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Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367759/role-of-the-iodine-global-network-in-elimination-of-iodine-deficiency
#1
John H Lazarus
Background Iodine deficiency (ID) is a major cause of brain damage if not corrected in early pregnancy. Even mild ID leads to measurable neurointellectual impairment. The iodine global network (IGN), previously the international council for the control of iodine deficiency disorders (ICCIDD), has achieved remarkable progress in facilitating iodine nutritional sufficiency in about 70-80% of countries in the world during the past 3 decades or so. Results At present there are 25 countries with documented iodine deficiency...
March 30, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294052/iodine-deficiency-and-iodine-prophylaxis-in-pregnancy
#2
Małgorzata Trofimiuk-Müdlner, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk
BACKGROUND: Physiological changes in pregnancy result in increased iodine demand, which may not be met in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency or borderline sufficiency. As a pregnant woman is the only source of thyroid hormones for her child during early gestation, iodine deficiency-induced hypothyroxinemia may have deleterious effects on fetal development. OBJECTIVE: To present the current approach to iodine deficiency and its prophylaxis during pregnancy...
March 9, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260521/gynecomastia-in-infants-children-and-adolescents
#3
Alexander K C Leung, Alexander A C Leung
BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia may occur physiologically in the neonatal period, during puberty, and in old age. It may also develop in association with various pathologic states. The challenge for the physician is to distinguish physiological gynecomastia from those with an underlying pathology. OBJECTIVE: To review in depth the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of gynecomastia. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "gynecomastia"...
March 1, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260522/medicinal-and-healthical-applications-of-tinospora-cordifolia-guduchi-a-miraculous-herb-countering-various-diseases-disorders-and-potentials-as-an-immune-booster
#4
Kuldeep Dhama Dhama, Swati Sachan, Rekha Khandia, Ashok Munjal, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Shyma K Latheef, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Hari Abdul Samad, Ruchi Tiwari, Maryam Dadar
BACKGROUND: Plants have been known as an integral part of traditional medicine because of their phytoconstituents with their miraculous substances. Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi/Giloy) is one such plant having pharmacological functions and medicinal values due to its several constituents such as terpenes, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids. Thus, it has been rightly mentioned in old texts as "Amrita". OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present review is to extend the current knowledge, importance and beneficial pharmacological applications of Guduchi in humans for safeguarding various health issues...
February 28, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103777/role-of-iodine-in-metabolism
#5
Szybiński Zbigniew
The natural resources of iodine are seawater, seaweeds and saltpeter-nitrate deposits in Chile. Over 1/3 of the global population is exposed to iodine deficiency, especially in the mountains. Iodine is a component of the thyroid hormones and a strong antioxidant with electric potential of -0.54 V. Iodine as iodide is taken up by the thyroid gland, gastric mucosa, salivary glands and mammary glands in pregnant and breast-feeding women. The transport of iodine to the thyroid gland is regulated by specific enzymes: Natrium-Iodine Symporter, Na+/K+ATP-ase, Pendrin and Apical Iodine Transporter...
January 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103778/the-role-of-the-world-health-organization-in-eliminating-iodine-deficiency-worldwide
#6
Paulina Karwowska, Joao Breda
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency has been one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in the world, causing many health disorders, particularly in pregnant women and children. Despite increased salt iodization in some countries and regions, the process has lacked global coordination and sustainability, two prerequisites for reaching the aim of eliminating iodine deficiency. This goal can be reached only by evidence-based, effectively monitored joint and committed actions of all countries...
January 18, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029083/psychopathological-behaviour-and-cognition-in-morbid-obesity
#7
Alba Calderone, Pasquale Fabio Calabrò, Chita Lippi, Roberta Jaccheri, Jacopo Vitti, Ferruccio Santini
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic condition with high prevalence and multifaceted aetiology, accompanied by an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Obesity has several negative effects on the psychological status, and the severity of psychological disorders correlates with the degree of obesity. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning the psychological distress associated with severe obesity, which contributes to deterioration of the quality of life of affected patients...
