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Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#1
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901312/female-white-footed-mice-peromyscus-leucopus-trade-off-offspring-skeletal-quality-for-self-maintenance-when-dietary-calcium-intake-is-low
#2
Christina M Schmidt, Wendy R Hood
During gestation and lactation in mammals, calcium and other minerals are transferred from female to offspring to support skeletal ossification. To meet mineral requirements, females commonly mobilize mineral from their own skeleton to augment dietary intake. Because the fitness costs of bone loss are expected to limit the amount of endogenous mineral that females transfer to their young, the amount of mineral allocated to offspring is predicted to be influenced by the availability of mineral in the female's diet...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766763/nutrient-stress-during-ontogeny-alters-patterns-of-resource-allocation-in-two-species-of-horned-beetles
#3
Daniel B Schwab, Armin P Moczek
The elaboration of exaggerated, sexually selected weapons and ornaments often comes at a cost to other traits. For instance, by sustaining the growth of an exaggerated weapon during development, shared and limited resources such as morphogens, growth factors, and nutrients may become depleted and limit the size to which other structures can grow. Such interactions are characteristic of resource allocation trade-offs, which can constrain the production of phenotypic variation and bias evolutionary trajectories...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714986/effects-of-water-loss-on-new-mexico-spadefoot-toad-spea-multiplicata-development-spleen-cellularity-and-corticosterone-levels
#4
April L Bagwill, Matthew B Lovern, Thomas A Worthington, Loren M Smith, Scott T McMurry
Amphibian metamorphosis is complex and larval morphology and physiology are completely restructured during this time. Amphibians that live in unpredictable environments are often exposed to stressors that can directly and indirectly alter physiological systems during development, with subsequent consequences (carryover effects) later in life. In this study, we investigated the effects of water level reduction on development rate, spleen size and cellularity, and examined the role of corticosterone levels in premetamorphic, metamorphic, and postmetamorphic New Mexico spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677985/a-threshold-dosage-of-testosterone-for-female-to-male-sex-reversal-in-rana-rugosa-frogs
#5
Akira Oike, Maho Kodama, Yoriko Nakamura, Masahisa Nakamura
Androgens play a critical role in testicular differentiation in many species of vertebrates. While female-to-male sex reversal can be induced by testosterone (T) in some species of amphibians, the mechanism still remains largely unknown even at the histological level. In this study, we determined a threshold dosage of T to induce female-to-male sex reversal in the Japanese frog Rana (R.) rugosa. Tadpoles were allowed to metamorphose into frogs with T present in the rearing water. At 0.2 ng/mL T, female frogs formed tissue comprising a mixture of ovary and testis, the so-called ovotestis, the size of which was significantly smaller than the wild-type ovary...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650667/the-effects-of-feeding-on-cardiac-control-of-the-broad-nosed-caiman-caiman-latirostris-the-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-and-nanc-factors
#6
Victor Hugo DA Silva Braga, Vinicius Araújo Armelin, Mariana Teodoro Teixeira, Augusto Shinya Abe, Francisco Tadeu Rantin, Luiz Henrique Florindo
The metabolic increment that occurs after feeding demands cardiovascular adjustments to be maintained, as increased heart rate (fH ) and cardiac output. In mammals, postprandial tachycardia seems to be triggered by an increase in adrenergic activity and by nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) factors, while in ectothermic vertebrates, this adjustment seems to be linked to a withdrawal of vagal drive as well as to NANC factors. Because the factors behind postprandial tachycardia have not yet been investigated in crocodilians, the present study sought to evaluate the postprandial tachycardia mediators in the broad-nosed caiman...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597293/populations-of-the-lizard-sceloporus-occidentalis-that-differ-in-melanization-have-different-rates-of-wound-healing
#7
Ryan J Seddon, Diana K Hews
Mechanisms underlying production of animal coloration can affect key traits besides coloration. Melanin, and molecules regulating melanin, can directly and indirectly affect other phenotypic traits, such as immune function. We asked whether melanization and a whole-organism measure of immune function are associated with wound healing. Working with two populations of adult male western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, we compared one high-elevation and one low-elevation population in California where individuals are increasingly darker at higher elevations, measuring wound healing rates...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786427/oxygen-consumption-is-limited-at-an-ecologically-relevant-rearing-temperature-in-pupfish-eggs
#8
Alexander C Jones, David Lim, Jacoby J Wayne-Thompson, Natasha Urbina, Georgina Puentedura, Stanley Hillyard, Frank Van Breukelen
