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Journal of Medical Devices

Jiang Xu, Jie Yang, Salman Sohrabi, Yihua Zhou, Yaling Liu
Overlapping stents are widely used in vascular stent surgeries. However, the rate of stent fractures (SF) and in-stent restenosis (ISR) after using overlapping stents is higher than that of single stent implantations. Published studies investigating the nature of overlapping stents rely primarily on medical images, which can only reveal the effect of the surgery without providing insights into how stent overlap influences the implantation process. In this paper, a finite element analysis of the overlapping stent implantation process was performed to study the interaction between overlapping stents...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
Taoming Liu, Nate Lombard Poirot, Tipakorn Greigarn, M Cenk Çavuşoğlu
This paper presents design optimization of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) actuated steerable catheter for atrial fibrillation ablation in the left atrium. The catheter prototype, built over polymer tubing, is embedded with current-carrying electromagnetic coils. The prototype can be deflected to a desired location by controlling the currents passing through the coils. The design objective is to develop a prototype that can successfully accomplish the ablation task. To complete the tasks, the catheter needs to be capable of reaching a set of desired targets selected by a physician on the chamber and keeping a stable contact with the chamber surface...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
Xuelian Gu, Yongxiang Qi, Arthur Erdman, Zhonghua Li
A numerical analysis of a semi-enclosed tubular mechanical embolus retrieval device (MERD) for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is presented. In this research, the finite element analysis (FEA) methodology is used to evaluate mechanical performance and provide suggestions for optimizing the geometric design. A MERD fabricated from nickel-titanium alloy (Nitinol) tubing is simulated and analyzed under complex in vivo loading conditions involving shape-setting, crimping, deployment, and embolus retrieval...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
Jan L Bruse, Giuliano Giusti, Catriona Baker, Elena Cervi, Tain-Yen Hsia, Andrew M Taylor, Silvia Schievano
Patients born with a single functional ventricle typically undergo three-staged surgical palliation in the first years of life, with the last stage realizing a cross-like total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) of superior and inferior vena cavas (SVC and IVC) with both left and right pulmonary arteries, allowing all deoxygenated blood to flow passively back to the lungs (Fontan circulation). Even though within the past decades more patients survive into adulthood, the connection comes at the prize of deficiencies such as chronic systemic venous hypertension and low cardiac output, which ultimately may lead to Fontan failure...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
Abolfazl Pourghodrat, Carl A Nelson, Dmitry Oleynikov
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a surgical technique to perform "scarless" abdominal operations. Robotic technology has been exploited to improve NOTES and circumvent its limitations. Lack of a multitasking platform is a major limitation. Manual tool exchange can be time consuming and may lead to complications such as bleeding. Previous multifunctional manipulator designs use electric motors. These designs are bulky, slow, and expensive. This paper presents design, prototyping, and testing of a hydraulic robotic tool changing manipulator...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
Tariq Rahman, Ralph Page, Christopher Page, Jean-Remy Bonnefoy, Tim Cox, Thomas H Shaffer
Objective pulmonary function (PF) evaluation is essential for the diagnosis, monitoring, and management of many pediatric respiratory diseases as seen in the emergency room, intensive care, and outpatient settings. In this paper, the development and testing of a new noninvasive PF instrument, pneuRIP(TM), which utilizes respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) are discussed. The pneuRIP(TM) hardware includes a small circuit board that connects to the RIP bands and measures and wirelessly transmits the band inductance data to any designated wirelessly connected tablet...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
Adam L Nathan, Grace K Fletcher, Mary Beth B Monroe, Wonjun Hwang, Scott M Herting, Sayyeda M Hasan, Brandis K Keller, Duncan J Maitland
Highly porous, open-celled shape memory polymer (SMP) foams are being developed for a number of vascular occlusion devices. Applications include abdominal aortic and neurovascular aneurysm or peripheral vascular occlusion. A major concern with implanting these high surface area materials in the vasculature is the potential to generate unacceptable particulate burden, in terms of number, size, and composition. This study demonstrates that particulate numbers and sizes in SMP foams are in compliance with limits stated by the most relevant standard and guidance documents...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
Scott M Thompson, Cornelius A Thiels, Johnathon M Aho
Medical drains frequently become obstructed requiring removal or re-intervention. Currently, there is no widely accepted practice for maintaining drain patency. A simple device to remove obstructions from medical drains may have significant benefit. We manufactured a prototype drain clot extractor (DCE) for extracting obstructions. Fresh nonanticoagulated swine blood was instilled within drainage tubes of 16, 20, and 32 French (n = 2 for each size) to generate a 4 cm blood clot. The operator was then equipped with a 0...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
Philip J Swaney, Peter A York, Hunter B Gilbert, Jessica Burgner-Kahrs, Robert J Webster
This paper presents a miniature wrist that can be integrated into needle-sized surgical instruments. The wrist consists of a nitinol tube with asymmetric cutouts that is actuated by a single tendon to provide high distal curvature. We derive and experimentally validate kinematic and static models for the wrist and describe several prototype wrists, illustrating the straightforward fabrication and scalability of the design. We experimentally investigate fatigue life, the concept of tip-first bending, and practical use of the wrist with a concentric tube robot in an endonasal surgical scenario...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
Abolfazl Pourghodrat, Carl A Nelson
Fusion of robotics and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has created new opportunities to develop diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Surgical robotics is advancing from externally actuated systems to miniature in-vivo robotics. However, with miniaturization of electric-motor-driven surgical robots, there comes a trade-off between the size of the robot and its capability. Slow actuation, low load capacity, sterilization difficulties, leaking electricity and transferring produced heat to tissues, and high cost are among the key limitations of the use of electric motors in in-vivo applications...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