December 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779078/the-regulatory-roles-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-mapk-pathways-in-health-and-diabetes-lessons-learned-from-the-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell
#8
Vaibhav Sidarala, Anjan Kowluru
BACKGROUND: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic β-cell involves several intracellular metabolic events which lead to the translocation of insulin granules towards the membrane for fusion and release. It is well established that loss of β-cell function and decreased GSIS underlie the pathogenesis of diabetes. Evidence from several laboratories, including our own, demonstrated requisite roles of Rac1 and phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase (Nox2)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in optimal function of the pancreatic β-cell, including GSIS...
October 20, 2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593543/real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-rt-pcr-a-new-patent-to-diagnostic-purposes-for-paracoccidioidomycosis
#9
Fabiana Rocha-Silva, Luciana Inácia Gomes, Alfredo Miranda Góes, Cidiane Graciele-Melo, Rachel Basques Caligiorne
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. It is prevalent in Latin American, mainly in Brazil. Therefore, PCM has fundamental impact in the Brazilian global economy, especially in public health system, since it is affecting economical active population in different country regions. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to standardize the Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) for an efficient and safe PCM diagnosis by amplifying the recombinant protein PB27 gene, only expressed by specimens of Paracoccidioides genus...
September 5, 2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981914/serum-testosterone-and-cognitive-function-in-ageing-male-updating-the-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Vito A Giagulli, Edoardo Guastamacchia, Brunella Licchelli, Vincenzo Triggiani
BACKGROUND: Testosterone (T) deficit, either in prepubertal or postpubertal form of hypogonadism, seems to play a key role in impairing cognitive function, including memory, attention, language and visuospatial abilities, especially in elderly men. OBJECTIVE: Several studies have recently showed the association between low serum T levels and important cognitive dysfunctions in ageing male as well as in subjects suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and even depression, suggesting that T could exert an active neuroprotective role...
2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981913/editorial-thematic-issue-endocrine-disorders-and-cognitive-function-in-the-elderly
#11
EDITORIAL
Giuseppe Pasqualetti, Valeria Calsolaro, Fabio Monzani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515536/cushing-s-syndrome-and-steroid-dementia
#12
REVIEW
Giampaolo Bernini, Domenico Tricò
Cushing's Syndrome (CS) is associated with a specific spectrum of dementia-like symptoms, including psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, anxiety and mania, and neurocognitive alterations, like impairment of memory and concentration. This pattern of clinical complications, which significantly impair the health-related quality of life of CS patients, is sometimes referred to as "steroid dementia syndrome" (SDS). The SDS is the result of anatomical and functional anomalies in brain areas involved in the processing of emotion and cognition, which are only partially restored after the biochemical remission of the disease...
2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396589/cognitive-function-and-the-ageing-process-the-peculiar-role-of-mild-thyroid-failure
#13
REVIEW
Giuseppe Pasqualetti, Nadia Caraccio, Umberto Dell Agnello, Fabio Monzani
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades an increasing body of evidence suggested a possible relationship between thyroid hormone (TH) and the ageing process, and several efforts have been made to determine the actual role of TH dynamic during human life. It is still unclear whether the serum level shift of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone toward higher value, observed during ageing, is a normal adaptive response associated with senescence or an actual mild thyroid dysfunction. A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis of a reset of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in order to contrast the catabolic status of the ageing process...
2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396477/parkinson-s-disease-diabetes-and-cognitive-impairment
#14
REVIEW
Mohammad R Ashraghi, Gennaro Pagano, Sotirios Polychronis, Flavia Niccolini, Marios Politis
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Parkinson's are still unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal protein aggregation, increased neuroinflammation and impairment of brain glucose metabolism are shared processes among insulinresistance, diabetes and neurodegeneration and have been suggested as key mechanisms in development of Parkinson's and cognitive impairment...