The habitat of the critically endangered Devils Hole Pupfish, Cyprinodon diabolis is marked by constant high temperatures and low oxygen availability. In order to explore the effects of these conditions on development and recruitment of eggs in Devils Hole, we tested the effects of two ecologically relevant temperatures on the development, hatch success, and oxygen consumption of eggs from a refuge population of pupfish derived from C. diabolis and eggs from its close sister species, Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581888/biochemical-profile-biological-activities-and-toxic-effects-of-proteins-in-the-rhinella-schneideri-parotoid-gland-secretion
#9
Luis M Sousa-Filho, Cleverson D T Freitas, Marina D P Lobo, Ana C O Monteiro-Moreira, Renan O Silva, Lucas A B Santana, Ronaldo A Ribeiro, Marcellus H L P Souza, Gustavo P Ferreira, Anna C T C Pereira, André L R Barbosa, Mauro S C S Lima, Jefferson S Oliveira
Parotoid glands of amphibians are known for the production of several biologically active compounds having pharmacological and toxic effects in mammals. In the present work, a protein fraction obtained from Rhinella schneideri parotoid gland (RsPP) was characterized to study its biological and toxic effects. Rhinella schneideri parotoid secretion is composed of up to 30% (w/w) of soluble proteins. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of the RsPP identified 104 proteins, including actin, beta-actin, ribosomal proteins, catalase, galectin, and uncharacterized proteins; however, no peptidases were found, and this result was reinforced by the absence of proteolytic activity...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527346/testosterone-and-haemosporidian-parasites-along-a-tropical-elevational-gradient-in-rufous-collared-sparrows-zonotrichia-capensis
#10
Camilo Escallón, Nicole M Weinstein, James A Tallant, Winfried Wojtenek, Carlos A Rodríguez-Saltos, Elisa Bonaccorso, Ignacio T Moore
Elevation has been proposed as a dominant ecological variable shaping life history traits and subsequently their underlying hormonal mechanisms. In an earlier meta-analysis of tropical birds, elevation was positively related to testosterone levels. Furthermore, parasitism by avian haemosporidians should vary with elevation as environmental conditions affect vector abundance, and while testosterone is needed for breeding, it is hypothesized to be immunosuppressive and thus could exacerbate haemosporidian infection...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510648/timing-of-breeding-determines-growth-and-development-in-a-long-distance-migratory-bird
#11
Wendy L Reed, Mark E Clark
The timing of breeding can have significant consequences for adult and offspring fitness, yet our current hypotheses of seasonal timing focus on the parent perspective. When offspring survival is affected by timing of breeding, we expect to see offspring mechanisms to detect and respond to cues of seasonal timing. Avian embryos respond to photoperiod and seasonal cues during development and in this study we evaluate the influence of photoperiod and season on posthatching growth and development in Franklin's gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan)...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488475/fluoromicrometry-a-method-for-measuring-muscle-length-dynamics-with-biplanar-videofluoroscopy
#12
Ariel L Camp, Henry C Astley, Angela M Horner, Thomas J Roberts, Elizabeth L Brainerd
Accurate measurements of muscle length changes are essential for understanding the biomechanics of musculoskeletal systems, and can provide insights into muscular work, force, and power. Muscle length has typically been measured in vivo using sonomicrometry, a method that measures distances by sending and receiving sound pulses between piezoelectric crystals. Here, we evaluate an alternative method, fluoromicrometry, which measures muscle length changes over time by tracking the three-dimensional positions of implanted, radio-opaque markers via biplanar videofluoroscopy...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461053/a-role-of-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-2-in-the-regulation-of-ecdysteroid-signaling-pathway-in-procambarus-clarkii
#13
Baojian Zhu, Lishang Dai, Yingying Yu, Daojun Wang, Tao Peng, Chaoliang Liu
A suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS-2) homolog was identified from the red crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Phylogenic analysis showed that P. clarkii SOCS-2 (Pc-SOCS-2) was very similar to that of invertebrates. The sequence contains a central SH2 domain, a conserved SOCS box, and a variable N-terminal domain. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that Pc-SOCS-2 mRNA level was higher in muscle and heart than in the other tissues examined. A 40-kDa recombinant protein was successfully expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460953/frog-foam-nest-protein-diversity-and-synthesis
#14
Denise Cavalcante Hissa, Walderly Melgaço Bezerra, Cléverson Diniz Teixeira De Freitas, Márcio Viana Ramos, José Luiz De Souza Lopes, Leila Maria Beltramini, Igor Joventino Roberto, Paulo Cascon, Vânia Maria Maciel Melo