Dakai Bian, Jason C Tsui, Mikhail Repin, Guy Garty, Helen Turner, Y Lawrence Yao, David J Brenner
Due to the need of high-speed and efficient biodosimetric assays for triage and therapy in the event of radiological or nuclear attack, a robotically based automated biodosimetry tool (RABiT) has been developed over the past few years. Adapting the micronucleus assay from filter plates to V-shaped plates presented challenges in the liquid handling, namely, cell splashing out of the V-shaped well plate during the cell harvesting, poor cell distribution on the bottom of the image plate during the dispensing, and cell loss from the image plate during the aspiration in the liquid handling process...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Devices
Steven Long, Geb W Thomas, Donald D Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Medical Devices
Matthew J Major, Ryan Caldwell, Stefania Fatone
Vacuum-assisted suspension (VAS) of prosthetic sockets utilizes a pump to evacuate air from between the prosthetic liner and socket, and are available as mechanical or electric systems. This technical note describes a hybrid pump that benefits from the advantages of mechanical and electric systems, and evaluates a prototype as proof-of-concept. Cyclical bench testing of the hybrid pump mechanical system was performed using a materials testing system to assess the relationship between compression cycles and vacuum pressure...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Devices
Baoliang Zhao, Carl A Nelson
Robotic minimally invasive surgery (R-MIS) has achieved success in various procedures; however, the lack of haptic feedback is considered by some to be a limiting factor. The typical method to acquire tool-tissue reaction forces is attaching force sensors on surgical tools, but this complicates sterilization and makes the tool bulky. This paper explores the feasibility of using motor current to estimate tool-tissue forces and demonstrates acceptable results in terms of time delay and accuracy. This sensorless force estimation method sheds new light on the possibility of equipping existing robotic surgical systems with haptic interfaces that require no sensors and are compatible with existing sterilization methods...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Devices
Kevin Go, Yeong Kim, Andy H Lee, Kelly Staricha, Phillip Messersmith, Matthew Glucksberg
Current mixer and applicator devices on the market are not able to properly and efficiently mix two-component surgical adhesives in small volumes necessary to achieve economic viability. Furthermore, in these devices a significant amount of adhesive is wasted during the application process, as material within the dead space of the mixing chamber must be discarded. We have designed and demonstrated a new active mixer and applicator system capable of rapidly and efficiently mixing two components of an adhesive and applying it to the surgical site...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Devices
Natalia Mejia, Karl Dedow, Lindsey Nguy, Patrick Sullivan, Sepideh Khoshnevis, Kenneth R Diller
Cryotherapy involves the surface application of low temperatures to enhance the healing of soft tissue injuries. Typical devices embody a remote source of chilled water that is pumped through a circulation bladder placed on the treatment site. In contrast, the present device uses thermoelectric refrigeration modules to bring the cooling source directly to the tissue to be treated, thereby achieving significant improvements in control of therapeutic temperature while having a reduced size and weight. A prototype system was applied to test an oscillating cooling and heating protocol for efficacy in regulating skin blood perfusion in the treatment area...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Devices
Neal P Dillon, Ramya Balachandran, J Michael Fitzpatrick, Michael A Siebold, Robert F Labadie, George B Wanna, Thomas J Withrow, Robert J Webster
Otologic surgery often involves a mastoidectomy, which is the removal of a portion of the mastoid region of the temporal bone, to safely access the middle and inner ear. The surgery is challenging because many critical structures are embedded within the bone, making them difficult to see and requiring a high level of accuracy with the surgical dissection instrument, a high-speed drill. We propose to automate the mastoidectomy portion of the surgery using a compact, bone-attached robot. The system described in this paper is a milling robot with four degrees-of-freedom (DOF) that is fixed to the patient during surgery using a rigid positioning frame screwed into the surface of the bone...
September 2015: Journal of Medical Devices
Robert E Dodde, Grant H Kruger, Albert J Shih
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) has shown significant potential in many areas of medicine to provide new physiologic markers. Several acute and chronic diseases are accompanied by changes in intra- and extracellular fluid within various areas of the human body. The estimation of fluid in various body compartments is therefore a simple and convenient method to monitor certain disease states. In this work, the design and evaluation of a BIS instrument are presented and three key areas of the development process investigated facilitating the BIS measurement of tissue hydration state...
June 2015: Journal of Medical Devices
Santhi Elayaperumal, Mark R Cutkosky, Pierre Renaud, Bruce L Daniel
A passive, parallel master-slave mechanism is presented for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided interventions in the pelvis. The mechanism allows a physician to stand outside the MRI scanner while manipulating a needle inside the bore and, unlike a powered robot, does not place actuators in proximity to the patient. The manipulator combines two parallel mechanisms based on the Delta robot architecture. The mechanism also includes a two-axis gimbal to allow for tool angulation, giving a total of five degrees of freedom so that the physician can insert and steer a needle using continuous natural arm and wrist movements, unlike simple needle guides...
March 2015: Journal of Medical Devices
Omid Forouzan, Evan Flink, Jared Warczytowa, Nick Thate, Andrew Hanske, Tongkeun Lee, Alejandro Roldan-Alzate, Chris François, Oliver Wieben, Naomi C Chesler
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Many cardiovascular diseases are better diagnosed during a cardiac stress test. Current approaches include either exercise or pharmacological stress echocardiography and pharmacological stress magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is the most accurate noninvasive method of assessing cardiac function. Currently there are very few exercise devices that allow collection of cardiovascular MRI data during exercise. We developed a low-cost exercise device that utilizes adjustable weight resistance and is compatible with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
December 2014: Journal of Medical Devices
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