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Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168840/mother-s-age-and-hatching-phenology-strategy-of-heterocypris-incongruens-crustacea-ostracoda-in-unpredictable-environment
#1
Valeria Rossi, Andrea Gandolfi, Paolo Menozzi
We report experimental evidence of egg polyphenism in clonal lineages of Heterocypris incongruens from an ephemeral pond on a Mediterranean Island (Lampedusa, Italy). In controlled laboratory conditions, clonal females produced three different kinds of eggs: (i) resting and desiccation-resistant eggs, (ii) nonresting eggs that hatched gradually within 2 month hydroperiod, and (iii) nonresting delayed development eggs that hatched synchronously. Clonal females showed a diversified bet-hedging strategy to spread risk of reproduction in ponds with unpredictable hydroperiod...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164466/food-restriction-affects-inflammatory-response-and-nutritional-state-in-tuco-tucos-ctenomys-talarum
#2
Julieta Leticia Merlo, Ana Paula Cutrera, Roxana Rita Zenuto
Insufficient or unbalanced food intake typically has a negative impact on immune responses. The understanding of this effect is, however, hampered by the effect that food has on general condition, which, in turn, affects immunity, and the interaction among general condition, immunocompetence, and concurrent infections. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of food restriction and methionine supplementation on immunity in tuco-tucos (Ctenomys talarum). Effects of diet manipulations on nutritional state, inflammatory response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and other immune parameters (bacterial killing capacity, natural antibodies, and leukocyte profile) were evaluated...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145055/manipulated-changes-in-limb-mass-and-rotational-inertia-in-trotting-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris-and-their-effect-on-limb-kinematics
#3
Brandon M Kilbourne, David R Carrier
While the mass distribution of limbs is known to influence the metabolic energy consumed during locomotion, it remains unknown how the mass distribution of limbs may influence overall limb kinematics and whether the influence of limb mass distribution on limb kinematics differs between fore- and hindlimbs. To examine limb mass distribution's influence upon fore- and hindlimb kinematics, temporal stride parameters and swing phase joint kinematics were recorded from four dogs trotting on a treadmill with 0.5% and 1...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127944/suppression-of-tryptophan-2-3-dioxygenase-produces-a-slow-heartbeat-phenotype-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Vernon Beasley, Harold Dowse
The primary pathway utilizing tryptophan leads initially to kynurenine before branching. Products include nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and important pigments in the eye. Products in this pathway have been linked to a number of pathologies. The gene encoding the first step in this pathway, tryptophan 2,3-dioxegenase, is encoded by the gene vermilion, initially discovered in Drosophila. In the fly, v is an important eye color marker, but is found to have multiple pleiotropic effects. We have uncovered significant effects of this mutation on the fly heart...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101914/prenatal-stress-exposure-generates-higher-early-survival-and-smaller-size-without-impacting-developmental-rate-in-a-pacific-salmon
#5
Pauline M Capelle, Christina A D Semeniuk, Natalie M Sopinka, John W Heath, Oliver P Love
Prenatal exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can act as a signal of environmental stress, resulting in modifications to offspring phenotype. While "negative" phenotypic effects (i.e., smaller size, slower growth) are often reported, recent research coupling phenotype with other fitness-related traits has suggested positive impacts of prenatal stress. Using captive Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), we treated eggs with biologically relevant cortisol levels-low (300 ng mL(-1) ), high (1,000 ng mL(-1) ), or control (0 ng mL(-1) )-to examine the early-life impacts of maternally transferred stress hormones on offspring...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198154/daily-and-seasonal-expression-profile-of-serum-melatonin-and-its-biosynthesizing-enzyme-genes-tph1-aanat1-aanat2-and-hiomt-in-pineal-organ-and-retina-a-study-under-natural-environmental-conditions-in-a-tropical-carp-catla-catla
#6
Chongtham Rajiv, Haobijam Sanjita Devi, Gopinath Mondal, Sijagurumayum Dharmajyoti Devi, Zeeshan Ahmad Khan, Thangal Yumnamcha, Rupjyoti Bharali, Asamanja Chattoraj
The tropical carp Catla catla is gaining importance for the studies of the impact of environmental changes on aquatic animals due to its surface dwelling habitat. To date, no information is available on the transcriptional profile of melatonin biosynthesizing enzyme genes in any tropical carp under either natural or artificial photothermal conditions in pineal and retina. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the temporal pattern of expression of melatonin biosynthesizing enzyme genes, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (tph1), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aanat1 and aanat2), and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (hiomt) collectively and simultaneously in pineal organ and retina in tropical fish, C...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198153/chronic-stress-in-lizards-studies-on-the-behavior-and-benzodiazepine-receptors-in-liolaemus-koslowskyi-and-cnemidophorus-tergolaevigatus
#7
