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Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

Nikhat Hoosen, Eugene Lee Davids, Petrus J de Vries, Maylene Shung-King
Background: Child and adolescent mental health in Africa remains largely neglected. Quick and cost-effective ways for early detection may aid early intervention. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is globally used to screen for mental health problems, but little is known about its use in Africa. We set out to perform a scoping review to examine existing studies that have used the SDQ in Africa. Methods: A comprehensive scoping review methodology was used to identify all peer-reviewed studies ever published that have used the SDQ in Africa...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
J M Fegert, C Diehl, B Leyendecker, K Hahlweg, V Prayon-Blum
This article is an abridged version of a report by an advisory council to the German government on the psychosocial problems facing refugee families from war zones who have settled in Germany. It omits the detailed information contained in the report about matters that are specific to the German health system and asylum laws, and includes just those insights and strategies that may be applicable to assisting refugees in other host countries as well. The focus is on understanding the developmental risks faced by refugee children when they or family members are suffering from trauma-related psychological disorders, and on identifying measures that can be taken to address these risks...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
C S Barendregt, A M Van der Laan, I L Bongers, Ch Van Nieuwenhuizen
Background: In this study, two assumptions derived from the Good Lives Model were examined: whether subjective Quality of Life is related to delinquent behaviour and psychosocial problems, and whether adolescents with adequate coping skills are less likely to commit delinquent behaviour or show psychosocial problems. Method: To this end, data of 95 adolescents with severe psychiatric problems who participated in a four-wave longitudinal study were examined. Subjective Quality of Life was assessed with the ten domains of the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile and coping skills with the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Andreas Jud, Céline Kosirnik, Tanja Mitrovic, Hakim Ben Salah, Etienne Fux, Jana Koehler, Rahel Portmann, René Knüsel
Background: Many countries around the world lack data on the epidemiology of agency response to child maltreatment. They therefore lack information on how many children in need get help and protection or if children stand equal chances across regions to get services. However, it has proven difficult to commit child protection agencies to participation in incidence studies. Methods: The Optimus Study invested in a continuous collaborative effort between research and practice to develop a data collection for the first national study on the incidence of agency responses to all forms of child maltreatment in Switzerland...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
George Nikolaidis, Kiki Petroulaki, Foteini Zarokosta, Antonia Tsirigoti, Altin Hazizaj, Enila Cenko, Jelena Brkic-Smigoc, Emir Vajzovic, Vaska Stancheva, Stefka Chincheva, Marina Ajdukovic, Miro Rajter, Marija Raleva, Liljana Trpcevska, Maria Roth, Imola Antal, Veronika Ispanovic, Natasha Hanak, Zeynep Olmezoglu-Sofuoglu, Ismail Umit-Bal, Donata Bianchi, Franziska Meinck, Kevin Browne
Background: Children's exposure to violence is a major public health issue. The Balkan epidemiological study on Child Abuse and Neglect project aimed to collect internationally comparable data on violence exposures in childhood. Methods: A three stage stratified random sample of 42,194 school-attending children (response rate: 66.7%) in three grades (aged 11, 13 and 16 years) was drawn from schools in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Greece, Romania, Serbia and Turkey...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Ingvild Oxås Henriksen, Ingunn Ranøyen, Marit Sæbø Indredavik, Frode Stenseng
Background: Self-esteem is fundamentally linked to mental health, but its' role in trajectories of psychiatric problems is unclear. In particular, few studies have addressed the role of self-esteem in the development of attention problems. Hence, we examined the role of global self-esteem in the development of symptoms of anxiety/depression and attention problems, simultaneously, in a clinical sample of adolescents while accounting for gender, therapy, and medication. Methods: Longitudinal data were obtained from a sample of 201 adolescents-aged 13-18-referred to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Trondheim, Norway...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Laura van Duin, Floor Bevaart, Carmen H Paalman, Marie-Jolette A Luijks, Josjan Zijlmans, Reshmi Marhe, Arjan A J Blokland, Theo A H Doreleijers, Arne Popma
Background: Most multi-problem young adults (18-27 years old) have been exposed to childhood maltreatment and/or have been involved in juvenile delinquency and, therefore, could have had Child Protection Service (CPS) interference during childhood. The extent to which their childhood problems persist and evolve into young adulthood may differ substantially among cases. This might indicate heterogeneous profiles of CPS risk factors. These profiles may identify combinations of closely interrelated childhood problems which may warrant specific approaches for problem recognition and intervention in clinical practice...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Sauharda Rai, Safar Bikram Adhikari, Nanda Raj Acharya, Bonnie N Kaiser, Brandon A Kohrt
Background: Adolescent aspirational models are sets of preferences for an idealized self. Aspirational models influence behavior and exposure to risk factors that shape adult mental and physical health. Cross-cultural understandings of adolescent aspirational models are crucial for successful global mental health programs. The study objective was elucidating adolescent aspirational models to inform interventions in Nepal. Methods: Twenty qualitative life trajectory interviews were conducted among adolescents, teachers, and parents...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Sanne L Hillege, Eddy F J M Brand, Eva A Mulder, Robert R J M Vermeiren, Lieke van Domburgh
Background: The population in juvenile justice institutions is heterogeneous, as juveniles display a large variety of individual, psychological and social problems. This variety of risk factors and personal characteristics complicates treatment planning. Insight into subgroups and specific profiles of problems in serious juvenile offenders is helpful in identifying important treatment indicators for each subgroup of serious juvenile offenders. Methods: To identify subgroups with combined offender characteristics, cluster-analyses were performed on data of 2010 adolescents from all juvenile justice institutions in the Netherlands...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
L E W Leenarts, C Dölitzsch, T Pérez, K Schmeck, J M Fegert, M Schmid