2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306508/alterations-in-glucose-metabolism-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Valeria Calsolaro, Paul Edison
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent type of dementia in people over 65 years of age; type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition affecting 382 million of adults worldwide. Glucose is the main substrate for energy for the brain, which consumes 25% of the body's glucose. Glucose metabolism, evaluated using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanning using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) is commonly used for diagnosis and follow up in AD. Epidemiological and pathophysiological studies showed a link between AD and diabetes, particularly in relation to insulin resistance...
2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173155/cognitive-function-and-heart-failure-the-role-of-the-adrenergic-system
#16
Grazia D Femminella, Ciro Candido, Maddalena Conte, Sandra Provenzano, Carlo Rengo, Enrico Coscioni, Nicola Ferrara
BACKGROUND: Heart Failure (HF) and cognitive impairment (CI) represent two high incident diseases worldwide, with extremely elevated mortality and morbidity rates. Their prevalence is expected to further increase in the next years due to the aging population, thus they pose enormous clinical, social and economic challenges. Sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity is known to play a pivotal role in HF pathophysiology and progression. In fact, increased cardiac and circulating catecholamine levels are responsible for several molecular and structural abnormalities with detrimental effects on the failing heart...
2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112330/new-method-of-inhibition-of-activity-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-in-patients-with-psoriasis
#17
Borys A Gerasun
INTRODUCTION: A new method of reduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha activity via intradermal immunization with inactivated autoleukocytes (patent UA97493 (2015) [1]) has been presented in the article. New patents from various countries have been analyzed [2-7]. OBJECTIVE: Patients with psoriasis (24) with high level of tumor necrosis factor alpha in their blood (. 30pg/ml) were immunized with autoleukocytes. METHOD: Leukocytes were isolated by centrifuging plasma, obtained after precipitation of a patient's heparinized peripheral venous blood...
2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26899852/inflammasome-as-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-diabetic-complications
#18
REVIEW
Caroline M O Volpe, Paula M F Anjos, José A Nogueira-Machado
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is an innate immune response which is considered a common basis for several diseases such as ageing, diabetes, obesity, gout, neurodegenerative diseases and others. Among other platforms, inflammasomes are part of a superfamily of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRR) and act as cytoplasmatic sensors for stimulation with Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMPs) and/or Danger/Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) leading to an infectious/ pathogenic or sterile inflammation...
2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26556498/metreleptin-treatment-in-patients-with-non-hiv-associated-lipodystrophy
#19
REVIEW
Gulcin Akinci, Baris Akinci
Lipodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by congenital or acquired loss of adipose tissue. Recently, metreleptin, a recombinant human leptin analog, has been approved for the treatment of patients with generalized lipodystrophy. Leptin is an adipokine which has a fundamental role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Metreleptin treatment has been demonstrated to improve metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased hepatic fat content and elevated liver enzymes alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in patients with generalized lipodystrophy, and to correct hyperphagia that likely occurs as a result of leptin deficiency...
2015: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26510796/adjudin-a-male-contraceptive-with-other-biological-activities
#20
REVIEW
Yan-Ho Cheng, Weiliang Xia, Elissa W P Wong, Qian R Xie, Jiaxiang Shao, Tengyuan Liu, Yizhou Quan, Tingting Zhang, Xiao Yang, Keyi Geng, Bruno Silvestrini, Chuen-Yan Cheng
BACKGROUND: Adjudin has been explored as a male contraceptive for the last 15 years since its initial synthesis in the late 1990s. More than 50 papers have been published and listed in PubMed in which its mechanism that induces exfoliation of germ cells from the seminiferous epithelium, such as its effects on actin microfilaments at the apical ES (ectoplasmic specialization, a testis-specific actin-rich anchoring junction) has been delineated. OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have demonstrated that, besides its activity to induce germ cell exfoliation from the seminiferous epithelium to cause reversible infertility in male rodents, adjudin possesses other biological activities, which include anti-cancer, anti-inflammation in the brain, and anti-ototoxicity induced by gentamicin in rodents...
2015: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
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