Alejandra Soloaga, Mariana Pueta, Félix Benjamín Cruz, Jackelyn Melissa Kembro, Raul Hector Marin
Behavioral and physiological adaptive responses of animals facing chronic exposure to a single stressor may allow them to overcome its negative effects for future exposures to similar stressful situations. At chemical level, the GABAA /benzodiazepine complex is considered one of the main receptor systems involved in the modulation of stress-induced responses. Here, we describe the behavioral responses of two different lizard species, Liolaemus koslowskyi and Cnemidophorus tergolaevigatus exposed to three potential chronic stressful treatments: (a) high temperature, (b) forced swimming, and (c) simulated predator...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102008/gender-associated-mitochondrial-dna-heteroplasmy-in-somatic-tissues-of-the-endangered-freshwater-mussel-unio-crassus-bivalvia-unionidae-implications-for-sex-identification-and-phylogeographical-studies
#8
Monika Mioduchowska, Agnieszka Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna Zając, Tadeusz Zając, Jerzy Sell
Some bivalve species possess two independent mitochondrial DNA lineages: maternally (F-type) and paternally (M-type) inherited. This phenomenon is called doubly uniparental inheritance. It is generally agreed that F-type mtDNA is typically present in female somatic and gonadal tissues as well as in male somatic tissues, whereas the M-type mtDNA occurs only in male germ line and gonadal tissue. In the present study, the mtDNA heteroplasmy (for both F and M genomes) in male somatic tissues of Unio crassus (Philipsson, 1788), species threatened with extinction, has been confirmed...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102007/effects-of-diet-restriction-and-diet-complexity-on-life-history-strategies-in-side-blotched-lizards-uta-stansburiana
#9
Heather M Skinner, Andrew M Durso, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susan L Durham, Sarah D Mueller, Susannah S French
Organisms must balance energy invested into self-maintenance, reproduction, and somatic growth over their lifetime. In this study, the effects of diet restriction and diet complexity on side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were analyzed. Thirty male lizards, housed in the laboratory, were fed either an ad libitum or a restricted diet for 18 days (phase 1). Individuals from both treatments were then assigned to a diet of the same quantity of food that was either simple (only crickets) or complex (crickets, cockroaches, waxworms, and mealworms) for 35 days (phase 2)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035770/validation-of-body-condition-indices-and-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-in-estimating-body-composition-in-a-small-lizard
#10
Daniel A Warner, Maria S Johnson, Tim R Nagy
Measurements of body condition are typically used to assess an individual's quality, health, or energetic state. Most indices of body condition are based on linear relationships between body length and mass. Although these indices are simple to obtain, nonlethal, and useful indications of energetic state, their accuracy at predicting constituents of body condition (e.g., fat and lean mass) are often unknown. The objectives of this research were to (1) validate the accuracy of another simple and noninvasive method, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), at estimating body composition in a small-bodied lizard, Anolis sagrei, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of two indices of body condition (based on length-mass relationships) at predicting body fat, lean, and water mass...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935256/pigment-translocation-in-caridean-shrimp-chromatophores-receptor-type-signal-transduction-second-messengers-and-cross-talk-among-multiple-signaling-cascades
#11
Sarah Ribeiro Milograna, Márcia Regina Ribeiro, Fernanda Tinti Bell, John Campbell McNamara
Pigment aggregation in shrimp chromatophores is triggered by red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH), a neurosecretory peptide whose plasma membrane receptor may be a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). While RPCH binding activates the Ca(2+) /cGMP signaling cascades, a role for cyclic AMP (cAMP) in pigment aggregation is obscure, as are the steps governing Ca(2+) release from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). A role for the antagonistic neuropeptide, pigment dispersing homone (α-PDH) is also unclear...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#12
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901312/female-white-footed-mice-peromyscus-leucopus-trade-off-offspring-skeletal-quality-for-self-maintenance-when-dietary-calcium-intake-is-low
#13
Christina M Schmidt, Wendy R Hood
During gestation and lactation in mammals, calcium and other minerals are transferred from female to offspring to support skeletal ossification. To meet mineral requirements, females commonly mobilize mineral from their own skeleton to augment dietary intake. Because the fitness costs of bone loss are expected to limit the amount of endogenous mineral that females transfer to their young, the amount of mineral allocated to offspring is predicted to be influenced by the availability of mineral in the female's diet...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766763/nutrient-stress-during-ontogeny-alters-patterns-of-resource-allocation-in-two-species-of-horned-beetles
#14
Daniel B Schwab, Armin P Moczek
