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Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544577/hatching-asynchrony-impacts-cognition-in-male-zebra-finches
#1
Simone A Campbell, Michelle L Beck, Kendra B Sewall
Conditions experienced early in life can shape brain development and later cognition. Altricial songbirds are particularly vulnerable to early environmental perturbations. Research on "Developmental Stress" in songbirds has addressed how early-life conditions may impair song learning and has been extended to consider other components of adult phenotype. Early-life challenges ranging from ectoparasites to competition with siblings have been shown to compromise song learning and other measures of cognition, as well as behavioral strategy...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382789/lag-of-immunity-across-seasonal-acclimation-states-in-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#2
Jeffrey M Goessling, Shane A Koler, Brian D Overman, Elizabeth M Hiltbold, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
Disease outbreaks are of increasing importance to ectothermic vertebrates as one of numerous results of global change. Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to increase climatic instability, thereby altering natural thermal environments. In this study, we evaluated the direct effects of rapid temperature change on immunity in Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). Specifically, we tested the lag hypothesis, which predicts significant misalignment of optimal and realized immunity when temperature rapidly changes...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332310/arboreal-locomotion-in-eurasian-harvest-mice-micromys-minutus-rodentia-muridae-the-gaits-of-small-mammals
#3
Nikolaos-Evangelos Karantanis, Leszek Rychlik, Anthony Herrel, Dionisios Youlatos
Body size imposes significant constraints on arboreal locomotion. Despite the wealth of research in larger arboreal mammals, there is a lack of data on arboreal gaits of small mammals. In this context, the present study explores arboreal locomotion in one of the smallest rodents, the Eurasian harvest mice Micromys minutus (∼10 g). We examined gait metrics (i.e., diagonality, duty factor [DF], DF index, velocity, stride length, and stride frequency) of six adult male mice on simulated arboreal substrates of different sizes (2, 5, 10, and 25 mm) and inclinations (0(0) and 45(0) )...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317266/insect-immunity-varies-idiosyncratically-during-overwintering
#4
Laura V Ferguson, Brent J Sinclair
Overwintering insects face multiple stressors, including pathogen and parasite pressures that shift with seasons. However, we know little of how the insect immune system fluctuates with season, particularly in the overwintering period. To understand how immune activity changes across autumn, winter, and spring, we tracked immune activity of three temperate insects that overwinter as larvae: a weevil (Curculio sp., Coleoptera), gallfly (Eurosta solidaginis, Diptera), and larvae of the lepidopteran Pyrrharctia isabella...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247501/temperature-preference-and-sex-differentiation-in-african-catfish-clarias-gariepinus
#5
Saïdou Santi, Carole Rougeot, Aboubacar Toguyeni, Vincent Gennotte, Ibrahima Kebe, Charles Melard
The African catfish Clarias gariepinus has a genetic sex determination system in which high temperature induces masculinization. The thermosensitive period for sex differentiation is short and occurs very early (from 6 to 8 days posthatching [dph]). As young juveniles can encounter high masculinizing temperature (36.5°C) in African water points, we aimed to determine the thermal preference of sexually undifferentiated juveniles and investigate if they spontaneously move toward high masculinizing temperature...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229559/size-dependent-consequences-of-exogenous-cortisol-manipulation-on-overwinter-survival-and-condition-of-largemouth-bass
#6
Jonathan D Midwood, Kathryn S Peiman, Aja E W Burt, Mohammed Yusuf Sarker, Michael A Nannini, David H Wahl, Steven J Cooke
Little is known about the size-dependent consequences of stressors on wild animals, which is particularly relevant during winter where size-specific trends in survival are common. Here, exogenous cortisol manipulation was used to investigate the effect of a physiological challenge on overwinter mortality and spring condition of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) across a range of body sizes. Fish were wild-caught in the fall, assigned into either control or cortisol manipulated treatments, and held in replicated experimental ponds...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217961/cellular-evidence-of-exosomes-in-the-reproductive-tract-of-chinese-soft-shelled-turtle-pelodiscus-sinensis
#7
Muhammad Yasir Waqas, Qian Zhang, Nisar Ahmed, Ping Yang, Guipei Xing, Masood Akhtar, Abdul Basit, Tengfei Liu, Chen Hong, Muhammad Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Saif-Ur Rahman, Qiusheng Chen
The oviduct is a location of egg production, fertilization, and sperm storage. While its secretions have broadly attributes toward different physiological functions. We examined the ultrastructure of oviduct epithelium and glands in relation to the secretions, particularly with exosomes origin in Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. The ciliated epithelial and gland cells were involved in the release of exosomes and secretions into lumen throughout the year...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198154/daily-and-seasonal-expression-profile-of-serum-melatonin-and-its-biosynthesizing-enzyme-genes-tph1-aanat1-aanat2-and-hiomt-in-pineal-organ-and-retina-a-study-under-natural-environmental-conditions-in-a-tropical-carp-catla-catla
