the possibility of burn injury. METHODS: We searched for cases of fatal and non-fatal major burns with TASER(®) electrical weapon usage where there was a possibility that the weapon ignited the explosion. RESULTS: We confirmed 6 cases of fatal burn injury and 4 cases of major non-fatal burns out of 3...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686981/differentiation-between-decomposed-remains-of-human-origin-and-bigger-mammals
#11
E Rosier, S Loix, W Develter, W Van de Voorde, E Cuypers, J Tytgat
This study is a follow-up study in the search for a human specific marker in the decomposition where the VOC-profile of decomposing human, pig, lamb and roe remains were analyzed using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer in a laboratory environment during 6 months. The combination of 8 previously identified human and pig specific compounds (ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, propyl butyrate, ethyl pentanoate, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide and pyridine) was also seen in these analyzed mammals...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662415/medico-legal-aspects-of-self-injection-of-metallic-mercury-in-cases-of-suicide-or-self-harming
#12
REVIEW
Ugo Da Broi, Carlo Moreschi, Antonio Colatutto, Barbara Marcon, Silvia Zago
Metallic mercury may be self-injected for suicidal or self-harm purposes or sometimes for superstitious or other inadvisable reasons. Local tissue or systemic consequences such as mercurialism can frequently occur in cases of subcutaneous or deep injection, while death due to pulmonary embolism and cardiac, brain, hepatic or renal toxicity may occur in cases of high dosage intravenous administration. The aim of this review is to focus on the diagnostic difficulties facing coroners and forensic pathologists when the courts require confirmation that evidence of self-injection of metallic mercury is the result of suicide or self-harming...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711011/an-overview-of-the-challenges-facing-death-investigation-systems-in-certain-resource-limited-countries
#13
REVIEW
Ken Obenson, George Enow Orock
A properly operated death investigation system (DIS) serves multiple stakeholders. Law enforcement, public health departments and members of the public, benefit in various ways from the information that it provides. This information must be collected systematically and efficiently. The system must also be flexible enough to respond to pressures on its resources such as occurs during mass disasters. These obligations on a DIS require an investment of public money. However even in affluent Western countries the recent world economic crisis has led to a cut in spending on public services that affect both the healthcare system and services associated with death investigation...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651196/dancing-to-death-a-case-of-heat-stroke
#14
K Nadesan, Chandra Kumari, Mohd Afiq
Heat stroke is a medical emergency which may lead to mortality unless diagnosed early and treated effectively. Heat stroke may manifest rapidly, hence making it difficult to differentiate it from other clinical causes in a collapsed victim.(1) We are presenting a case report of twelve patients who were admitted to our emergency department from a music festival held on 13-15th of March 2014. They developed complications arising from a combination of severe adverse weather condition, prolonged outdoor physical exertion due to long hours of dancing and drug-use, resulting in heat stroke...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614757/the-diagnostic-value-of-anthropometric-indices-of-maxillary-sinuses-for-sex-determination-using-ct-scan-images-in-iranian-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Mitra Akhlaghi, Khadijeh Bakhtavar, Artin Kamali, Jaleh Maarefdoost, Ardeshir Sheikhazadi, Farinaz Mousavi, Seyed Hossein Saberi Anary, Elham Sheikhazadi
BACKGROUND: The identification of human remains is an essential part of forensic science. Studying paranasal sinuses is very useful in identification of mutilated or burnt bodies from accidents such as plane crashes. We aimed to assess the diagnostic value of anthropometric indices of maxillary sinuses for sex determination using CT-scan images in Iranian adults. METHODS: CT-scan slices of 228 maxillary sinuses (from 144 men and 144 women) were studied. The maximum height, maximum anterior-posterior diameter, maximum width, and maximum distance between the sinuses were measured in both sexes...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601787/getting-out-of-self-harm-s-way-a-study-of-factors-associated-with-self-harm-among-asylum-seekers-in-australian-immigration-detention
#16
Kyli Hedrick
The monitoring of self-harm among asylum seekers in Australian immigration detention has not occurred routinely or transparently. Thus whilst concerns regarding rates of self-harm among asylum seekers have been frequently raised, a paucity of systematic information regarding key factors associated with self-harm among asylum seekers exists. The present study was designed therefore to fill a number of gaps in government monitoring by examining the government's own archived self-harm data. Via a descriptive analysis of self-harm incident reports from all operational Australian immigration detention facilities over a 20-month period to May 2011, obtained under Freedom of Information, the present study identified that 959 incidents of self-harm occurred during this period...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601041/results-of-domestic-migration-on-juvenile-delinquency-in-adana-turkey
#17
Sunay Firat, Yigit Iltas, Mete K Gulmen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of migration on children in the juvenile justice system. The study takes into account whether these children arrived in the city via migration or not, the types of crimes against property and persons committed by the children brought before the Juvenile Courts, and the types, frequency, and durations of punishments and precautionary decisions they received. In addition, the study examines the children's ability to realize the meaning and consequences of their crimes and to lead their future behaviors effectively...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599232/the-relationship-between-subjective-experience-of-childhood-abuse-and-neglect-and-depressive-symptoms-during-pregnancy
#18
Sinem Yildiz Inanici, Mehmet Akif Inanici, A Tevfik Yoldemir
INTRODUCTION: Childhood abuse and neglect have devastating effects in adulthood such as depression. During pregnancy, depression's effects in women have great importance due to its serious consequences for both children and families. It is aimed to find out a relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and depression among pregnant women. METHOD: One-hundred-forty-four married and healthy volunteer pregnant women were recruited between February-May 2015 during their regular hospital visit...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586732/the-virtual-approach-to-the-assessment-of-skeletal-injuries-in-human-skeletal-remains-of-forensic-importance
#19
Petra Urbanová, Ann H Ross, Mikoláš Jurda, Ivana Šplíchalová
While assessing skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains, forensic anthropologists are frequently presented with fractured, fragmented, or otherwise modified skeletal remains. The examination of evidence and the mechanisms of skeletal injuries often require that separate osseous elements be permanently or temporarily reassembled or reconstructed. If not dealt with properly, such reconstructions may impede accurate interpretation of the evidence. Nowadays, routine forensic examinations increasingly incorporate digital imaging technologies...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558311/prevalence-of-the-number-of-cusps-and-occlusal-groove-patterns-of-the-mandibular-molars-in-a-saudi-arabian-population
#20
Nayef H Felemban, Bhari S Manjunatha
A dental trait in humans can be a valuable diagnostic tool in anthropological studies for classifying and characterizing different ethnic groups. Many studies have attempted to relate the prevalence of dental morphologies with different factors. Several variations, such as variations in the size, number of cusps, and groove pattern, have been observed in the mandibular molars of diverse populations. The morphological features of the occlusal surfaces of the mandibular molars have been described by Gregory and Hellman...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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