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Mucosal Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198366/th17-cells-express-st2-and-are-controlled-by-the-alarmin-il-33-in-the-small-intestine
#1
A Pascual-Reguant, J Bayat Sarmadi, C Baumann, R Noster, D Cirera-Salinas, C Curato, P Pelczar, S Huber, C E Zielinski, M Löhning, A E Hauser, E Esplugues
TH17 cells are major drivers of inflammation and involved in several autoimmune diseases. Tissue inflammation is a beneficial host response to infection, but it can also contribute to autoimmunity. The crosstalk between a tissue and the immune system during an inflammatory response is key for preserving tissue integrity and restoring physiological processes. However, how the inflamed tissue regulates the magnitude of an immune response by controlling pro-inflammatory T cells is not well characterized so far...
February 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198365/development-of-conventional-dendritic-cells-from-common-bone-marrow-progenitors-to-multiple-subsets-in-peripheral-tissues
#2
REVIEW
D Sichien, B N Lambrecht, M Guilliams, C L Scott
Our understanding of conventional dendritic cell (cDC) development and the functional specializations of distinct subsets in the peripheral tissues has increased greatly in recent years. Here, we review cDC development from the distinct progenitors in the bone marrow through to the distinct cDC subsets found in barrier tissues, providing an overview of the different subsets described in each location. In addition, we detail the transcription factors and local signals that have been proposed to control this developmental process...
February 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198364/interleukin-22-drives-nitric-oxide-dependent-dna-damage-and-dysplasia-in-a-murine-model-of-colitis-associated-cancer
#3
C Wang, G Gong, A Sheh, S Muthupalani, E M Bryant, D A Puglisi, H Holcombe, E A Conaway, N A P Parry, V Bakthavatchalu, S P Short, C S Williams, G N Wogan, S R Tannenbaum, J G Fox, B H Horwitz
The risk of colon cancer is increased in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Inflammation-induced DNA damage could be an important link between inflammation and cancer, although the pathways that link inflammation and DNA damage are incompletely defined. RAG2-deficient mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus (Hh) develop colitis that progresses to lower bowel cancer. This process depends on nitric oxide (NO), a molecule with known mutagenic potential. We have previously hypothesized that production of NO by macrophages could be essential for Hh-driven carcinogenesis, however, whether Hh infection induces DNA damage in this model and whether this depends on NO has not been determined...
February 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198363/gut-memories-do-not-fade-epigenetic-regulation-of-lasting-gut-homing-receptor-expression-in-cd4-memory-t-cells
#4
B A Szilagyi, J Triebus, C Kressler, M de Almeida, S Tierling, P Durek, M Mardahl, A Szilagyi, S Floess, J Huehn, U Syrbe, J Walter, J K Polansky, A Hamann
The concept of a "topographical memory" in lymphocytes implies a stable expression of homing receptors mediating trafficking of lymphocytes back to the tissue of initial activation. However, a significant plasticity of the gut-homing receptor α4β7 was found in CD8(+) T cells, questioning the concept. We now demonstrate that α4β7 expression in murine CD4(+) memory T cells is, in contrast, imprinted and remains stable in the absence of the inducing factor retinoic acid (RA) or other stimuli from mucosal environments...
February 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176791/il-36%C3%AE-is-a-crucial-proximal-component-of-protective-type-1-mediated-lung-mucosal-immunity-in-gram-positive-and-negative-bacterial-pneumonia
#5
M A Kovach, B Singer, G Martinez-Colon, M W Newstead, X Zeng, P Mancuso, T A Moore, S L Kunkel, M Peters-Golden, B B Moore, T J Standiford
Interleukin-36γ (IL-36γ) is a member of novel IL-1-like proinflammatory cytokine family that are highly expressed in epithelial tissues and several myeloid-derived cell types. Little is known about the role of the IL-36 family in mucosal immunity, including lung anti-bacterial responses. We used murine models of IL-36γ deficiency to assess the contribution of IL-36γ in the lung during experimental pneumonia. Induction of IL-36γ was observed in the lung in response to Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) infection, and mature IL-36γ protein was secreted primarily in microparticles...
February 8, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176790/architectural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-small-intestinal-mucosa-in-classical-whipple-s-disease
#6
H-J Epple, J Friebel, V Moos, H Troeger, S M Krug, K Allers, K Schinnerling, A Fromm, B Siegmund, M Fromm, J D Schulzke, T Schneider
Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) affects the gastrointestinal tract and rather elicits regulatory than inflammatory immune reactions. Mechanisms of malabsorption, diarrhea, and systemic immune activation are unknown. We here analyzed mucosal architecture, barrier function, and immune activation as potential diarrheal trigger in specimens from 52 CWD patients. Our data demonstrate villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia associated with epithelial apoptosis and reduced alkaline phosphatase expression in the duodenum of CWD patients...