The elaboration of exaggerated, sexually selected weapons and ornaments often comes at a cost to other traits. For instance, by sustaining the growth of an exaggerated weapon during development, shared and limited resources such as morphogens, growth factors, and nutrients may become depleted and limit the size to which other structures can grow. Such interactions are characteristic of resource allocation trade-offs, which can constrain the production of phenotypic variation and bias evolutionary trajectories...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714986/effects-of-water-loss-on-new-mexico-spadefoot-toad-spea-multiplicata-development-spleen-cellularity-and-corticosterone-levels
#15
April L Bagwill, Matthew B Lovern, Thomas A Worthington, Loren M Smith, Scott T McMurry
Amphibian metamorphosis is complex and larval morphology and physiology are completely restructured during this time. Amphibians that live in unpredictable environments are often exposed to stressors that can directly and indirectly alter physiological systems during development, with subsequent consequences (carryover effects) later in life. In this study, we investigated the effects of water level reduction on development rate, spleen size and cellularity, and examined the role of corticosterone levels in premetamorphic, metamorphic, and postmetamorphic New Mexico spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786427/oxygen-consumption-is-limited-at-an-ecologically-relevant-rearing-temperature-in-pupfish-eggs
#16
Alexander C Jones, David Lim, Jacoby J Wayne-Thompson, Natasha Urbina, Georgina Puentedura, Stanley Hillyard, Frank Van Breukelen
The habitat of the critically endangered Devils Hole Pupfish, Cyprinodon diabolis is marked by constant high temperatures and low oxygen availability. In order to explore the effects of these conditions on development and recruitment of eggs in Devils Hole, we tested the effects of two ecologically relevant temperatures on the development, hatch success, and oxygen consumption of eggs from a refuge population of pupfish derived from C. diabolis and eggs from its close sister species, Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677985/a-threshold-dosage-of-testosterone-for-female-to-male-sex-reversal-in-rana-rugosa-frogs
#17
Akira Oike, Maho Kodama, Yoriko Nakamura, Masahisa Nakamura
Androgens play a critical role in testicular differentiation in many species of vertebrates. While female-to-male sex reversal can be induced by testosterone (T) in some species of amphibians, the mechanism still remains largely unknown even at the histological level. In this study, we determined a threshold dosage of T to induce female-to-male sex reversal in the Japanese frog Rana (R.) rugosa. Tadpoles were allowed to metamorphose into frogs with T present in the rearing water. At 0.2 ng/mL T, female frogs formed tissue comprising a mixture of ovary and testis, the so-called ovotestis, the size of which was significantly smaller than the wild-type ovary...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650667/the-effects-of-feeding-on-cardiac-control-of-the-broad-nosed-caiman-caiman-latirostris-the-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-and-nanc-factors
#18
Victor Hugo DA Silva Braga, Vinicius Araújo Armelin, Mariana Teodoro Teixeira, Augusto Shinya Abe, Francisco Tadeu Rantin, Luiz Henrique Florindo
The metabolic increment that occurs after feeding demands cardiovascular adjustments to be maintained, as increased heart rate (fH ) and cardiac output. In mammals, postprandial tachycardia seems to be triggered by an increase in adrenergic activity and by nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) factors, while in ectothermic vertebrates, this adjustment seems to be linked to a withdrawal of vagal drive as well as to NANC factors. Because the factors behind postprandial tachycardia have not yet been investigated in crocodilians, the present study sought to evaluate the postprandial tachycardia mediators in the broad-nosed caiman...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597293/populations-of-the-lizard-sceloporus-occidentalis-that-differ-in-melanization-have-different-rates-of-wound-healing
#19
Ryan J Seddon, Diana K Hews
Mechanisms underlying production of animal coloration can affect key traits besides coloration. Melanin, and molecules regulating melanin, can directly and indirectly affect other phenotypic traits, such as immune function. We asked whether melanization and a whole-organism measure of immune function are associated with wound healing. Working with two populations of adult male western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, we compared one high-elevation and one low-elevation population in California where individuals are increasingly darker at higher elevations, measuring wound healing rates...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581888/biochemical-profile-biological-activities-and-toxic-effects-of-proteins-in-the-rhinella-schneideri-parotoid-gland-secretion
#20
Luis M Sousa-Filho, Cleverson D T Freitas, Marina D P Lobo, Ana C O Monteiro-Moreira, Renan O Silva, Lucas A B Santana, Ronaldo A Ribeiro, Marcellus H L P Souza, Gustavo P Ferreira, Anna C T C Pereira, André L R Barbosa, Mauro S C S Lima, Jefferson S Oliveira
Parotoid glands of amphibians are known for the production of several biologically active compounds having pharmacological and toxic effects in mammals. In the present work, a protein fraction obtained from Rhinella schneideri parotoid gland (RsPP) was characterized to study its biological and toxic effects. Rhinella schneideri parotoid secretion is composed of up to 30% (w/w) of soluble proteins. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of the RsPP identified 104 proteins, including actin, beta-actin, ribosomal proteins, catalase, galectin, and uncharacterized proteins; however, no peptidases were found, and this result was reinforced by the absence of proteolytic activity...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
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