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Journal of Biological Dynamics

Joseph Páez Chávez, Dirk Jungmann, Stefan Siegmund
The paper presents a comprehensive numerical study of mathematical models used to describe complex biological systems in the framework of integrated pest management. Our study considers two specific ecosystems that describe the application of control mechanisms based on pesticides and natural enemies, implemented in an impulsive and periodic manner, due to which the considered models belong to the class of impulsive differential equations. The present work proposes a numerical approach to study such type of models in detail, via the application of path-following (continuation) techniques for nonsmooth dynamical systems, via the novel continuation platform COCO (Dankowicz and Schilder)...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Robert Stephen Cantrell, Chris Cosner, Xiao Yu
Most classical models for the movement of organisms assume that all individuals have the same patterns and rates of movement (for example, diffusion with a fixed diffusion coefficient) but there is empirical evidence that movement rates and patterns may vary among different individuals. A simple way to capture variation in dispersal that has been suggested in the ecological literature is to allow individuals to switch between two distinct dispersal modes. We study models for populations whose members can switch between two different nonzero rates of diffusion and whose local population dynamics are subject to density dependence of logistic type...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
S Elaydi, E Kwessi, G Livadiotis
A general notion of the Allee effect for higher dimensional triangular maps is proposed. A global dynamics theory is established. The theory is applied to multi-species hierarchical models. Then we provide a detailed study of the global dynamics of three-species Ricker competition models with the Allee effect. Regions of extinction, exclusion and coexistence are identified.
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Hidekazu Yoshioka, Yuta Yaegashi
A stochastic control model for finding an ecologically sound, fit-for-purpose dam operation policy to suppress bloom of attached algae in its downstream is presented. A singular exactly solvable and a more realistic regular-singular cases are analysed in terms of a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Regularity and consistency of the value function are analysed and its classical verification theorem is established. Practical implications of the mathematical analysis results are discussed focusing on parameter dependence of the optimal controls...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Hsiu-Chuan Wei
A previously published mathematical model, governing tumour growth with mixed immunotherapy and chemotherapy treatments, is modified and studied. The search time, which is assumed to be neglectable in the previously published model, is incorporated into the functional response for tumour-cell lysis by effector cells. The model exhibits bistability where a tumour-cell population threshold exists. A tumour with an initial cell population below the threshold can be controlled by the immune system and remains microscopic and asymptomatic called cancer without disease while that above the threshold grows to lethal size...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Brian P Yurk, Christina A Cobbold
An important problem in spatial ecology is to understand how population-scale patterns emerge from individual-level birth, death, and movement processes. These processes, which depend on local landscape characteristics, vary spatially and may exhibit sharp transitions through behavioural responses to habitat edges, leading to discontinuous population densities. Such systems can be modelled using reaction-diffusion equations with interface conditions that capture local behaviour at patch boundaries. In this work we develop a novel homogenization technique to approximate the large-scale dynamics of the system...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Rui Xu
In this paper, an epidemiological model with age of infection and disease relapse is investigated. The basic reproduction number for the model is identified, and it is shown to be a sharp threshold to completely determine the global dynamics of the model. By analysing the corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of a disease-free steady state and an endemic steady state of the model is established. By means of suitable Lyapunov functionals and LaSalle's invariance principle, it is verified that if the basic reproduction number is less than unity, the disease-free steady state is globally asymptotically stable, and hence the disease dies out; if the basic reproduction number is greater than unity, the endemic steady state is globally asymptotically stable and the disease becomes endemic...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Hui Miao, Zhidong Teng, Xamxinur Abdurahman
In this paper, the dynamical behaviours for a five-dimensional virus infection model with three delays which describes the interactions of antibody, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses and Beddington-DeAngelis incidence are investigated. The reproduction numbers for virus infection, antibody immune response, CTL immune response, CTL immune competition and antibody immune competition, respectively, are calculated. By using the Lyapunov functionals and linearization method, the threshold conditions on the local and global stability of the equilibria for infection-free, immune-free, antibody response, CTL response and interior, respectively, are established...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Rui Xu, Xiaohong Tian, Shihua Zhang