February 8, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176789/the-intraspecies-diversity-of-c-albicans-triggers-qualitatively-and-temporally-distinct-host-responses-that-determine-the-balance-between-commensalism-and-pathogenicity
#7
F A Schönherr, F Sparber, F R Kirchner, E Guiducci, K Trautwein-Weidner, A Gladiator, N Sertour, U Hetzel, G T T Le, N Pavelka, C d'Enfert, M-E Bougnoux, C F Corti, S LeibundGut-Landmann
The host immune status is critical for preventing opportunistic infections with Candida albicans. Whether the natural fungal diversity that exists between C. albicans isolates also influences disease development remains unclear. Here, we used an experimental model of oral infection to probe the host response to diverse C. albicans isolates in vivo and found dramatic differences in their ability to persist in the oral mucosa, which inversely correlated with the degree and kinetics of immune activation in the host...
February 8, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145442/elevated-gdf-15-contributes-to-pulmonary-inflammation-upon-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#8
F M Verhamme, L J M Seys, E G De Smet, S Provoost, W Janssens, D Elewaut, G F Joos, G G Brusselle, K R Bracke
The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still unclear, however signaling pathways associated with lung development, such as the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily, could be implicated in COPD. Growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is involved in inflammation, mucus secretion, and cachexia. We analyzed the pulmonary expression of GDF-15 in smokers and patients with COPD, in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (pHBECs), and in CS-exposed mice...
February 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145441/colonization-with-helicobacter-is-concomitant-with-modified-gut-microbiota-and-drastic-failure-of-the-immune-control-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
L Majlessi, F Sayes, J-F Bureau, A Pawlik, V Michel, G Jouvion, M Huerre, M Severgnini, C Consolandi, C Peano, R Brosch, E Touati, C Leclerc
Epidemiological and experimental observations suggest that chronic microbial colonization can impact the immune control of other unrelated pathogens contracted in a concomitant or sequential manner. Possible interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and persistence of other bacteria have scarcely been investigated. Here we demonstrated that natural colonization of the digestive tract with Helicobacter hepaticus in mice is concomitant with modification of the gut microbiota, subclinical inflammation, and drastic impairment of immune control of the growth of subsequently administered M...
February 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145440/tissue-specific-differentiation-of-colonic-macrophages-requires-tgf%C3%AE-receptor-mediated-signaling
#10
A Schridde, C C Bain, J U Mayer, J Montgomery, E Pollet, B Denecke, S W F Milling, S J Jenkins, M Dalod, S Henri, B Malissen, O Pabst, A Mcl Mowat
Intestinal macrophages (mφ) form one of the largest populations of mφ in the body and are vital for the maintenance of gut homeostasis. They have several unique properties and are derived from local differentiation of classical Ly6C(hi) monocytes, but the factors driving this tissue-specific process are not understood. Here we have used global transcriptomic analysis to identify a unique homeostatic signature of mature colonic mφ that is acquired as they differentiate in the mucosa. By comparing the analogous monocyte differentiation process found in the dermis, we identify TGFβ as an indispensable part of monocyte differentiation in the intestine and show that it enables mφ to adapt precisely to the requirements of their environment...
February 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145439/evolutionary-and-ecological-forces-that-shape-the-bacterial-communities-of-the-human-gut
#11
REVIEW
J S Messer, E R Liechty, O A Vogel, E B Chang
Since microbes were first described in the mid-1600s, we have come to appreciate that they live all around and within us with both beneficial and detrimental effects on nearly every aspect of our lives. The human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by a dynamic community of trillions of bacteria that constantly interact with each other and their human host. The acquisition of these bacteria is not stochastic but determined by circumstance (environment), host rules (genetics, immune state, mucus, etc), and dynamic self-selection among microbes to form stable, resilient communities that are in balance with the host...