#8
Chongtham Rajiv, Haobijam Sanjita Devi, Gopinath Mondal, Sijagurumayum Dharmajyoti Devi, Zeeshan Ahmad Khan, Thangal Yumnamcha, Rupjyoti Bharali, Asamanja Chattoraj
The tropical carp Catla catla is gaining importance for the studies of the impact of environmental changes on aquatic animals due to its surface dwelling habitat. To date, no information is available on the transcriptional profile of melatonin biosynthesizing enzyme genes in any tropical carp under either natural or artificial photothermal conditions in pineal and retina. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the temporal pattern of expression of melatonin biosynthesizing enzyme genes, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (tph1), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aanat1 and aanat2), and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (hiomt) collectively and simultaneously in pineal organ and retina in tropical fish, C...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198153/chronic-stress-in-lizards-studies-on-the-behavior-and-benzodiazepine-receptors-in-liolaemus-koslowskyi-and-cnemidophorus-tergolaevigatus
#9
Alejandra Soloaga, Mariana Pueta, Félix Benjamín Cruz, Jackelyn Melissa Kembro, Raul Hector Marin
Behavioral and physiological adaptive responses of animals facing chronic exposure to a single stressor may allow them to overcome its negative effects for future exposures to similar stressful situations. At chemical level, the GABAA /benzodiazepine complex is considered one of the main receptor systems involved in the modulation of stress-induced responses. Here, we describe the behavioral responses of two different lizard species, Liolaemus koslowskyi and Cnemidophorus tergolaevigatus exposed to three potential chronic stressful treatments: (a) high temperature, (b) forced swimming, and (c) simulated predator...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168840/mother-s-age-and-hatching-phenology-strategy-of-heterocypris-incongruens-crustacea-ostracoda-in-unpredictable-environment
#10
Valeria Rossi, Andrea Gandolfi, Paolo Menozzi
We report experimental evidence of egg polyphenism in clonal lineages of Heterocypris incongruens from an ephemeral pond on a Mediterranean Island (Lampedusa, Italy). In controlled laboratory conditions, clonal females produced three different kinds of eggs: (i) resting and desiccation-resistant eggs, (ii) nonresting eggs that hatched gradually within 2 month hydroperiod, and (iii) nonresting delayed development eggs that hatched synchronously. Clonal females showed a diversified bet-hedging strategy to spread risk of reproduction in ponds with unpredictable hydroperiod...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164466/food-restriction-affects-inflammatory-response-and-nutritional-state-in-tuco-tucos-ctenomys-talarum
#11
Julieta Leticia Merlo, Ana Paula Cutrera, Roxana Rita Zenuto
Insufficient or unbalanced food intake typically has a negative impact on immune responses. The understanding of this effect is, however, hampered by the effect that food has on general condition, which, in turn, affects immunity, and the interaction among general condition, immunocompetence, and concurrent infections. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of food restriction and methionine supplementation on immunity in tuco-tucos (Ctenomys talarum). Effects of diet manipulations on nutritional state, inflammatory response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and other immune parameters (bacterial killing capacity, natural antibodies, and leukocyte profile) were evaluated...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145055/manipulated-changes-in-limb-mass-and-rotational-inertia-in-trotting-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris-and-their-effect-on-limb-kinematics
#12
Brandon M Kilbourne, David R Carrier
While the mass distribution of limbs is known to influence the metabolic energy consumed during locomotion, it remains unknown how the mass distribution of limbs may influence overall limb kinematics and whether the influence of limb mass distribution on limb kinematics differs between fore- and hindlimbs. To examine limb mass distribution's influence upon fore- and hindlimb kinematics, temporal stride parameters and swing phase joint kinematics were recorded from four dogs trotting on a treadmill with 0.5% and 1...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127944/suppression-of-tryptophan-2-3-dioxygenase-produces-a-slow-heartbeat-phenotype-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Vernon Beasley, Harold Dowse
The primary pathway utilizing tryptophan leads initially to kynurenine before branching. Products include nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and important pigments in the eye. Products in this pathway have been linked to a number of pathologies. The gene encoding the first step in this pathway, tryptophan 2,3-dioxegenase, is encoded by the gene vermilion, initially discovered in Drosophila. In the fly, v is an important eye color marker, but is found to have multiple pleiotropic effects. We have uncovered significant effects of this mutation on the fly heart...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101914/prenatal-stress-exposure-generates-higher-early-survival-and-smaller-size-without-impacting-developmental-rate-in-a-pacific-salmon