Background: Studies have shown that youths with high psychopathic traits have an earlier onset of delinquent behavior, have higher levels of delinquent behavior, and show higher rates of recidivism than youths with low psychopathic traits. Furthermore, psychopathic traits have received much attention as a robust indicator for delinquent and aggressive behavior in both boys and girls. However, there is a notable lack of research on gender differences in the relationship between psychopathic traits and delinquent behavior...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Elisabeth A W Janssen-de Ruijter, Eva A Mulder, Jeroen K Vermunt, Chijs van Nieuwenhuizen
Background: The development of delinquent behaviour is largely determined by the presence of (multiple) risk factors. It is essential to focus on the patterns of co-occurring risk factors in different subgroups in order to better understand disruptive behaviour. Aims and hypothesis: The aim of this study was to examine whether subgroups could be identified to obtain more insight into the patterns of co-occurring risk factors in a population of adolescents in residential care...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Rikuya Hosokawa, Toshiki Katsura
Objective: Using a short-term longitudinal design, this study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relationships among familial socioeconomic status (SES; i.e., family income and maternal and paternal education levels), marital conflict (i.e., constructive and destructive marital conflict), parenting practices (i.e., positive and negative parenting practices), child social competence (i.e., social skills), and child behavioral adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in a comprehensive model...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Inge Simons, Eva Mulder, René Breuk, Kees Mos, Henk Rigter, Lieke van Domburgh, Robert Vermeiren
Background: To provide successful treatment to detained adolescents, staff in juvenile justice institutions need to work in family-centered ways. As juvenile justice institutions struggled to involve parents in their child's treatment, we developed a program for family-centered care. Methods: The program was developed in close collaboration with staff from the two juvenile justice institutions participating in the Dutch Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Barbara Fallon, Nico Trocmé, Joanne Filippelli, Tara Black, Nicolette Joh-Carnella
Background: For the past 20 years, the Ontario child welfare sector has made significant legislative and policy changes. Changes to legislation and policy can impact the public and sector's response to child maltreatment and inform identified trends. Using an investigative taxonomy of urgent protection and chronic need this paper examines the shift in the nature of investigated maltreatment over time. Methods: Data from five cycles of the Ontario Incidence Studies of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (1993, 1998, 2003, 2008 and 2013) were used...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Elena Cravedi, Emmanuelle Deniau, Marianna Giannitelli, Jean Xavier, Andreas Hartmann, David Cohen
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex developmental neuropsychiatric condition in which motor manifestations are often accompanied by comorbid conditions that impact the patient's quality of life. In the DSM-5, TS belongs to the "neurodevelopmental disorders" group, together with other neurodevelopmental conditions, frequently co-occurring. In this study, we searched the PubMed database using a combination of keywords associating TS and all neurodevelopmental diagnoses. From 1009 original reports, we identified 36 studies addressing TS and neurodevelopmental comorbidities...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Kirsten Hauber, Albert Eduard Boon, Robert Vermeiren
Objective: To examine changes in personality disorders and symptomology and the relation between personality disorder variables and treatment outcomes in an adolescent sample during partial residential mentalization based treatment. Methods: In a sample of 62 (out of 115) adolescents treated for personality disorders, assessment was done pre- and post-treatment using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM personality disorders and the Symptom Check List 90. Results: Significant reductions in personality disorder traits (t = 8...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Lynnea Myers, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Ann Nordgren, Charlotte Willfors, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Kristiina Tammimies, Sven Bölte
Background: Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are subtle anatomical deviations in one's appearance and may suggest altered embryogenesis. MPAs have been shown to be more common in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) compared with typical development. Still, further studies are needed on MPAs in NDDs, especially using twins to adjust for confounding familial factors. Methods: Clinical assessments were conducted on 116 twins (61 NDD, 55 controls) from 51 monozygotic and 7 dizygotic pairs to examine MPAs and their association with DSM-5 defined NDDs...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Seo Ah Hong, Karl Peltzer
Background: Dietary intake is important for physical and mental health. The aim of this investigation was to assess associations between dietary behaviours and psychological well-being and distress among school-going adolescents in Korea. Methods: In a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, 65,212 students (Mean age = 15.1 years, SE = 0.02 and 52.2% male and 47.8% female) responded to a questionnaire that included measures of dietary behaviour, psychological well-being and mental distress...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Megan Hatfield, Marita Falkmer, Torbjorn Falkmer, Marina Ciccarelli
BACKGROUND: The majority of existing transition planning programs are focused on people with a disability in general and may not meet the specific need of adolescents on the autism spectrum. In addition, these interventions focus on specific skills (e.g. job readiness or self-determination) rather than the overall transition planning process and there are methodological limitations to many of the studies determining their effectiveness. The Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A™) is an online program that supports adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Luuk J Kalverdijk, Christian J Bachmann, Lise Aagaard, Mehmet Burcu, Gerd Glaeske, Falk Hoffmann, Irene Petersen, Catharina C M Schuiling-Veninga, Linda P Wijlaars, Julie M Zito
Over the last decades, an increase in antipsychotic (AP) prescribing and a shift from first-generation antipsychotics (FGA) to second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) among youth have been reported. However, most AP prescriptions for youth are off-label, and there are worrying long-term safety data in youth. The objective of this study was to assess multinational trends in AP use among children and adolescents. A repeated cross-sectional design was applied to cohorts from varied sources from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) for calendar years 2005/2006-2012...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
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