February 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120852/does-a-prenatal-bacterial-microbiota-exist
#12
M Hornef, J Penders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120851/regulation-of-il-12p40-by-hif-controls-th1-th17-responses-to-prevent-mucosal-inflammation
#13
E Marks, C Naudin, G Nolan, B J Goggins, G Burns, S W Mateer, J K Latimore, K Minahan, M Plank, P S Foster, R Callister, M Veysey, M M Walker, N J Talley, G Radford-Smith, S Keely
Intestinal inflammatory lesions are inherently hypoxic, due to increased metabolic demands created by cellular infiltration and proliferation, and reduced oxygen supply due to vascular damage. Hypoxia stabilizes the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF) leading to a coordinated induction of endogenously protective pathways. We identified IL12B as a HIF-regulated gene and aimed to define how the HIF-IL-12p40 axis influenced intestinal inflammation. Intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) were characterized in wild-type and IL-12p40(-/-) murine colitis treated with vehicle or HIF-stabilizing prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors (PHDi)...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120850/critical-role-of-cxcl4-in-the-lung-pathogenesis-of-influenza-h1n1-respiratory-infection
#14
L Guo, K Feng, Y C Wang, J J Mei, R T Ning, H W Zheng, J J Wang, G S Worthen, X Wang, J Song, Q H Li, L D Liu
Annual epidemics and unexpected pandemics of influenza are threats to human health. Lung immune and inflammatory responses, such as those induced by respiratory infection influenza virus, determine the outcome of pulmonary pathogenesis. Platelet-derived chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4 (CXCL4) has an immunoregulatory role in inflammatory diseases. Here we show that CXCL4 is associated with pulmonary influenza infection and has a critical role in protecting mice from fatal H1N1 virus respiratory infection. CXCL4 knockout resulted in diminished viral clearance from the lung and decreased lung inflammation during early infection but more severe lung pathology relative to wild-type mice during late infection...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120849/ccr2-and-ccr2-corneal-macrophages-exhibit-distinct-characteristics-and-balance-inflammatory-responses-after-epithelial-abrasion
#15
J Liu, Y Xue, D Dong, C Xiao, C Lin, H Wang, F Song, T Fu, Z Wang, J Chen, H Pan, Y Li, D Cai, Z Li
Macrophages are distributed throughout the body and are crucial for the restoration of damaged tissues. However, their characteristics in the cornea and roles in the repair of corneal injures are unclear. Here we show that corneal macrophages can be classified as CCR2(-) macrophages, which already exist in the cornea at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and are similar to yolk sac-derived macrophages, microglia, in phenotype and gene expression, and CCR2(+) macrophages, which do not appear in the cornea until E17...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120848/nanogel-based-nasal-ghrelin-vaccine-prevents-obesity
#16
T Azegami, Y Yuki, S Sawada, M Mejima, K Ishige, K Akiyoshi, H Itoh, H Kiyono
Obesity is associated with multiple comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases and has a huge economic impact on the health-care system. However, the treatment of obesity remains insufficient in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Here we created a nasal vaccine against obesity for the first time. To avoid the injectable administration-caused pain and skin-related adverse event, we focused on the intranasal route of antigen delivery. We developed a vaccine antigen (ghrelin-PspA (pneumococcal surface protein A)), which is a recombinant fusion protein incorporating ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates food intake and decreases energy expenditure, and PspA, a candidate of pneumococcal vaccine as a carrier protein...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120847/goblet-cells-as-mucosal-sentinels-for-immunity
#17
M A McGuckin, S Z Hasnain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120846/cortactin-deficiency-causes-increased-rhoa-rock1-dependent-actomyosin-contractility-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-and-disproportionately-severe-dss-induced-colitis
#18
A F Citalán-Madrid, H Vargas-Robles, A García-Ponce, M Shibayama, A Betanzos, P Nava, C Salinas-Lara, K Rottner, R Mennigen, M Schnoor
The intestinal epithelium constitutes a first line of defense of the innate immune system. Epithelial dysfunction is a hallmark of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The actin cytoskeleton controls epithelial barrier integrity but the function of actin regulators such as cortactin is poorly understood. Given that cortactin controls endothelial permeability, we hypothesized that cortactin is also important for epithelial barrier regulation. We found increased permeability in the colon of cortactin-KO mice that was accompanied by reduced levels of ZO-1, claudin-1, and E-cadherin...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120845/association-of-hpv-infection-and-clearance-with-cervicovaginal-immunology-and-the-vaginal-microbiota
#19
B Shannon, T J Yi, S Perusini, P Gajer, B Ma, M S Humphrys, J Thomas-Pavanel, L Chieza, P Janakiram, M Saunders, W Tharao, S Huibner, K Shahabi, J Ravel, A Rebbapragada, R Kaul
Cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may increase HIV risk. Since other genital infections enhance HIV susceptibility by inducing inflammation, we assessed the impact of HPV infection and clearance on genital immunology and the cervico-vaginal microbiome. Genital samples were collected from 65 women for HPV testing, immune studies and microbiota assessment; repeat HPV testing was performed after 6 months. All participants were HIV-uninfected and free of bacterial STIs. Cytobrush-derived T cell and dendritic cell subsets were assessed by multiparameter flow cytometry...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120844/immune-correlates-of-protection-against-hiv-infection-and-how-to-elicit-them
#20
Mara Biasin, Daria Trabattoni, Jean-Francois Rossignol, Mario Clerici
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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