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Pauline M Capelle, Christina A D Semeniuk, Natalie M Sopinka, John W Heath, Oliver P Love
Prenatal exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can act as a signal of environmental stress, resulting in modifications to offspring phenotype. While "negative" phenotypic effects (i.e., smaller size, slower growth) are often reported, recent research coupling phenotype with other fitness-related traits has suggested positive impacts of prenatal stress. Using captive Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), we treated eggs with biologically relevant cortisol levels-low (300 ng mL(-1) ), high (1,000 ng mL(-1) ), or control (0 ng mL(-1) )-to examine the early-life impacts of maternally transferred stress hormones on offspring...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102008/gender-associated-mitochondrial-dna-heteroplasmy-in-somatic-tissues-of-the-endangered-freshwater-mussel-unio-crassus-bivalvia-unionidae-implications-for-sex-identification-and-phylogeographical-studies
#15
Monika Mioduchowska, Agnieszka Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna Zając, Tadeusz Zając, Jerzy Sell
Some bivalve species possess two independent mitochondrial DNA lineages: maternally (F-type) and paternally (M-type) inherited. This phenomenon is called doubly uniparental inheritance. It is generally agreed that F-type mtDNA is typically present in female somatic and gonadal tissues as well as in male somatic tissues, whereas the M-type mtDNA occurs only in male germ line and gonadal tissue. In the present study, the mtDNA heteroplasmy (for both F and M genomes) in male somatic tissues of Unio crassus (Philipsson, 1788), species threatened with extinction, has been confirmed...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102007/effects-of-diet-restriction-and-diet-complexity-on-life-history-strategies-in-side-blotched-lizards-uta-stansburiana
#16
Heather M Skinner, Andrew M Durso, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susan L Durham, Sarah D Mueller, Susannah S French
Organisms must balance energy invested into self-maintenance, reproduction, and somatic growth over their lifetime. In this study, the effects of diet restriction and diet complexity on side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were analyzed. Thirty male lizards, housed in the laboratory, were fed either an ad libitum or a restricted diet for 18 days (phase 1). Individuals from both treatments were then assigned to a diet of the same quantity of food that was either simple (only crickets) or complex (crickets, cockroaches, waxworms, and mealworms) for 35 days (phase 2)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035770/validation-of-body-condition-indices-and-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-in-estimating-body-composition-in-a-small-lizard
#17
Daniel A Warner, Maria S Johnson, Tim R Nagy
Measurements of body condition are typically used to assess an individual's quality, health, or energetic state. Most indices of body condition are based on linear relationships between body length and mass. Although these indices are simple to obtain, nonlethal, and useful indications of energetic state, their accuracy at predicting constituents of body condition (e.g., fat and lean mass) are often unknown. The objectives of this research were to (1) validate the accuracy of another simple and noninvasive method, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), at estimating body composition in a small-bodied lizard, Anolis sagrei, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of two indices of body condition (based on length-mass relationships) at predicting body fat, lean, and water mass...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935256/pigment-translocation-in-caridean-shrimp-chromatophores-receptor-type-signal-transduction-second-messengers-and-cross-talk-among-multiple-signaling-cascades
#18
Sarah Ribeiro Milograna, Márcia Regina Ribeiro, Fernanda Tinti Bell, John Campbell McNamara
Pigment aggregation in shrimp chromatophores is triggered by red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH), a neurosecretory peptide whose plasma membrane receptor may be a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). While RPCH binding activates the Ca(2+) /cGMP signaling cascades, a role for cyclic AMP (cAMP) in pigment aggregation is obscure, as are the steps governing Ca(2+) release from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). A role for the antagonistic neuropeptide, pigment dispersing homone (α-PDH) is also unclear...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#19
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901312/female-white-footed-mice-peromyscus-leucopus-trade-off-offspring-skeletal-quality-for-self-maintenance-when-dietary-calcium-intake-is-low
#20
Christina M Schmidt, Wendy R Hood
During gestation and lactation in mammals, calcium and other minerals are transferred from female to offspring to support skeletal ossification. To meet mineral requirements, females commonly mobilize mineral from their own skeleton to augment dietary intake. Because the fitness costs of bone loss are expected to limit the amount of endogenous mineral that females transfer to their young, the amount of mineral allocated to offspring is predicted to be influenced by the availability of mineral in the female's diet...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
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