In this paper, a within-host HIV-1 infection model with virus-to-cell and direct cell-to-cell transmission and explicit age-since-infection structure for infected cells is investigated. It is shown that the model demonstrates a global threshold dynamics, fully described by the basic reproduction number. By analysing the corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of an infection-free steady state and a chronic-infection steady state of the model is established. By using the persistence theory in infinite dimensional system, the uniform persistence of the system is established when the basic reproduction number is greater than unity...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Michael Barfield, Maia Martcheva, Necibe Tuncer, Robert D Holt
This paper introduces a novel partial differential equation immuno-eco-epidemiological model of competition in which one species is affected by a disease while another can compete with it directly and by lowering the first species' immune response to the infection, a mode of competition termed stress-induced competition. When the disease is chronic, and the within-host dynamics are rapid, we reduce the partial differential equation model (PDE) to a three-dimensional ordinary differential equation (ODE) model...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Wayne M Getz, Eric R Dougherty
Erlang differential equation models of epidemic processes provide more realistic disease-class transition dynamics from susceptible (S) to exposed (E) to infectious (I) and removed (R) categories than the ubiquitous SEIR model. The latter is itself is at one end of the spectrum of Erlang SE[Formula: see text]I[Formula: see text]R models with [Formula: see text] concatenated E compartments and [Formula: see text] concatenated I compartments. Discrete-time models, however, are computationally much simpler to simulate and fit to epidemic outbreak data than continuous-time differential equations, and are also much more readily extended to include demographic and other types of stochasticity...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Benjamin J Ridenhour, Jerry R Ridenhour
Motivated by questions in biology, we investigate the stability of equilibria of the dynamical system [Formula: see text] which arise as critical points of f, under the assumption that [Formula: see text] is positive semi-definite. It is shown that the condition [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the smallest eigenvalue of [Formula: see text], plays a key role in guaranteeing uniform asymptotic stability and in providing information on the basis of attraction of those equilibria.
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Christian T K-H Stadtländer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Manli Jin, Yuguo Lin
In this paper, we consider a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with seasonal variation and saturated incidence. Firstly, we obtain the threshold of stochastic system which determines whether the epidemic occurs or not. Secondly, we prove that there is a non-trivial positive periodic solution if [Formula: see text].
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
T Berge, J M-S Lubuma, G M Moremedi, N Morris, R Kondera-Shava
We deal with the following question: Can the consumption of contaminated bush meat, the funeral practices and the environmental contamination explain the recurrence and persistence of Ebola virus disease outbreaks in Africa? We develop an SIR-type model which, incorporates both the direct and indirect transmissions in such a manner that there is a provision of Ebola viruses. We prove that the full model has one (endemic) equilibrium which is locally asymptotically stable whereas, it is globally asymptotically stable in the absence of the Ebola virus shedding in the environment...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Shihe Xu, Meng Bai, Fangwei Zhang
In this paper, the existence, uniqueness and exponential stability of almost periodic solutions for a mathematical model of tumour growth are studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a delay in the cell proliferation process. Using a fixed-point theorem in cones, the existence and uniqueness of almost periodic solutions for different parameter values of the model is proved. Moreover, by the Gronwall inequality, sufficient conditions are established for the exponential stability of the unique almost periodic solution...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
N S Ravindran, M Mohamed Sheriff, P Krishnapriya
A simple mathematical model for the growth of tumour with discrete time delay in the immune system is considered. The dynamical behaviour of our system by analysing the existence and stability of our system at various equilibria is discussed elaborately. We set up an optimal control problem relative to the model so as to minimize the number of tumour cells and the chemo-immunotherapeutic drug administration. Sensitivity analysis of tumour model reveals that parameter value has a major impact on the model dynamics...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Luis Sanz, Juan Antonio Alonso
In this work we develop approximate aggregation techniques in the context of slow-fast linear population models governed by stochastic differential equations and apply the results to the treatment of populations with spatial heterogeneity. Approximate aggregation techniques allow one to transform a complex system involving many coupled variables and in which there are processes with different time scales, by a simpler reduced model with a fewer number of 'global' variables, in such a way that the dynamics of the former can be approximated by that of the latter...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Glenn E Lahodny, Raju Gautam, Renata Ivanek
A number of environmentally transmitted infectious diseases are characterized by intermittent infectiousness of infected hosts. However, it is unclear whether intermittent infectiousness must be explicitly accounted for in mathematical models for these diseases or if a simplified modelling approach is acceptable. To address this question we study the transmission of salmonellosis between penned pigs in a grower-finisher facility. The model considers indirect transmission, growth of free-living Salmonella within the environment, and environmental decontamination...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
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