Some amphibian species have developed a breeding strategy in which they deposit their eggs in stable foam nests to protect their eggs and larvae. The frog foam nests are rich in proteins (ranaspumin), especially surfactant proteins, involved in the production of the foam nest. Despite the ecological importance of the foam nests for evolution and species conservation, the biochemical composition, the long-term stability and even the origin of the components are still not completely understood. Recently we showed that Lv-RSN-1, a 23...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455909/identification-and-expression-profile-of-the-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-in-common-chinese-cuttlefish-sepiella-japonica
#15
Yun-Jun Yan, Tian-Ming Wang, Wan Liu, Chang-Wen Wu, Ai-Yi Zhu, Chang-Feng Chi, Zhen-Ming Lü, Jing-Wen Yang
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a vital role in the regulation of reproduction through interaction with a specific receptor (the GnRH receptor). In this study, the GnRH receptor gene from the cuttlefish Sepiella japonica (SjGnRHR) was identified and characterized. The cloned full-length SjGnRHR cDNA was 1,468 bp long and contained a 1,029 bp open reading frame encoding 342 amino acid residues, 8 bp of 5' untranslated regions (UTR), and 431 bp of 3' UTR. The putative protein was predicted to have a molecular weight of 38...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453563/the-anhydrobiotic-potential-of-the-terrestrial-nematodes-plectus%C3%A2-parietinus-and-plectus%C3%A2-velox
#16
Julian Sandhove, Nicole Spann, Kai Ristau
Within the taxon Nematoda, many species possess an anhydrobiotic potential similar to other microscopic animals, such as tardigrades and rotifers. This interesting capability enables them to survive conditions even of extreme dehydration. We examined the anhydrobiotic abilities of the two widespread terrestrial nematode species, Plectus parietinus and P. velox, by subjecting adult and juvenile life stages of both species to two different desiccation regimes, one with a short time of adaption (2 hr) and the other with a long time of adaption (48 hr) prior to complete desiccation and recorded the nematodes' recovery after 24 hr of rehydration...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453487/detrimental-effects-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-on-amphibian-life-stages
#17
Austin Reid Spence, Gareth Rowland Hopkins, Lorin Anne Neuman-Lee, Geoffrey David Stuart Smith, Edmund Darrell Brodie, Susannah Smith French
While the use of nanoparticles has dramatically increased in recent years, the ecological consequences are not well known. In particular, little research has been done to investigate the potentially detrimental effects of nanoparticles on amphibians, especially across all life-history stages of salamanders and newts (caudates). To address this dearth in knowledge, we examined the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on egg, larval, and adult Rough-skinned Newts (Taricha granulosa). Chronic toxicity was tested on eggs and larvae, and acute toxicity was tested on eggs, larvae, and adults...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439355/food-search-strategy-changes-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-under-chronic-starvation-conditions
#18
Takuya Urushihata, Hiroyuki Takuwa, Asuka Nishino, Aki Kikuchi, Akiyoshi Ichijo, Chie Obara, Tokumitsu Wakabayashi, Kazumi Sakata, Tetsuya Matsuura
Starvation is a primary threat to survival in nature. This study investigated the effects of starvation on animal behavior and neural function using a nematode model. Nematodes exhibit chemotactic responses to various compounds, including diacetyl produced by food bacteria. Locomotion, chemotactic behavior, and olfactory adaptation were measured following chronic starvation. Our results revealed a starvation-dependent reduction in locomotor activity. Chemotaxis response to the odorant diacetyl was attenuated after 2-38 hr of starvation...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328739/low-incubation-temperature-induces-dna-hypomethylation-in-lizard-brains
#19
Ursula Paredes, Reinder Radersma, Naomi Cannell, Geoffrey M While, Tobias Uller
Developmental stress can have organizational effects on suites of physiological, morphological, and behavioral characteristics. In lizards, incubation temperature is perhaps the most significant environmental variable affecting embryonic development. Wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) recently introduced by humans from Italy to England experience stressfully cool incubation conditions, which we here show reduce growth and increase the incidence of scale malformations. Using a methylation-sensitive AFLP protocol optimized for vertebrates, we demonstrate that this low incubation temperature also causes hypomethylation of DNA in brain tissue...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320639/timing-of-maternal-immunization-affects-immunological-and-behavioral-outcomes-of-adult-offspring-in-siberian-hamsters-phodopus-sungorus
#20
Susannah S French, Emily M Chester, Gregory E Demas
Maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, and behavior. Common environmental pathogens can induce maternal immune responses and affect subsequent development of offspring. There are likely sensitive periods during pregnancy when animals are particularly vulnerable to environmental disruption. Here we characterize the effects of maternal immunization across pregnancy and postpartum on offspring physiology and behavior in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
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